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Accident; Analysis and Prevention

Roni Factor
The current study tests an innovative public participation process for designing and implementing a tailored traffic enforcement program in minority localities. The quasi-experiment used two matched pairs of randomly selected Israeli Arab localities, where one locality in each pair was randomly assigned to the experimental group and the other to the control group. The intervention's main features were the public participation process and implementation by police of the traffic enforcement program designed during the process...
September 15, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Amin Mohamadi Hezaveh, Christopher R Cherry
Alcohol adversely affects human behavior and judgment, and it is one of the contributing factors in traffic crashes. Although a large body of research has investigated driving behavior under the influence of the alcohol, to the best of our knowledge, no study has investigated the crash characteristics of the pedestrians under the influences of the alcohol. Tennessee Police Crash Data from 2011 to 2016 was used in this study to identify crashes between motor vehicles and pedestrians who were walking under the influence of alcohol (WUI)...
September 13, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Niek Mouter, Sander van Cranenburgh, Bert van Wee
Cost-benefit analyses for transportation projects usually value impacts on safety and travel time through experiments in which consumers of mobility ('drivers') choose between routes which differ in safety and travel time. This approach has been criticized for failing to consider that private choices may not fully reflect citizens' preferences over public goods and means, a concept known as the consumer-citizen duality. Recent empirical evidence has established that individuals do indeed assign comparatively more value to safety in their role as citizens than in their role as drivers...
September 13, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Vikash V Gayah, Eric T Donnell, Zhengyao Yu, Lingyu Li
This study quantifies the operational and safety impacts of setting posted speed limits below engineering recommendations using field data from rural roads in Montana. Vehicle operating speeds and historical crash data were collected at multiple sites with posted speed limits set equal to engineering recommendations and sites with posted speed limits set lower than engineering recommendations. Linear, quantile and logistic regression models were estimated to predict mean operating speed, 85th percentile operating speed and speed limit compliance, respectively, as a function of various roadway characteristics and level of speed enforcement...
September 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Frederik Naujoks, Simon Höfling, Christian Purucker, Kathrin Zeeb
BACKGROUND: Until the level of full vehicle automation is reached, users of vehicle automation systems will be required to take over manual control of the vehicle occasionally and stay fallback-ready to some extent during the drive. Both, drowsiness caused by inactivity and the engagement in distracting non-driving related tasks (NDRTs) such as entertainment or office work have been suggested to impair the driver's ability to safely handle these transitions of control. Thus, it is an open question whether engagement in NDRTs will impair or improve take-over performance...
September 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Lee Jong-Hyun, So Soo-Hyun, Min Seung-Nam, Lee Kyung-Sun
We sought to validate a safety behavior tool used in South Korean nuclear power plants, and to investigate the effects of HEXACO personality types on safety behaviors. The participants were 242 individuals employed in corporate safety management who answered the questionnaires on safety behaviors checklist, impulsiveness, affectivity, job burnout, and perfectionism. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the safety behavior items, and the convergent and discriminant validity were confirmed through correlational analyses with the existing related variables...
September 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Christine M Wickens, Robert E Mann, Bruna Brands, Anca R Ialomiteanu, Benedikt Fischer, Tara Marie Watson, Justin Matheson, Gina Stoduto, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle collisions are an important contributor to prescription opioid use-related morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of driving under the influence of prescription opioids (DUIPO) in Ontario, Canada, and to measure the association between this behaviour and the risk of a motor vehicle collision. METHODS: Data were based on telephone interviews with 7857 respondents who reported having driven in the past year...
September 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Mehmet Baran Ulak, Eren Erman Ozguven, Omer Arda Vanli, Maxim A Dulebenets, Lisa Spainhour
The increase in 65 years and older population in the United States compels the investigation of the crashes involving all aging (65+) roadway users (drivers, passengers, bicyclists, and pedestrians) in order to ensure their safety. As such, the objective of this research is to provide a spatiotemporal comparative investigation of the crashes involving these aging roadway users in Florida via concurrently using the same set of predictors in order to obtain comparable findings among them. First, a new metric, namely Crash Rate Difference (CRD) approach is developed, which enables one to capture potential spatial and temporal (e...
September 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Rongjie Yu, Mohammed Quddus, Xuesong Wang, Kui Yang
The impact of operating speed on traffic crash occurrence has been a controversial topic in the traffic safety discipline as some studies reported a positive association whereas others indicated a negative relationship between speed and crashes. Two major issues thought to be accountable for such conflicting findings are the application of inappropriate statistical methods and the use of sample datasets with varying levels of aggregation. The main objective of this study is therefore to investigate the impacts of data aggregation schemes on the relationships between operating speed and traffic safety...
September 5, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Mehdi Mohammadi, Gholamali Shafabakhsh, Ali Naderan
INTRODUCTION: Long-range transportation plans often involve proposals for improvements/ changes in different modes of travel. This means that modal share of trips generated at each traffic analysis zone (TAZ) by mode of travel needs to be predicted/ forecasted for safety evaluation purposes. The objective of this research study is to develop a series of aggregate crash prediction models (ACPMs) that relate with the modal split step of the conventional four-step demand models. METHOD: The models are developed utilizing network and vehicular, socio-economical, trip production/attraction and trip frequencies by mode at TAZ-level as explanatory variables in a generalized linear regression with the assumption of a negative binomial error structure...
September 4, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Alireza Jafari Anarkooli, Bhagwant Persaud, Mehdi Hosseinpour, Taha Saleem
The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) procedures apply specific safety performance functions (SPFs) and crash modification factors (CMFs) appropriate for estimating the safety effects of design and operational changes to a roadway. Although the applicability of the SPFs and CMFs may significantly vary by crash severity, they are mainly based on total crash counts, with different approaches for estimation of crashes by crash severity. The variety of approaches in the HSM and in the literature in general suggests that there may be no one best approach for all situations, and that there is a need to develop and compare alternative approaches for each potential application...
September 1, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jie Bao, Pan Liu, Xiao Qin, Huaguo Zhou
The primary objective of this study was to investigate how trip pattern variables extracted from large-scale taxi GPS data contribute to the spatially aggregated crashes in urban areas. The following five types of data were collected: crash data, large-scale taxi GPS data, road network attributes, land use features and social-demographic data. A data-driven modeling approach based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) was proposed for discovering hidden trip patterns from a taxi GPS dataset, and a total of fifty trip patterns were identified...
September 1, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
N Kovácsová, C D D Cabrall, S J Antonisse, T de Haan, R van Namen, J L Nooren, R Schreurs, M P Hagenzieker, J C F de Winter
Research indicates that crashes between a cyclist and a car often occur even when the cyclist must have seen the approaching car, suggesting the importance of hazard anticipation skills. This study aimed to analyze cyclists' eye movements and crossing judgments while approaching an intersection at different speeds. Thirty-six participants watched animated video clips with a car approaching an uncontrolled four-way intersection and continuously indicated whether they would cross the intersection first. We varied (1) car approach scenario (passing, colliding, stopping), (2) traffic complexity (one or two approaching cars), and (3) cyclist's approach speed (15, 25, or 35 km/h)...
August 31, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Qixuan Chen, Sharifa Z Williams, Yutao Liu, Stanford T Chihuri, Guohua Li
BACKGROUND: The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) provides important data for studying the role of marijuana in motor vehicle crashes. However, marijuana testing data are available for only 34% of drivers in the FARS, which represents a major barrier in the use of the data. METHODS: We developed a multiple imputation (MI) procedure for estimating marijuana positivity among drivers with missing marijuana test results, using a Bayesian multilevel model that allows a nonlinear association with blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), accounts for correlations among drivers in the same states, and includes both individual-level and state-level covariates...
August 31, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Heejin Jeong, Youngchan Jang, Patrick J Bowman, Neda Masoud
This study aims to classify the injury severity in motor-vehicle crashes with both high accuracy and sensitivity rates. The dataset used in this study contains 297,113 vehicle crashes, obtained from the Michigan Traffic Crash Facts (MTCF) dataset, from 2016-2017. Similar to any other crash dataset, different accident severity classes are not equally represented in MTCF. To account for the imbalanced classes, several techniques have been used, including under-sampling and over-sampling. Using five classification learning models (i...
August 30, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Alena Hoye
If all cyclistswere wearing helmets, significant numbers of head injuries might theoretically be prevented. Mandatory bicycle helmet legislation increases helmet use but is a controversial measure. Results from 21 studies of the effects of mandatory bicycle helmet legislation on injuries among crash involved cyclists were investigated by means of meta-analysis and the effects of several potential biases were investigated. The summary effect of mandatory bicycle helmet legislation for all cyclists on head injuries is a statistically significant reduction by 20% (95% confidence interval [-27; -13])...
August 30, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Robert B Noland, Maria Luz Laham
An analysis of motor vehicle mortality is conducted using data from the Census Bureau's National Longitudinal Mortality Study for 1980, 1990, and 2000. The likelihood of being a motor vehicle crash fatality is compared to all other causes of death and not dying within the six year follow up period of the data. Using a multinomial logistic regression, mortality associations with the socioeconomics and demographics of individuals is examined. No association is found with a greater likelihood of being a motor vehicle mortality, based on family income, ethnicity, or race...
August 29, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
F Fraboni, V Marín Puchades, M De Angelis, L Pietrantoni, G Prati
Accident analysis and studies on traffic revealed that cyclists' violation of red-light regulation is a typical infringement committed by cyclists. Furthermore, an association between cyclists' crash involvement and red-light violations has been found across different countries. The literature on red-light running cyclists' behavior in relation to their characteristic is still scarce. The present study, adopted an eye-observational methodology to investigates differences in cyclists' crossing behavior at intersections, with a particular attention to their demographical characteristics...
August 29, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jundi Liu, Linda N Boyle, Ashis G Banerjee
Ensuring safe operations of large commercial vehicles (motor carriers) remains an important challenge, particularly in the United States. While the federal regulatory agency has instituted a compliance review-based rating method to encourage carriers to improve their safety levels, concerns have been expressed regarding the effectiveness of the current ratings. In this paper, we consider a crash rate level (high, medium, and low) rather than a compliance review-based rating (satisfactory, conditional satisfactory, and unsatisfactory)...
August 28, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Carola A Blazquez, Barbara Picarte, Juan Felipe Calderón, Fernando Losada
The growing number of cargo trucks on highway crashes in recent years due to the increase in freight movement in Chile motivates this study to identify the formation of persistent crash clusters on highway Ruta 5 (R5). Two spatial statistical methods (Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi*) were used to determine whether crashes on this highway showed spatial clustering over time from a global and local perspective. Globally, recurrent crash clusters are spatially correlated on vertical curves and straight highway sections on northern R5 with different truck types and with the tractor-trailer units during rainy days on southern R5...
August 28, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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