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Accident; Analysis and Prevention

Sara Leitão, Vera J C Mc Carthy, Birgit A Greiner
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Health and Safety Practitioners (HSPs), as frontline professionals advocating for health and safety (HS) working conditions, have crucial roles for the wellbeing of employees. However, research studying HSPs psychosocial working conditions - i.e. job demands, control and support (JDCS) -, safety climate (SC) and their impact on HSPs health and wellbeing is scarce. This novel study aims to examine the link of JDCS and SC with HSPs' health, wellbeing and efficacy. METHODS: A web-survey was completed by 879 HSPs, members of the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH) in Ireland and the UK...
July 16, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Bo Yu, Yuren Chen, Shan Bao, Duo Xu
Owing to constrained topography and road geometry, mountainous highways are subjected to frequent traffic accidents, and these crashes have relatively high mortality rates. In middle and high mountains, most roads are two-lane highways. Most two-lane mountain highways are located in rural areas in China, where traffic volume is relatively small; namely, traffic accidents are mainly related to the design of roads, rather than the impact of traffic flow. Previous studies primarily focused on the relationship between actual road geometry and traffic safety...
July 16, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Enoch F Sam, Stijn Daniels, Kris Brijs, Tom Brijs, Geert Wets
The current safety concerns with buses/minibuses (public transport) in both developed and developing countries have warranted a renewed interest in bus/minibus safety research. Prior to this, there was a paucity of research in this domain especially in developed countries where the safety associated with buses was deemed adequate. In this study, we examined the factors that influence bus/minibus accident severity in Ghana using bus/minibus accident data from 2011-2015. We estimated the severity of bus/minibus accidents by fitting generalised ordered logit models...
July 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Yunwon Choi, Heeyeun Yoon, Eunah Jung
Inaugurated in 2007, in Seoul, South Korea, the Silver Zone is a designated pedestrian safety zone for the elderly that adopts speed limit measures such as traffic signage and road surface markings. In this study, we empirically investigate the effectiveness of the Silver Zone in two respects: first, whether the establishment of the Silver Zone has lowered the number of elderly pedestrian collisions, and second, whether Silver Zones are established in the appropriate areas, that is, those with the highest frequency of such collisions...
July 13, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jing Huang, Yong Peng, Jikuang Yang, Dietmar Otte, Bingyu Wang
The objective of the present study is to predict brain injuries and injury severities from realworld traffic accidents via in-depth investigation of head impact responses, injuries and brain injury tolerances. Firstly, a total of 43 passenger car versus adult pedestrian accidents were selected from two databases of the In-depth Investigation of Vehicle Accidents in Changsha of China (IVAC) and the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS). In a previous study the 43 accidents were reconstructed by using the multi-body system (MBS) model (Peng et al...
July 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Zhi Chen, Xiao Qin
A crash prediction and prevention method was proposed to detect imminent crash risk and help recommend traffic control strategies to prevent crashes. The method consists of two modules, the crash prediction module and the crash prevention module. The crash prediction module detects crash-prone conditions when the predicted crash probability exceeds a specified threshold. Then the crash prevention module would simulate the safety effect of traffic control alternatives and recommend the optimal one. The proposed method was demonstrated in a case study with variable speed limit (VSL)...
July 11, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Rusdi Rusli, Md Mazharul Haque, Amir Pooyan Afghari, Mark King
Road safety in rural mountainous areas is a major concern as mountainous highways represent a complex road traffic environment due to complex topology and extreme weather conditions and are associated with more severe crashes compared to crashes along roads in flatter areas. The use of crash modelling to identify crash contributing factors along rural mountainous highways suffers from limitations in data availability, particularly in developing countries like Malaysia, and related challenges due to the presence of excess zero observations...
July 11, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Loukas Dimitriou, Constantinos Antoniou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Duncan Mortimer, Jasper S Wijnands, Anthony Harris, Alan Tapp, Mark Stevenson
Recent studies have demonstrated that financial incentives can improve driving behaviour but high-value incentives are unlikely to be cost-effective and attempts to amplify the impact of low-value incentives have so far proven disappointing. The present study provides experimental evidence to inform the design of 'smart' and potentially more cost-effective incentives for safe driving in novice drivers. Study participants (n = 78) were randomised to one of four financial incentives: high-value penalty; low-value penalty; high-value reward; low-value reward; allowing us to compare high-value versus low-value incentives, penalties versus rewards, and to test specific hypotheses regarding motivational crowding out and gain/loss asymmetry...
July 10, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Angela E Kitali, Priyanka Alluri, Thobias Sando, Henrick Haule, Emmanuel Kidando, Richard Lentz
Secondary crashes (SCs) occur within the spatial and temporal impact range of a primary incident. They are non-recurring events and are major contributors to increased traffic delay, and reduced safety, particularly in urban areas. However, the limited knowledge on the nature of SCs has largely impeded their mitigation strategies. The primary objective of this study was to develop a reliable SC risk prediction model using real-time traffic flow conditions. The study data were collected on a 35-mile I-95 freeway section for three years in Jacksonville, Florida...
July 7, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Mark Asbridge, Rachel Ogilvie, Maria Wilson, Jill Hayden
OBJECTIVE: To determine through systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies if booster seats, compared to seatbelts alone, reduce injury and mortality from motor vehicle collisions among child passengers four to eight years of age. METHODS: A comprehensive search of several data sources (including Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO) was conducted from inception to December 2016, to retrieve relevant publications in any language and from any geographic region...
July 5, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Kun Xie, Di Yang, Kaan Ozbay, Hong Yang
Traditional methods for the identification of high-risk locations rely heavily on historical crash data. Rich information generated from connected vehicles could be used to obtain surrogate safety measures (SSMs) for risk identification. Conventional SSMs such as time to collision (TTC) neglect the potential risk of car-following scenarios in which the following vehicle's speed is slightly less than or equal to the leading vehicle's but the spacing between two vehicles is relatively small that a slight disturbance would yield collision risk...
July 5, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
A Ian Glendon, Ioni Lewis, Kfir Levin, Bonnie Ho
PURPOSE: Analyze qualitative and quantitative data to determine the relative effectiveness of theoretically-developed anti-speeding messages, as judged by relatively inexperienced and experienced drivers, both for themselves as a driver, and for drivers in general. METHOD: Eight focus groups and three individual interviews were conducted. Participants initially completed a questionnaire, ranking sets of three anti-speeding messages representing each of the six components of protection motivation theory (PMT)...
June 30, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
M Møller, S Haustein
Based on the results from three independent surveys conducted in Denmark in 2005, 2008 and 2016, this paper provides an overview of the development of road anger expression in general and in demographic sub-groups of road users. In addition, it investigates how people explain own and other people's road anger expression and if attributed reasons are related to demographic factors and level of anger expression measured based on the short form of the driving anger expression inventory (DAX-short). From 2005 to 2016 the percentage of people involved in anger expression incidents increased particularly in the densely populated Capital Region of Denmark...
June 30, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Kristin Kersavage, Nicholas P Skinner, John D Bullough, Philip M Garvey, Eric T Donnell, Mark S Rea
Reducing the potential for crashes involving front line service workers and passing vehicles is important for increasing worker safety in work zones and similar locations. Flashing yellow warning beacons are often used to protect, delineate, and provide visual information to drivers within and approaching work zones. A nighttime field study using simulated workers, with and without reflective vests, present outside trucks was conducted to evaluate the effects of different warning beacon intensities and flash frequencies...
June 30, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Tzu-Ying Chen, Rong-Chang Jou
Traffic violations, particularly drink driving, are a menace to the drivers themselves, and to other road users. Drink driving crashes often cause death or serious injury to the driver. Understanding the recidivism effect factor of drink driving is essential for designing effective countermeasures. This study is based on register-based data from the National Police Agency, Ministry of the Interior of Taiwan and monthly administrative area information from 2012 to 2015 for the entire population. Hence, this study not only focuses on the effect factor and violation differences between recidivists and non-recidivists, but discusses the entire regional characteristics effect for recidivism...
June 29, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Julie Hatfield, Ann Williamson, E James Kehoe, James Lemon, Amaël Arguel, Prasannah Prabhakharan, R F Soames Job
There is growing interest in young driver training that addresses age-related factors, including incompletely developed impulse control. Two studies investigated whether training of response inhibition can reduce risky simulated driving in young drivers (aged 16-24 years). Each study manipulated aspects of response inhibition training then assessed transfer of training using simulated driving measures including speeding, risky passing, and compliance with traffic controls. Study 1 (n = 65) used a Go/No-go task, Stop Signal Task and a Collision Detection Task...
June 29, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Charlotte Hannah, Irena Spasić, Padraig Corcoran
We propose a novel linear model of pedestrian safety in urban areas with respect to road traffic crashes that considers a single independent variable of pedestrian path safety. This variable is estimated for a given urban area by sampling pedestrian paths from the population of such paths in that area and in turn estimating the mean safety of these paths. We argue that this independent variable directly models the factors contributing to pedestrian safety. This contrasts previous approaches, which, by considering multiple independent variables describing the environment, traffic and pedestrians themselves, indirectly model these factors...
June 28, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Xin Zou, Wen Long Yue, Hai Le Vu
Mapping knowledge domain (MKD) is an important application of visualization technology in Bibliometrics, which has been extensively applied in psychology, medicine, and information science. In this paper we conduct a systematic analysis of the development trend on road safety studies based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) articles published between 2000 and 2018 using the MKD software tools VOSviewer and Sci2 Tool. Based on our analysis, we first present the annual numbers of articles, origin countries, main research organizations and groups as well as the source journals on road safety studies...
June 26, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Qingwan Xue, Gustav Markkula, Xuedong Yan, Natasha Merat
Previous studies have shown the effect of a lead vehicle's speed, deceleration rate and headway distance on drivers' brake response times. However, how drivers perceive this information and use it to determine when to apply braking is still not quite clear. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, a driving simulator experiment was performed where each participant experienced nine deceleration scenarios. Previously reported effects of the lead vehicle's speed, deceleration rate and headway distance on brake response time were firstly verified in this paper, using a multilevel model...
June 18, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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