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Computers in Biology and Medicine

G P Chuiko, O V Dvornik, S I Shyian, Ye A Baganov
BACKGROUND: A new computer model for systolic pulse waves within the cardiovascular system is presented. The emphasis was made on blood stroke volume (BS). The new waveform for pulse wave demands the re-computing of the BS. The authors showed the applicability of suggested model for arterial aging problem. METHODS: Suggested model is based on the well-known Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. Instead of the common accepted solitary wave, the periodical cnoidal wave is used...
October 14, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Zuzana Visnovcova, Michal Mestanik, Michal Gala, Andrea Mestanikova, Ingrid Tonhajzerova
The aim of this study was to evaluate potential changes in the electrodermal activity (EDA) to enable the detection of variations in the sympathetic nervous system during mental load and recovery period. Several EDA parameters were used: SCA (skin conductance amplitude), frequency of NS-EDR (nonspecific electrodermal responses), SIE (symbolic information entropy), and ApEn (approximate entropy). The cohort consisted of 50 healthy students (average age: 23.33±0.24yr., 25 women). The stress profile consisted of five phases: baseline (P1), Stroop test (P2), recovery (P3), mental arithmetic test (P4), and recovery (P5)...
October 14, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Maryam Songhorzadeh, Karim Ansari-Asl, Alimorad Mahmoudi
Quantifying delayed directional couplings between electroencephalographic (EEG) time series requires an efficient method of causal network inference. This is especially due to the limited knowledge about the underlying dynamics of the brain activity. Recent methods based on information theoretic measures such as Transfer Entropy (TE) made significant progress on this issue by providing a model-free framework for causality detection. However, TE estimation from observed data is not a trivial task, especially when the number of variables is large which is the case in a highly complex system like human brain...
October 14, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Minglei Yang, Hui Ding, Lei Zhu, Guangzhi Wang
PURPOSE: Ultrasound fusion imaging is an emerging tool and benefits a variety of clinical applications, such as image-guided diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and unresectable liver metastases. However, respiratory liver motion-induced misalignment of multimodal images (i.e., fusion error) compromises the effectiveness and practicability of this method. The purpose of this paper is to develop a subject-specific liver motion model and automatic registration-based method to correct the fusion error...
October 13, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Łukasz Jeleń, Adam Krzyżak, Thomas Fevens, Michał Jeleń
Grading of breast cancer malignancy is a key step in its diagnosis, which in turn helps to determine its prognosis and a course of treatment. In this paper, we consider the application of pattern recognition and image processing techniques to perform computer-assisted automatic breast cancer malignancy grading from cytological slides of fine needle aspiration biopsies. To determine a classification of the malignancy of the slide, a feature set is first determined from imagery of the slides. In this paper we investigated the nature of a wide set of features extracted from biopsy images to determine their discriminatory power and cross-correlation...
October 13, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Fayyaz Ul Amir Afsar Minhas, Amina Asif, Muhammad Arif
: Feature selection and ranking is of great importance in the analysis of biomedical data. In addition to reducing the number of features used in classification or other machine learning tasks, it allows us to extract meaningful biological and medical information from a machine learning model. Most existing approaches in this domain do not directly model the fact that the relative importance of features can be different in different regions of the feature space. In this work, we present a context aware feature ranking algorithm called CAFÉ-Map...
October 11, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Wolfgang Fuhl, Thiago Santini, Carsten Reichert, Daniel Claus, Alois Herkommer, Hamed Bahmani, Katharina Rifai, Siegfried Wahl, Enkelejda Kasneci
Modern microsurgery is a long and complex task requiring the surgeon to handle multiple microscope controls while performing the surgery. Eye tracking provides an additional means of interaction for the surgeon that could be used to alleviate this situation, diminishing surgeon fatigue and surgery time, thus decreasing risks of infection and human error. In this paper, we introduce a novel algorithm for pupil detection tailored for eye images acquired through an unmodified microscope ocular. The proposed approach, the Hough transform, and six state-of-the-art pupil detection algorithms were evaluated on over 4000 hand-labeled images acquired from a digital operating microscope with a non-intrusive monitoring system for the surgeon eyes integrated...
October 7, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Congbo Cai, Xi Chen, Weijun Liu, Shuhui Cai, Delu Zeng, Xinghao Ding
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) reconstruction is a well-known ill-posed problem. Various regularization techniques have been proposed for solving this problem. In this paper, a rapid method is proposed that uses ℓ0 norm minimization in a gradient domain. Because ℓ0 minimization is an NP-hard problem, a special alternating optimization strategy is employed to simplify the reconstruction algorithm. The proposed algorithm uses only simple point-wise multiplications and thresholding operations, and significantly speeds up the calculation...
October 4, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Faten M'hiri, Luc Duong, Christian Desrosiers, Mohamed Leye, Joaquim Miró, Mohamed Cheriet
The segmentation and tracking of coronary arteries (CAs) are critical steps for the computation of biophysical measurements in pediatric interventional cardiology. In the literature, most methods are focused on either segmenting the vessel lumen or on tracking the vessel centerline. However, they do not simultaneously combine the segmentation and tracking of a specific CA. This paper introduces a novel algorithm for CA segmentation and tracking from 2D X-ray angiography sequences. The proposed algorithm is based on the Temporal Vessel Walker (TVW) segmentation method, which combines graph-based formulation and temporal priors...
October 4, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Blaz Skrlj, Tanja Kunej
BACKGROUND: Protein-protein interactions (PPI) play an important role in function of all organisms and enable understanding of underlying metabolic processes. Computational predictions of PPIs are an important aspect in proteomics, as experimental methods may result in high degree of false positive results and are more expensive. Although there are many databases collecting predicted PPIs, exploration of genetics information underlying PPI interactions has not been investigated thoroughly...
October 4, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Lin Cheng, Matthew D Blackledge, David J Collins, Matthew R Orton, Neil P Jerome, Thorsten Feiweier, Mihaela Rata, Veronica Morgan, Nina Tunariu, Martin O Leach, Dow-Mu Koh
PURPOSE: To introduce T2-adjusted computed DWI (T2-cDWI), a method that provides synthetic images at arbitrary b-values and echo times (TEs) that improve tissue contrast by removing or increasing T2 contrast in diffusion-weighted images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to the standard DWI acquisition protocol T2-weighted echo-planar images at multiple (≥2) echo times were acquired. This allows voxelwise estimation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2 values, permitting synthetic images to be generated at any chosen b-value and echo time...
October 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Mahsa Akhbari, Mohammad B Shamsollahi, Omid Sayadi, Antonis A Armoundas, Christian Jutten
In this paper, we propose a novel method for extracting fiducial points (FPs) of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. We propose the use of multi hidden Markov model (MultiHMM) as opposed to the traditional use of Classic HMM. In the MultiHMM method, each segment of an ECG beat is represented by a separate ergodic continuous density HMM. Each HMM has different state number and is trained separately. In the test step, the log-likelihood of two consecutive HMMs is compared and a path is estimated, which shows the correspondence of each part of the ECG signal to the HMM with the maximum log-likelihood...
September 28, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Hui Yang, Fabio Leonelli
QRS morphology is commonly used in the electrocardiographic diagnosis of ventricular depolarization such as left bundle branch block (LBBB) and ventricular septal infarction. We investigated whether pattern matching of QRS loops in the 3-dimensional vectorcardiogram (VCG) will improve the grouping of patients whose space-time electrical activity akin to each other, thereby assisting in clinical decision making. First, pattern dissimilarity of VCG QRS loops is qualitatively measured and characterized among patients, resulting in a 93×93 distance matrix of patient-to-patient dissimilarity...
September 28, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Isabel N Figueiredo, Susana Moura, Júlio S Neves, Luís Pinto, Sunil Kumar, Carlos M Oliveira, João D Ramos
In this work we propose a novel method for identifying individuals based on retinal fundus image matching. The method is based on the image registration of retina blood vessels, since it is known that the retina vasculature of an individual is a signature, i.e., a distinctive pattern of the individual. The proposed image registration consists of a multiscale affine registration followed by a multiscale elastic registration. The major advantage of this particular two-step image registration procedure is that it is able to account for both rigid and non-rigid deformations either inherent to the retina tissues or as a result of the imaging process itself...
September 26, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Juan C Rodriguez, Germán A González, Cristóbal Fresno, Andrea S Llera, Elmer A Fernández
Transcriptome analysis is essential to understand the mechanisms regulating key biological processes and functions. The first step usually consists of identifying candidate genes; to find out which pathways are affected by those genes, however, functional analysis (FA) is mandatory. The most frequently used strategies for this purpose are Gene Set and Singular Enrichment Analysis (GSEA and SEA) over Gene Ontology. Several statistical methods have been developed and compared in terms of computational efficiency and/or statistical appropriateness...
September 24, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Jaspal Singh, R K Sharma, A K Gupta
Computers are used extensively in sleep labs for polysomnography and for assistance in sleep staging. However, the test is highly inconvenient to the patient and requires availability of specially equipped sleep labs. Alternative approaches that enable unobtrusive in-home sleep staging with ECG or other signals are highly desirable. In this paper we describe a method that can be used for distinction of REM and NREM sleep stages using spectral and non-linear features of ECG derived RR interval series. To test the accuracy of the system, we extracted the RR interval series from sleep studies of 20 young healthy individuals...
September 23, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Shady Elmasry, Shihab Asfour, Juan Pablo de Rivero Vaccari, Francesco Travascio
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is well-known for upregulating cell proliferation and biosynthesis of the extracellular matrix in the intervertebral disc (IVD). Pathological conditions, such as obesity or chronic kidney disease cause IGF-1 deficiency in plasma. How this deficiency impacts disc homeostasis remains unknown. Pro-anabolic approaches for the treatment of disc degeneration based on enhancing IGF-1 bioavailability to tissue-cells are considered, but knowledge of their effectiveness in enhancing cellular anabolism of a degenerated disc is limited...
September 22, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Jianbing Yi, Hao Yang, Xuan Yang, Guoliang Chen
We propose a deformable registration approach to estimate patient-specific lung motion during free breathing for four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) based on point matching and tracking between images in different phases. First, a robust point matching (RPM) algorithm coarsely aligns the source phase image onto all other target phase images of 4D CT. Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) is introduced into the cost function in order to accelerate and stabilize the convergence of the point matching...
September 20, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Yuwei Zhou, Uygar Teomete, Ozgur Dandin, Onur Osman, Taner Dandinoglu, Ulas Bagci, Weizhao Zhao
Bowing fractures are incomplete fractures of tubular long bones, often observed in pediatric patients, where plain radiographic film is the non-invasive imaging modality of choice in routine radiological workflow. Due to weak association between bent bone and distinct cortex disruption, bowing fractures may not be diagnosed properly while reading plain radiography. Missed fractures and dislocations are common in accidents and emergency practice, particularly in children. These missed injuries can result in more complicated treatment or even long-term disability...
September 17, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Behdad Pouran, Vahid Arbabi, Harrie Weinans, Amir A Zadpoor
Transport of solutes helps to regulate normal physiology and proper function of cartilage in diarthrodial joints. Multiple studies have shown the effects of characteristic parameters such as concentration of proteoglycans and collagens and the orientation of collagen fibrils on the diffusion process. However, not much quantitative information and accurate models are available to help understand how the characteristics of the fluid surrounding articular cartilage influence the diffusion process. In this study, we used a combination of micro-computed tomography experiments and biphasic-solute finite element models to study the effects of three parameters of the overlying bath on the diffusion of neutral solutes across cartilage zones...
September 17, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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