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Accident; Analysis and Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651146/the-effects-of-drinking-and-driving-laws-on-car-crashes-injuries-and-deaths-evidence-from-chile
#1
Sebastián Otero, Tomás Rau
This paper analyzes the effects of lowering the legal blood alcohol content limit for drivers from 0.05 to 0.03 grams of alcohol per deciliter of blood (g/dL) and increasing license suspension periods for offenders. We take advantage of a rich data set of administrative records that allow us to identify direct measures of accidents involving alcohol including fatalities and injuries. Results show a significant decrease of 32% in alcohol-related car accidents right after the law was approved but the effects moderate over time (15% after three years)...
June 23, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647486/geographically-weighted-negative-binomial-regression-applied-to-zonal-level-safety-performance-models
#2
Marcos José Timbó Lima Gomes, Flávio Cunto, Alan Ricardo Silva
Generalized Linear Models (GLM) with negative binomial distribution for errors, have been widely used to estimate safety at the level of transportation planning. The limited ability of this technique to take spatial effects into account can be overcome through the use of local models from spatial regression techniques, such as Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR). Although GWPR is a system that deals with spatial dependency and heterogeneity and has already been used in some road safety studies at the planning level, it fails to account for the possible overdispersion that can be found in the observations on road-traffic crashes...
June 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646734/investigating-articulated-heavy-vehicle-crashes-in-western-australia-using-a-spatial-approach
#3
Ori Gudes, Richard Varhol, Qian Chayn Sun, Lynn Meuleners
BACKGROUND: Recent developments in Western Australia's economy including widespread traffic congestion as well as road safety issues are increasingly becoming prominent. Previous studies relied on traditional statistical methods to investigate patterns and characteristics of motor vehicle crashes. Although useful, statistical analysis alone is incapable of providing a spatial context and is therefore unable to associate existing crash characteristics with a spatial distribution. AIMS: To identify concentrations or "hotspots" of articulated heavy vehicle crashes in WA between the years 2001-2013, by using a spatial analysis approach...
June 21, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645020/do-we-see-how-they-perceive-risk-an-integrated-analysis-of-risk-perception-and-its-effect-on-workplace-safety-behavior
#4
Nini Xia, Xueqing Wang, Mark A Griffin, Chunlin Wu, Bingsheng Liu
While risk perception is a key factor influencing safety behavior, the academia lacks specific attention to the ways that workers perceive risk, and thus little is known about the mechanisms through which different risk perceptions influence safety behavior. Most previous research in the workplace safety domain argues that people tend to perceive risk based on rational formulations of risk criticality. However, individuals' emotions can be also useful in understanding their perceptions. Therefore, this research employs an integrated analysis concerning the rational and emotional perspectives...
June 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645019/using-network-screening-methods-to-determine-locations-with-specific-safety-issues-a-design-consistency-case-study
#5
Andrew J Butsick, Jonathan S Wood, Paul P Jovanis
The Highway Safety Manual provides multiple methods that can be used to identify sites with promise (SWiPs) for safety improvement. However, most of these methods cannot be used to identify sites with specific problems. Furthermore, given that infrastructure funding is often specified for use related to specific problems/programs, a method for identifying SWiPs related to those programs would be very useful. This research establishes a method for Identifying SWiPs with specific issues. This is accomplished using two safety performance functions (SPFs)...
June 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645018/take-over-performance-in-evasive-manoeuvres
#6
Riender Happee, Christian Gold, Jonas Radlmayr, Sebastian Hergeth, Klaus Bengler
We investigated after effects of automation in take-over scenarios in a high-end moving-base driving simulator. Drivers performed evasive manoeuvres encountering a blocked lane in highway driving. We compared the performance of drivers 1) during manual driving, 2) after automated driving with eyes on the road while performing the cognitively demanding n-back task, and 3) after automated driving with eyes off the road performing the visually demanding SuRT task. Both minimum time to collision (TTC) and minimum clearance towards the obstacle disclosed a substantial number of near miss events and are regarded as valuable surrogate safety metrics in evasive manoeuvres...
June 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641090/injunctive-safety-norms-young-worker-risk-taking-behaviors-and-workplace-injuries
#7
Simon Pek, Nick Turner, Sean Tucker, E Kevin Kelloway, Jayne Morrish
Injunctive safety norms (ISNs) refer to perceptions of others' expectations of one's safety-related conduct. Drawing on a sample of Canadian young workers (n=11,986;M age=17.90years; 55% males), we study the relationships among four sources of non-work-related (i.e., parents, siblings, friends, teachers), two sources of work-related (i.e., supervisors, co-workers) ISNs, young workers' self-reported work-related risk-taking behaviors, and workplace injuries. Structural equation modeling suggests that ISNs from parents, supervisors, and co-workers were related to less frequent work-related risk-taking behaviors, and with fewer workplace injuries via less frequent work-related risk-taking behaviors...
June 19, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628811/evaluating-pedestrian-behavior-at-crosswalks-validation-of-a-pedestrian-behavior-questionnaire-for-the-u-s-population
#8
Shuchisnigdha Deb, Lesley Strawderman, Janice DuBien, Brian Smith, Daniel W Carruth, Teena M Garrison
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a self-reporting Pedestrian Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ) for the U.S. population to measure frequency of risky behaviors among pedestrians. The PBQ includes 50 survey items that allow respondents to rate the frequency with which they engage in different types of road-using behaviors as pedestrians. The validation study was conducted on 425 participants (228 males and 197 females) between the ages of 18 and 71. Confirmatory factor analysis differentiated pedestrian behaviors into five factor categories: violations, errors, lapses, aggressive behaviors, and positive behaviors...
June 16, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624072/violent-events-on-the-road-risk-perception-of-traffic-related-and-non-traffic-related-situations
#9
Lilian de Oliveira Vilela da Silva, Marilita Gnecco de Camargo Braga
This study aimed at identifying and comparing subjective risk perception regarding two different violent situations in urban roads: traffic accidents (i.e. crashes) and robberies. A robbery consists of subtracting something from someone, while seriously threatening the victim, or using violence. Robberies can be perpetrated either with or without the use of a weapon. This study was carried out in the city of Uberlândia, a medium size city in the state of Minas Gerais, south-east Brazil. A total of 383 people was interviewed at home in two boroughs of Uberlândia, using a questionnaire divided in five parts: a) personal information; b) description of crash involvement; c) description of robbery involvement; d) the chance of being involved in a crash and in a robbery within the next three years; e) willingness to pay for more safety in traffic or for more security against robberies; f) what causes more damage or harm to society, crashes or robberies...
June 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623749/evaluating-the-safety-in-numbers-effect-for-pedestrians-at-urban-intersections
#10
Brendan Murphy, David M Levinson, Andrew Owen
Assessment of collision risk between pedestrians and automobiles offers a powerful and informative tool in urban planning applications, and can be leveraged to inform proper placement of improvements and treatment projects to improve pedestrian safety. Such assessment can be performed using existing datasets of crashes, pedestrian counts, and automobile traffic flows to identify intersections or corridors characterized by elevated collision risks to pedestrians. The Safety In Numbers phenomenon, which refers to the observable effect that pedestrian safety is positively correlated with increased pedestrian traffic in a given area (i...
June 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623748/occupant-thorax-response-variations-due-to-arm-position-and-restraint-systems-in-side-impact-crash-scenarios
#11
Donata Gierczycka, Duane S Cronin
Recent epidemiological studies have identified that thoracic side airbags may vary in efficacy to reduce injury severity in side impact crash scenarios, while previous experimental and epidemiological studies have presented contrasting results. This study aimed to quantify the variations in occupant response in side impact conditions using a human body computational model integrated with a full vehicle model. The model was analyzed for a Moving Deformable Barrier side impact at 61km/h to assess two pre-crash arm positions, the incorporation of a seatbelt, and a thorax air bag on thorax response...
June 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622848/average-male-and-female-virtual-dummy-model-biorid-and-evarid-simulations-with-two-seat-concepts-in-the-euro-ncap-low-severity-rear-impact-test-configuration
#12
Astrid Linder, Kristian Holmqvist, Mats Y Svensson
Soft tissue neck injuries, also referred to as whiplash injuries, which can lead to long term suffering accounts for more than 60% of the cost of all injuries leading to permanent medical impairment for the insurance companies, with respect to injuries sustained in vehicle crashes. These injuries are sustained in all impact directions, however they are most common in rear impacts. Injury statistics have since the mid-1960s consistently shown that females are subject to a higher risk of sustaining this type of injury than males, on average twice the risk of injury...
June 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622590/can-evolutionary-theory-explain-the-slow-development-of-knowledge-about-the-level-of-safety-built-into-roads
#13
Rune Elvik
In several papers, Hauer (1988, 1989, 2000a, 2000b, 2016) has argued that the level of safety built into roads is unpremeditated, i.e. not the result of decisions based on knowledge of the safety impacts of design standards. Hauer has pointed out that the development of knowledge about the level of safety built into roads has been slow and remains incomplete even today. Based on these observations, this paper asks whether evolutionary theory can contribute to explaining the slow development of knowledge. A key proposition of evolutionary theory is that knowledge is discovered through a process of learning-by-doing; it is not necessarily produced intentionally by means of research or development...
June 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618354/canadian-drivers-attitudes-regarding-preventative-responses-to-driving-while-impaired-by-alcohol
#14
Ward Vanlaar, Louise Nadeau, Anna McKiernan, Marisela M Hing, Marie Claude Ouimet, Thomas G Brown
BACKGROUND: In many jurisdictions, a risk assessment following a first driving while impaired (DWI) offence is used to guide administrative decision making regarding driver relicensing. Decision error in this process has important consequences for public security on one hand, and the social and economic well being of drivers on the other. Decision theory posits that consideration of the costs and benefits of decision error is needed, and in the public health context, this should include community attitudes...
June 12, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618353/another-look-at-the-safety-effects-of-horizontal-curvature-on-rural-two-lane-highways
#15
Taha Saleem, Bhagwant Persaud
Crash Modification Factors (CMFs) are used to represent the effects on crashes of changes to highway design elements and are usually obtained from observational studies based on reported crashes. The design element of interest for this paper is horizontal curvature on rural 2-lane highways. The data for this study came from the Washington State database in the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS). Crash prediction models are developed for curve sections on rural 2-lane highway and the tangent sections up- and down-stream of the curve sections...
June 12, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609664/bicycle-vehicle-interactions-at-mid-sections-of-mixed-traffic-streets-examining-passing-distance-and-bicycle-comfort-perception
#16
Peter Apasnore, Karim Ismail, Ali Kassim
This paper studies the relevant factors in mixed urban traffic that may impact the lateral spacing between bicycles and vehicles (passing distance, PD), and their resulting effect on a bicyclists' comfort based on a study of six sites in Ottawa, Canada. The observations are: [i] the average position of bicycles from the curb is 0.57m, and lesser (i.e. 0.35m) in the presence of parking; [ii] 90% of passes exceed 1.23m; [iii] PD is positively correlated with motor vehicle speed, lane width, and bicycle position from adjacent curb edge line, whiles inversely correlated to ambient traffic density and bicycle speed; [iv] motor vehicle speed has the highest prediction of PD variability; [v] PD and ambient traffic density (ATD) are found to be the most important factors to a bicyclists' comfort perception (BCP)...
June 10, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605692/predictors-of-driving-outcomes-including-both-crash-involvement-and-driving-cessation-in-a-prospective-study-of-japanese-older-drivers
#17
Ritsu Kosuge, Kazuko Okamura, Makoto Kihira, Yukako Nakano, Goro Fujita
The first aim of this study was to investigate predictors of future traffic crash involvement, taking into account bias in the handling of data for former drivers. The second aim was to compare characteristics of former drivers and crash-involved drivers in order to gain an understanding of appropriate driving cessation among older drivers. In all, 154 drivers aged 70 years or older participated in the baseline interview and the follow-up survey conducted two years later. In the baseline interview, participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire, take the Useful Field of View test(®) (UFOV), and complete the Mini-Mental State Examination...
June 9, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601748/development-of-thoracic-injury-risk-functions-for-the-thor-atd
#18
Gerald S Poplin, Timothy L McMurry, Jason L Forman, Joseph Ash, Daniel P Parent, Matthew J Craig, Eric Song, Richard Kent, Greg Shaw, Jeff Crandall
The Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) aims to improve the ability to predict the risk of chest injury to restrained automobile occupants by measuring dynamic chest deflection at multiple locations. This research aimed to describe the methods for developing a thoracic injury risk function (IRF) using the multi-point chest deflection metrics from the 50th percentile male THOR Metric ATD with the SD-3 shoulder and associating to post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) outcomes that were matched on identical frontal and frontal-oblique impact sled testing conditions...
June 8, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601747/road-traffic-crash-risk-associated-with-prescription-of-hydroxyzine-and-other-sedating-h1-antihistamines-a-responsibility-and-case-crossover-study
#19
Ludivine Orriols, Audrey Luxcey, Benjamin Contrand, Anne Bénard-Laribière, Antoine Pariente, Blandine Gadegbeku, Emmanuel Lagarde
BACKGROUND: H1 antihistamines differ from each other by their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. The resulting sedating effect can be sought in therapy but may be a driving hazard. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of sedating H1-antihistamines on the risk of road traffic crash, with a particular focus on hydroxyzine which is also indicated as an anxiolytic in France. METHODS: The study consisted in extracting and matching data from three French nationwide databases: the national healthcare insurance database, police reports and the police national database of injurious crashes...
June 8, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600988/angry-thoughts-in-spanish-drivers-and-their-relationship-with-crash-related-events-the-mediation-effect-of-aggressive-and-risky-driving
#20
David Herrero-Fernández, Sara Fonseca-Baeza
Several studies have related aggressive and risky driving behaviours to accidents. However, the cognitive processes associated with driving aggression have received very little attention in the scientific literature. With the aim of shedding light on this topic, the present research was carried out on a sample of 414 participants in order to validate the Driver's Angry Thoughts Questionnaire (DATQ) with a sample of Spanish drivers and to test the hypothesis of the mediation effect of aggressive and risky driving on the relationship between drivers' angry thoughts and crash-related events...
June 7, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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