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Accident; Analysis and Prevention

Kyung Kate Hyun, Kyungsoo Jeong, Andre Tok, Stephen G Ritchie
Trucks have distinct driving characteristics in general traffic streams such as lower speeds and limitations in acceleration and deceleration. As a consequence, vehicles keep longer headways or frequently change lane when they follow a truck, which is expected to increase crash risk. This study introduces several traffic measures at the individual vehicle level to capture vehicle interactions between trucks and non-trucks and analyzed how the measures affect crash risk under different traffic conditions. The traffic measures were developed using headways obtained from Inductive Loop Detectors (ILDs)...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Xiaohua Zhao, Han Ding, Zhanzhou Lin, Jianming Ma, Jian Rong
Longitudinal speed reduction markings (LSRMs) are designed to alert drivers to an upcoming change in roadway geometry (e.g. direct connectors with smaller radii). In Beijing, LSRMs are usually installed on direct connectors of urban expressways. The objective of this paper is to examine the influence of LSRMs on vehicle operation and driver behavior, and evaluate the decelerating effectiveness of LSRMs on direct connectors with different radii. Empirical data were collected in a driving simulator, and indicators representing vehicle operation status and driving behavior were proposed...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
James P Thompson, Jamie R R Mackenzie, Jeffrey K Dutschke, Matthew R J Baldock, Simon J Raftery, John Wall
In-vehicle collision avoidance technology (CAT) has the potential to prevent crash involvement. In 2015, Transport for New South Wales undertook a trial of a Mobileye 560 CAT system that was installed in 34 government fleet vehicles for a period of seven months. The system provided headway monitoring, lane departure, forward collision and pedestrian collision warnings, using audio and visual alerts. The purpose of the trial was to determine whether the technology could change the driving behaviour of fleet vehicle drivers and improve their safety...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Claudio Gariazzo, Massimo Stafoggia, Silvia Bruzzone, Armando Pelliccioni, Francesco Forastiere
Use of mobile phones while driving is known to cause crashes with possible fatalities. Different habits of mobile phone use might be distracting forces and display differential impacts on accident risk; the assessment of the relative importance is relevant to implement prevention, mitigation, and control measures. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the use of mobile phones at population level and road crash fatalities in large urban areas. Data on road crashes with fatalities were collected from seven Italian metropolitan areas and matched in time and space with high resolution mobile phone traffic volume data about calls, texts, Internet connections and upload/download data...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Hal S Stern, Daniel Blower, Michael L Cohen, Charles A Czeisler, David F Dinges, Joel B Greenhouse, Feng Guo, Richard J Hanowski, Natalie P Hartenbaum, Gerald P Krueger, Melissa M Mallis, Richard F Pain, Matthew Rizzo, Esha Sinha, Dylan S Small, Elizabeth A Stuart, David H Wegman
This article summarizes the recommendations on data and methodology issues for studying commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue of a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine study. A framework is provided that identifies the various factors affecting driver fatigue and relating driver fatigue to crash risk and long-term driver health. The relevant factors include characteristics of the driver, vehicle, carrier and environment. Limitations of existing data are considered and potential sources of additional data described...
March 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Steven M Lavrenz, Eleni I Vlahogianni, Konstantina Gkritza, Yue Ke
The use of statistical models for analyzing traffic safety (crash) data has been well-established. However, time series techniques have traditionally been underrepresented in the corresponding literature, due to challenges in data collection, along with a limited knowledge of proper methodology. In recent years, new types of high-resolution traffic safety data, especially in measuring driver behavior, have made time series modeling techniques an increasingly salient topic of study. Yet there remains a dearth of information to guide analysts in their use...
March 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jonathan J Rolison, Shirley Regev, Salissou Moutari, Aidan Feeney
What are the main contributing factors to road accidents? Factors such as inexperience, lack of skill, and risk-taking behaviors have been associated with the collisions of young drivers. In contrast, visual, cognitive, and mobility impairment have been associated with the collisions of older drivers. We investigated the main causes of road accidents by drawing on multiple sources: expert views of police officers, lay views of the driving public, and official road accident records. In Studies 1 and 2, police officers and the public were asked about the typical causes of road traffic collisions using hypothetical accident scenarios...
March 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Lixin Jiang, Tahira M Probst, Wendi Benson, Jesse Byrd
Recent years have witnessed a staggeringly high number of workplace aggressive behaviors as well as employee accidents and injuries. Exposure to workplace aggression is associated with a host of negative psychological, emotional, and physiological outcomes, yet research relating workplace aggression to employee safety outcomes is lacking. This study aims to examine the association between exposure to workplace physical and verbal aggression with workplace injuries and underreporting of accidents and near misses...
March 5, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Kaarin J Anstey, Ranmalee Eramudugolla, Kim M Kiely, Jasmine Price
AIM: We evaluated the effectiveness of individually tailored driving lessons compared with a road rules refresher course for improving older driver safety. METHODS: Two arm parallel randomised controlled trial, involving current drivers aged 65 and older (Mean age 72.0, 47.4% male) residing in Canberra, Australia. The intervention group (n = 28) received a two-hour class-based road rules refresher course, and two one-hour driving lessons tailored to improve poor driving skills and habits identified in a baseline on-road assessment...
March 5, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Yuqing Wu, Linda Ng Boyle, Daniel V McGehee
There are reasons why the driver's foot may not be applied to the correct pedal while driving and this can lead to unintended consequences. In this study, we seek to capture common and unique patterns of variations in drivers' foot movements using functional principal components analysis (FPCA). This analysis technique was used to analyze three categories of pedal response types (direct hits, corrected trajectories, and pedal errors) based on the various foot to pedal trajectories. Data from a driving simulator study with video data of foot movements for 45 drivers was used for analyses...
March 1, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Loukas Dimitriou, Katerina Stylianou, Mohamed A Abdel-Aty
Rear-end crashes are one of the most frequently occurring crash types, especially in urban networks. An understanding of the contributing factors and their significant association with rear-end crashes is of practical importance and will help in the development of effective countermeasures. The objective of this study is to assess rear-end crash potential at a microscopic level in an urban environment, by investigating vehicle-by-vehicle interactions. To do so, several traffic parameters at the individual vehicle level have been taken into consideration, for capturing car-following characteristics and vehicle interactions, and to investigate their effect on potential rear-end crashes...
March 1, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Līva Ābele, Sonja Haustein, Mette Møller, Laila M Martinussen
Young male drivers have lower hazard perception skills (HPS) than older and more experienced drivers and a tendency to overestimate their skills in hazardous situations. Both factors contribute to an over-representation in traffic accidents. Based on a sample of 63 drivers aged 18-24, this study compares the consistency of HPS measured by objective and subjective measures and the link between these measures is the key contribution of the study. Both visible and hidden hazards are included. Objective measures of HPS include responsiveness and eye movements while driving in a driving simulator...
March 1, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Malgorzata Zalesinska
A proper visual performance by drivers can be ensured by, among else, a correct distribution of luminance in their field of view. At night, when the driver's sight is adapted to low luminance levels, high luminance level objects located near the road may be a source of glare, which is not only a nuisance, but it may also blind the driver. For many years, LED billboards (light-emitting diode billboards) have been installed near roads. Such billboards are usually large, have high luminance and show dynamically changing images...
February 28, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Yueng-Hsiang Huang, Robert R Sinclair, Jin Lee, Anna C McFadden, Janelle H Cheung, Lauren A Murphy
This study examines the distinct contribution of supervisory safety communication and its interaction with safety climate in the prediction of safety performance and objective safety outcomes. Supervisory safety communication is defined as subordinates' perceptions of the extent to which their supervisor provides them with relevant safety information about their job (i.e., top-down communication) and the extent to which they feel comfortable discussing safety issues with their supervisor (i.e., bottom-up communication)...
February 27, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Xiaomei Zhao, Qian Li, Dongfan Xie, Jun Bi, Rongqin Lu, Chao Li
The paper aimed to explore the relationship between risks and individuals' driving states and then design an efficient method to help drivers avoid high risks. The relationship between risks and individuals' driving states was deeply studied first. Microscopic driving states were categorized into different clusters, and it was found that the risks are distinct in different clusters and a specific driver might experience different risks in car-following process. Then, according to these findings, a risk warning strategy was designed to help drivers avoid high risks...
February 26, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Meng Zhang, Asad J Khattak, Jun Liu, David Clarke
Rail-trespassing crashes that involve various levels of injuries to pedestrians are under-researched. Rail trespassing could occur at crossings where pedestrians are present at the wrong time and at non-crossings where pedestrians are not legally allowed to be present. This paper presents a comparative study examining rail-trespassing crashes in two contexts: highway-rail grade crossings vs. non-crossings. How pre-crash trespassing behaviors and other factors (e.g., crash time, locations, and socio-demographics) differ between grade crossings and non-crossings are explored...
February 26, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Grigorios Fountas, Md Tawfiq Sarwar, Panagiotis Ch Anastasopoulos, Alan Blatt, Kevin Majka
Traditional accident analysis typically explores non-time-varying (stationary) factors that affect accident occurrence on roadway segments. However, the impact of time-varying (dynamic) factors is not thoroughly investigated. This paper seeks to simultaneously identify pre-crash stationary and dynamic factors of accident occurrence, while accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. Using highly disaggregate information for the potential dynamic factors, and aggregate data for the traditional stationary elements, a dynamic binary random parameters (mixed) logit framework is employed...
February 26, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Carol A C Flannagan, András Bálint, Kathleen D Klinich, Ulrich Sander, Miriam A Manary, Sophie Cuny, Michael McCarthy, Vuthy Phan, Caroline Wallbank, Paul E Green, Bo Sui, Åsa Forsman, Helen Fagerlind
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the hypotheses that passenger vehicles meeting European Union (EU) safety standards have similar crashworthiness to United States (US) -regulated vehicles in the US driving environment, and vice versa. METHODS: The first step involved identifying appropriate databases of US and EU crashes that include in-depth crash information, such as estimation of crash severity using Delta-V and injury outcome based on medical records. The next step was to harmonize variable definitions and sampling criteria so that the EU data could be combined and compared to the US data using the same or equivalent parameters...
February 23, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jeffrey R Brubacher, Herbert Chan, Shannon Erdelyi, Mark Asbridge, Robert E Mann, Roy A Purssell, Robert Solomon
INTRODUCTION: Most countries have laws against driving while impaired by drugs. However, in many countries, including Canada and the United States, police must have individualized suspicion that the driver has recently used an impairing substance before they can gather the evidence required for laying a criminal charge. This report studies police documentation of drug involvement among drivers who had a motor-vehicle crash after using an impairing substance. METHODS: We obtained blood samples and police reports on injured drivers treated in participating British Columbia trauma centres following a crash...
February 23, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Linus H R H Zeuwts, Greet Cardon, Frederik J A Deconinck, Matthieu Lenoir
INTRODUCTION: Even though child bicyclists are highly vulnerable in traffic only few studies focused on providing child bicyclists with means to enhance their abilities to deal with the complexity of dynamic traffic situations. The current study therefore evaluated whether a brief hazard perception intervention might be effective to improve hazard perception skills in child bicyclists towards a level more comparable to adult bicyclists. METHODS: Eighty children of the fourth grade (9...
February 22, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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