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Accident; Analysis and Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432882/analysis-of-factors-affecting-the-severity-of-crashes-in-urban-road-intersections
#1
L Mussone, M Bassani, P Masci
Road crashes are events which depend on a variety of factors and which exhibit different magnitudes of outputs when evaluated with respect to the effects on road users. Despite a lot of research into the evaluation of crash likelihood and frequency, only a few works have focused exclusively on crash severity with these limited to sections of freeways and multilane highways. Hence, at present there is a large gap in knowledge on factors affecting the severity of crashes for other road categories, facilities, and scenarios...
April 19, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431345/insights-into-targeting-young-male-drivers-with-anti-speeding-advertising-an-application-of-the-step-approach-to-message-design-and-testing-satmdt
#2
I Lewis, K M White, B Ho, B Elliott, B Watson
In Australia, young drivers aged 17-25 years comprise 13% of the population yet account for 22% of all road deaths with young males over-represented in such trauma. Speeding represents a major contributing factor and advertising campaigns have long focused on promoting anti-speeding messages in the effort to reduce drivers' speeds. Positioned within a larger program of research aimed at developing, piloting, and evaluating a range of theoretically-informed anti-speeding messages, the current study reports results relating to the final phase of the research, the evaluation...
April 18, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431344/novelty-helmet-use-and-motorcycle-rider-fatality
#3
Thomas M Rice, Lara Troszak, Taryn Erhardt, Roger B Trent, Motao Zhu
OBJECTIVES: To compare the risk of fatal injury across helmet types among collision-involved motorcyclists. METHODS: We used data from a cohort of motorcyclists involved in police-reported traffic collisions. Eighty-four law enforcement agencies in California collected detailed information on helmet and rider characteristics during collision investigations in June 2012 through July 2013. Multiply-adjusted risk ratios were estimated with log-binomial regression. RESULTS: The adjusted fatal injury risk ratio for novelty helmets was 1...
April 18, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416210/development-of-a-continuous-motorcycle-protection-barrier-system-using-computer-simulation-and-full-scale-crash-testing
#4
Ali O Atahan, J Marten Hiekmann, Jeffrey Himpe, Joseph Marra
Road restraint systems are designed to minimize the undesirable effects of roadside accidents and improve safety of road users. These systems are utilized at either side or median section of roads to contain and redirect errant vehicles. Although restraint systems are mainly designed against car, truck and bus impacts there is an increasing pressure by the motorcycle industry to incorporate motorcycle protection systems into these systems. In this paper development details of a new and versatile motorcycle barrier, CMPS, coupled with an existing vehicle barrier is presented...
April 15, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399463/distraction-or-cognitive-overload-using-modulations-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-to-discriminate-the-possible-negative-effects-of-advanced-assistance-system
#5
D Ruscio, A J Bos, M R Ciceri
The interaction with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems has several positive implications for road safety, but also some potential downsides such as mental workload and automation complacency. Malleable attentional resources allocation theory describes two possible processes that can generate workload in interaction with advanced assisting devices. The purpose of the present study is to determine if specific analysis of the different modalities of autonomic control of nervous system can be used to discriminate different potential workload processes generated during assisted-driving tasks and automation complacency situations...
April 8, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391093/an-item-response-theory-approach-to-safety-climate-measurement-the-liberty-mutual-safety-climate-short-scales
#6
Yueng-Hsiang Huang, Jin Lee, Zhuo Chen, MacKenna Perry, Janelle H Cheung, Mo Wang
Zohar and Luria's (2005) safety climate (SC) scale, measuring organization- and group- level SC each with 16 items, is widely used in research and practice. To improve the utility of the SC scale, we shortened the original full-length SC scales. Item response theory (IRT) analysis was conducted using a sample of 29,179 frontline workers from various industries. Based on graded response models, we shortened the original scales in two ways: (1) selecting items with above-average discriminating ability (i.e. offering more than 6...
April 6, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391092/survival-pattern-of-first-accident-among-commercial-drivers-in-the-greater-accra-region-of-ghana
#7
Salifu Nanga, Nii Afotey Odai, Anani Lotsi
In this study, the average accident risk of commercial drivers in the Greater Accra region of Ghana and its associated risks were examined based on a survey data collected using paper-based questionnaires from 204 commercial drivers from the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. The Cox Proportional Hazards Model was used for multivariate analysis while the Kaplan-Meier (KM) Model was used to study the survival patterns of the commercial drivers. The study revealed that the median survival time for an accident to happen is 2...
April 6, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391091/street-racing-among-the-ontario-adult-population-prevalence-and-association-with-collision-risk
#8
Christine M Wickens, Reginald G Smart, Evelyn Vingilis, Anca R Ialomiteanu, Gina Stoduto, Robert E Mann
BACKGROUND: Street racing has been identified as a significant public health concern, yet, little is known about the prevalence of this behaviour and its impact on collision risk. The current study was designed to address this dearth of knowledge by estimating the prevalence of street racing among the Ontario, Canada adult population, and examining its association to collision risk, controlling for demographics and other risk factors. METHODS: Data were based on telephone interviews with 11,263 respondents derived from the 2009-2014 cycles of the CAMH Monitor, an ongoing cross-sectional survey of adults aged 18+ years...
April 6, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388530/context-aware-system-for-pre-triggering-irreversible-vehicle-safety-actuators
#9
Dennis Böhmländer, Tobias Dirndorfer, Ali H Al-Bayatti, Thomas Brandmeier
New vehicle safety systems have led to a steady improvement of road safety and a reduction in the risk of suffering a major injury in vehicle accidents. A huge leap forward in the development of new vehicle safety systems are actuators that have to be activated irreversibly shortly before a collision in order to mitigate accident consequences. The triggering decision has to be based on measurements of exteroceptive sensors currently used in driver assistance systems. This paper focuses on developing a novel context-aware system designed to detect potential collisions and to trigger safety actuators even before an accident occurs...
April 4, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384490/multiuse-trail-intersection-safety-analysis-a-crowdsourced-data-perspective
#10
Ben Jestico, Trisalyn A Nelson, Jason Potter, Meghan Winters
Real and perceived concerns about cycling safety are a barrier to increased ridership in many cities. Many people prefer to bike on facilities separated from motor vehicles, such as multiuse trails. However, due to underreporting, cities lack data on bike collisions, especially along greenways and multiuse paths. We used a crowdsourced cycling incident dataset (2005-2016) from BikeMaps.org for the Capital Regional District (CRD), BC, Canada. Our goal was to identify design characteristics associated with unsafe intersections between multiuse trails and roads...
April 3, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384489/self-reported-speed-compliance-and-attitudes-towards-speeding-in-a-representative-sample-of-drivers-in-australia
#11
A N Stephens, M Nieuwesteeg, J Page-Smith, M Fitzharris
BACKGROUND: Vehicle speed is a major contributor to road trauma, both in terms of increased crash risk and injury severity. In Australia, approximately one third of fatal crashes occur in speed zones of 100km/h. This proportion has remained the same, despite the reduction in the number of road fatalities over the past decade. To drive further reductions in speed-related crashes, an improved understanding of the underlying determinants of speed choice is required. METHOD: A community attitude survey designed to understand speed behaviour and attitudes towards speeding was distributed to a large (N=5179) representative sample of drivers in Australia...
April 3, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384488/the-safety-culture-enactment-questionnaire-sceq-theoretical-model-and-empirical-validation
#12
Borja López de Castro, Francisco J Gracia, Inés Tomás, José M Peiró
This paper presents the Safety Culture Enactment Questionnaire (SCEQ), designed to assess the degree to which safety is an enacted value in the day-to-day running of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The SCEQ is based on a theoretical safety culture model that is manifested in three fundamental components of the functioning and operation of any organization: strategic decisions, human resources practices, and daily activities and behaviors. The extent to which the importance of safety is enacted in each of these three components provides information about the pervasiveness of the safety culture in the NPP...
April 3, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384487/an-examination-of-the-relationship-between-measures-of-impulsivity-and-risky-simulated-driving-amongst-young-drivers
#13
Julie Hatfield, Ann Williamson, E James Kehoe, Prasannah Prabhakharan
The risky driving of young drivers may owe in part to youthful motivations (such as experience-seeking, authority rebellion, desire for peer approval) combined with incompletely developed impulse control. Although self-reported impulsiveness has been positively associated with self-reports of risky driving, results based on objective measures of response inhibition (e.g., Go/No-go tasks) have been inconclusive. The present study examined interrelationships between measures of response inhibition, self-report impulsiveness scales, and responses to events during a simulated drive that were designed to detect impulsive, unsafe behaviours (e...
April 3, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380341/effect-of-personality-traits-age-and-sex-on-aggressive-driving-psychometric-adaptation-of-the-driver-aggression-indicators-scale-in-china
#14
Huihui Zhang, Weina Qu, Yan Ge, Xianghong Sun, Kan Zhang
This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Driver Aggression Indicators Scale (DAIS), which measures aggressive driving behaviors. Besides, demographic variables (sex and age) and the big five personality traits were examined as potential impact factors of aggressive driving. A total of 422 participants completed the DAIS, Big Five Personality Inventory (BFPI), and the socio-demographic scale. First, psychometric results confirmed that the DAIS had a stable two-factor structure and acceptable internal consistency...
April 2, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371638/changes-in-speed-distribution-applying-aggregated-safety-effect-models-to-individual-vehicle-speeds
#15
Anna Vadeby, Åsa Forsman
This study investigated the effect of applying two aggregated models (the Power model and the Exponential model) to individual vehicle speeds instead of mean speeds. This is of particular interest when the measure introduced affects different parts of the speed distribution differently. The aim was to examine how the estimated overall risk was affected when assuming the models are valid on an individual vehicle level. Speed data from two applications of speed measurements were used in the study: an evaluation of movable speed cameras and a national evaluation of new speed limits in Sweden...
March 31, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371637/performance-of-basic-kinematic-thresholds-in-the-identification-of-crash-and-near-crash-events-within-naturalistic-driving-data
#16
Miguel A Perez, Jeremy D Sudweeks, Edie Sears, Jonathan Antin, Suzanne Lee, Jonathan M Hankey, Thomas A Dingus
Understanding causal factors for traffic safety-critical events (e.g., crashes and near-crashes) is an important step in reducing their frequency and severity. Naturalistic driving data offers unparalleled insight into these factors, but requires identification of situations where crashes are present within large volumes of data. Sensitivity and specificity of these identification approaches are key to minimizing the resources required to validate candidate crash events. This investigation used data from the Second Strategic Highway Research Program Naturalistic Driving Study (SHRP 2 NDS) and the Canada Naturalistic Driving Study (CNDS) to develop and validate different kinematic thresholds that can be used to detect crash events...
March 31, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365398/are-older-drivers-on-road-driving-error-rates-related-to-functional-performance-and-or-self-reported-driving-experiences
#17
S Koppel, J L Charlton, N Richter, M Di Stefano, W Macdonald, P Darzins, S V Newstead, A D'Elia, B Mazer, I Gelinas, B Vrkljan, K Eliasz, A Myers, S Marshall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363171/severe-soft-tissue-injuries-of-the-upper-extremity-in-motor-vehicle-crashes-involving-partial-ejection-the-protective-role-of-side-curtain-airbags
#18
Robert Kaufman, Laura Fraade-Blanar, Angelo Lipira, Jeffrey Friedrich, Eileen Bulger
INTRODUCTION: Partial ejection (PE) of the upper extremity (UE) can occur in a motor vehicle crash (MVC) resulting in complex and severe soft tissue injuries (SSTI). This study evaluated the relationship between partial ejection and UE injuries, notably SSTIs, in MVCs focusing on crash types and characteristics, and further examined the role of side curtain airbags (SCABs) in the prevention of partial ejection and reducing SSTI of the UE. METHODS: Weighted data was analyzed from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) from 1993 to 2012...
March 28, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343124/effects-of-acute-alcohol-consumption-on-measures-of-simulated-driving-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Christopher Irwin, Elizaveta Iudakhina, Ben Desbrow, Danielle McCartney
Driving simulators are used in a wide range of research settings to help develop an understanding of driver behavior in complex environments. Acute alcohol impairment is an important research topic for traffic safety and a large number of studies have indicated levels of simulated driving impairment imposed by alcohol across a range of performance outcome variables. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of acute alcohol consumption on simulated driving performance by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence...
March 23, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343123/estimation-of-red-light-running-frequency-using-high-resolution-traffic-and-signal-data
#20
Peng Chen, Guizhen Yu, Xinkai Wu, Yilong Ren, Yueguang Li
Red-light-running (RLR) emerges as a major cause that may lead to intersection-related crashes and endanger intersection safety. To reduce RLR violations, it's critical to identify the influential factors associated with RLR and estimate RLR frequency. Without resorting to video camera recordings, this study investigates this important issue by utilizing high-resolution traffic and signal event data collected from loop detectors at five intersections on Trunk Highway 55, Minneapolis, MN. First, a simple method is proposed to identify RLR by fully utilizing the information obtained from stop bar detectors, downstream entrance detectors and advance detectors...
March 23, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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