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Accident; Analysis and Prevention

Xiaoqi Zhai, Helai Huang, N N Sze, Ziqi Song, Kai Kwong Hon
Pedestrians are vulnerable to severe injury and mortality in road crashes. Numerous studies have attempted to identify factors contributing to crashes and pedestrian injury risks. As an active transport mode, the act of walking is sensitive to changes in weather conditions. However, comprehensive real-time weather data are often unavailable for road safety analysis. In this study, we used a geographical information system approach to integrate high-resolution weather data, as well as their corresponding temporal and spatial distributions, with crash data...
November 6, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Bumjoon Kang
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated associations between the installation of eleven street design elements, between 2007 and 2015, and subsequent changes in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions in New York City. METHODS: Collision data were from Accident Location Information System in the New York State Department of Transportation. Safety improvement projects at 118 intersections were reviewed and their implemented street design elements were identified. First, we assessed potential regression-to-the-mean effects using historic trends of pedestrian collision count at the intersection project locations...
November 5, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Erin Berenbaum, Daniel Harrington, Sue Keller-Olaman, Heather Manson
BACKGROUND: Distracted driving is of particular concern among young drivers. According to the 2012 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) survey, the greatest proportion of distraction prone drivers is within the 16-19 and 20-24 age groups. One relatively new distraction is texting while driving behaviour (TWD). TWD increases the amount of time drivers spend looking away from the road, slows reaction times and increases the risk of collisions by two-fold. To deter this behaviour many distracted driving campaigns focus on highlighting the risks and dangers of distracted driving; however, evidence suggests that youth and young adults continue to engage in TWD despite awareness of the related risks...
November 5, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Steve O'Hern, Jennie Oxley
Over the past decade in Melbourne the popularity of cycling has increased both as a mode of transport and a recreational activity, while at the same time walking has consistently been the most prevalent form of physical activity. Increasing levels of active transport use and physical activity are seen as important public health issues, particularly as the rate of urbanisation continues to grow throughout the world. To date there has been limited research conducted in Australia looking at the prevalence of pedestrian injuries resulting from collisions with cyclists...
November 3, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
T Bunn, M Singleton, I-Chen Chen
OBJECTIVE: Drugged driving crashes have significantly increased over the past two decades. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize the drugs present in motor vehicle driver fatalities using multiple surveillance data sources; assess concordance of the data sources in identifying drug presence; and identify demographic and crash factors associated with drug and alcohol screening in fatally injured motor vehicle drivers. METHODS: Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), Collision Report Analysis for Safer Highways (CRASH), and mortality data sets were linked; drug screening and positive drug screens were identified...
November 2, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Petya Ventsislavova, David Crundall, Thom Baguley, Candida Castro, Andrés Gugliotta, Pedro Garcia-Fernandez, Wei Zhang, Yutao Ba, Qiucheng Li
Hazard perception (HP) is the ability to spot on-road hazards in time to avoid a collision. This skill is traditionally measured by recording response times to hazards in video clips of driving, with safer, experienced drivers often out-performing inexperienced drivers. This study assessed whether HP test performance is culturally specific by comparing Chinese, Spanish and UK drivers who watched clips filmed in all three countries. Two test-variants were created: a traditional HP test (requiring timed hazard responses), and a hazard prediction test, where the film is occluded at hazard-onset and participants predict what happens next...
November 1, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Naomi Kahana-Levy, Sara Shavitzky-Golkin, Avinoam Borowsky, Eli Vakil
Recent evidence shows that compared to experienced drivers, young-inexperienced drivers are more likely to be involved in a crash mainly due to their poor hazard perception (HP) abilities. This skill develops with experience and may be developed through training. We assumed that as any other skill, HP developed through implicit learning. Nevertheless, current training methods, rely on deliberate learning where young-inexperienced drivers are instructed what hazards that they should seek and where they might be located...
November 1, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jie Bao, Pan Liu, Satish V Ukkusuri
The primary objective of this study is to investigate how the deep learning approach contributes to citywide short-term crash risk prediction by leveraging multi-source datasets. This study uses data collected from Manhattan in New York City to illustrate the procedure. The following multiple datasets are collected: crash data, large-scale taxi GPS data, road network attributes, land use features, population data and weather data. A spatiotemporal convolutional long short-term memory network (STCL-Net) is proposed for predicting the citywide short-term crash risk...
October 31, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jinjun Tang, Jian Liang, Chunyang Han, Zhibin Li, Helai Huang
Crash injury severity analysis is useful for traffic management agency to further understand severity of crashes. A two-layer Stacking framework is proposed in this study to predict the crash injury severity: The fist layer integrates advantages of three base classification methods: RF (Random Forests), AdaBoost (Adaptive Boosting), and GBDT (Gradient Boosting Decision Tree); the second layer completes classification of crash injury severity based on a Logistic Regression model. A total of 5538 crashes were recorded at 326 freeway diverge areas...
October 31, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Henrick J Haule, Thobias Sando, Angela E Kitali, Robert Richardson
Many campaigns promote walking for recreation, work, and general-purpose trips for health and environmental benefits. This study investigated factors that influence the occurrence of crashes involving elderly pedestrians in relation to where they reside. Using actual pedestrian residential addresses, a Google integrated GIS-based method was developed for estimating distances from crash locations to pedestrian residences. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was used to evaluate the effect of factors associated with residences, such as age group, roadway features, and demographic characteristics on the proximity of crash locations...
October 31, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Andrew Hill, Mark S Horswill, John Whiting, Marcus O Watson
Computer-based hazard perception tests are used in a number of countries as part of the driver licensing processes, and hence evaluating the validity of such tests is crucial. One strategy for assessing the validity of the scores generated by a hazard perception test is to determine whether they can predict on-road driving performance. Only a few prior studies have attempted this, all relying on the subjective ratings of an examiner who was present during a single brief drive and was not blind to the driver's demographic characteristics, potentially contaminating the outcomes...
October 31, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Ariel Rosenfeld
Traffic enforcement drones reduce high-risk driving behavior which often leads to traffic crashes. However, the introduction of drones may face a public acceptance challenge which may severely hinder their potential impact. In this paper, we report and discuss the results of a drivers' survey, administered both in the US and Israel, regarding the benefits, concerns and policy considerations for the deployment of traffic enforcement drones. The results show that drivers perceive traffic enforcement drones as significantly more efficient and deterring compared to current aerial traffic enforcement resources (i...
October 30, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Kun Xie, Kaan Ozbay, Hong Yang
Conventional safety models rely on the assumption of independence of crash data, which is frequently violated. This study develops a novel multivariate conditional autoregressive (MVCAR) model to account for the spatial autocorrelation of neighboring sites and the inherent correlation across different crash types. Manhattan, which is the most densely populated urban area of New York City, is used as the study area. Census tracts are used as the basic geographic units to capture crash, transportation, land use, and demo-economic data...
October 30, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Fanny Malin, Ilkka Norros, Satu Innamaa
This study was designed to investigate the relative accident risk of different road weather conditions and combinations of conditions. The study applied a recently developed method which is based on the notion of Palm probability, originating in the theory of random point processes, which in this case corresponds to picking a random vehicle from the traffic. The method consists of calculating the Palm distribution of different conditions and comparing it with the distribution of the same conditions as seen by the accidents...
October 29, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Rajiv N Rimal, Hagere Yilma, Nargis Ryskulova, Sarah Geber
Globally, more adolescents die from road traffic fatalities than from any other cause, and males are significantly more vulnerable than females. Driver education interventions directed at males are less likely to succeed than those directed at females, and stronger optimistic bias and overconfidence bias have been implicated as likely reasons. We report results from a quasi-experiment conducted in Serbia, targeting male and female adolescents. Stratified by size, forty schools were randomly assigned to either a personal-narrative intervention or a no-intervention control arm...
October 27, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Monique Martins Gomes, Ali Pirdavani, Tom Brijs, Cira Souza Pitombo
While high road safety performing countries base their effective strategies on reliable data, in developing countries the unavailability of essential information makes this task challenging. As a result, this drawback has led researchers and planners to face dilemmas of "doing nothing" or "doing ill", therefore restricting models to data availability, often limited to socio-economic and demographic variables. Taking this into account, this study aims to demonstrate the potential improvements in spatial crash prediction model performance by enhancing the explanatory variables and modelling casualties as a function of a more comprehensive dataset, especially with an appropriate exposure variable...
October 27, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Amin Mohamadi Hezaveh, Christopher R Cherry
Despite the well-known safety benefits of seat belt use, some vehicle occupants still do not use them. This is a challenge in Tennessee, which has a lower seat belt use rate compared to the United States national average. Roadside observations and interviews are the two main sources for estimating seat belt use rate and have several limitations (e.g., small sample size, social desirability bias). To address these limitations, we attributed seat belt use of individuals who were involved in traffic crashes (N = 542,776) to their corresponding home-addresses...
October 27, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Xiaomeng Li, Atiyeh Vaezipour, Andry Rakotonirainy, Sebastien Demmel
We have designed a new in-vehicle eco-safe driving system and shown its effectiveness in prompting drivers to execute a fuel-saving and safe driving style (Vaezipour et al., 2018, submitted for publication). However, the system could also bring potential negative outcomes, i.e. driver distraction. This simulator study investigated drivers' glance behaviours as indicators of driver distraction when using our Eco-Safe Human-Machine-Interface (HMI). Four types of eco-safe information display conditions (baseline, advice only, feedback only, both advice and feedback) were tested on different traffic situations with varied road traffic complexity...
October 25, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Md Mazharul Haque, Mark King, Simon Washington
The adaptive behaviour of mobile phone distracted drivers has been a topic of much discussion in the recent literature, but the mechanisms of behavioural adaptation are still unclear. This study investigated the influence of driving demands, secondary task characteristics, and personal characteristics on behavioural adaptation of mobile phone distracted drivers. In particular, distracted drivers' self-regulation at strategic, tactical, and operational levels was investigated through a driving simulator experiment...
October 18, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Weihua Zhang, Chang Zhou, Wenjuan Huang, Hu Tao, Kun Wang, Zhongxiang Feng, Zhe Hu
The violation activity of non-motorized vehicles riding in motorized vehicle lanes interferes roadway traffic serious, as it can not only seriously depreciate the efficiency of motorized vehicle traffic, but also raise possibility of triggering traffic accidents. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate intrinsic features of unlawful non-motorized vehicles' violation behaviors of riding on motorized vehicle lanes. The binary logistic regression model was proposed to find inherent reasons of triggering such misbehaviors...
October 18, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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