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Behavior Therapy

Nikolaos Kazantzis, Craig Whittington, Leah Zelencich, Michael Kyrios, Peter J Norton, Stefan G Hofmann
Homework assignments have been shown to produce both causal and correlational effects in prior meta-analytic reviews of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), but this research area has been characterized by a focus on the amount of compliance (i.e., quantity), and little is known about the role of skill acquisition (i.e., quality). A landmark study by Neimeyer and Feixas (1990) showed stronger homework-outcome relations when quality was assessed, but previous reviews have not considered whether the same pattern is evident across studies...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Robert A Neimeyer, Guillem Feixas
Despite the crucial role typically accorded to between-session self-help assignments in cognitive therapy of depression, the actual impact of homework assignment on therapy outcome has received little empirical attention. The present study evaluated the effect of homework by assigning 63 carefully diagnosed unipolar depressives to one of two otherwise identical 10-week cognitive therapy conditions, only one of which utilized weekly homework assignments. As predicted, assignment to the homework condition predicted more substantial improvement in symptomatic features of depression as rated by an independent clinician at therapy termination, although this effect was not maintained at six month follow-up...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Anna J Swan, Matthew M Carper, Philip C Kendall
Stokes and Osnes (1989) outlined three principles to facilitate the generalization and maintenance of therapeutic gains. Use of functional contingencies, training diversely, and incorporating functional mediators were recommended. Our review, with most illustrations from studies of youth, updates Stokes and Osnes's original paper with a focus on evidence-based strategies to increase generalization of therapeutic gains across settings, stimuli, and time. Research since 1989 indicates that training for generalization by increasing the frequency of naturally occurring reinforcers for positive behaviors, and altering maladaptive contingencies that inadvertently reinforce problem behaviors, are associated with favorable treatment outcomes...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Trevor F Stokes, Pamela G Osnes
We outline some principles and tactics which are recommended as likely to facilitate the occurrence of generalization and maintenance in programs of clinical importance. In general, clinicians and researchers would do well to implement and analyze procedures that follow the generalization programming principles of exploiting current functional contingencies, training diversely, and incorporating functional mediators. More specifically, the tactical armamentarium should include contacting natural consequences, recruiting natural consequences, modifying maladaptive consequences, reinforcing occurrences of generalization, using sufficient stimulus exemplars, using sufficient response exemplars, making antecedents less discriminable, making consequences less discriminable, incorporating common salient physical stimuli, incorporating common salient social stimuli, incorporating self-mediated physical stimuli, and incorporating self-mediated verbal and covert stimuli...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Julie L Ji, Stephanie Burnett Heyes, Colin MacLeod, Emily A Holmes
This article pays tribute to the seminal paper by Peter J. Lang (1977; this journal), "Imagery in Therapy: Information Processing Analysis of Fear." We review research and clinical practice developments in the past five decades with reference to key insights from Lang's theory and experimental work on emotional mental imagery. First, we summarize and recontextualize Lang's bio-informational theory of emotional mental imagery (1977, 1979) within contemporary theoretical developments on the function of mental imagery...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Peter J Lang
An analysis of fear imagery in behavior therapy is developed from the combined perspectives of information processing theory and psychophysiology. Recent thought on imagery processing and storage is considered, and it is argued that affective images are best viewed as propositional structures rather than as iconic or holistic sensory representations. A method is presented for manipulating the image through instructions, and an image taxonomy of stimulus and response components is described. The usefulness of bioelectric measurement is emphasized throughout, and this is illustrated in an experiment derived from the "constructive" concept of imagery...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Marilyn L Piccirillo, M Taylor Dryman, Richard G Heimberg
Safety behaviors are considered an important factor in the maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Safety behaviors are typically employed by socially anxious individuals to reduce anxiety in feared social situations. However, by preventing individuals with social anxiety from gathering evidence that would disconfirm their maladaptive beliefs about social situations, the use of safety behaviors ultimately maintains social anxiety over time. Twenty years ago, Wells and colleagues (1995) demonstrated that use of safety behaviors diminishes the efficacy of exposure treatment for SAD, suggesting that reduction in the use of safety behaviors during exposure can enhance treatment response...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Adrian Wells, David M Clark, Paul Salkovskis, John Ludgate, Ann Hackmann, Michael Gelder
One of the puzzles surrounding social phobia is that patients with this problem are often exposed to phobic situations without showing a marked reduction in their fears. It is possible that individuals with social phobia engage in behaviors in the feared situation that are intended to avert feared catastrophes but that also prevent disconfirmation of their fears. This hypothesis was tested in a single case series of eight socially phobic patients. All patients received one session of exposure alone and one session of exposure plus decrease in "safety" behaviors in a counterbalanced within-subject design...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Anu Asnaani, Carmen P McLean, Edna B Foa
J. P. Watson and I. M. Marks published a seminal article in Behavior Therapy entitled "Relevant and Irrelevant Fear in Flooding-A Crossover Study of Phobic Patients" in 1971 that paved the way for important theoretical developments and empirical studies that examined the mechanisms underlying extinction learning. Indeed, in the 44 years since their article was published, our knowledge about how exposure therapy works has increased considerably. In this review, we explore the progress our field has made in understanding extinction learning and how Watson and Marks' important work has influenced this progress...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
J P Watson, I M Marks
This study investigated the role of relevant vs irrelevant fear cues in the flooding of phobic patients. Six specific phobics and 10 agoraphobics were treated in a balanced crossover design. Eight patients had eight sessions of imaginal flooding concerned with their phobias followed by eight imaginal sessions concerned with situations which are normally frightening to anybody. Another eight patients had the same two treatments in the reverse order. The combined effects of both treatments after 16 sessions resulted in significant improvement on clinical, attitudinal, and heart-rate measures...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Thomas H Ollendick, Amie E Grills
In 1998, Chorpita, Brown, and Barlow published a now seminal study in Behavior Therapy examining the development of anxiety in children and adolescents using Barlow's 1988 model of the development of anxiety in adults. Mindful of developmental considerations, parental control and children's perceptions of control were considered key factors in this revised model. Since that study, mixed support has accumulated for the role of control, both parental control and children's perceptions of that control, in the development of childhood anxiety...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Bruce F Chorpita, Timothy A Brown, David H Barlow
Recent developments in cognitive and emotion theory emphasize the importance of cognitive dimensions related to control and helplessness. Drawing from evidence in the area of control and explanatory style, the present study used a cross-sectional design to evaluate structural models investigating the relation of perceived control and attribution to family environment, negative affect, and clinical disturbance. It was hypothesized that the anxiogenic and depressogenic influences of a controlling family environment on negative affect would be mediated by cognitive dimensions...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Lauren B Alloy, Thomas Olino, Rachel D Freed, Robin Nusslock
Since Costello's (1972) seminal Behavior Therapy article on loss of reinforcers or reinforcer effectiveness in depression, the role of reward sensitivity and processing in both depression and bipolar disorder has become a central area of investigation. In this article, we review the evidence for a model of reward sensitivity in mood disorders, with unipolar depression characterized by reward hyposensitivity and bipolar disorders by reward hypersensitivity. We address whether aberrant reward sensitivity and processing are correlates of, mood-independent traits of, vulnerabilities for, and/or predictors of the course of depression and bipolar spectrum disorders, covering evidence from self-report, behavioral, neurophysiological, and neural levels of analysis...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
C G Costello
A number of behavior therapists have proposed that depression results when a discriminative stimulus or reinforcer for behavior is removed. It is proposed here that the depressed person's general loss of interest in his environment suggests that there is a loss of reinforcer effectiveness. The manner in which environmental events, including the loss of a reinforcer, may result in this general loss of reinforcer effectiveness is discussed. The possible evolutionary significance of depression is also briefly discussed...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Richard J McNally
Seligman's (1971) classic article, "Phobias and Preparedness," marked a break from traditional conditioning theories of the etiology of phobias, inspiring a line of research integrating evolutionary theory with learning theory. In this article, I briefly sketch the context motivating the preparedness theory of phobias before summarizing the initial wave of laboratory conditioning experiments pioneered by Öhman and conducted by his team and by others to test predictions derived from Seligman's theory. Finally, I review the legacy of Seligman's article, including theoretical developments embodied in Öhman and Mineka's fear module approach as well as alternatives for explaining "preparedness" phenomena, including the selective sensitization, expectancy, and nonassociative theories...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Martin E P Seligman
Some inadequacies of the classical conditioning analysis of phobias are discussed: phobias are highly resistant to extinction, whereas laboratory fear conditioning, unlike avoidance conditioning, extinguishes rapidly; phobias comprise a nonarbitrary and limited set of objects, whereas fear conditioning is thought to occur to an unlimited range of conditioned stimuli. Furthermore, phobias, unlike laboratory fear conditioning, are often acquired in one trial and seem quite resistant to change by "cognitive" means...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Michelle G Newman
This is the introduction to the first of two special issues in honor of the 50th anniversary of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies. The goal of this issue is to pay tribute to prior seminal Behavior Therapy publications on etiology and mechanisms of change, to provide an updated review of important topics covered by these papers, and to make recommendations for the future. Each invited paper highlights a particular Behavior Therapy publication's contribution to our understanding and also provides an updated review or meta-analysis on the topic of the original paper...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
Yulisha Byrow, Nigel T M Chen, Lorna Peters
Theoretical models of social anxiety propose that attention biases maintain symptoms of social anxiety. Research findings regarding the time course of attention and social anxiety disorder have been mixed. Adult attachment style may influence attention bias and social anxiety, thus contributing to the mixed findings. This study investigated the time course of attention toward both negative and positive stimuli for individuals diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and assessed whether attachment style moderates this relationship...
July 2016: Behavior Therapy
Marieke B J Toffolo, Marcel A van den Hout, Iris M Engelhard, Ignace T C Hooge, Daniëlle C Cath
Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) not only respond to obsessions with perseverative checking, but also engage in more general checking, irrespective of their obsessive concerns. This study investigated whether general checking is specific to OCD and exacerbated when only mild uncertainty is induced. Thirty-one patients with OCD, 26 anxiety- and 31 healthy controls performed a visual search task with eye-tracking and indicated in 50 search displays whether a target was "present" or "absent". Target-present trials were unambiguous, whereas target-absent trials induced mild uncertainty, because participants had to rely on not overlooking the target...
July 2016: Behavior Therapy
Jocelyn O Stokes, Jason F Jent, Allison Weinstein, Eileen M Davis, Tasha M Brown, Laura Cruz, Hannah Wavering
The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the rate and type of parent-reported homework completion is associated with parent-report of child behavior outcomes, number of sessions to master parental skills as measured by therapist observation, and length of treatment in Parent-child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Sixty-two parent-child dyads (primary caregiver: Mage=36.35years, female 95.20%, 81.60% White, 59.57% Hispanic; child Mage=4.22years; child gender male 64.50%) who completed PCIT were included in the study...
July 2016: Behavior Therapy
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