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Computers in Biology and Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778926/a-computational-approach-to-estimate-postmortem-interval-using-opacity-development-of-eye-for-human-subjects
#1
İsmail Cantürk, Lale Özyılmaz
This paper presents an approach to postmortem interval (PMI) estimation, which is a very debated and complicated area of forensic science. Most of the reported methods to determine PMI in the literature are not practical because of the need for skilled persons and significant amounts of time, and give unsatisfactory results. Additionally, the error margin of PMI estimation increases proportionally with elapsed time after death. It is crucial to develop practical PMI estimation methods for forensic science. In this study, a computational system is developed to determine the PMI of human subjects by investigating postmortem opacity development of the eye...
May 17, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778925/deep-learning-strategy-for-accurate-carotid-intima-media-thickness-measurement-an-ultrasound-study-on-japanese-diabetic-cohort
#2
Mainak Biswas, Venkatanareshbabu Kuppili, Tadashi Araki, Damodar Reddy Edla, Elisa Cuadrado Godia, Luca Saba, Harman S Suri, Tomaž Omerzu, John R Laird, Narendra N Khanna, Andrew Nicolaides, Jasjit S Suri
MOTIVATION: The carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an important biomarker for cardiovascular diseases and stroke monitoring. This study presents an intelligence-based, novel, robust, and clinically-strong strategy that uses a combination of deep-learning (DL) and machine-learning (ML) paradigms. METHODOLOGY: A two-stage DL-based system (a class of AtheroEdge™ systems) was proposed for cIMT measurements. Stage I consisted of a convolution layer-based encoder for feature extraction and a fully convolutional network-based decoder for image segmentation...
May 12, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775912/an-accurate-sleep-stages-classification-system-using-a-new-class-of-optimally-time-frequency-localized-three-band-wavelet-filter-bank
#3
Manish Sharma, Deepanshu Goyal, P V Achuth, U Rajendra Acharya
Sleep related disorder causes diminished quality of lives in human beings. Sleep scoring or sleep staging is the process of classifying various sleep stages which helps to detect the quality of sleep. The identification of sleep-stages using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is an arduous task. Just by looking at an EEG signal, one cannot determine the sleep stages precisely. Sleep specialists may make errors in identifying sleep stages by visual inspection. To mitigate the erroneous identification and to reduce the burden on doctors, a computer-aided EEG based system can be deployed in the hospitals, which can help identify the sleep stages, correctly...
May 10, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775913/mobile-phone-based-evaluation-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-proof-of-concept-for-an-integrated-image-capture-and-analysis-system
#4
Safa Naraghi, Tinashe Mutsvangwa, René Goliath, Molebogeng X Rangaka, Tania S Douglas
BACKGROUND: The tuberculin skin test is the most widely used method for detecting latent tuberculosis infection in adults and active tuberculosis in children. We present the development of a mobile-phone based screening tool for measuring the tuberculin skin test induration. METHOD: The tool makes use of a mobile application developed on the Android platform to capture images of an induration, and photogrammetric reconstruction using Agisoft PhotoScan to reconstruct the induration in 3D, followed by 3D measurement of the induration with the aid of functions from the Python programming language...
May 8, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758455/deep-neural-networks-for-automatic-detection-of-osteoporotic-vertebral-fractures-on-ct-scans
#5
Naofumi Tomita, Yvonne Y Cheung, Saeed Hassanpour
Osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs) are prevalent in older adults and are associated with substantial personal suffering and socio-economic burden. Early diagnosis and treatment of OVFs are critical to prevent further fractures and morbidity. However, OVFs are often under-diagnosed and under-reported in computed tomography (CT) exams as they can be asymptomatic at an early stage. In this paper, we present and evaluate an automatic system that can detect incidental OVFs in chest, abdomen, and pelvis CT examinations at the level of practicing radiologists...
May 8, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754992/the-utility-of-routine-clinical-12-lead-ecg-in-assessing-eligibility-for-subcutaneous-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator
#6
Jason A Thomas, Erick Andres Perez-Alday, Christopher Hamilton, Muammar M Kabir, Eugene A Park, Larisa G Tereshchenko
INTRODUCTION: The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) is a life-saving device. Recording of a specialized 3-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is required for S-ICD eligibility assessment. The goals of this study were: (1) evaluate the effect of ECG filtering on S-ICD eligibility, and (2) simplify S-ICD eligibility assessment by development of an S-ICD ineligibility prediction tool, which utilizes the widely available routine 12-lead ECG. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective cross-sectional study participants [n = 68; 54% male; 94% white, with wide ranges of age (18-81 y), body mass index (19-53), QRS duration (66-150 ms), and left ventricular ejection fraction (37-77%)] underwent 12-lead supine, 3-lead supine and standing ECG recording...
May 8, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763764/machine-learning-based-brain-tumour-segmentation-on-limited-data-using-local-texture-and-abnormality
#7
Stijn Bonte, Ingeborg Goethals, Roel Van Holen
Brain tumour segmentation in medical images is a very challenging task due to the large variety in tumour shape, position, appearance, scanning modalities and scanning parameters. Most existing segmentation algorithms use information from four different MRI-sequences, but since this is often not available, there is need for a method able to delineate the different tumour tissues based on a minimal amount of data. We present a novel approach using a Random Forests model combining voxelwise texture and abnormality features on a contrast-enhanced T1 and FLAIR MRI...
May 7, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758454/biomechanical-investigation-on-the-influence-of-the-regional-material-degeneration-of-an-intervertebral-disc-in-a-lower-lumbar-spinal-unit-a-finite-element-study
#8
Masni-Azian, Masao Tanaka
Intervertebral disc degeneration involves changes in its material properties that affect the mechanical functions of the spinal system. However, the alteration of the biomechanics of a spinal segment through specific material degradation in a specific region is poorly understood. In this study, the influence of the constitutive material degeneration of disc tissues on the mechanics of a lower lumbar spinal unit was examined using a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model of the L4-L5 functional spinal unit...
May 6, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763765/towards-understanding-the-complexity-of-cardiovascular-oscillations-insights-from-information-theory
#9
Michal Javorka, Jana Krohova, Barbora Czippelova, Zuzana Turianikova, Zuzana Lazarova, Radovan Wiszt, Luca Faes
Cardiovascular complexity is a feature of healthy physiological regulation, which stems from the simultaneous activity of several cardiovascular reflexes and other non-reflex physiological mechanisms. It is manifested in the rich dynamics characterizing the spontaneous heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV and BPV). The present study faces the challenge of disclosing the origin of short-term HRV and BPV from the statistical perspective offered by information theory. To dissect the physiological mechanisms giving rise to cardiovascular complexity in different conditions, measures of predictive information, information storage, information transfer and information modification were applied to the beat-to-beat variability of heart period (HP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and respiratory volume signal recorded non-invasively in 61 healthy young subjects at supine rest and during head-up tilt (HUT) and mental arithmetics (MA)...
May 5, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773226/training-of-polyp-staging-systems-using-mixed-imaging-modalities
#10
Georg Wimmer, Michael Gadermayr, Roland Kwitt, Michael Häfner, Toru Tamaki, Shigeto Yoshida, Shinji Tanaka, Dorit Merhof, Andreas Uhl
BACKGROUND: In medical image data sets, the number of images is usually quite small. The small number of training samples does not allow to properly train classifiers which leads to massive overfitting to the training data. In this work, we investigate whether increasing the number of training samples by merging datasets from different imaging modalities can be effectively applied to improve predictive performance. Further, we investigate if the extracted features from the employed image representations differ between different imaging modalities and if domain adaption helps to overcome these differences...
May 4, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758453/estimation-and-tracking-of-ap-diameter-of-the-inferior-vena-cava-in-ultrasound-images-using-a-novel-active-circle-algorithm
#11
Ebrahim Karami, Mohamed S Shehata, Andrew Smith
Medical research suggests that the anterior-posterior (AP)-diameter of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and its associated temporal variation as imaged by bedside ultrasound is useful in guiding fluid resuscitation of the critically-ill patient. Unfortunately, indistinct edges and gaps in vessel walls are frequently present which impede accurate estimation of the IVC AP-diameter for both human operators and segmentation algorithms. The majority of research involving use of the IVC to guide fluid resuscitation involves manual measurement of the maximum and minimum AP-diameter as it varies over time...
May 4, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758452/evaluation-of-machine-learning-algorithms-for-improved-risk-assessment-for-down-s-syndrome
#12
Aki Koivu, Teemu Korpimäki, Petri Kivelä, Tapio Pahikkala, Mikko Sairanen
Prenatal screening generates a great amount of data that is used for predicting risk of various disorders. Prenatal risk assessment is based on multiple clinical variables and overall performance is defined by how well the risk algorithm is optimized for the population in question. This article evaluates machine learning algorithms to improve performance of first trimester screening of Down syndrome. Machine learning algorithms pose an adaptive alternative to develop better risk assessment models using the existing clinical variables...
May 4, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747059/toward-optimal-feature-and-time-segment-selection-by-divergence-method-for-eeg-signals-classification
#13
Jie Wang, Zuren Feng, Na Lu, Jing Luo
Feature selection plays an important role in the field of EEG signals based motor imagery pattern classification. It is a process that aims to select an optimal feature subset from the original set. Two significant advantages involved are: lowering the computational burden so as to speed up the learning procedure and removing redundant and irrelevant features so as to improve the classification performance. Therefore, feature selection is widely employed in the classification of EEG signals in practical brain-computer interface systems...
May 3, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747060/acoustic-stimulation-on-the-round-window-for-active-middle-ear-implants
#14
Kiwoong Seong, Kyuyup Lee, Sunil Puria, Jin-Ho Cho
Many clinical reports have discussed the effectiveness of stimulating the ear's round window (RW) with a tool to mitigate conductive and mixed hearing loss. The RW is one of the two openings from the middle ear into the inner ear. Various methods have been proposed to construct a highly efficient, easily implanted, and reliable RW transducer. Devices, however, such as floating mass transducers, have difficulty establishing proper contact without some degree of bone incision around the RW. Additionally, vibration energy may not be fully transmitted to the cochlea, but instead will be spread through the soft tissue around the transducer...
May 2, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777986/predicting-of-the-refractive-index-of-haemoglobin-using-the-hybrid-ga-svr-approach
#15
Tajudeen A Oyehan, Ibrahim O Alade, Aliyu Bagudu, Kazeem O Sulaiman, Sunday O Olatunji, Tawfik A Saleh
The optical properties of blood play crucial roles in medical diagnostics and treatment, and in the design of new medical devices. Haemoglobin is a vital constituent of the blood whose optical properties affect all of the optical properties of human blood. The refractive index of haemoglobin has been reported to strongly depend on its concentration which is a function of the physiology of biological cells. This makes the refractive index of haemoglobin an essential non-invasive bio-marker of diseases. Unfortunately, the complexity of blood tissue makes it challenging to experimentally measure the refractive index of haemoglobin...
April 30, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739614/automated-classification-of-celiac-disease-during-upper-endoscopy-status-quo-and-quo-vadis
#16
M Gadermayr, G Wimmer, H Kogler, A Vécsei, D Merhof, A Uhl
A large amount of digital image material is routinely captured during esophagogastroduodenoscopies but, for the most part, is not used for confirming the diagnosis process of celiac disease which is primarily based on histological examination of biopsies. Recently, considerable effort has been undertaken to make use of image material by developing semi- or fully-automated systems to improve the diagnostic workup. Recently, focus was especially laid on developing state-of-the-art deep learning architectures, exploiting the endoscopist's expert knowledge and on making systems fully automated and thereby completely observer independent...
April 27, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730498/computer-aided-detection-of-ureteral-stones-in-thin-slice-computed-tomography-volumes-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#17
Martin Längkvist, Johan Jendeberg, Per Thunberg, Amy Loutfi, Mats Lidén
Computed tomography (CT) is the method of choice for diagnosing ureteral stones - kidney stones that obstruct the ureter. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer aided detection (CAD) algorithm for identifying a ureteral stone in thin slice CT volumes. The challenge in CAD for urinary stones lies in the similarity in shape and intensity of stones with non-stone structures and how to efficiently deal with large high-resolution CT volumes. We address these challenges by using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) that works directly on the high resolution CT volumes...
April 27, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729489/gene-selection-for-microarray-gene-expression-classification-using-bayesian-lasso-quantile-regression
#18
Zakariya Yahya Algamal, Rahim Alhamzawi, Haithem Taha Mohammad Ali
Gene selection has been proven to be an effective way to improve the results of many classification methods. However, existing gene selection techniques in binary classification regression are sensitive to outliers of the data, heteroskedasticity or other anomalies of the latent response. In this paper, we propose a new Bayesian hierarchical model to overcome these problems in a relatively straightforward way. In particular, we propose a new Bayesian Lasso method that employs a skewed Laplace distribution for the errors and a scaled mixture of uniform distribution for the regression parameters, together with Bayesian MCMC estimation...
April 27, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715596/complex-network-theory-for-the-identification-and-assessment-of-candidate-protein-targets
#19
Ken McGarry, Sharon McDonald
In this work we use complex network theory to provide a statistical model of the connectivity patterns of human proteins and their interaction partners. Our intention is to identify important proteins that may be predisposed to be potential candidates as drug targets for therapeutic interventions. Target proteins usually have more interaction partners than non-target proteins, but there are no hard-and-fast rules for defining the actual number of interactions. We devise a statistical measure for identifying hub proteins, we score our target proteins with gene ontology annotations...
April 26, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723809/global-sensitivity-analysis-of-hepatic-venous-pressure-gradient-hvpg-measurement-with-a-stochastic-computational-model-of-the-hepatic-circulation
#20
Tianqi Wang, Fuyou Liang, Zunqiang Zhou, Xiaolong Qi
Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is a widely employed surrogate of portal pressure gradient (PPG) in the diagnosis of portal hypertension (PHT). However, little is known about how HVPG measurement is affected by the complex vascular changes associated with PHT. In this study, we employed a computational method to quantitatively evaluate the sensitivity of HVPG measurement to various vascular factors involved in the development of sinusoidal PHT, aiming to provide a theoretical reference to guide the clinical application of HVPG measurement...
April 25, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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