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Accident; Analysis and Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136559/determinants-of-pedestrian-and-bicyclist-crash-severity-by-party-at-fault-in-san-francisco-ca
#1
Deborah Salon, Andrew McIntyre
Pedestrian and bicyclist safety is of growing concern, especially given the increasing numbers of urban residents choosing to walk and bike. Sharing the roads with automobiles, these road users are particularly vulnerable. An intuitive conceptual model is proposed of the determinants of injury severity in crashes between vehicles and nonmotorized road users. Using 10 years of crash data from San Francisco, CA, we estimate logistic regression models to illuminate key determinants of crash severity for both pedestrian and bicyclist collisions...
November 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136558/autonomous-vehicles-disengagements-trends-triggers-and-regulatory-limitations
#2
Francesca Favarò, Sky Eurich, Nazanin Nader
Autonomous Vehicle (AV) technology is quickly becoming a reality on US roads. Testing on public roads is currently undergoing, with many AV makers located and testing in Silicon Valley, California. The California Department of Motor Vehicles (CA DMV) currently mandates that any vehicle tested on California public roads be retrofitted to account for a back-up human driver, and that data related to disengagements of the AV technology be publicly available. Disengagements data is analyzed in this work, given the safety-critical role of AV disengagements, which require the control of the vehicle to be handed back to the human driver in a safe and timely manner...
November 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131980/pedestrians-perception-and-response-towards-vehicles-during-road-crossing-at-nighttime
#3
Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Rahul Bhardwaj
Pedestrian being involved in road traffic accidents (RTA) is about 22% of all road traffic related deaths. In this study, we have estimated the pedestrian's response towards an approaching vehicle and the time taken to correctly recognize it while they crossed the road in dim-light nighttime conditions. This is also extendable to cycles and other low powered vehicles. Thirty volunteers participated in this study. A collection of six videos, which comprised of different vehicle scenarios were shown to each of the participants...
November 10, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127808/improving-autocoding-performance-of-rare-categories-in-injury-classification-is-more-training-data-or-filtering-the-solution
#4
Gaurav Nanda, Kirsten Vallmuur, Mark Lehto
INTRODUCTION: Classical Machine Learning (ML) models have been found to assign the external-cause-of-injury codes (E-codes) based on injury narratives with good overall accuracy but often struggle with rare categories, primarily due to lack of enough training cases and heavily skewed nature of injurdata. In this paper, we have: a) studied the effect of increasing the size of training data on the prediction performance of three classical ML models: Multinomial Naïve Bayes (MNB), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Logistic Regression (LR), and b) studied the effect of filtering based on prediction strength of LR model when the model is trained on very-small (10,000 cases) and very-large (450,000 cases) training sets...
November 8, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126462/prediction-of-drowsiness-events-in-night-shift-workers-during-morning-driving
#5
Yulan Liang, William J Horrey, Mark E Howard, Michael L Lee, Clare Anderson, Michael S Shreeve, Conor S O'Brien, Charles A Czeisler
The morning commute home is an especially vulnerable time for workers engaged in night shift work due to the heightened risk of experiencing drowsy driving. One strategy to manage this risk is to monitor the driver's state in real time using an in vehicle monitoring system and to alert drivers when they are becoming sleepy. The primary objective of this study is to build and evaluate predictive models for drowsiness events occurring in morning drives using a variety of physiological and performance data gathered under a real driving scenario...
November 7, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126022/the-impact-of-police-presence-on-angry-and-aggressive-driving
#6
Predrag Stanojević, Mark J M Sullman, Dragan Jovanović, Dragana Stanojević
An extensive body of research has found that angry and aggressive driving are both significantly related to crash involvement. There has also been a large body of research investigating the situational factors related to angry and aggressive driving, but one interesting question that has not yet been answered is whether the enforcement of traffic laws causes or reduces angry and aggressive driving. The independent region of Northern Kosovo represents a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of a lack of traffic enforcement on driving behaviour...
November 7, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126021/contributory-fault-and-level-of-personal-injury-to-drivers-involved-in-head-on-collisions-application-of-copula-based-bivariate-ordinal-models
#7
Behram Wali, Asad J Khattak, Jingjing Xu
The main objective of this study is to simultaneously investigate the degree of injury severity sustained by drivers involved in head-on collisions with respect to fault status designation. This is complicated to answer due to many issues, one of which is the potential presence of correlation between injury outcomes of drivers involved in the same head-on collision. To address this concern, we present seemingly unrelated bivariate ordered response models by analyzing the joint injury severity probability distribution of at-fault and not-at-fault drivers...
November 7, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112882/age-related-patterns-in-work-related-injury-claims-from-older-new-zealanders-2009-2013-implications-of-injury-for-an-aging-workforce
#8
Rebbecca Lilley, Chrystal Jaye, Gabrielle Davie, Sally Keeling, Debra Waters, Richard Egan
OBJECTIVES: This study describes the incidence, nature and cause of work-related injuries in older New Zealand workers to understand the risks of work-related injury in this rapidly aging population. METHODS: Data for the period 2009-2013 from 25,455 injured workers aged 55-79 years, extracted from national work-related injury entitlement claims, were stratified by age group and analysed by sex, industry, injury type and cause. Age-specific claims rates were calculated by year, sex and ethnicity...
November 4, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112881/safe-driving-climate-among-friends-sdcaf-a-new-scale
#9
Noga Guggenheim, Orit Taubman-Ben-Ari
Reckless driving among young people, especially young men, is a major cause of injury and fatalities the world over. Like other aspects of this age group, young drivers' driving behaviors and norms are influenced by the accepted social discourse of their peers. Yet despite extensive existing knowledge on young drivers, very few studies have dealt specifically with their characteristic friendship relations. This lacuna in the literature may reflect the absence of specific research tools for examining driving with friends...
November 4, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108641/editorial
#10
EDITORIAL
Magnus Hjälmdahl, Flavio Cunto, Maria Alice Prudêncio Jacques
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107858/effects-of-a-penalty-point-system-on-traffic-violations
#11
Fridulv Sagberg, Rikke Ingebrigtsen
We analysed data from the Norwegian driver's licence penalty point register over a three-year period, in order to investigate whether the number of incurred penalty points in a given time period can predict the probability of incurring additional points in the subsequent period. Data for all category B drivers without penalty points at the start of the study period were included in the analyses. Norway's penalty point system implies that speeding and various other traffic violations result in two or three penalty points for full-license drivers and four or six points for probationary-license drivers...
November 3, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102714/graduated-driver-licensing-and-differential-deterrence-the-effect-of-license-type-on-intentions-to-violate-road-rules
#12
Brigitte Poirier, Etienne Blais, Camille Faubert
In keeping with the differential deterrence theory, this article assesses the moderating effect of license type on the relationship between social control and intention to violate road rules. More precisely, the article has two objectives: (1) to assess the effect of license type on intentions to infringe road rules; and (2) to pinpoint mechanisms of social control affecting intentions to violate road rules based on one's type of driver license (a restricted license or a full license). This effect is examined among a sample of 392 young drivers in the province of Quebec, Canada...
November 2, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101789/exploring-road-design-factors-influencing-tram-road-safety-melbourne-tram-driver-focus-groups
#13
Farhana Naznin, Graham Currie, David Logan
Melbourne, Australia has the largest tram/streetcar network in the world including the largest mixed traffic tram operating environment. Therefore, Melbourne tram drivers are responsible for controlling one of the heaviest vehicles on road ranging from shared tram lanes to exclusive tram lanes. In addition to different tram lane configurations, tram drivers need to follow different traffic signal phases at intersections including tram priority signals as well as need to serve passengers at various types of closely spaced tram stops...
November 1, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101788/virtual-testing-of-speed-reduction-schemes-on-urban-collector-roads
#14
Lorenzo Domenichini, Valentina Branzi, Monica Meocci
Urban collector roads are complex driving environments often encompassing both the mobility and the access road functions. In these conditions motorized traffic and vulnerable road users compete continually. Speed reduction measures may play a relevant role in these contexts, provided that such measures are also designed in compliance with the driver's capabilities and expectations. The paper describes a test procedure using driving simulation experiments, designed to evaluate the reconfiguration project of Via Pistoiese, an urban road collector located in Florence (Italy)...
October 28, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101787/how-safe-is-tuning-a-radio-using-the-radio-tuning-task-as-a-benchmark-for-distracted-driving
#15
Ja Young Lee, John D Lee, Jonas Bärgman, Joonbum Lee, Bryan Reimer
Drivers engage in non-driving tasks while driving, such as interactions entertainment systems. Studies have identified glance patterns related to such interactions, and manual radio tuning has been used as a reference task to set an upper bound on the acceptable demand of interactions. Consequently, some view the risk associated with radio tuning as defining the upper limit of glance measures associated with visual-manual in-vehicle activities. However, we have little knowledge about the actual degree of crash risk that radio tuning poses and, by extension, the risk of tasks that have similar glance patterns as the radio tuning task...
October 27, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102034/under-reporting-bicycle-accidents-to-police-in-the-cost-tu1101-international-survey-cross-country-comparisons-and-associated-factors
#16
D Shinar, P Valero-Mora, M van Strijp-Houtenbos, N Haworth, A Schramm, Guido De Bruyne, V Cavallo, J Chliaoutakis, J Dias, O E Ferraro, A Fyhri, A Hursa Sajatovic, K Kuklane, R Ledesma, O Mascarell, A Morandi, M Muser, D Otte, M Papadakaki, J Sanmartín, D Dulf, M Saplioglu, G Tzamalouka
Police crash reports are often the main source for official data in many countries. However, with the exception of fatal crashes, crashes are often underreported in a biased manner. Consequently, the countermeasures adopted according to them may be inefficient. In the case of bicycle crashes, this bias is most acute and it probably varies across countries, with some of them being more prone to reporting accidents to police than others. Assessing if this bias occurs and the size of it can be of great importance for evaluating the risks associated with bicycling...
October 26, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080470/young-drivers-and-their-cars-safe-and-sound-or-the-perfect-storm
#17
Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Bridie Scott-Parker
Consistent with the experiences in high-income countries, young drivers remain overrepresented in road trauma statistics in low- and middle-income countries. This article pursues the emerging interest of approaching the young driver problem from a systems thinking perspective in order to design and deliver robust countermeasures. Specifically, the focus of this paper is the cars driven by young drivers. The study of vehicles' characteristics and their interaction with driving behaviour is, more often than not, considered a minor concern when developing countermeasures in young drivers' safety not only in developed nations, but especially in developing nations...
October 25, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078983/an-analysis-of-escalator-related-injuries-in-metro-stations-in-china-2013-2015
#18
Yingying Xing, Sunanda Dissanayake, Jian Lu, Sijin Long, Yuexin Lou
In order to reduce the probability and severity of escalator-related injuries and enhance the safety of passengers, this study analyzed 950 escalator-related injuries in Guangzhou metro stations to identify the characteristics and the risk factors associated with escalator-related injuries in China. The data extracted from Management Information System of Guangzhou Metro covers the site and time of the accident, age and gender of the victims, escalator condition and injury information. The results from the statistical analysis indicated that the majority of the escalator-related injuries was caused by failing to stand firm (287 cases, 30...
October 24, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078073/detailed-assessment-of-pedestrian-ground-contact-injuries-observed-from-in-depth-accident-data
#19
Shi Shang, Dietmar Otte, Guibing Li, Ciaran Simms
Most pedestrians struck by vehicles receive injuries from contact with the vehicle and also from the subsequent ground contact. However, ground related pedestrian injuries have received little focus. This paper uses 1221 German pedestrian collision cases occurring between 2000 and 2015 to assess the distribution and risk factors for pedestrian ground related injuries. Results show that for MAIS 2, the ground accounted for 24% of cases, for MAIS 3 the ground accounted for 20% of cases and for MAIS 4-5, the ground accounted for 14% of cases...
October 24, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078072/development-of-a-lane-change-risk-index-using-vehicle-trajectory-data
#20
Hyunjin Park, Cheol Oh, Jaepil Moon, Seongho Kim
Surrogate safety measures (SSMs) have been widely used to evaluate crash potential, which is fundamental for the development of effective safety countermeasures. Unlike existing SSMs, which are mainly focused on the evaluation of longitudinal vehicle maneuvering leading to rear-end crashes, this study proposes a new method for estimating crash risk while a subject vehicle changes lanes, referred to as the lane change risk index (LCRI). A novel feature of the proposed methodology is its incorporation of the amount of exposure time to potential crash and the expected crash severity level by applying a fault tree analysis (FTA) to the evaluation framework...
October 24, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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