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Behavior Therapy

Yulisha Byrow, Nigel T M Chen, Lorna Peters
Theoretical models of social anxiety propose that attention biases maintain symptoms of social anxiety. Research findings regarding the time course of attention and social anxiety disorder have been mixed. Adult attachment style may influence attention bias and social anxiety, thus contributing to the mixed findings. This study investigated the time course of attention toward both negative and positive stimuli for individuals diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and assessed whether attachment style moderates this relationship...
July 2016: Behavior Therapy
Marieke B J Toffolo, Marcel A van den Hout, Iris M Engelhard, Ignace T C Hooge, Daniëlle C Cath
Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) not only respond to obsessions with perseverative checking, but also engage in more general checking, irrespective of their obsessive concerns. This study investigated whether general checking is specific to OCD and exacerbated when only mild uncertainty is induced. Thirty-one patients with OCD, 26 anxiety- and 31 healthy controls performed a visual search task with eye-tracking and indicated in 50 search displays whether a target was "present" or "absent". Target-present trials were unambiguous, whereas target-absent trials induced mild uncertainty, because participants had to rely on not overlooking the target...
July 2016: Behavior Therapy
Jocelyn O Stokes, Jason F Jent, Allison Weinstein, Eileen M Davis, Tasha M Brown, Laura Cruz, Hannah Wavering
The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the rate and type of parent-reported homework completion is associated with parent-report of child behavior outcomes, number of sessions to master parental skills as measured by therapist observation, and length of treatment in Parent-child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Sixty-two parent-child dyads (primary caregiver: Mage=36.35years, female 95.20%, 81.60% White, 59.57% Hispanic; child Mage=4.22years; child gender male 64.50%) who completed PCIT were included in the study...
July 2016: Behavior Therapy
Jacob D Meyer, Kelli F Koltyn, Aaron J Stegner, Jee-Seon Kim, Dane B Cook
INTRODUCTION: Exercise effectively improves mood in major depressive disorder (MDD), but the optimal exercise stimulus to improve depressed mood is unknown. PURPOSE: To determine the dose-response relationship of acute exercise intensity with depressed mood responses to exercise in MDD. We hypothesized that the acute response to exercise would differ between light, moderate, and hard intensity exercise with higher intensities yielding more beneficial responses. METHODS: Once weekly, 24 women (age: 38...
July 2016: Behavior Therapy
Jennifer L Greenberg, Suraj Sarvode Mothi, Sabine Wilhelm
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a distressing or impairing preoccupation with a perceived defect in physical appearance. BDD by proxy (BDDBP) is a significant but understudied variant of BDD in which the primary preoccupation involves perceived imperfections of another person. Like BDD, individuals with BDDBP engage in time-consuming rituals to "fix" the other person's appearance or alleviate distress. Avoidance is common and the impact of BDDBP on social functioning is profound. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best-studied and most promising psychological treatment for BDD, but no studies have examined its generalizability to the BDDBP variant...
July 2016: Behavior Therapy
Birgit Wagner, Michaela Nagl, Ruth Dölemeyer, Grit Klinitzke, Jana Steinig, Anja Hilbert, Anette Kersting
Binge-eating disorder (BED) is a prevalent health condition associated with obesity. Few people with BED receive appropriate treatment. Personal barriers include shame, fear of stigma, geographic distance to mental health services, and long wait-lists. The aims of this study were to examine the efficacy of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for adults with threshold BED (DSM-IV) and to examine the stability of treatment effects over 12months. Participants were randomly assigned to a 16-week Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention (n=69) or a wait-list condition (n=70)...
July 2016: Behavior Therapy
Sara B Danitz, Michael K Suvak, Susan M Orsillo
Preventing and reducing depression in first-year college students are crucial areas in need of attention and resources. Programs that are cost-effective and time-efficient, that have replicable benefits across samples, are sorely needed. This study aims to examine whether a previously studied acceptance-based behavioral (ABBT) program, the Mindful Way Through the Semester (MWTS), is effective in comparison to a control condition at decreasing levels of depression and enhancing acceptance and academic values when integrated into a first-year undergraduate experience course...
July 2016: Behavior Therapy
Yi-Jen Su, Joseph K Carpenter, Laurie J Zandberg, Helen Blair Simpson, Edna B Foa
This study examined cognitive mediators of symptom change during exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Based on cognitive models of OCD, obsessive beliefs were hypothesized as a mediator of symptom change. Participants were 70 patients with primary OCD receiving EX/RP either as part of a randomized controlled trial (n=38) or in open treatment following nonresponse to risperidone or placebo in the same trial (n=32). Blinded evaluations of OCD severity and self-report assessments of three domains of obsessive beliefs (i...
July 2016: Behavior Therapy
Sarah Kate McGowan, Evelyn Behar, Maike Luhmann
There is growing evidence suggesting that worry and sleep are intimately linked. However, the relationship between these two phenomena over the course of a day remains largely unstudied. It is possible that (a) worry predicts sleep disturbance that night, (b) sleep disturbance predicts worry the following day, or (c) there is a bidirectional relationship between worry and sleep disturbance. The present study examined the daily relationship between worry (both during the day and immediately prior to sleep onset) and sleep in 50 high trait worriers who were randomly assigned to one of two interventions aimed at reducing worry as part of a larger study...
July 2016: Behavior Therapy
Timothy R Ritzert, John P Forsyth, Sean C Sheppard, James F Boswell, Christopher R Berghoff, Georg H Eifert
Rigorous evaluations of cognitive behavioral self-help books for anxiety in pure self-help contexts are lacking. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) self-help workbook for anxiety-related concerns, with no therapist contact, in an international sample. Participants (N=503; 94% mental health diagnosis) were randomized to an immediate workbook (n=256) or wait-list condition (n=247). Assessments at pretreatment, 12weeks, 6months, and 9months evaluated anxiety and related symptoms, quality of life, and ACT treatment processes (e...
July 2016: Behavior Therapy
Gabriele Melli, Richard Moulding, Simona Gelli, Carlo Chiorri, Antonio Pinto
Sexual Orientation-Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (SO-OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts, images, and urges related to one's sexual orientation, and by consequent avoidance, reassurance seeking, and overt and covert compulsions. Currently there is no short self-report measure that assesses SO-OCD symptoms. The current article describes two studies that develop and evaluate the first version of the Sexual Orientation Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (SO-OCS), a 14-item Italian self-report measure targeted towards heterosexual individuals...
July 2016: Behavior Therapy
Masaya Ito, Masaru Horikoshi, Noriko Kato, Yuki Oe, Hiroko Fujisato, Shun Nakajima, Ayako Kanie, Mitsuhiro Miyamae, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Ryo Horita, Masato Usuki, Atsuo Nakagawa, Yutaka Ono
Unified protocol (UP) is a transdiagnostic cognitive behavior therapy for emotional disorders. It remains unknown whether UP is applicable for use in non-Western countries and for depressive disorders. We therefore examined its feasibility for a Japanese clinical population using this clinical trial design, which is multicentered, open-labeled, and single-armed (Clinical registry: UMIN000008322). The primary outcome was severity of anxiety symptoms, as assessed using Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale...
May 2016: Behavior Therapy
Rachel White, Jennifer Wild
Emergency service workers, military personnel, and journalists working in conflict zones are regularly exposed to trauma as part of their jobs and suffer higher rates of posttraumatic stress compared with the general population. These individuals often know that they will be exposed to trauma and therefore have the opportunity to adopt potentially protective cognitive strategies. One cognitive strategy linked to better mood and recovery from upsetting events is concrete information processing. Conversely, abstract information processing is linked to the development of anxiety and depression...
May 2016: Behavior Therapy
Reginald D V Nixon, Julie Rackebrandt
Thought suppression studies demonstrate that attempts to suppress can be undermined by cognitive load. We report the first instance in which this has been tested experimentally in a sample of recently traumatized individuals. Individuals with and without acute stress disorder (ASD) were recruited following recent trauma and randomized to load or no load conditions (N=56). They monitored intrusive memories during baseline, suppression, and think anything phases. The impact of suppression and load on self-reported intrusions, attention bias (dot-probe), and memory priming (word-stem task) was assessed...
May 2016: Behavior Therapy
Demet Çek, Alvaro Sánchez, Kiara R Timpano
Attention bias to threat (e.g., disgust faces) is a cognitive vulnerability factor for social anxiety occurring in early stages of information processing. Few studies have investigated the relationship between social anxiety and attention biases, in conjunction with emotional and cognitive responses to a social stressor. Elucidating these links would shed light on maintenance factors of social anxiety and could help identify malleable treatment targets. This study examined the associations between social anxiety level, attention bias to disgust (AB-disgust), subjective emotional and physiological reactivity to a social stressor, and subsequent post-event processing (PEP)...
May 2016: Behavior Therapy
Joseph W Boffa, Aaron M Norr, Amanda M Raines, Brian J Albanese, Nicole A Short, Norman B Schmidt
Anxiety sensitivity (AS), the feared consequences of anxious arousal, is known to be related to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) concurrently and longitudinally. However, no studies have demonstrated whether AS prior to a Criterion A traumatic event predicts later PTSS. The present study evaluated whether preshooting AS predicted PTSS following a campus shooting, as well as whether preshooting AS interacted with shooting exposure to predict PTSS. Participants comprised undergraduates (N=71) who completed a self-report battery upon enrolling in Introductory Psychology...
May 2016: Behavior Therapy
Jesse M Crosby, Michael P Twohig
Problematic Internet pornography use is the inability to control the use of pornography, the experience of negative cognitions or emotions regarding pornography use, and the resulting negative effects on quality of life or general functioning. This study compared a 12-session individual protocol of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for problematic Internet pornography use to a waitlist control condition with 28 adult males, all but 1 of whom were members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints...
May 2016: Behavior Therapy
Joshua M Langberg, Steven W Evans, Brandon K Schultz, Stephen P Becker, Mekibib Altaye, Erin Girio-Herrera
The Challenging Horizons After School Program is one of the only psychosocial interventions developed specifically for adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that has demonstrated efficacy in multiple randomized controlled trials. To date, however, all research with the intervention has evaluated outcomes at the group level, and it is unclear whether all adolescents respond similarly, or if the intervention is particularly well suited for certain adolescents with ADHD. This type of information is needed to guide stakeholders in making informed choices as part of dissemination and implementation efforts...
May 2016: Behavior Therapy
Rebecca M Shingleton, Elizabeth M Pratt, Bernard Gorman, David H Barlow, Tibor P Palfai, Heather Thompson-Brenner
OBJECTIVE: This study tested a motivational text message treatment adjunct for individuals with eating disorders (EDs) who exhibited high dietary restraint/restriction. METHOD: A replicated single-case alternating treatment design was used to examine (a) the feasibility of combining a brief motivational interview with subsequent text messages and (b) the influence of the text messages on eating behaviors and motivation to change in individuals with EDs (N=12). The protocol was 8weeks and the text messages were adjunctive to cognitive-behavioral therapy...
May 2016: Behavior Therapy
Ella L Oar, Lara J Farrell, Allison M Waters, Thomas H Ollendick
Blood-Injection-Injury (BII) phobia is a particularly debilitating condition that has been largely ignored in the child literature. The present study examined the clinical phenomenology of BII phobia in 27 youths, relative to 25 youths with dog phobia-one of the most common and well-studied phobia subtypes in youth. Children were compared on measures of phobia severity, functional impairment, comorbidity, threat appraisals (danger expectancies and coping), focus of fear, and physiological responding, as well as vulnerability factors including disgust sensitivity and family history...
May 2016: Behavior Therapy
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