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Accident; Analysis and Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531644/safety-evaluation-of-driver-cognitive-failures-and-driving-errors-on-right-turn-filtering-movement-at-signalized-road-intersections-based-on-fuzzy-cellular-automata-fca-model
#1
Chen Chai, Yiik Diew Wong, Xuesong Wang
This paper proposes a simulation-based approach to estimate safety impact of driver cognitive failures and driving errors. Fuzzy Logic, which involves linguistic terms and uncertainty, is incorporated with Cellular Automata model to simulate decision-making process of right-turn filtering movement at signalized intersections. Simulation experiments are conducted to estimate the relationships between cognitive failures and driving errors with safety performance. Simulation results show Different types of cognitive failures are found to have varied relationship with driving errors and safety performance...
May 19, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527411/trends-in-reports-of-driving-following-illicit-drug-consumption-among-regular-drug-users-in-australia-2007-2013-has-random-roadside-drug-testing-had-a-deterrent-effect
#2
Danielle Horyniak, Paul Dietze, Simon Lenton, Rosa Alati, Raimondo Bruno, Allison Matthews, Courtney Breen, Lucy Burns
INTRODUCTION: Driving following illicit drug consumption ('drug-driving') is a potential road safety risk. Roadside drug testing (RDT) is conducted across Australia with the dual aims of prosecuting drivers with drugs in their system and deterring drug-driving. We examined trends over time in self-reported past six-month drug-driving among sentinel samples of regular drug users and assessed the impact of experiences of RDT on drug-driving among these participants. METHODS: Data from 1913 people who inject drugs (PWID) and 3140 regular psychostimulant users (RPU) who were first-time participants in a series of repeat cross-sectional sentinel studies conducted in Australian capital cities from 2007 to 2013 and reported driving in the past six months were analysed...
May 17, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506403/an-on-road-study-of-sleepiness-in-split-shifts-among-city-bus-drivers
#3
Anna Anund, Carina Fors, Jonas Ihlström, Göran Kecklund
Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers. The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation)...
May 12, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500990/evaluating-the-safety-impact-of-adaptive-cruise-control-in-traffic-oscillations-on-freeways
#4
Ye Li, Zhibin Li, Hao Wang, Wei Wang, Lu Xing
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) has been considered one of the critical components of automated driving. ACC adjusts vehicle speeds automatically by measuring the status of the ego-vehicle and leading vehicle. Current commercial ACCs are designed to be comfortable and convenient driving systems. Little attention is paid to the safety impacts of ACC, especially in traffic oscillations when crash risks are the highest. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of ACC parameter settings on rear-end collisions on freeways...
May 10, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499141/can-vehicle-longitudinal-jerk-be-used-to-identify-aggressive-drivers-an-examination-using-naturalistic-driving-data
#5
Fred Feng, Shan Bao, James R Sayer, Carol Flannagan, Michael Manser, Robert Wunderlich
This paper investigated the characteristics of vehicle longitudinal jerk (change rate of acceleration with respect to time) by using vehicle sensor data from an existing naturalistic driving study. The main objective was to examine whether vehicle jerk contains useful information that could be potentially used to identify aggressive drivers. Initial investigation showed that there are unique characteristics of vehicle jerk in drivers' gas and brake pedal operations. Thus two jerk-based metrics were examined: (1) driver's frequency of using large positive jerk when pressing the gas pedal, and (2) driver's frequency of using large negative jerk when pressing the brake pedal...
May 9, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499140/is-vehicle-automation-enough-to-prevent-crashes-role-of-traffic-operations-in-automated-driving-environments-for-traffic-safety
#6
Eunbi Jeong, Cheol Oh, Seolyoung Lee
Automated driving systems (ADSs) are expected to prevent traffic accidents caused by driver carelessness on freeways. There is no doubt regarding this safety benefit if all vehicles in the transportation system were equipped with ADSs; however, it is implausible to expect that ADSs will reach 100% market penetration rate (MPR) in the near future. Therefore, the following question arises: 'Can ADSs, which consider only situations in the vicinity of an equipped vehicle, really contribute to a significant reduction in traffic accidents?' To address this issue, the interactions between equipped and unequipped vehicles must be investigated, which is the purpose of this study...
May 9, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494260/examination-of-the-reliability-of-the-crash-modification-factors-using-empirical-bayes-method-with-resampling-technique
#7
Jung-Han Wang, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Ling Wang
There have been plenty of studies intended to use different methods, for example, empirical Bayes before-after methods, to get accurate estimation of CMFs. All of them have different assumptions toward crash count if there was no treatment. Additionally, another major assumption is that multiple sites share the same true CMF. Under this assumption, the CMF at an individual intersection is randomly drawn from a normally distributed population of CMFs at all intersections. Since CMFs are non-zero values, the population of all CMFs might not follow normal distributions, and even if it does, the true mean of CMFs at some intersections may be different from that at others...
May 8, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494258/stress-related-psychosocial-factors-at-work-fatigue-and-risky-driving-behavior-in-bus-rapid-transport-brt-drivers
#8
Sergio A Useche, Viviola Gómez Ortiz, Boris E Cendales
INTRODUCTION: There is consistent scientific evidence that professional drivers constitute an occupational group that is highly exposed to work related stressors. Furthermore, several recent studies associate work stress and fatigue with unsafe and counterproductive work behaviors. This study examines the association between stress-related work conditions of Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) drivers and risky driving behaviors; and examines whether fatigue is a mechanism that mediates the association between the two...
May 8, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494259/mechanisms-underlying-cognitive-conspicuity-in-the-detection-of-cyclists-by-car-drivers
#9
Joceline Rogé, Daniel Ndiaye, Isabelle Aillerie, Stéphane Aillerie, Jordan Navarro, Fabrice Vienne
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the visibility of cyclists for motorists in a simulated car driving task. BACKGROUND: In several cases involving collisions between cars and cyclists, car drivers failed to detect the latter in time to avoid collision because of their low conspicuity. METHOD: 2 groups of motorists (29.2 years old), including 12 cyclist-motorists and 13 non-cyclist-motorists, performed a vulnerable road user detection task in a car-driving simulator...
May 7, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486151/causal-inference-framework-for-generalizable-safety-effect-estimates
#10
Jonathan S Wood, Eric T Donnell
This study integrates a causal inference framework to the Empirical Bayes (EB) before-after method to develop generalizable safety effect estimates (i.e., crash modification factor (CMF)). The method considers approaches to estimate the average treatment effect for the treated (ATT), average treatment effect for the untreated (ATU), and average treatment effect (ATE). The current EB method is shown to estimate ATT while ATE is what is typically desired in traffic safety research. Modifications to the current EB method to estimate ATU and ATE are provided...
May 6, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486150/the-effects-of-lane-width-shoulder-width-and-road-cross-sectional-reallocation-on-drivers-behavioral-adaptations
#11
Sami Mecheri, Florence Rosey, Régis Lobjois
Previous research has shown that lane-width reduction makes drivers operate vehicles closer to the center of the road whereas hard-shoulder widening induces a position farther away from the road's center. The goal of the present driving-simulator study was twofold. First, it was aimed at further investigating the respective effects of lane and shoulder width on in-lane positioning strategies, by examining vehicle distance from the center of the lane. The second aim was to assess the impact on safety of three possible cross-sectional reallocations of the width of the road (i...
May 6, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482179/safety-analytics-for-integrating-crash-frequency-and-real-time-risk-modeling-for-expressways
#12
Ling Wang, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Jaeyoung Lee
To find crash contributing factors, there have been numerous crash frequency and real-time safety studies, but such studies have been conducted independently. Until this point, no researcher has simultaneously analyzed crash frequency and real-time crash risk to test whether integrating them could better explain crash occurrence. Therefore, this study aims at integrating crash frequency and real-time safety analyses using expressway data. A Bayesian integrated model and a non-integrated model were built: the integrated model linked the crash frequency and the real-time models by adding the logarithm of the estimated expected crash frequency in the real-time model; the non-integrated model independently estimated the crash frequency and the real-time crash risk...
May 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482178/a-simulator-based-analysis-of-engineering-treatments-for-right-hook-bicycle-crashes-at-signalized-intersections
#13
Jennifer Warner, David S Hurwitz, Christopher M Monsere, Kayla Fleskes
A right-hook crash is a crash between a right-turning motor vehicle and an adjacent through-moving bicycle. At signalized intersections, these crashes can occur during any portion of the green interval when conflicting bicycles and vehicles are moving concurrently. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of four types of engineering countermeasures - regulatory signage, intersection pavement marking, smaller curb radius, and protected intersection design - at modifying driver behaviors that are known contributing factors in these crashes...
May 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482177/-outta-my-way-individual-and-environmental-correlates-of-interactions-between-pedestrians-and-vehicles-during-street-crossings
#14
Marie-Soleil Cloutier, Ugo Lachapelle, Andrée-Anne d'Amours-Ouellet, Jacques Bergeron, Sébastien Lord, Juan Torres
Because pedestrian crash rates remain lower than other collision types, surrogate measures such as traffic interactions are now used in road safety research to complement crash history. Using naturalistic data collection, we sought to assess 1) the likelihood of occurrence of interactions between pedestrians and vehicles based on individual and crossing characteristics; and 2) differences in interaction characteristics between children, adult and senior pedestrians. Observations of pedestrian crossing behaviours (n=4687) were recorded at 278 crossings...
May 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463691/evaluating-public-education-messages-aimed-at-monitoring-and-responding-to-social-interactive-technology-on-smartphones-among-young-drivers
#15
Cassandra S Gauld, Ioni Lewis, Katherine M White, Judy J Fleiter, Barry Watson
Young drivers are more likely than any other age group to access social interactive technology (e.g., Facebook, E-mail) on a smartphone while driving. The current study formed part of a larger investigation and was guided by The Step Approach to Message Design and Testing (SatMDT) to evaluate the relative effectiveness of three different public education messages aimed at reducing smartphone use among young drivers. The messages were each adapted to the specific behaviours of monitoring/reading and responding to social interactive technology on smartphones...
April 29, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458017/adolescent-and-adult-drivers-mobile-phone-use-while-driving-with-different-interlocutors
#16
Jessica H Mirman, Dennis R Durbin, Yi-Ching Lee, Sara J Seifert
PURPOSE: We examined the frequency of adolescents' and their parents' mobile phone use while driving (MPUWD) in the context of their peer and parent-child interlocutors (i.e., communication partners), considering individual differences in perceived risk and symptoms of technology addiction. METHODS: Ninety-four participants (47 parent-adolescent dyads) completed a survey battery measuring their symptoms of technology addiction, perceived risk of MPUWD, and MPUWD with family members and with their peers as assessed via the proportion of trips when drivers used a mobile phone to communicate...
April 27, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448790/drinking-and-driving-behavior-at-stop-signs-and-red-lights
#17
Jingyan Wan, Changxu Wu, Yiqi Zhang, Rebecca J Houston, Chang Wen Chen, Panya Chanawangsa
Alcohol is one of the principal risk factors for motor vehicle crashes. One factor that contributes to vehicle crashes is noncompliance with stop signs and red lights. The present experiment investigated the effects of alcohol and drinking patterns on driving behavior at stop signs and red lights. 28 participants participated in drinking and simulated driving sessions during which they received a moderate dose of alcohol (0.08% BAC) or a placebo. Simulated driving tasks measured participants' driving performance at stop signs and red lights in response to each dose...
April 24, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441520/age-gender-and-deterrability-are-younger-male-drivers-more-likely-to-discount-the-future
#18
James Freeman, Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Verity Truelove, Jeremy Davey
Utilizing the Classical Deterrence theory and Stafford and Warr's (1993) reconceptualized model of deterrence, the current study examined whether age, gender, and discounting the future tendencies influence perceptions of being apprehended for speeding offences. Licensed motorists (N=700; 57% female) in Queensland (Australia) were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire that measured perceptual deterrence, speeding related behaviors and discounting the future tendencies. Data were analyzed utilizing descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regressions...
April 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441517/mild-cognitive-impairment-and-driving-does-in-vehicle-distraction-affect-driving-performance
#19
Ion N Beratis, Dimosthenis Pavlou, Eleonora Papadimitriou, Nikolaos Andronas, Dionysia Kontaxopoulou, Stella Fragkiadaki, George Yannis, Sokratis G Papageorgiou
OBJECTIVES: In-vehicle distraction is considered to be an important cause of road accidents. Drivers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), because of their attenuated cognitive resources, may be vulnerable to the effects of distraction; however, previous relevant research is lacking. The main objective of the current study was to explore the effect of in-vehicle distraction on the driving performance of MCI patients, by assessing their reaction time at unexpected incidents and accident probability...
April 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433773/who-s-calling-social-networks-and-mobile-phone-use-among-motorcyclists
#20
Chris De Gruyter, Long T Truong, Hang T T Nguyen
Mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle poses a key safety risk, particularly among younger people who have been found to be more susceptible to distracted driving. While previous research has examined the influence of social networks on mobile phone use while driving a car, no research has explored this association in the context of motorcycle use. Using a survey of university students in Vietnam, this research explores the association between social networks and mobile phone use among motorcyclists and the links this has to reported crashes/falls...
April 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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