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Behavior Therapy

Elizabeth S Stevens, Evelyn Behar, Alexander A Jendrusina
Cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) is a promising treatment modality for social anxiety disorder, but effect sizes are relatively small across investigations (Hallion & Ruscio, 2011). Additionally, the extent to which CBM-I impacts other cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes is unclear. This study investigated whether two empirically supported treatment components for anxiety disorders, imaginal exposure (IE) and relaxation, augment the effects of CBM-I and increase the extent to which the effects of CBM-I generalize to behavioral and affective outcomes...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Michael T Carlin, Mack S Costello
This article describes the development of an effect size measure called Ratio of Distances (RD). The goal was to develop a measure of level change for single case experimental research that met several practical requirements: (a) the measure is adaptable to designs with varying numbers of observations per, and across, phases; (b) the measure is adaptable to situations in which slope does and does not exist; (c) the measure has no ceiling, as is the limitation with commonly used overlap-based measures of effect size; and (d) the measure is computationally transparent and easily computed using widely available analysis tools (e...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Brian E Bunnell, Franklin Mesa, Deborah C Beidel
Selective mutism (SM) is an anxiety disorder marked by withdrawal of speech in particular social situations. Treatment is often difficult, requiring attention to several characteristics particular to the disorder. Therapeutic tools and activities such as games and mobile applications (apps) may be particularly advantageous to behavioral therapy for SM. A 2-session hierarchy for shaping successive approximations of speech in SM was piloted with 15 children, 5 to 17 years old, who were randomly assigned to shaping while using mobile apps, other therapeutic tools/activities, and reinforcement alone...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Christopher Hautmann, Christina Dose, Karin Duda-Kirchhof, Lisa Greimel, Martin Hellmich, Stephanie Imort, Josepha Katzmann, Julia Pinior, Kristin Scholz, Stephanie Schürmann, Tanja Wolff Metternich-Kaizman, Manfred Döpfner
Self-help interventions for parents, which have a behavioral basis, are considered to be an effective treatment option for children with externalizing disorders. Nonbehavioral approaches are widely used but have little empirical evidence. The main objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a behavioral and a nonbehavioral guided self-help program for parents. Families of children (aged 4-11 years) diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were randomized to either a behavioral or a nonbehavioral guided self-help program including 8 parenting booklets and 10 counseling telephone calls...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Jenna R Carl, Matthew W Gallagher, David H Barlow
Research has shown that positive emotions are important to optimal health, functioning, and well-being, and contribute to resilience against psychological dysfunction. Many clinical disorders, particularly anxiety and mood disorders, are associated with deficits in positive emotion that may contribute to disorder severity and prevent full recovery, and these deficits have received insufficient attention in treatment. The present study represents a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility and utility of adding a novel brief intervention module for enhancing positive emotion in anxiety and depressive disorders to existing evidence-based treatment...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Jonathan D Green, Jaclyn C Kearns, Raymond C Rosen, Terence M Keane, Brian P Marx
In response to high suicide rates among veterans, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has mandated that veterans at risk for suicide be given Safety Plans (SP). Research on the efficacy of SPs, however, is unclear and no prior study has examined the degree to which more personally relevant (i.e., higher quality) SPs may be associated with better outcomes or evaluate which components of SPs may be most effective at reducing suicidal behavior. The goal of the present study was to examine whether more personally relevant (i...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Aubrey L Carpenter, Donna B Pincus, Jami M Furr, Jonathan S Comer
Progress in evidence-based treatments for child anxiety has been hampered by limited accessibility of quality care. This study utilized a multiple baseline design to evaluate the pilot feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of real-time, Internet-delivered, family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for child anxiety delivered to the home setting via videoconferencing. Participants included 13 anxious youth (mean age = 9.85) with a primary/co-primary anxiety disorder diagnosis. Eleven participants (84...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Avani Shah, Martin Morthland, Forrest Scogin, Andrew Presnell, Elizabeth A DiNapoli, Jamie DeCoster, Xin Yang
The purpose of this study was to develop and explore the feasibility of audio-based (ACBT) and computer-based (CCBT) cognitive behavioral therapies for older adults with depressive symptoms. The audio program consisted of 8 compact discs and a workbook while the computer program consisted of 11 modules of similar duration provided on a tablet PC. Both interventions consisted of the following topics: identifying and changing unhelpful thoughts, addressing feelings, relaxation, engaging in pleasant events, assertiveness, and problem-solving...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Elizabeth H Eustis, Sarah A Hayes-Skelton, Susan M Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer
The high rates of anxiety in college students and the many barriers to accessing evidence-based care in communities and on campuses indicate a clear need to explore ways to increase access to evidence-based treatments. Web-based interventions and preventions are one way to bridge this gap; they hold the potential to decrease mental health disparities and enhance student functioning. The current RCT examined the acceptability and efficacy of a 3-session web-based therapist-assisted acceptance-based behavioral intervention targeting anxiety (Surviving and Thriving During Stress) for college students versus a waitlist (WL) control condition, in a sample of racially and ethnically diverse college students...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Susan W White, Lynn Abbott, Andrea Trubanova Wieckowski, Nicole N Capriola-Hall, Sherin Aly, Amira Youssef
Impairment in facial emotion recognition (FER) and facial emotion expression (FEE), often documented in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are believed to contribute to the observed core social-communication disability that characterizes this disorder. Moreover, impaired FER and FEE are frequently seen in other disorders and problem behaviors. We describe the development of a novel system to detect and give real-time feedback on these processes, termed facial emotion expression training (FEET), an automated, gamelike system that is based on 3-dimensional sensing (Kinect) technology...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Emily C Geyer, Karl C Fua, Katharine E Daniel, Philip I Chow, Wes Bonelli, Yu Huang, Laura E Barnes, Bethany A Teachman
Socially anxious and depressed individuals tend to evaluate their social interactions negatively, but little is known about the specific real-time contributors to these negative perceptions. The current study examined how affect ratings during social interactions predict later perceptions of those interactions, and whether this differs by social anxiety and depression severity. Undergraduate participants (N = 60) responded to a smartphone application that prompted participants to answer short questions about their current affect and social context up to 6 times a day for 2 weeks...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Eli R Lebowitz, Bernard François
Avoidance is implicated in many areas of psychopathology, particularly anxiety and its disorders. Accurate, reliable, valid, and objective measurement of avoidance behavior poses methodological challenges. Two key technological advances, increased computing power and the advent of motion-tracking technology, offer novel solutions to these challenges. We describe a series of three studies using a novel motion-tracking system to measure avoidance in children and adults. The first study examined behavioral avoidance of spider stimuli in large samples of children and adults (N = 200 each; the adults were the mothers of the children)...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Dean McKay
A wide range of technological approaches has been adopted in assessment and intervention using cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT). The articles that comprise this special issue cover a diversity of areas, including motion-tracking devices, ecological momentary assessment, facial recognition software to provide rapid feedback, audio and tablet-based CBT-administered procedures, web-based acceptance program for stress reduction, and videoconferencing for delivery of anxiety treatment in youth. It is expected that technological advances will continue to lead to additional advances in CBT delivery...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Cristina P Garcia, Lauren T Catalano, Kristen R Dwyer, Julie M McCarthy, Melanie E Bennett, Jack J Blanchard
Social affiliation, or engagement in positive social interactions, is often profoundly impaired in individuals with schizophrenia. Valid measures of social affiliation are needed to understand these impairments and their symptom and functional correlates; however, such measures are limited and have not been validated. This pilot study evaluated one such measure-the video-based Social Affiliation Interaction Task (SAIT)-and a novel in vivo behavioral measure, the Affiliative Conversation Task (ACT). Twenty participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SZ) and 35 nonpsychiatric controls (CT) completed both tasks and measures of negative symptoms and functioning...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Jamin J Day, Matthew R Sanders
In response to recent increases in the dissemination of Web-based parenting supports, an important consideration is whether the core benefits of self-directed participation in online parenting interventions are counterbalanced by issues such as high dropout and noncompletion rates commonly reported within the Internet intervention literature. This study outlines a randomized controlled trial of Triple P Online, a Web-based variant of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program, delivered with varied levels of support scaffolding...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Shira Meir Drexler, Christian J Merz, Oliver T Wolf
Extinction learning, which creates new safety associations, is thought to be the mechanism underlying exposure therapy, commonly used for the treatment of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. The relative strength and availability for retrieval of both the fear and safety memories determine the response in a given situation. While the fear memory is often context-independent and may easily generalize, extinction memory is highly context-specific. "Renewal" of the extinguished fear memory might thus occur following a shift in context...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Amanda J Shallcross, Emily C Willroth, Aaron Fisher, Sona Dimidjian, James J Gross, Pallavi D Visvanathan, Iris B Mauss
We conducted a 26-month follow-up of a previously reported 12-month study that compared mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) to a rigorous active control condition (ACC) for depressive relapse/recurrence prevention and improvements in depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Participants in remission from major depression were randomized to an 8-week MBCT group (n = 46) or the ACC (n = 46). Outcomes were assessed at baseline; postintervention; and 6, 12, and 26 months. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no differences between groups for any outcome over the 26-month follow-up...
September 2018: Behavior Therapy
Phoebe H Durland, Christopher M Wyszynski, Brian C Chu
Sudden gains (SGs), referring to large, stable symptom improvement occurring between consecutive treatment sessions, have been associated with improved outcomes among adults with various psychological disorders. Little research exists on SGs or sudden symptom worsening (i.e., sudden regressions [SRs]) during treatment for youth disorders. The current study examined predictors and outcomes of SGs/SRs via multiple informants in youth anxiety treatment. Participants were 118 youth (age M = 11.6, SD = 2.5; 53.8% female) and their caregivers receiving a cognitive-behavioral therapy protocol for a principal anxiety disorder...
September 2018: Behavior Therapy
Sarah A Hayes-Skelton, Carol S Lee
To further improve treatments, we need to better understand potential common treatment mechanisms, such as decentering, or the ability to observe thoughts and feelings as objective events in the mind rather than personally identifying with them (Safran & Segal, 1990). Therefore, this study examined whether 12 sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) for 63 clients (57.6% female, 50.8% White) diagnosed with social anxiety disorder led to increases in decentering and whether increased decentering was associated with improved outcome...
September 2018: Behavior Therapy
Matthew J Woodward, Sandra B Morissette, Nathan A Kimbrel, Eric C Meyer, Bryann B DeBeer, Suzy B Gulliver, J Gayle Beck
Although there is a strong and consistent association between social support and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the directionality of this association has been debated, with some research indicating that social support protects against PTSD symptoms, whereas other research suggests that PTSD symptoms erode social support. The majority of studies in the literature have been cross-sectional, rendering directionality impossible to determine. Cross-lagged panel models overcome many previous limitations; however, findings from the few studies employing these designs have been mixed, possibly due to methodological differences including self-report versus clinician-administered assessment...
September 2018: Behavior Therapy
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