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Accident; Analysis and Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110260/road-traffic-injuries-among-children-and-adolescents-in-singapore-who-is-at-greatest-risk
#1
Shu-Ling Chong, Arif Tyebally, Su Yah Chew, Yang Chern Lim, Xun Yi Feng, Sock Teng Chin, Lois K Lee
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric road traffic injuries remain a significant cause of death and disability in many countries in Asia, despite the implementation of road traffic safety laws. We aim to describe the injuries, the use of restraints among road users, and risk factors associated with severe injuries for children in Singapore. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of road traffic injuries presenting to the only two pediatric tertiary care hospitals in Singapore, from January 2012 to April 2016...
January 19, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103524/validation-of-a-bicycle-simulator-for-road-safety-research
#2
Steve O'Hern, Jennie Oxley, Mark Stevenson
The study's aim was to assess the behavioural validity of participants using of a newly developed bicycle simulator with respect to a range of cycling performance measures collected both using the cycling simulator and on-road. The validation study consisted of a within-subjects study design comparing participants riding on-road with riding in the simulator. The study recruited 26 participants ranging in age from 18 to 35 years (M=25.0, SD=4.8). Absolute validity was established for measures of spatial positioning including average lane position, deviation in lane position and average passing distance from kerbside parked cars...
January 16, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088034/an-evaluation-of-nova-scotia-s-alcohol-ignition-interlock-program
#3
Ward G M Vanlaar, Marisela Mainegra Hing, Robyn D Robertson
Alcohol ignition interlock programs for offenders aim to reduce recidivism among convicted drink drivers. This study presents an evaluation of Nova Scotia's interlock program implemented in 2008 in order to assess its effectiveness to reduce impaired driving and to help identify areas for improvement. Data used include conviction and crash records of individual participants; provincial monthly counts of alcohol-related charges, convictions and fatal and serious crashes; and interlock logged events. Methods used include descriptive statistics, survival analysis, time series and logistic regression analysis...
January 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088033/a-bayesian-spatial-random-parameters-tobit-model-for-analyzing-crash-rates-on-roadway-segments
#4
Qiang Zeng, Huiying Wen, Helai Huang, Mohamed Abdel-Aty
This study develops a Bayesian spatial random parameters Tobit model to analyze crash rates on road segments, in which both spatial correlation between adjacent sites and unobserved heterogeneity across observations are accounted for. The crash-rate data for a three-year period on road segments within a road network in Florida, are collected to compare the performance of the proposed model with that of a (fixed parameters) Tobit model and a spatial (fixed parameters) Tobit model in the Bayesian context. Significant spatial effect is found in both spatial models and the results of Deviance Information Criteria (DIC) show that the inclusion of spatial correlation in the Tobit regression considerably improves model fit, which indicates the reasonableness of considering cross-segment spatial correlation...
January 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086080/modelling-the-effect-on-injuries-and-fatalities-when-changing-mode-of-transport-from-car-to-bicycle
#5
Philip Nilsson, Helena Stigson, Maria Ohlin, Johan Strandroth
BACKGROUND: Several studies have estimated the health effects of active commuting, where a transport mode shift from car to bicycle reduces risk of mortality and morbidity. Previous studies mainly assess the negative aspects of bicycling by referring to fatalities or police reported injuries. However, most bicycle crashes are not reported by the police and therefore hospital reported data would cover a much higher rate of injuries from bicycle crashes. The aim of the present study was to estimate the effect on injuries and fatalities from traffic crashes when shifting mode of transport from car to bicycle by using hospital reported data...
January 10, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081435/heavy-episodic-drinking-and-alcohol-related-injuries-an-open-cohort-study-among-college-students
#6
Francisco Caamaño-Isorna, Lucía Moure-Rodríguez, Sonia Doallo, Montserrat Corral, Socorro Rodriguez Holguín, Fernando Cadaveira
AIM: The objective of this study is to assess the effects of Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED) on the incidence of alcohol-related injuries among university students in Spain, taking sex into consideration. METHODS: We carried out an open cohort study among college students in Spain (992 women and 371 men). HED and alcohol-related injuries were measured by question 3rd and 9th of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test to every participant at the ages of 18, 20, 22, 24 and 27...
January 9, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081434/implicit-attitudes-towards-risky-driving-development-and-validation-of-an-affect-misattribution-procedure-for-speeding
#7
Andrei Rusu, Paul Sârbescu, Daniela Moza, Alexandra Stancu
The present study aimed to develop and validate an instrument for measuring implicit attitudes towards speeding, based on the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP). The data collected from 140 drivers supported the reliability of the AMP (α=0.80). Results provided some support for the construct validity of the AMP, through its convergence with explicit attitudes towards speeding (r=0.22). Also, the AMP incrementally predicted driving violations (ΔR(2)=0.034) and traffic accidents (ΔR(2)=0.022), above and beyond demographic variables and explicit attitudes towards speeding, thus providing initial evidence for its criterion validity...
January 9, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081433/what-s-the-law-got-to-do-with-it-legislation-regarding-in-vehicle-technology-use-and-its-impact-on-driver-distraction
#8
Katie J Parnell, Neville A Stanton, Katherine L Plant
Legislation in the road transport domain aims to control safety on the roads. Despite this, a critical issue affecting road safety is that of driver distraction. Although poorly defined, distraction is a significant road safety issue which, in part, is caused by the prevalence of technology within vehicles. Legislation surrounding the use of in-vehicle technologies are explored in this paper from a socio-technical system perspective. This reveals the wider context of the road transport system operating under the current laws using an Accimap analysis...
January 9, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068624/measuring-a-conceptual-model-of-the-relationship-between-compulsive-cell-phone-use-in-vehicle-cell-phone-use-and-motor-vehicle-crash
#9
Stephen S O'Connor, Lindsey M Shain, Jennifer M Whitehill, Beth E Ebel
OBJECTIVES: Previous research suggests that anticipation of incoming phone calls or messages and impulsivity are significantly associated with motor vehicle crash. We took a more explanative approach to investigate a conceptual model regarding the direct and indirect effect of compulsive cell phone use and impulsive personality traits on crash risk. METHODS: We recruited a sample of 307 undergraduate college students to complete an online survey that included measures of cell phone use, impulsivity, and history of motor vehicle crash...
January 6, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064101/road-safety-effects-of-roundabouts-a-meta-analysis
#10
Rune Elvik
This paper presents a meta-analysis of the road safety effects of converting junctions to roundabouts. 44 studies containing a total of 154 estimates of effect were included. Based on a meta-regression analysis, converting junctions to roundabouts is associated with a reduction of fatal accidents of about 65% and a reduction of injury accidents of about 40%. The mean effect on property-damage-only accidents is ambiguous. Summary estimates of effect are robust for fatal and injury accidents, but vary depending on the model of meta-analysis and the treatment of outlying data points for property-damage-only accidents...
January 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064100/evaluating-the-effects-of-supplemental-rest-areas-on-freeway-crashes-caused-by-drowsy-driving
#11
Soyoung Jung, Shinhye Joo, Cheol Oh
To prevent crashes caused by drowsy driving, supplemental rest areas have been installed in the South Korean freeway system to allow road users to rest. These supplemental rest areas are very small-sized resting facilities located between the larger regular rest areas, which is a unique design. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the supplemental rest areas on reducing crashes caused by drowsy driving. Between 2011 and 2012, supplemental rest areas were first installed in the Gyeongbu Freeway, which was selected as the study area for this study...
January 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043070/opportunities-and-limitations-for-intersection-collision-intervention-a-study-of-real-world-left-turn-across-path-accidents
#12
Ulrich Sander
Turning across the path of oncoming vehicle accidents are frequent and dangerous. To date not many car manufacturers have introduced Automated Emergency Braking (AEB) systems addressing this type of conflict situation, but it is foreseeable that these scenarios will be part of the Euro NCAP 2020 rating. Nine out of ten collisions are caused by the driver of the turning vehicle. An AEB system evaluating the ego and conflict vehicle driver's possibilities to avoid a pending crash by either braking or steering was specified for application in various constellations of vehicle collisions...
December 30, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043069/comparison-of-multivariate-poisson-lognormal-spatial-and-temporal-crash-models-to-identify-hot-spots-of-intersections-based-on-crash-types
#13
Wen Cheng, Gurdiljot Singh Gill, Ravi Dasu, Meiquan Xie, Xudong Jia, Jiao Zhou
Most of the studies are focused on the general crashes or total crash counts with considerably less research dedicated to different crash types. This study employs the Systemic approach for detection of hotspots and comprehensively cross-validates five multivariate models of crash type-based HSID methods which incorporate spatial and temporal random effects. It is anticipated that comparison of the crash estimation results of the five models would identify the impact of varied random effects on the HSID. The data over a ten year time period (2003-2012) were selected for analysis of a total 137 intersections in the City of Corona, California...
December 30, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038346/predicting-drowsy-driving-in-real-time-situations-using-an-advanced-driving-simulator-accelerated-failure-time-model-and-virtual-location-based-services
#14
Junhua Wang, Shuaiyi Sun, Shouen Fang, Ting Fu, Joshua Stipancic
This paper aims to both identify the factors affecting driver drowsiness and to develop a real-time drowsy driving probability model based on virtual Location-Based Services (LBS) data obtained using a driving simulator. A driving simulation experiment was designed and conducted using 32 participant drivers. Collected data included the continuous driving time before detection of drowsiness and virtual LBS data related to temperature, time of day, lane width, average travel speed, driving time in heavy traffic, and driving time on different roadway types...
December 27, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027528/obstacles-to-engaging-in-young-driver-licensing-perspectives-of-parents
#15
Sehana Naz, Bridie Scott-Parker
INTRODUCTION: Young novice drivers remain at greater risk of injury and death despite a wealth of interventions including graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs. The key to implementing safer practices inherent in GDL appears to lie with optimising the role of parents. This qualitative research explored the parent's perspectives of obstacles to engaging in the driver licensing process within a GDL program. Parents also shared advice on what they found helpful, and where relevant, recommended changes in the process to enable safer practices for young drivers...
December 24, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024203/constructing-a-publically-available-distracted-driving-database-and-research-tool
#16
Paul Atchley, Ashleigh V Tran, Mohammad Ali Salehinejad
BACKGROUND: The goal of the current work was to create a publicly available visualization tool of distracted driving research, the purpose of which is to allow the public and other stakeholders to empirically inform questions of their choice that may bear on policy discussions. METHODS: Fifty years of distracted driving research was used to design a comprehensive database of studies that evaluated the effects of distraction on driving performance. Distraction sources (e...
December 23, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013142/preventing-distracted-driving-among-college-students-addressing-smartphone-use
#17
Sahar Hassani, Erin H Kelly, Jennifer Smith, Sara Thorpe, Fatima H Sozzer, Paul Atchley, Elroy Sullivan, Dean Larson, Lawrence C Vogel
Based on the National Highway Traffic Safety Association's (NHTSA) Report, fatalities due to distracted driving are on the rise and the highest proportion of fatalities by age group is the 20-29 year old category. To date little has been done to educate college students about the dangers of distracted driving and engage these students in promoting a safe driving culture. Intervening among college students has the potential for making real-time behavior change, can foster a lifetime of safe driving habits among these students, and can help contribute to a culture of safe driving that can be created and sustained through positive messages from peers...
December 22, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993315/effect-of-physical-effort-on-mental-workload-of-cyclists-in-real-traffic-in-relation-to-age-and-use-of-pedelecs
#18
M J Boele-Vos, J J F Commandeur, D A M Twisk
To improve cycling safety, insight is required into the factors that contribute to road safety of older cyclists. From the wide range of possible factors, this paper addresses the role of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists with the aim to investigate whether physical effort affects mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in a field experiment. Two instrumented bicycles, a conventional bicycle and a pedelec, were used. Mental workload of cyclists in two age groups - 30-45 years and 65 years and over - was measured by means of a secondary cognitive task requiring the detection and reaction to visual stimuli on a cycle route that varied in physical effort and task complexity...
December 16, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992762/cyclist-deceleration-rate-as-surrogate-safety-measure-in-montreal-using-smartphone-gps-data
#19
Jillian Strauss, Sohail Zangenehpour, Luis F Miranda-Moreno, Nicolas Saunier
Urban areas in North American cities with positive trends in bicycle usage also witness a high number of cyclist injuries every year. Previous cyclist safety studies based on the traditional approach, which relies on historical crash data, are known to have some limitations such as the fact that crashes need to happen (a reactive approach). This paper explores the use of GPS deceleration events as a surrogate-proactive measure and investigates the relationship between reported cyclist road injuries and deceleration events...
December 16, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992761/sleep-related-vehicle-crashes-on-low-speed-roads
#20
A J Filtness, K A Armstrong, A Watson, S S Smith
BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the characteristics of sleep related (SR) crashes occurring on low speed roads compared with current understanding of the role of sleep in crashes occurring on high speed roads e.g. motorways. To address this gap, analyses were undertaken to identify the differences and similarities between (1) SR crashes occurring on roads with low (≤60km/h) and high (≥100km/h) speed limits, and (2) SR crashes and not-SR crashes occurring on roads with low speed limits...
December 16, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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