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Computers in Biology and Medicine

Albert Comelli, Alessandro Stefano, Giorgio Russo, Maria Gabriella Sabini, Massimo Ippolito, Samuel Bignardi, Giovanni Petrucci, Anthony Yezzi
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging has an enormous potential to improve radiation therapy treatment planning offering complementary functional information with respect to other anatomical imaging approaches. The aim of this study is to develop an operator independent, reliable, and clinically feasible system for biological tumour volume delineation from PET images. Under this design hypothesis, we combine several known approaches in an original way to deploy a system with a high level of automation...
September 8, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Maddalena Valinoti, Alessandro Masci, Francesca Berto, Stefano Severi, Cristiana Corsi
BACKGROUND: Recently, the analysis of the spatio-temporal behavior of atrial fibrillation activation patterns has been widely investigated with the aim to better understand the arrhythmia implications on the heart electrical activity. Most of the proposed techniques are based on atrial activation timing detections. Unfortunately atrial activation timings are not easily recognizable on the electrograms (EGMs) and an approach to support the validation of such techniques is highly desirable...
September 6, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Abdennacer Ben Hmed, Toufik Bakir, Yoann M Garnier, Anis Sakly, Romuald Lepers, Stephane Binczak
BACKGROUND: Recent advanced applications of the functional electrical stimulation (FES) mostly used closed-loop control strategies based on mathematical models to improve the performance of the FES systems. In most of them, the pulse amplitude was used as an input control. However, in controlling the muscle force, the most popular force model developed by Ding et al. does not take into account the pulse amplitude effect. The purpose of this study was to include the pulse amplitude in the existing Ding et al...
September 3, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Bhargava K Reddy, Dursun Delen
Hospital readmission is one of the critical metrics used for measuring the performance of hospitals. The HITECH Act imposes penalties when patients are readmitted to hospitals if they are diagnosed with one of the six conditions mentioned in the Act. However, patients diagnosed with lupus are the sixth highest in terms of rehospitalization. The heterogeneity in the disease and patient characteristics makes it very hard to predict rehospitalization. This research utilizes deep learning methods to predict rehospitalization within 30 days by extracting the temporal relationships in the longitudinal EHR clinical data...
August 31, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Jess Tate, Jeroen Stinstra, Thomas Pilcher, Ahrash Poursaid, Matthew A Jolley, Elizabeth Saarel, John Triedman, Rob S MacLeod
Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are commonly used to reduce the risk in patients with life-threatening arrhythmias, however, clinicians have little systematic guidance to place the device, especially in cases of unusual anatomy. We have previously developed a computational model that evaluates the efficacy of a delivered shock as a clinical and research aid to guide ICD placement on a patient specific basis. We report here on progress to validate this model with measured ICD surface potential maps from patients undergoing ICD implantation and testing for defibrillation threshold (DFT)...
August 29, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Yin Kang, Jeffrey C Fink, Rebecca Doerfler, Lina Zhou
BACKGROUND: Adverse Event (AE) ontology can be used to support interoperability and computer-assisted reasoning of AEs. Despite significant progress in developing biomedical ontologies, they are facing the obstacle of adoption partly because those ontologies are too general to meet the requirements of a specific domain. Understanding and representing of AEs for a specific domain such as Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) has both theoretical and clinical significance. CKD patients are at a high risk for an array of disease-intervention specific AEs, and these in turn can contribute to disease progression unlike other diseases...
August 28, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Hung-Kai Chen, Yu-Feng Hu, Shien-Fong Lin
Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has recently been incorporated into wearable device application. The data source of HRV is the time series of heart beat intervals extracted from electrocardiogram or photoplethysmogram. These intervals are non-uniformly sampled signals and not suitable for spectral HRV analysis, which usually uses uniformly resampled heart beat intervals before calculating the spectral domain parameters. Such a practice is not applicable to heart rate data obtained from wearable devices that usually display and export the beat per minute (BPM) time series data at 1 Hz...
August 22, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Md Mosheyur Rahman, Mohammed Imamul Hassan Bhuiyan, Ahnaf Rashik Hassan
Sleep stage classification is an important task for the timely diagnosis of sleep disorders and sleep-related studies. In this paper, automatic scoring of sleep stages using Electrooculogram (EOG) is presented. Single channel EOG signals are analyzed in Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain employing various statistical features such as Spectral Entropy, Moment-based Measures, Refined Composite Multiscale Dispersion Entropy (RCMDE) and Autoregressive (AR) Model Coefficients. The discriminating ability of the features is studied using the One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and box plots...
August 22, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Trong-Nguyen Nguyen, Huu-Hung Huynh, Jean Meunier
It is proposed in this paper a reliable approach for human gait symmetry assessment using a Time-of-Flight (ToF) depth camera and two mirrors. The setup formed from these devices provides a sequence of 3D point clouds that is the input of our system. A cylindrical histogram is estimated for describing the posture in each point cloud. The sequence of such histograms is then separated into two sequences of sub-histograms representing two half-bodies. A cross-correlation technique is finally applied to provide values describing gait symmetry indices...
August 22, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Sumit K Banchhor, Narendra D Londhe, Tadashi Araki, Luca Saba, Petia Radeva, Narendra N Khanna, Jasjit S Suri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke. Typically, atherosclerotic calcium is found during the mature stage of the atherosclerosis disease. It is therefore often a challenge to identify and quantify the calcium. This is due to the presence of multiple components of plaque buildup in the arterial walls. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines point to the importance of calcium in the coronary and carotid arteries and further recommend its quantification for the prevention of heart disease...
August 20, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Qing Huang, Jinfeng Sun, Hui Ding, Xiaodong Wang, Guangzhi Wang
PURPOSE: Liver vessel extraction from CT images is essential in liver surgical planning. Liver vessel segmentation is difficult due to the complex vessel structures, and even expert manual annotations contain unlabeled vessels. This paper presents an automatic liver vessel extraction method using deep convolutional network and studies the impact of incomplete data annotation on segmentation accuracy evaluation. METHODS: We select the 3D U-Net and use data augmentation for accurate liver vessel extraction with few training samples and incomplete labeling...
August 18, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Muaaz Gul Awan, Taban Eslami, Fahad Saeed
In the age of ever increasing data, faster and more efficient data processing algorithms are needed. Graphics Processing Units (GPU) are emerging as a cost-effective alternative architecture for high-end computing. The optimal design of GPU algorithms is a challenging task which requires thorough understanding of the high performance computing architecture as well as the algorithmic design. The steep learning curve needed for effective GPU-centric algorithm design and implementation requires considerable expertise, time, and resources...
August 16, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Yen-Ling Sung, Chih-En Wu, Jhen-Yang Syu, Terry B J Kuo, Jai-Yi Li, Chieh-Wen Chen, Ching-Hui Weng, Wei-Hsuan Hsu, Shih-Ann Chen, Yu-Feng Hu, Shien-Fong Lin
Chronic hypertension is a multifactorial disease that is highly associated with cardiovascular disorders. Physical activity, such as long-term exercise, is advocated as a treatment for hypertension, but the responses of different age groups to long-term exercise are unknown. We used aged spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs, 80 weeks old) to test the hypothesis that long-term exercise compensated for deficient autonomic control and reduced susceptibility to ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) in this animal model...
August 16, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Winnie W Chung, Crystle-Joie G Agbayani, Ariana Martinez, Vu Le, Haydee Cortes, Kim Har, Zeev N Kain, Michelle A Fortier
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Despite advances in health care, the majority of children undergoing cancer treatment experience pain, particularly in the home setting. Mobile health tools provide a promising avenue to deliver pain management education and information to parents of children receiving cancer treatment. The current study describes the development and formative evaluation of a novel intervention, Cancer-Tailored Intervention for Pain and Symptoms (C-TIPS), which provides empirically-based pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain management information and coping skills training to parents of pediatric cancer patients...
August 16, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Olalekan Lee Aiyegbusi, Derek Kyte, Paul Cockwell, Tom Marshall, Mary Dutton, Natalie Walmsley-Allen, Ram Auti, Melanie Calvert
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a long-term medical condition associated with symptoms which may negatively impact on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures or questionnaires may be used to capture symptoms/HRQOL experienced by patients with advanced CKD. METHOD: Two PRO questionnaires were electronically adapted and incorporated in an electronic system developed at University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust (UHB), Birmingham...
August 16, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Ane Olazagoitia-Garmendia, Izortze Santin, Ainara Castellanos-Rubio
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder triggered by the consumption of dietary gluten that develops in genetically susceptible individuals. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and RNA sequencing technology (RNAseq) have helped in the detection of genes and genetic mechanisms involved in CD pathogenesis. However, the majority of the CD-associated variants reside in non-coding regions, which are mainly functionally uncharacterized. New evidences indicate that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in various biological processes and they have emerged as key regulatory molecules involved in the development of a wide range of diseases, including intestinal inflammatory disorders...
August 16, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Roy M John, Eric T Shinohara, Michael Price, William G Stevenson
Ablation of cardiac tissue using focused radiotherapy to control ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a novel therapeutic consideration in the management of ventricular arrhythmias associated with structural heart disease. Segments of ventricular myocardium that act as substrates for ventricular tachycardia can be identified by the use of invasive mapping techniques or non-invasive ECG incorporating multi-electrode body surface recordings and cardiac imaging. Early case series have demonstrated a consistent decrease in VT burden and sufficient acute safety to expand to more detailed multicenter studies...
August 11, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Safi, Mohammad Pooyan, Ali Motie Nasrabadi
The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) has received increasing attention in recent years. The present study proposes a new method for recognition based on system identification. The method relies on modeling the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals using the Box-Jenkins model. In this approach, the recorded EEG signal is considered as a combination of an SSVEP signal evoked by periodic visual stimulation and a background EEG signal whose components are modeled by a moving average (MA) process and an auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) process, respectively...
August 11, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Md Tauhidul Islam, Raffaella Righetti
Fluid pressure and fluid velocity carry important information for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Recent work has demonstrated that estimation of these parameters is theoretically possible using ultrasound poroelastography. However, accurate estimation of these parameters requires high quality axial and lateral strain estimates from noisy ultrasound radio frequency (RF) data. In this paper, we propose a filtering technique combining two efficient filters for removal of noise from strain images, i...
August 9, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Elisa Cuadrado-Godia, Md Maniruzzaman, Tadashi Araki, Anudeep Puvvula, Md Jahanur Rahman, Luca Saba, Harman S Suri, Ajay Gupta, Sumit K Banchhor, Jagjit S Teji, Tomaž Omerzu, Narendra N Khanna, John R Laird, Andrew Nicolaides, Sophie Mavrogeni, George D Kitas, Jasjit S Suri
BACKGROUND: This study examines the association between six types of carotid artery disease image-based phenotypes and HbA1c in diabetes patients. Six phenotypes (intima-media thickness measurements (cIMT (ave.), cIMT (max.), cIMT (min.)), bidirectional wall variability (cIMTV), morphology-based total plaque area (mTPA), and composite risk score (CRS)) were measured in an automated setting using AtheroEdge™ (AtheroPoint, CA, USA). METHOD: Consecutive 199 patients (157 M, age: 68...
August 8, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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