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Accident; Analysis and Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806612/pilots-using-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-compared-to-other-fatally-injured-pilots
#1
Paul Rogers, Christy Hileman, Guillermo Salazar, Kacey Cliburn, Lawrence Paskoff, William Hathaway, Kevin Gildea, Victor Hugo Tejera Villalaz
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) were a disqualifying medication for U.S. civil pilots before April 5, 2010. After this date, a Federal Aviation Administration policy was created that allowed airmen, on select SSRIs, a pathway to hold a valid medical certificate. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed look at SSRIs in the U.S. pilot population since the inception of this new policy. We examined the toxicology results from fatally injured airmen in addition to outcomes concerning pilots who are participating in the program...
August 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806611/automobile-dependency-as-a-barrier-to-vision-zero-evidence-from-the-states-in-the-usa
#2
Hamed Ahangari, Carol Atkinson-Palombo, Norman W Garrick
With a traffic fatality rate of 10.6 per 100,000 as of 2013-more than triple that in the UK, the Netherlands, and Sweden-the United States has the worst traffic safety performance of all developed countries. Statewide variations are even more pronounced. North Dakota registers more than twice the national average and five times the rate of Massachusetts. We used panel models and annual data from 1997 to 2013 to capture the effect of seven separate sets of factors that influence traffic safety: exposure, travel behavior, socioeconomics, macroeconomics, safety policies, and mitigating factors such as health care...
August 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803960/evaluating-impacts-of-different-longitudinal-driver-assistance-systems-on-reducing-multi-vehicle-rear-end-crashes-during-small-scale-inclement-weather
#3
Ye Li, Lu Xing, Wei Wang, Hao Wang, Changyin Dong, Shanwen Liu
Multi-vehicle rear-end (MVRE) crashes during small-scale inclement (SSI) weather cause high fatality rates on freeways, which cannot be solved by traditional speed limit strategies. This study aimed to reduce MVRE crash risks during SSI weather using different longitudinal driver assistance systems (LDAS). The impact factors on MVRE crashes during SSI weather were firstly analyzed. Then, four LDAS, including Forward collision warning (FCW), Autonomous emergency braking (AEB), Adaptive cruise control (ACC) and Cooperative ACC (CACC), were modeled based on a unified platform, the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM)...
August 9, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787612/glass-half-full-on-road-glance-metrics-differentiate-crashes-from-near-crashes-in-the-100-car-data
#4
Bobbie D Seppelt, Sean Seaman, Joonbum Lee, Linda S Angell, Bruce Mehler, Bryan Reimer
BACKGROUND: Much of the driver distraction and inattention work to date has focused on concerns over drivers removing their eyes from the forward roadway to perform non-driving-related tasks, and its demonstrable link to safety consequences when these glances are timed at inopportune moments. This extensive literature has established, through the analyses of glance from naturalistic datasets, a clear relationship between eyes-off-road, lead vehicle closing kinematics, and near-crash/crash involvement...
August 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783544/the-effects-of-licence-disqualification-on-drink-drivers-is-it-the-same-for-everyone
#5
A Watson, J Freeman, K Imberger, A J Filtness, H Wilson, D Healy, A Cavallo
Drink-driving remains a major road safety concern that creates a significant social burden. Licence disqualification continues to play a key role in drink driving deterrence and sanctions together with police enforcement to address the problem in most motorised countries. However, on-going questions remain regarding the differing effect of licence disqualification periods between first time and repeat offenders, and between other sub-groups of offenders. As a result, this study aimed to determine whether: (a) differences exist in re-offence rates of convicted drink-drivers between: the period between committing the drink-driving offence and licence disqualification (pre-licence disqualification), during the period of licence disqualification, and after being re-licensed (post-licence restoration); and (b) differential effects of offence rates are evident based on Blood Alcohol Content (BAC), gender, age, repeat offender status and crash involvement at the time of offence...
August 4, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778405/randomized-trials-and-self-reported-accidents-as-a-method-to-study-safety-enhancing-measures-for-cyclists-two-case-studies
#6
Harry Lahrmann, Tanja Kidholm Osmann Madsen, Anne Vingaard Olesen
A large number of studies show that high visibility in traffic is important in the struggle of getting the attention from other road users and thus an important safety factor. Cyclists have a much higher risk of being killed or injured in a traffic accident than car drivers so for them high visibility is particularly important. A number of studies have examined the effect of high visibility, such as reflective clothing, but most studies have been primitive, the data limited and the results very uncertain. In this paper we describe the safety impact of increased visibility of cyclists through two randomised controlled trials: permanent running lights on bicycles and a yellow bicycle jacket, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777970/identification-of-characteristics-and-frequent-scenarios-of-single-vehicle-rollover-crashes-during-pre-ballistic-phase-part-1-a-descriptive-study
#7
Taewung Kim, Dipan Bose, Jon Foster, Varun Bollapragada, Jeff R Crandall, Mark Clauser, Jason R Kerrigan
This study aimed to identify common patterns of pre-ballistic vehicle kinematics and roadway characteristics of real-world rollover crashes. Rollover crashes that were enrolled in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) between the years 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed to understand the characteristics of the pre-ballistic phase. Also, a frequency based pattern analysis was performed using a selection of NASS-CDS variables describing the pre-ballistic vehicle kinematics and roadway characteristics to rank common pathways of rollover crashes...
August 1, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764851/errors-in-accident-data-its-types-causes-and-methods-of-rectification-analysis-of-the-literature
#8
Ashar Ahmed, Ahmad Farhan Mohd Sadullah, Ahmad Shukri Yahya
Most of the decisions taken to improve road safety are based on accident data, which makes it the back bone of any country's road safety system. Errors in this data will lead to misidentification of black spots and hazardous road segments, projection of false estimates pertinent to accidents and fatality rates, and detection of wrong parameters responsible for accident occurrence, thereby making the entire road safety exercise ineffective. Its extent varies from country to country depending upon various factors...
July 29, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756314/incorporating-twitter-based-human-activity-information-in-spatial-analysis-of-crashes-in-urban-areas
#9
Jie Bao, Pan Liu, Hao Yu, Chengcheng Xu
The primary objective of this study was to investigate how to incorporate human activity information in spatial analysis of crashes in urban areas using Twitter check-in data. This study used the data collected from the City of Los Angeles in the United States to illustrate the procedure. The following five types of data were collected: crash data, human activity data, traditional traffic exposure variables, road network attributes and social-demographic data. A web crawler by Python was developed to collect the venue type information from the Twitter check-in data automatically...
July 27, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755536/using-fixed-parameter-and-random-parameter-ordered-regression-models-to-identify-significant-factors-that-affect-the-severity-of-drivers-injuries-in-vehicle-train-collisions
#10
Essam Dabbour, Said Easa, Murtaza Haider
This study attempts to identify significant factors that affect the severity of drivers' injuries when colliding with trains at railroad-grade crossings by analyzing the individual-specific heterogeneity related to those factors over a period of 15 years. Both fixed-parameter and random-parameter ordered regression models were used to analyze records of all vehicle-train collisions that occurred in the United States from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2015. For fixed-parameter ordered models, both probit and negative log-log link functions were used...
July 26, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753415/macro-level-vulnerable-road-users-crash-analysis-a-bayesian-joint-modeling-approach-of-frequency-and-proportion
#11
Qing Cai, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Jaeyoung Lee
This study aims at contributing to the literature on pedestrian and bicyclist safety by building on the conventional count regression models to explore exogenous factors affecting pedestrian and bicyclist crashes at the macroscopic level. In the traditional count models, effects of exogenous factors on non-motorist crashes were investigated directly. However, the vulnerable road users' crashes are collisions between vehicles and non-motorists. Thus, the exogenous factors can affect the non-motorist crashes through the non-motorists and vehicle drivers...
July 25, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753414/a-synthesis-of-studies-of-access-point-density-as-a-risk-factor-for-road-accidents
#12
Rune Elvik
Studies of the relationship between access point density (number of access points, or driveways, per kilometre of road) and accident frequency or rate (number of accidents per unit of exposure) have consistently found that accident rate increases when access point density increases. This paper presents a formal synthesis of the findings of these studies. It was found that the addition of one access point per kilometre of road is associated with an increase of 4% in the expected number of accidents, controlling for traffic volume...
July 25, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739027/undiagonsed-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-among-unionized-drivers-in-ghana-public-health-and-policy-implications
#13
Thaddeus P Ulzen, John C Higginbotham, Gordon Donnir, Laurence Jerome, Al Segal
Road traffic accidents (RTA) are among the leading causes of mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Many males that drop out of school in Ghana, a population at risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), find employment by joining driver's unions. Moreover, the vehicles of Ghanaian unionized drivers are over-represented in fatal road accidents. Untreated ADHD has been linked with higher rates of RTAs. The objectives of this cross-sectional analysis is to determine the following among unionized drivers in Ghana: 1) the prevalence of ADHD, and 2) the association between self-reported ADHD risk and driving behavior...
July 21, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735180/cell-phone-use-while-driving-does-peer-reported-use-predict-emerging-adult-use
#14
Neha Trivedi, Denise Haynie, Joe Bible, Danping Liu, Bruce Simons-Morton
Secondary task engagement such as cell phone use while driving is a common behavior among adolescents and emerging adults. Texting and other distracting cell phone use in this population contributes to the high rate of fatal car crashes. Peer engagement in similar risky driving behaviors, such as texting, could socially influence driver phone use behavior. The present study investigates the prospective association between peer and emerging adult texting while driving the first year after high school. Surveys were conducted with a national sample of emerging adults and their nominated peers...
July 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735179/monitoring-road-safety-development-at-regional-level-a-case-study-in-the-asean-region
#15
Faan Chen, Jianjun Wang, Jiaorong Wu, Xiaohong Chen, P Christopher Zegras
Persistent monitoring of progress, evaluating the results of interventions and recalibrating to achieve continuous improvement over time is widely recognized as being crucial towards the successful development of road safety. In the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region there is a lack of well-resourced teams that contain multidisciplinary safety professionals, and specialists in individual countries, who are able to carry out this work effectively. In this context, not only must the monitoring framework be effective, it must also be easy to use and adapt...
July 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735178/development-of-a-real-time-prediction-model-of-driver-behavior-at-intersections-using-kinematic-time-series-data
#16
Yaoyuan V Tan, Michael R Elliott, Carol A C Flannagan
As connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs) enter the fleet, there will be a long period when these vehicles will have to interact with human drivers. One of the challenges for CAVs is that human drivers do not communicate their decisions well. Fortunately, the kinematic behavior of a human-driven vehicle may be a good predictor of driver intent within a short time frame. We analyzed the kinematic time series data (e.g., speed) for a set of drivers making left turns at intersections to predict whether the driver would stop before executing the turn...
July 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732320/do-cyclists-make-better-drivers-associations-between-cycling-experience-and-change-detection-in-road-scenes
#17
Vanessa Beanland, Lisa J Hansen
Efficient processing of visual information is crucial to safe driving. Previous research has demonstrated that driving experience strongly affects attentional allocation, with large differences between novice and experienced drivers. Expanding on this, we explored the influence of non-driving experiences on attentional allocation by comparing drivers with and without cycling experience. Based on situation awareness field studies, we predicted cyclist-drivers would demonstrate superior performance. Participants were 42 experienced drivers (17 female, 25 male) aged 30-50 years (M=39...
July 18, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728063/factors-associated-with-non-return-to-work-in-the-severely-injured-victims-3-years-after-a-road-accident-a-prospective-study
#18
C Pélissier, E Fort, L Fontana, B Charbotel, M Hours
Road accidents may impact victims' physical and/or mental health and socio-occupational life, particularly the capacity to return to work. The purpose of our study is to assess modifiable medical and socio-occupational factors of non-return to work in the severely injured 3 years after a road accident. Among1,168 road accidents casualties in the Rhône administrative Département of France followed for five years, 141 of the 222 severely injured (Maximal Abbreviated Injury Scale ≥ 3) aged more than 16 years who were in work at the time of the accident, reported whether they had returned to work in the 3 years following the accident...
July 17, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728062/investigation-of-factors-affecting-the-injury-severity-of-single-vehicle-rollover-crashes-a-random-effects-generalized-ordered-probit-model
#19
Alireza Jafari Anarkooli, Mehdi Hosseinpour, Adele Kardar
Rollover crashes are responsible for a notable number of serious injuries and fatalities; hence, they are of great concern to transportation officials and safety researchers. However, only few published studies have analyzed the factors associated with severity outcomes of rollover crashes. This research has two objectives. The first objective is to investigate the effects of various factors, of which some have been rarely reported in the existing studies, on the injury severities of single-vehicle (SV) rollover crashes based on six-year crash data collected on the Malaysian federal roads...
July 17, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728061/qualifying-information-on-deaths-and-serious-injuries-caused-by-road-traffic-in-five-brazilian-capitals-using-record-linkage
#20
Polyana Maria Pimenta Mandacaru, Ana Lucia Andrade, Marli Souza Rocha, Fernanda Pinheiro Aguiar, Maria Sueli M Nogueira, Anne Marielle Girodo, Ana Amélia Galas Pedrosa, Vera Lídia Alves de Oliveira, Marta Maria Malheiros Alves, Lúcia Maria Miana M Paixão, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Marta Maria Alves Silva, Otaliba Libanio de Morais Neto
INTRODUCTION: Road traffic crashes (RTC) are an important public health problem, accounting for 1.2 million deaths per year worldwide. In Brazil, approximately 40,000 deaths caused by RTC occur every year, with different trends in the Federal Units. However, these figures may be even greater if health databases are linked to police records. In addition, the linkage procedure would make it possible to qualify information from the health and police databases, improving the quality of the data regarding underlying cause of death, cause of injury in hospital records, and injury severity...
July 17, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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