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Computers in Biology and Medicine

Guobin Zhang, Shan Jiang, Zhiyong Yang, Li Gong, Xiaodong Ma, Zeyang Zhou, Chao Bao, Qi Liu
Automatic lung nodule detection has great significance for treating lung cancer and increasing patient survival. This work summarizes a critical review of recent techniques for automatic lung nodule detection in computed tomography images. This review indicates the current tendency and obtained progress as well as future challenges in this field. This research covered the databases including Web of Science, PubMed, and the Press, including IEEE Xplore and Science Direct, up to May 2018. Each part of the paper is summarized carefully in terms of the method and validation results for better comparison...
November 2, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Caroline H Roney, John Whitaker, Iain Sim, Louisa O'Neill, Rahul K Mukherjee, Orod Razeghi, Edward J Vigmond, Matthew Wright, Mark D O'Neill, Steven E Williams, Steven A Niederer
BACKGROUND: Cardiac conduction properties exhibit large variability, and affect patient-specific arrhythmia mechanisms. However, it is challenging to clinically measure conduction velocity (CV), anisotropy and fibre direction. Our aim is to develop a technique to estimate conduction anisotropy and fibre direction from clinically available electrical recordings. METHODS: We developed and validated automated algorithms for estimating cardiac CV anisotropy, from any distribution of recording locations on the atrial surface...
November 1, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
L G Wiedemann, V R Jayaneththi, J Kimpton, A Chan, M A Müller, A Hogan, E Lim, N C Wilson, A J McDaid
BACKGROUND: Muscles of individuals with Cerebral Palsy (CP) undergo structural changes over their lifespan including an increase in muscle stiffness, decreased strength and coordination. Being able to identify these changes non-invasively would be beneficial to improve understanding of CP and assess therapy effectiveness over time. This study aims to adapt an existing EMG-driven Hill-type muscle model for neuromuscular characterisation during isometric contractions of the elbow joint...
November 1, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Bruno Sciolla, Jimmy Le Digabel, Gwendal Josse, Thibaut Dambry, Benoît Guibert, Philippe Delachartre
We propose a novel joint segmentation and characterization algorithm for the assessment of skin aging using 50 MHz high-frequency ultrasound images. The proposed segmentation method allows a fine determination of the envelope signal's statistics in the dermis as a function of depth. The sequence of statistical estimates obtained is then combined into a single aging score. The segmentation is based on tailored recursive non-linear filters. The epidermis and the dermis are jointly segmented with a non-parametric active contour combining a texture criterion, an epidermis indicator map and the geometric constraint of horizontal continuity...
October 31, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Niam Abdulmunim Al-Thanoon, Omar Saber Qasim, Zakariya Yahya Algamal
In cancer classification, gene selection is one of the most important bioinformatics related topics. The selection of genes can be considered to be a variable selection problem, which aims to find a small subset of genes that has the most discriminative information for the classification target. The penalized support vector machine (PSVM) has proved its effectiveness at creating a strong classifier that combines the advantages of the support vector machine and penalization. PSVM with a smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD) penalty is the most widely used method...
October 31, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Ali Kermani, Ahmad Ayatollahi
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is widely known as a powerful interventional imaging modality for diagnosing atherosclerosis, and for treatment planning. In this regard, the detection of lumen and media-adventitia (MA) borders is considered to be a vital process. However, the manual detection of these two borders by the physician is cumbersome due to the large number of frames in a sequence. In addition, no approved universal automatic method has been presented so far due to the great diversity in the appearance of the coronary artery in the images acquired by different IVUS systems...
October 29, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
John K-J Li, Mehmet Kaya, Peter L M Kerkhof
Clinical cardiology diagnosis relies on the assessment of a set of specified parameters. Computer modeling is a powerful tool that can provide a realistic interpretation of the variations of these parameters through computational quantification. Here we present an overview of different aspects of diagnosis that are based on evaluation of either systolic or diastolic cardiac abnormalities. Emphasis is on the quantitative hemodynamic assessment and modeling. For myocardial ischemia and stunning, multi-scale modeling from single fiber to the global ventricular level is demonstrated...
October 28, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Dominik Spinczyk, Michał Maćkowski, Wojciech Kempa, Katarzyna Rojewska
Effective instruction and comprehension of mathematics are important for achieving academic and professional success but are especially difficult for visually impaired individuals because of the inherent difficulty in managing structural information included in math formulae. An evaluation of an alternative for computer-aided math instruction and comprehension among visually impaired students was developed, and the evaluation included seven detailed categories of factors: behavioral, emotional, cognitive, social, distracting, motivational, and modeling factors...
October 27, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Mohamed Elsayed Eldib, Mohamed A A Hegazy, Myung Hye Cho, Min Hyoung Cho, Soo Yeol Lee
High-resolution imaging is essential in three-dimensional (3D) CT image-based digital dentistry. A small amount of head motion during a CT scan can degrade the spatial resolution of the images to the extent where the efficacy of 3D image-based digital dentistry is greatly compromised. We introduce a retrospective motion artifact reduction (MAR) method for dental CTs that eliminates the necessity for any external motion tracking devices. Assuming that rigid-body motions are dominant in a dental scan of a human head, we extracted motion information from the projection data...
October 26, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Xun Li, Xin Wang, Ming Chen
BACKGROUND: The accuracy of extraction of biological characteristic curves in tooth preparations directly determines whether the tooth restorations and preparations are closely matched to allow appropriate adhesion. Ultimately, these will affect the success of the dental restoration surgery. In the process to obtain the tooth preparation, the dentist is required to grind the tooth manually and fuzzy regions may thus exist. Multiple feature curves with locally increased curvatures exist in these fuzzy regions, but only the outermost is preferred...
October 25, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Yu Hu, Hayley Dingerdissen, Samir Gupta, Robel Kahsay, Vijay Shanker, Quan Wan, Cheng Yan, Raja Mazumder
microRNAs (miRNAs) functioning in gene silencing have been associated with cancer progression. However, common abnormal miRNA expression patterns and their potential roles in cancer have not yet been evaluated. To account for individual differences between patients, we retrieved miRNA sequencing data for 575 patients with both tumor and adjacent non-tumorous tissues from 14 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We then performed differential expression analysis using DESeq2 and edgeR. Results showed that cancer types can be grouped based on the distribution of miRNAs with different expression patterns between tumor and non-tumor samples...
October 22, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Shanzhou Niu, You Zhang, Yuncheng Zhong, Guoliang Liu, Shaohui Lu, Xile Zhang, Shengzhou Hu, Tinghua Wang, Gaohang Yu, Jing Wang
In this paper, we present an iterative reconstruction for photon-counting CT using prior image constrained total generalized variation (PICTGV). This work aims to exploit structural correlation in the energy domain to reduce image noise in photon-counting CT with narrow energy bins. This is motived by the fact that the similarity between high-quality full-spectrum image and target image is an important prior knowledge for photon-counting CT reconstruction. The PICTGV method is implemented using a splitting-based fast iterative shrinkage-threshold algorithm (FISTA)...
October 22, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Giulia Gibiino, Loris Lopetuso, Riccardo Ricci, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Cammarota
Coeliac disease (CD) and gluten-related disorders represent an important cornerstone of the daily practice of gastroenterologists, endoscopists and dedicated histopathologists. Despite the knowledge of clinical, serological and histological typical lesions, there are some conditions to consider for differential diagnosis. From the first description of histology of CD, several studies were conducted to define similar findings suggestive for microscopic enteritis. Considering the establishment of early precursor lesions, the imbalance of gut microbiota is another point still requiring a detailed definition...
October 19, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Benjamin Csippa, Gábor Závodszky, György Paál, István Szikora
Aneurysm pathogenesis is thought to be strongly linked with hemodynamical effects. According to our current knowledge, the formation process is initiated by locally disturbed flow conditions. The aim of the current work is to provide a numerical investigation on the role of the flow field at the stage of the initiation, before the aneurysm formation. Digitally reconstructed pre-aneurysmal geometries are used to examine correlations of the flow patterns to the location and direction of the aneurysms formed later...
October 19, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Stefan Markus Niehues, Janis Lucas Vahldiek, Daniel Tröltzsch, Bernd Hamm, Seyd Shnayien
BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether Canon's Single-Energy Metal Artifact Reduction (SEMAR) algorithm can significantly improve subjective and objective image quality of patients with nonremovable dental hardware undergoing CT imaging of the oral cavity and oropharynx. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SEMAR was reconstructed from routine Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction (AIDR) images in 154 patients (46 females and 108 males; mean age 66.3 ± 10.5 years). Subjective SEMAR and AIDR image quality of the mouth floor, sublingual glands, lymphatic ring and overall impression were evaluated by two independent radiologists on a 6-point scale (1 = very good image quality, 6 = poor image quality) and compared to ratings of an oral and maxillofacial surgeon...
October 19, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Luiz Fernando Segato Dos Santos, Leandro Alves Neves, Guilherme Botazzo Rozendo, Matheus Gonçalves Ribeiro, Marcelo Zanchetta do Nascimento, Thaína Aparecida Azevedo Tosta
In this study, we propose to use a method based on the combination of sample entropy with multiscale and multidimensional approaches, along with a fuzzy function. The model was applied to quantify and classify H&E histological images of colorectal cancer. The multiscale approach was defined by analysing windows of different sizes and variations in tolerance for determining pattern similarity. The multidimensional strategy was performed by considering each pixel in the colour image as an n-dimensional vector, which was analysed from the Minkowski distance...
October 18, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
R M Romarowski, M Conti, S Morganti, V Grassi, M M Marrocco-Trischitta, S Trimarchi, F Auricchio
Thoracic endovascular aortic repair of the ascending aorta is becoming an option for patients considered unfit for open surgery. Such an endovascular procedure requires careful pre-operative planning and the customization of prosthesis design. The patient-specific tailoring of the procedure may call for dedicated tools to investigate virtual treatment scenarios. Given such considerations, the present study shows a computational framework for choosing and deploying stent-grafts via Finite Element Analysis, by supporting the device sizing and selection in a real case dealing with the endovascular treatment of a pseudoaneurysm...
October 18, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Nicholas J Napoli, Matthew W Demas, Sanjana Mendu, Chad L Stephens, Kellie D Kennedy, Angela R Harrivel, Randall E Bailey, Laura E Barnes
Heart rate complexity (HRC) is a proven metric for gaining insight into human stress and physiological deterioration. To calculate HRC, the detection of the exact instance of when the heart beats, the R-peak, is necessary. Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals can often be corrupted by environmental noise (e.g., from electromagnetic interference, movement artifacts), which can potentially alter the HRC measurement, producing erroneous inputs which feed into decision support models. Current literature has only investigated how HRC is affected by noise when R-peak detection errors occur (false positives and false negatives)...
October 17, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Jordi Minnema, Maureen van Eijnatten, Wouter Kouw, Faruk Diblen, Adriënne Mendrik, Jan Wolff
BACKGROUND: The most tedious and time-consuming task in medical additive manufacturing (AM) is image segmentation. The aim of the present study was to develop and train a convolutional neural network (CNN) for bone segmentation in computed tomography (CT) scans. METHOD: The CNN was trained with CT scans acquired using six different scanners. Standard tessellation language (STL) models of 20 patients who had previously undergone craniotomy and cranioplasty using additively manufactured skull implants served as "gold standard" models during CNN training...
October 16, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Asit Subudhi, U Rajendra Acharya, Manasa Dash, Subhransu Jena, Sukanta Sabut
It is difficult to develop an accurate algorithm to detect the stroke lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images due to variation in different lesion sizes, variation in morphological structure, and similarity in intensity of lesion with normal brain in three types of stroke, namely partial anterior circulation syndrome (PACS), lacunar syndrome (LACS) and total anterior circulation stroke (TACS). In this paper, we have integrated the advantages of Delaunay triangulation (DT) and fractional order Darwinian particle swarm optimization (FODPSO), called DT-FODPSO technique for automatic segmentation of the structure of the stroke lesion...
October 16, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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