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Studies in History and Philosophy of Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497588/knowledge-transfer-without-knowledge-the-case-of-agentive-metaphors-in-biology
#1
Ariane Castellane, Cédric Paternotte
Are scientific metaphors dispensable shortcuts that encapsulate knowledge but can always be translated back? Or do they constitute cases of knowledge transfer, even if seemingly based on scientifically underdeveloped domains? This paper defends the latter view. By drawing on the linguistic theories of metaphors, we assess a variety of agentive metaphors that pervade biology. Intentional metaphors are found unsatisfying because their use is either rigid or too widely flexible. By contrast, rational agent metaphors constitute good scientific metaphors, displaying flexible use and heuristic fruitfulness...
December 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497587/constructing-dystopian-experience-a-neurath-cartwrightian-approach-to-the-philosophy-of-social-technology
#2
Ivan Ferreira da Cunha
Social situations, the object of the social sciences, are complex and unique: they contain so many variable aspects that they cannot be reproduced, and it is even difficult to experience two situations that are alike in many respects. The social scientists' past experiences that serve as their background knowledge to intervene in an existent situation is poor compared to what a traditional epistemologist would consider ideal. A way of dealing with the variable and insufficient background of social scientists is by means of models...
December 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497586/rip-it-up-and-start-again-the-rejection-of-a-characterization-of-a-phenomenon
#3
David Colaço
In this paper, I investigate the nature of empirical findings that provide evidence for the characterization of a scientific phenomenon, and the defeasible nature of this evidence. To do so, I explore an exemplary instance of the rejection of a characterization of a scientific phenomenon: memory transfer. I examine the reason why the characterization of memory transfer was rejected, and analyze how this rejection tied to researchers' failures to resolve experimental issues relating to replication and confounds...
December 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497585/mechanisms-the-interventionist-theory-and-the-ability-to-use-causal-relationships
#4
Georgie Statham
In the area of social science, in particular, although we have developed methods for reliably discovering the existence of causal relationships, we are not very good at using these to design effective social policy. Cartwright argues that in order to improve our ability to use causal relationships, it is essential to develop a theory of causation that makes explicit the connections between the nature of causation, our best methods for discovering causal relationships, and the uses to which these are put. I argue that Woodward's interventionist theory of causation is uniquely suited to meet Cartwright's challenge...
December 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497584/the-role-of-psychology-in-behavioral-economics-the-case-of-social-preferences
#5
Chiara Lisciandra
Behavioral economics is a field of study that is often thought of as interdisciplinary, insofar as it uses psychological insights to inform economic models. Yet the level of conceptual and methodological exchange between the two disciplines is disputed in the literature. On the one hand, behavioral economic models are often presented as psychologically informed models of individual decision-making (Camerer & Loewenstein, 2003). On the other hand, these models have often been criticized for being merely more elaborated "as if" economic models (Berg & Gigerenzer, 2010)...
December 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497583/microbes-mathematics-and-models
#6
Maureen A O'Malley, Emily C Parke
Microbial model systems have a long history of fruitful use in fields that include evolution and ecology. In order to develop further insight into modelling practice, we examine how the competitive exclusion and coexistence of competing species have been modelled mathematically and materially over the course of a long research history. In particular, we investigate how microbial models of these dynamics interact with mathematical or computational models of the same phenomena. Our cases illuminate the ways in which microbial systems and equations work as models, and what happens when they generate inconsistent findings about shared targets...
December 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342578/towards-a-research-program-in-kantian-positive-psychology
#7
Patrick R Frierson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342577/the-soul-as-the-guiding-idea-of-psychology-kant-on-scientific-psychology-systematicity-and-the-idea-of-the-soul
#8
Katharina T Kraus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342576/kant-and-the-scope-of-analogy-in-the-life-sciences
#9
Hein van den Berg
In the present paper I investigate the role that analogy plays in eighteenth-century biology and in Kant's philosophy of biology. I will argue that according to Kant, biology, as it was practiced in the eighteenth century, is fundamentally based on analogical reflection. However, precisely because biology is based on analogical reflection, biology cannot be a proper science. I provide two arguments for this interpretation. First, I argue that although analogical reflection is, according to Kant, necessary to comprehend the nature of organisms, it is also necessarily insufficient to fully comprehend the nature of organisms...
October 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342575/kant-on-science-and-normativity
#10
Alix Cohen
The aim of this paper is to explore Kant's account of normativity through the prism of the distinction between the natural and the human sciences. Although the pragmatic orientation of the human sciences is often defined in contrast with the theoretical orientation of the natural sciences, I show that they are in fact regulated by one and the same norm, namely reason's demand for autonomy.
October 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342574/the-stage-on-which-our-ingenious-play-is-performed-kant-s-epistemology-of-weltkenntnis
#11
Silvia De Bianchi
This paper focuses on Kant's account of physical geography and his theory of the Earth. In spelling out the epistemological foundations of Kant's physical geography, the paper examines 1) their connection to the mode of holding-to-be-true, mathematical construction and empirical certainty and 2) their implications for Kant's view of cosmopolitan right. Moreover, by showing the role played by the mathematical model of the Earth for the foundations of Kant's Doctrine of Right, the exact relationship between the latter and physical geography is highlighted...
October 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342573/a-kantian-account-of-mathematical-modelling-and-the-rationality-of-scientific-theory-change-the-role-of-the-equivalence-principle-in-the-development-of-general-relativity
#12
Jonathan Everett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342572/maimon-s-criticism-of-kant-s-doctrine-of-mathematical-cognition-and-the-possibility-of-metaphysics-as-a-science
#13
Hernán Pringe
The aim of this paper is to discuss Maimon's criticism of Kant's doctrine of mathematical cognition. In particular, we will focus on the consequences of this criticism for the problem of the possibility of metaphysics as a science. Maimon criticizes Kant's explanation of the synthetic a priori character of mathematics and develops a philosophical interpretation of differential calculus according to which mathematics and metaphysics become deeply interwoven. Maimon establishes a parallelism between two relationships: on the one hand, the mathematical relationship between the integral and the differential and on the other, the metaphysical relationship between the sensible and the supersensible...
October 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342571/the-problem-of-grounding-natural-modality-in-kant-s-account-of-empirical-laws-of-nature
#14
Kristina Engelhard
One of the central problems of Kant's account of the empirical laws of nature is: What grounds their necessity? In this article I discuss the three most important lines of interpretation and suggest a novel version of one of them. While the first interpretation takes the transcendental principles as the only sources of the empirical laws' necessity, the second interpretation takes the systematicity of the laws to guarantee their necessity. It is shown that both views involve serious problems. The third interpretation, the "causal powers interpretation", locates the source of the laws' necessity in the properties of natural objects...
October 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342570/kant-and-the-scope-of-the-analytic-method
#15
Brigitte Falkenburg
The paper investigates Kant's pre-critical views on the use of analytic and synthetic methods in Newtonian science and in philosophical reasoning. In his 1755/56 writings, Kant made use of two variants of the analytic method, i.e., conceptual analysis in a Cartesian (or Leibnizean) sense, and analysis of the phenomena in a Newtonian sense. His Prize Essay (1764) defends Newton's analytic method of physics as appropriate for philosophy, in contradistinction to the synthetic method of mathematics. A closer look, however, shows that Kant does not identify Newton's method with conceptual analysis, but just suggests a methodological analogy between both methods...
October 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342569/introduction-to-kant-s-philosophy-of-science-bridging-the-gap-between-the-natural-and-the-human-sciences
#16
EDITORIAL
Silvia De Bianchi, Katharina Kraus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30122257/afterward-humboldt-was-right
#17
M Norton Wise
Alexander von Humboldt provides a point of reference for questions that arise when reflecting on the papers in this special issue on "Experiencing the Global Environment," for he aimed to integrate local and global experience and qualitative and quantitative observation in his conceptions of physiognomy and of instruments. What are we to understand by direct experience? How do we draw the limits of our senses, whether in the larger world or internally? Does recent scholarly interest in distributed cognition illuminate the distributed experience of global phenomena obtained through mapping? How do our concepts shape our experience, whether local or global? Finally, do recent trends in the sciences, emphasizing complexity and contingency, tend to make traditional tensions between local and global priorities and between qualitative and quantitative description less relevant? Humboldt would have thought so...
August 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30122256/human-bodies-as-chemical-sensors-a-history-of-biomonitoring-for-environmental-health-and-regulation
#18
Angela N H Creager
The testing of human blood and urine for signs of chemical exposure has become the "gold standard" of environmental public health, leading to ongoing population studies in the US and Europe. Such methods first emerged over a century ago in medical and occupational contexts, as a means to calibrate drug doses for patients and prevent injury to workers from chemical or radiation exposure. This paper analyzes how human bodies have come to serve as unconscious sensors of their environments: containers of chemical information determined by expert testers...
August 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30122255/experiencing-deep-and-global-currents-at-a-prototypical-strait-1870s-and-1980s
#19
Lino Camprubí
Deep ocean currents are not accessible to direct human perception. Their insertion into global structures of circulation is even more profoundly removed from individual sensorial experience. But oceanographers tend to use wider concepts of experience to include instruments, traditions of observation and theoretical models. Historians and philosophers of science, as well as STS scholars, have also redefined scientific experience as operational and collective transformations of parts of the world around us into fragments of larger bodies of knowledge...
August 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30122254/can-animals-predict-earthquakes-bio-sentinels-as-seismic-sensors-in-communist-china-and-beyond
#20
Fa-Ti Fan
This paper examines the international research on abnormal animal behavior prior to earthquakes, with a focus on Chinese seismology during the Cultural Revolution. China experienced a series of powerful earthquakes in the 1960s and 1970s; in response, its scientists developed approaches to earthquake prediction, including the use of bio-sentinels. The paper demonstrates that Chinese seismology did not treat an earthquake simply as a geophysical event, but rather as an amalgam of environmental phenomena, including sensory experiences...
August 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
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