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Accident; Analysis and Prevention

Jeffrey S Hickman, Richard J Hanowski, Jana Price, J Erin Mabry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Mohamed Osman, Sabyasachee Mishra, Rajesh Paleti
This study analyzes the injury severity of commercially-licensed drivers involved in single-vehicle crashes. Considering the discrete ordinal nature of injury severity data, the ordered response modeling framework was adopted. The moderating effect of driver's age on all other factors was examined by segmenting the parameters by driver's age group. Additional effects of the different drivers' age groups are taken into consideration through interaction terms. Unobserved heterogeneity of the different covariates was investigated using the Mixed Generalized Ordered Response Probit (MGORP) model...
May 18, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
David Crundall, Victoria Kroll
Can hazard perception testing be useful for the emergency services? Previous research has found emergency response drivers' (ERDs) to perform better than controls, however these studies used clips of normal driving. In contrast, the current study filmed footage from a fire-appliance on blue-light training runs through Nottinghamshire, and endeavoured to discriminate between different groups of EDRs based on experience and collision risk. Thirty clips were selected to create two variants of the hazard perception test: a traditional push-button test requiring speeded-responses to hazards, and a prediction test that occludes at hazard onset and provides four possible outcomes for participants to choose between...
May 18, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
M Pylkkönen, A Tolvanen, C Hublin, J Kaartinen, K Karhula, S Puttonen, M Sihvola, M Sallinen
Education is a frequently recommended remedy for driver sleepiness in occupational settings, although not many studies have examined its usefulness. To date, there are no previous on-road randomized controlled trials investigating the benefits of training on sleepiness among employees working in road transport. To examine the effects of an educational intervention on long-haul truck drivers' sleepiness at the wheel, amount of sleep between work shifts, and use of efficient sleepiness countermeasures (SCM) in association with night and non-night shift, a total of 53 truck drivers operating from southern Finland were allocated into an intervention and a control group using a stratified randomization method (allocation ratio for intervention and control groups 32:21, respectively)...
May 18, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Sharon Clarke, Ian Taylor
There is increasing evidence to suggest that leaders need to use a combination of leader behaviors to successfully improve safety, including both transformational and transactional styles, but there has been limited testing of this idea. We developed a leadership intervention, based on supervisor training in both transformational and active transactional behaviors, and implemented it with supervisors at a UK-based chemical processing company. The study found that the supervisory training intervention led to significant improvements in perceived employee safety climate, over an eight-week period, relative to the comparison group...
May 15, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
X Shi, Y D Wong, M Z F Li, C Chai
Accident events are generally unexpected and occur rarely. Pre-accident risk assessment by surrogate indicators is an effective way to identify risk levels and thus boost accident prediction. Herein, the concept of Key Risk Indicator (KRI) is proposed, which assesses risk exposures using hybrid indicators. Seven metrics are shortlisted as the basic indicators in KRI, with evaluation in terms of risk behaviour, risk avoidance, and risk margin. A typical real-world chain-collision accident and its antecedent (pre-crash) road traffic movements are retrieved from surveillance video footage, and a grid remapping method is proposed for data extraction and coordinates transformation...
May 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Zhirui Ye, Yueru Xu, Dominique Lord
The investigation of relationships between traffic crashes and relevant factors is important in traffic safety management. Various methods have been developed for modeling crash data. In real world scenarios, crash data often display the characteristics of over-dispersion. However, on occasions, some crash datasets have exhibited under-dispersion, especially in cases where the data are conditioned upon the mean. The commonly used models (such as the Poisson and the NB regression models) have associated limitations to cope with various degrees of dispersion...
May 11, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jinxian Weng, Gang Du, Dan Li, Yao Yu
This study aims to develop a time-varying mixed logit model for the vehicle merging behavior in work zone merging areas during the merging implementation period from the time of starting a merging maneuver to that of completing the maneuver. From the safety perspective, vehicle crash probability and severity between the merging vehicle and its surrounding vehicles are regarded as major factors influencing vehicle merging decisions. Model results show that the model with the use of vehicle crash risk probability and severity could provide higher prediction accuracy than previous models with the use of vehicle speeds and gap sizes...
May 10, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Yizhe Huang, Daniel Jian Sun, Li-Hui Zhang
Inappropriate cruising speed, such as speeding, is one of the major contributors to the road safety, which increases both the quantitative number and severity of traffic accidents. Previous studies have indicated that traffic congestion is one of the primary causes of drivers' frustration and aggression, which may lead to inappropriate speed choice. In this study, the large taxi floating car data (FCD) was used to empirically evaluate how traffic congestion-related negative moods, defined as state aggressiveness, affected drivers' speed choice...
May 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Chloe J Robbins, Harriet A Allen, Peter Chapman
Motorcyclists are involved in a disproportionate number of crashes given the distance they travel, with a high proportion of these crashes occurring at junctions. Despite car drivers being solely responsible for many road crashes involving a motorcycle, previous research has mostly focussed on understanding motorcyclists' attitudes towards their own safety. We compared car drivers' (n = 102) and motorcyclists' (n = 579) opinions about junction crashes using a web-based questionnaire. Motorcyclists and car drivers were recruited in similar ways so that responses could be directly compared, accessing respondents through driver/rider forums and on social media...
May 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Pilar Tejero, Beatriz Insa, Javier Roca
Would an increase in the default interletter spacing improve the legibility of words in traffic signs? Previous evidence on traffic sign design and recent studies on the cognitive processes involved in visual word recognition have provided conflicting results. The present work examined whether an increase in the default interletter spacing would improve the search of a word in direction traffic signs. To achieve this objective, twenty-two drivers participated in a driving simulation experiment. They followed a highway route and indicated whether a target place name was present among a set of distractors shown on direction traffic signs along the route...
May 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Samuel G Charlton, Nicola J Starkey, Neha Malhotra
The potential for using road markings to indicate speed limits was investigated in a driving simulator over the course of two sessions. Two types of experimental road markings, an "Attentional" set designed to provide visually distinct cues to indicate speed limits of 60, 80 and 100 km/h, and a "Perceptual" set designed to also affect drivers' perception of speed, were compared to a standard undifferentiated set of markings. Participants (n = 20 per group) were assigned to one of four experimental groups (Attentional-Explicit, Attentional-Implicit, Perceptual-Explicit, Perceptual-Implicit) or a Control group (n = 22; standard road markings)...
May 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Ahmed Farid, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Jaeyoung Lee
Safety performance functions (SPFs), statistical regression models, by predicting traffic crash counts by crash type, severity and facility type, aid traffic engineers in the process of identifying high frequency crash locations. Developing SPFs requires the collection and processing of traffic, crash, road design and other characteristics' data. Jurisdictional agencies may choose not to develop their own SPFs and cut back on their resources by adopting SPFs provided by the national Highway Safety Manual (HSM)...
May 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jwan Kamla, Tony Parry, Andrew Dawson
In order to reduce accident risk, highway authorities prioritise maintenance budgets partly based upon previous accident history. However, as accident rates have continued to fall, this approach has become problematic as accident 'black spots' have been treated and the number of accidents at any individual site has fallen, making previous accident history a less reliable indicator of future accident risk. Another way of identifying sites of higher accident risk might be to identify near-miss accidents (where an accident nearly happened but was avoided)...
May 5, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Fridulv Sagberg
Drivers or riders without a valid license are involved in 10% of fatal road crashes in Norway. This was shown by an analysis of data from all fatal crashes in the period 2005-2014. A literature review shows that unlicensed drivers have a considerably increased crash risk. Such crashes could be prevented by electronic driver authentication, i.e., a technical system for checking that a driver or rider has legal access to a vehicle before driving is permitted. This can be done by requiring the driver/rider to identify themselves with a national identity number and a unique code or biometric information before driving may commence...
May 5, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
James P Thompson, Matthew R J Baldock, Jeffrey K Dutschke
Research from the USA and Great Britain indicates that the number of fatal crashes (as well as the rates of crashes of all levels of injury and property damage) involving older drivers declined between approximately 1997 and 2010 despite increases in the number of older drivers on the road and in their driving exposure. Differing results have been found in Australian research with the number of older driver fatalities having been steady and even slightly increasing between 2004 and 2013. The present study further examined trends in the crash involvement of older drivers in Australia to determine whether their involvement has been increasing or decreasing, and how this compares to trends for younger aged drivers...
May 3, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Kui Yang, Rongjie Yu, Xuesong Wang, Mohammed Quddus, Lifang Xue
One of the proactive approaches in reducing traffic crashes is to identify hazardous traffic conditions that may lead to a traffic crash, known as real-time crash prediction. Threshold selection is one of the essential steps of real-time crash prediction. And it provides the cut-off point for the posterior probability which is used to separate potential crash warnings against normal traffic conditions, after the outcome of the probability of a crash occurring given a specific traffic condition on the basis of crash risk evaluation models...
May 1, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
C Ortiz, S Ortiz-Peregrina, J J Castro, M Casares-López, C Salas
This paper investigates the effect that texting with WhatsApp, one of the most common applications for instant messaging, exerts on driving performance. Because distracted driving also affects older drivers, who can have seriously compromised vision, we also analysed the associations between visual-function parameters and driving performance. A total of 75 drivers, experienced in sending WhatsApp messages (≥10WhatsApp messages/week), participated in this study and were divided into four age categories. Visual-function tests included contrast sensitivity with and without glare, retinal straylight and objective assessment of optical quality...
April 30, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Patrizia Hertach, Andrea Uhr, Steffen Niemann, Mario Cavegn
In Switzerland, the usage and accident numbers of e-bikes have strongly increased in recent years. According to official statistics, single-vehicle accidents constitute an important crash type. Up to date, very little is known about the mechanisms and causes of these crashes. To gain more insight, a survey was conducted among 3658 e-cyclists in 2016. The crash risk and injury severity were analysed using logistic regression models. 638 (17%) e-cyclists had experienced a single-vehicle accident in road traffic since the beginning of their e-bike use...
April 30, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Marianne R Day, Andrew R Thompson, Damian R Poulter, Christopher B Stride, Richard Rowe
Drivers are at high crash risk when they begin independent driving, with liability decreasing steeply over the first three months. Their behavioural development, and other changes underlying improved safety are not well understood. We adopted an innovative longitudinal qualitative design, with thirteen newly qualified drivers completing a total of 36 semi-structured interviews, one, two and three months after acquiring a full UK driving license. The interviews probed high-risk factors for new drivers, as well as allowing space for generating novel road safety issues...
April 28, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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