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Accident; Analysis and Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346084/effects-of-the-road-environment-on-the-development-of-driver-sleepiness-in-young-male-drivers
#1
Christer Ahlström, Anna Anund, Carina Fors, Torbjörn Åkerstedt
Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment...
January 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329016/non-linear-effects-of-the-built-environment-on-automobile-involved-pedestrian-crash-frequency-a-machine-learning-approach
#2
Chuan Ding, Peng Chen, Junfeng Jiao
Although a growing body of literature focuses on the relationship between the built environment and pedestrian crashes, limited evidence is provided about the relative importance of many built environment attributes by accounting for their mutual interaction effects and their non-linear effects on automobile-involved pedestrian crashes. This study adopts the approach of Multiple Additive Poisson Regression Trees (MAPRT) to fill such gaps using pedestrian collision data collected from Seattle, Washington. Traffic analysis zones are chosen as the analytical unit...
January 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329015/modelling-of-road-traffic-fatalities-in-india
#3
Rahul Goel
Passenger modes in India include walking, cycling, buses, trains, intermediate public transport modes (IPT) such as three-wheeled auto rickshaws or tuk-tuks, motorised two-wheelers (2W) as well as cars. However, epidemiological studies of traffic crashes in India have been limited in their approach to account for the exposure of these road users. In 2011, for the first time, census in India reported travel distance and mode of travel for workers. A Poisson-lognormal mixture regression model is developed at the state level to explore the relationship of road deaths of all the road users with commute travel distance by different on-road modes...
January 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324266/collision-risk-analysis-based-train-collision-early-warning-strategy
#4
Si-Hui Li, Bai-Gen Cai, Jiang Liu, Jian Wang
A Train Collision Early Warning System (TCEWS) has been developed for collision avoidance. However, there are few studies regarding how to evaluate the collision risk and provide an early warning concerning a preceding train on the railway. In this paper, we have found that the time for collision avoidance is constrained by the timing of events, such as wireless communication latency, driver reaction, safety protection distance and deceleration rate. Considering these timing components, the time to avoid a collision is calculated accurately...
January 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324265/bayesian-spatiotemporal-crash-frequency-models-with-mixture-components-for-space-time-interactions
#5
Wen Cheng, Gurdiljot Singh Gill, Yongping Zhang, Zhong Cao
The traffic safety research has developed spatiotemporal models to explore the variations in the spatial pattern of crash risk over time. Many studies observed notable benefits associated with the inclusion of spatial and temporal correlation and their interactions. However, the safety literature lacks sufficient research for the comparison of different temporal treatments and their interaction with spatial component. This study developed four spatiotemporal models with varying complexity due to the different temporal treatments such as (I) linear time trend; (II) quadratic time trend; (III) Autoregressive-1 (AR-1); and (IV) time adjacency...
January 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324264/driver-education-enhancing-knowledge-of-sleep-fatigue-and-risky-behaviour-to-improve-decision-making-in-young-drivers
#6
Pasquale K Alvaro, Nicole M Burnett, Gerard A Kennedy, William Yu Xun Min, Marcus McMahon, Maree Barnes, Melinda Jackson, Mark E Howard
This study assessed the impact of an education program on knowledge of sleepiness and driving behaviour in young adult drivers and their performance and behaviour during simulated night driving. Thirty-four participants (18-26 years old) were randomized to receive either a four-week education program about sleep and driving or a control condition. A series of questionnaires were administered to assess knowledge of factors affecting sleep and driving before and after the four-week education program. Participants also completed a two hour driving simulator task at 1am after 17 h of extended wakefulness to assess the impact on driving behaviour...
January 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316488/evaluating-the-impact-of-mobike-on-automobile-involved-bicycle-crashes-at-the-road-network-level
#7
Ye Li, Lu Xing, Wei Wang, Mingzhang Liang, Hao Wang
As a booming system, free-floating bicycle-sharing (denoted as Mobike) attracts a large number of users due to the convenient utilization procedure. However, it brings about a rapid increase of bicycle volume on roadways, resulting in safety problems especially on road segments shared by automobiles and bikes. This study aimed to evaluate impacts of Mobike on automobile-involved bicycle crashes on shared roadways at a macro level, the network level. Relation between traffic volumes and crashes was first established...
January 6, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316487/available-sight-distance-on-existing-highways-meeting-stopping-sight-distance-requirements-of-an-aging-population
#8
Suliman A Gargoum, Mostafa H Tawfeek, Karim El-Basyouny, James C Koch
An important element of highway design is ensuring that the available sight distance (ASD) on a highway meets driver needs. For instance, if the ASD at any point on a highway is less than the distance required to come to a complete stop after seeing a hazard (i.e. Stopping Sight Distance (SSD)), the driver will not be able to stop in time to avoid a collision. SSD is function of a number of variables which vary depending on the driver, the vehicle driven and surface conditions; examples of such variables include a driver's perception reaction time or PRT (i...
January 6, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310053/a-study-of-at-fault-older-drivers-in-light-vehicle-crashes-in-singapore
#9
Hoong Chor Chin, Mo Zhou
A number of studies on motor vehicle crashes have suggested that older drivers are more likely to be at-fault compared to younger drivers. The objective of this paper is to identify factors that contribute to older drivers (aged 65 and above) being at fault in light vehicle crashes in Singapore. Based on 3 years of crash data, the calibrated binary logit model shows that older drivers are more likely to be at fault during peak periods and festive seasons between November to February, as well as at gore areas of expressways, intersections...
January 5, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307440/impact-of-real-time-traffic-characteristics-on-crash-occurrence-preliminary-results-of-the-case-of-rare-events
#10
Athanasios Theofilatos, George Yannis, Pantelis Kopelias, Fanis Papadimitriou
Considerable efforts have been made from researchers and policy makers in order to explain road crash occurrence and improve road safety performance of highways. However, there are cases when crashes are so few that they could be considered as rare events. In such cases, the binary dependent variable is characterized by dozens to thousands of times fewer events (crashes) than non-events (non-crashes). This paper attempts to add to the current knowledge by investigating crash likelihood by utilizing real-time traffic data and by proposing a framework driven by appropriate statistical models (Bias Correction and Firth method) in order to overcome the problems that arise when the number of crashes is very low...
January 4, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306687/real-time-prediction-and-avoidance-of-secondary-crashes-under-unexpected-traffic-congestion
#11
Hyoshin Park, Ali Haghani, Siby Samuel, Michael A Knodler
According to the Federal Highway Administration, nonrecurring congestion contributes to nearly half of the overall congestion. Temporal disruptions impact the effective use of the complete roadway, due to speed reduction and rubbernecking resulting from primary incidents that in turn provoke secondary incidents. There is an additional reduction of discharge flow caused by secondary incident that significantly increases total delay. Therefore, it is important to sequentially predict the probability of secondary incidents and develop appropriate countermeasures to reduce the associated risk...
January 4, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306686/application-of-fractal-theory-for-crash-rate-prediction-insights-from-random-parameters-and-latent-class-tobit-models
#12
Sai Chand, Vinayak V Dixit
The repercussions from congestion and accidents on major highways can have significant negative impacts on the economy and environment. It is a primary objective of transport authorities to minimize the likelihood of these phenomena taking place, to improve safety and overall network performance. In this study, we use the Hurst Exponent metric from Fractal Theory, as a congestion indicator for crash-rate modeling. We analyze one month of traffic speed data at several monitor sites along the M4 motorway in Sydney, Australia and assess congestion patterns with the Hurst Exponent of speed (Hspeed)...
January 4, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306685/road-traffic-accidents-prediction-modelling-an-analysis-of-anambra-state-nigeria
#13
Chukwutoo C Ihueze, Uchendu O Onwurah
One of the major problems in the world today is the rate of road traffic crashes and deaths on our roads. Majority of these deaths occur in low-and-middle income countries including Nigeria. This study analyzed road traffic crashes in Anambra State, Nigeria with the intention of developing accurate predictive models for forecasting crash frequency in the State using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and autoregressive integrated moving average with explanatory variables (ARIMAX) modelling techniques...
January 4, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306086/display-of-required-crossing-speed-improves-pedestrian-judgment-of-crossing-possibility-at-clearance-phase
#14
Xiangling Zhuang, Changxu Wu
At crosswalks with countdown timers, pedestrians arriving at the clearance phase tend to start crossing when the remaining time is too short. It is unclear whether this phenomenon is due to errors in judging the possibility to finish crossing before signal lights turning red. This study evaluated and compared pedestrians' accuracy in judgment of crossing possibility based on two cues: the amount of remaining time, and the minimum required speed to finish crossing within clearance phase (road width / remaining time)...
January 3, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306085/a-synthetic-approach-to-compare-the-large-truck-crash-causation-study-and-naturalistic-driving-data
#15
Jeffrey S Hickman, Richard J Hanowski, Joseph Bocanegra
Truck crashes represent a significant problem on our nation's highways. There is a great opportunity to learn about crash causation by analyzing and comparing the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) and naturalistic driving (ND) data. These data sets provide in-depth information, but have contrasting strengths and weaknesses. The LTCCS contains information on high-severity crashes (crashes and fatal crashes), but relied on data collected during crash investigations. The LTCCS identified principal driver errors in the crash, such as the Critical Reason, but not detailed behaviors or scenario sequences...
January 3, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306084/traffic-accident-severity-analysis-with-rain-related-factors-using-structural-equation-modeling-a-case-study-of-seoul-city
#16
Jonghak Lee, Junghyo Chae, Taekwan Yoon, Hojin Yang
Weather conditions are strongly correlated with traffic accident severity. In particular, rain-related factors are an important cause of traffic accidents due to the poor visibility and reduced friction resulting from slippery road conditions. This paper presents a systematic approach to analyze the extent to which the rainfall intensity and level of water depth are responsible for traffic accidents using Seoul City, Korea, as a case study. The rainfall and traffic accident data over a nine-year period (from 2007 to 2015) for Seoul were analyzed through Structural Equation Modeling to identify the relationships among variables by handling endogenous and exogenous variables simultaneously...
January 3, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287742/investigating-real-time-monitoring-of-fatigue-indicators-of-new-zealand-forestry-workers
#17
Judy Bowen, Annika Hinze, Christopher Griffiths
The New Zealand forestry industry has one of the highest fatality and injury rates of any industrial sector in the country. Worker fatigue has been identified as one of the main contributing factors. Currently no independent and objective large data source is available that might support an analysis of this, or provide the basis for ongoing monitoring to further investigate. In order to successfully manage fatigue in the forestry workplace, we must identify suitable ways of detecting it. Industry partners are increasingly looking at monitoring solutions (particularly lightweight, wearable technology) that aim to measure worker activities and physiological metrics in order to determine if they are fatigued...
December 27, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277384/effectiveness-of-visual-warnings-on-young-drivers-hazard-anticipation-and-hazard-mitigation-abilities
#18
Foroogh Hajiseyedjavadi, Tingru Zhang, Ravi Agrawal, Michael Knodler, Donald Fisher, Siby Samuel
Previous studies have demonstrated that young drivers fail both to scan for and mitigate latent hazards mostly due to their cluelessness. This study aims to investigate whether these skills could be improved by providing young drivers with alerts in advance of the upcoming threat using a driving simulator experiment. In particular, the warning was presented on the head-up displays (HUD) either 2 s, 3 s or 4 s in advance of a latent threat. The hazard anticipation, hazard mitigation and attention maintenance performance of forty-eight young drivers aged 18-25 was evaluated across eight unique scenarios either in the presence or in the absence of latent threat alerts displayed on a HUD...
December 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277383/gaze-position-modulates-the-effectiveness-of-forward-collision-warnings-for-drowsy-drivers
#19
John G Gaspar, John-Chris W Schwarz, Timothy L Brown, Julie Kang
Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have the potential to prevent crashes and reduce their severity. Forward collision warnings (FCW) are quickly becoming standard across vehicle lineups and may prevent frontal crashes by alerting drivers. Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of FCW for distracted drivers, but their effectiveness for other types of impairment remains unknown. Like distraction, drowsiness can impair driver response time and lead to crashes. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of FCW for moderately and severely drowsy drivers using a high-fidelity driving simulator...
December 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276978/identification-of-significant-factors-in-fatal-injury-highway-crashes-using-genetic-algorithm-and-neural-network
#20
Yunjie Li, Dongfang Ma, Mengtao Zhu, Ziqiang Zeng, Yinhai Wang
Identification of the significant factors of traffic crashes has been a primary concern of the transportation safety research community for many years. A fatal-injury crash is a comprehensive result influenced by multiple variables involved at the moment of the crash scenario, the main idea of this paper is to explore the process of significant factors identification from a multi-objective optimization (MOP) standpoint. It proposes a data-driven model which combines the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) with the Neural Network (NN) architecture to efficiently search for optimal solutions...
December 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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