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Computers in Biology and Medicine

Fabrizio Pancaldi, Marco Sebastiani, Giulia Cassone, Fabrizio Luppi, Stefania Cerri, Giovanni Della Casa, Andreina Manfredi
The diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases in patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis is fundamental to improving their survival rate. In particular, the average survival time of patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis with pulmonary implications is approximately 3 years. The gold standard for confirming the diagnosis of this disease is computer tomography. However, it is very difficult to raise diagnosis suspicion because the symptoms of the disease are extremely common in elderly people. The detection of the so-called velcro crackle in lung sounds can effectively raise the suspicion of an interstitial disease and speed up diagnosis...
March 9, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Marko Barjaktarović, Milica M Janković, Marija Jeremić, Milovan Matović
Radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is used in clinical practice for the ablation of thyroid residues and/or destruction of tumour tissue. Whole-body scintigraphy for visualization of the spatial 131I distribution performed by a gamma camera (GC) is a standard procedure in DTC patients after application of radioiodine therapy. A common problem is the precise topographic localization of regions where radioiodine is accumulated even in SPECT imaging. SPECT/CT can provide precise topographic localization of regions where radioiodine is accumulated, but it is often unavailable, especially in developing countries because of the high price of the equipment...
March 9, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Cheng Jin, Jianjiang Feng, Lei Wang, Heng Yu, Jiang Liu, Jiwen Lu, Jie Zhou
In this paper, we present an approach for left atrial appendage (LAA) multi-phase fast segmentation and quantitative assisted diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) based on 4D-CT data. We take full advantage of the temporal dimension information to segment the living, flailed LAA based on a parametric max-flow method and graph-cut approach to build 3-D model of each phase. To assist the diagnosis of AF, we calculate the volumes of 3-D models, and then generate a "volume-phase" curve to calculate the important dynamic metrics: ejection fraction, filling flux, and emptying flux of the LAA's blood by volume...
March 9, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Irene Fondón, Auxiliadora Sarmiento, Ana Isabel García, María Silvestre, Catarina Eloy, António Polónia, Paulo Aguiar
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women. Its early diagnosis is extremely important to prevent avoidable deaths. However, malignancy assessment of tissue biopsies is complex and dependent on observer subjectivity. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained histological images exhibit a highly variable appearance, even within the same malignancy level. In this paper, we propose a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool for automated malignancy assessment of breast tissue samples based on the processing of histological images...
March 8, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Ali Abdollahi Gharbali, Shirin Najdi, José Manuel Fonseca
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, the contribution of distance-based features to automatic sleep stage classification is investigated. The potency of these features is analyzed individually and in combination with 48 conventionally used features. METHODS: The distance-based set consists of 32 features extracted by calculating Itakura, Itakura-Saito and COSH distances of autoregressive and spectral coefficients of Electrocardiography (EEG) (C3 -A2 ), Left EOG, Chin EMG and ECG signals...
March 7, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Abdullah Talha Sözer, Can Bülent Fidan
Steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain computer interface (BCI) systems can be realised using only one electrode; however, due to the inter-user and inter-trial differences, the handling of multiple electrode is preferred. This raises the problem of evaluating information from multiple electrode signals. To solve this problem, we developed a novel spatial filtering method (Generated Reference Filter) for SSVEP-based BCIs. In our method an artificial reference signal is generated by a combination of reference electrode signals...
March 6, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Gregory de Oliveira Feijó, Vicenzo Abichequer Sangalli, Isaac Newton Lima da Silva, Márcio Sarroglia Pinho
In this paper, a semi-automatic multi-object tracking method to track a group of unmarked zebrafish is proposed. This method can handle partial occlusion cases, maintaining the correct identity of each individual. For every object, we extracted a set of geometric features to be used in the two main stages of the algorithm. The first stage selected the best candidate, based both on the blobs identified in the image and the estimate generated by a Kalman Filter instance. In the second stage, if the same candidate-blob is selected by two or more instances, a blob-partitioning algorithm takes place in order to split this blob and reestablish the instances' identities...
March 3, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Alberto Gómez, Manuel Nieto-Díaz, Ángela Del Águila, Enrique Arias
Transparency in science is increasingly a hot topic. Scientists are required to show not only results but also evidence of how they have achieved these results. In experimental studies of spinal cord injury, there are a number of standardized tests, such as the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale for rats and Basso Mouse Scale for mice, which researchers use to study the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury and to evaluate the effects of experimental therapies. Although the standardized data from the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale and the Basso Mouse Scale are particularly suited for storage and sharing in databases, systems of data acquisition and repositories are still lacking...
March 2, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
B Robson, S Boray
Theoretical and methodological principles are presented for the construction of very large inference nets for odds calculations, composed of hundreds or many thousands or more of elements, in this paper generated by structured data mining. It is argued that the usual small inference nets can sometimes represent rather simple, arbitrary estimates. Examples of applications in clinical and public health data analysis, medical claims data and detection of irregular entries, and bioinformatics data, are presented...
February 28, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Tom Williamson, Scott Everitt, Sunita Chauhan
BACKGROUND: High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) represents a non-invasive method for the destruction of cancerous tissue within the body. Heating of targeted tissue by focused ultrasound transducers results in the creation of ellipsoidal lesions at the target site, the locations of which can have a significant impact on treatment outcomes. Towards this end, this work describes a method for the optimization of lesion positions within arbitrary tumors, with specific anatomical constraints...
February 26, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Hyunsuk Frank Roh, Jung Mogg Kim
RATIONALE: A hemodynamic relationship of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) to pulmonary acceleration time (PAcT) has not yet been explicitly presented. OBJECTIVE: We employed a logistic-based systolic model with a subtle modification for pulmonary circulation and provided a logical ground for the relationship between systolic PAP and PAcT using transthoracic echocardiography. Additionally, the logistic-based PAP estimation equation was deduced from the model to relate systolic PAP and PAcT...
February 24, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Edward J Ciaccio, Nicholas S Peters, Hasan Garan
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms involved in onset, maintenance, and termination of atrial fibrillation are not well understood. A biophysical model could be useful to determine how the events unfold. METHOD: A two-dimensional cellular automaton consisting of 576 × 576 grid nodes was implemented to demonstrate the types of electrical activity that may occur in compromised atrial substrate. Electrical activation between nodes was made anisotropic (2:1), and the refractory period (RP) was adjusted from 74 to 192 ms in the spatial domain...
February 24, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Zhenjun Zhang, Hui Li, Guy R Fogel, Dingding Xiang, Zhenhua Liao, Weiqiang Liu
In lumbar interbody fusion, a porous additive manufactured (AM) cage can provide more desirable stiffness, and may be beneficial to bone ingrowth. The biomechanical influence of porous cages on stability, subsidence, and facet contact force has not been fully described. The aim of this study was to verify biomechanical effects of porous cages. Surgical finite element (FE) model of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) was constructed. The partially porous (PP) cages and fully porous (FP) cages were applied...
February 23, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Qing Huang, Hui Ding, Xiaodong Wang, Guangzhi Wang
PURPOSE: Liver segmentation from CT images is a fundamental step in trajectory planning for computer-assisted interventional surgery. In this paper, we present a fully automatic procedure using modified graph cuts and feature detection for accurate and fast liver segmentation. METHODS: The initial slice and seeds of graph cuts are automatically determined using an intensity-based method with prior position information. A contrast term based on the similarities and differences of local organs across multi-slices is proposed to enhance the weak boundaries of soft organs and to prevent over-segmentation...
February 22, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Diego Marques do Carmo, Márcio Holsbach Costa
This work presents an online approximation method for the multichannel Wiener filter (MWF) noise reduction technique with preservation of the noise interaural level difference (ILD) for binaural hearing-aids. The steepest descent method is applied to a previously proposed MWF-ILD cost function to both approximate the optimal linear estimator of the desired speech and keep the subjective perception of the original acoustic scenario. The computational cost of the resulting algorithm is estimated in terms of multiply and accumulate operations, whose number can be controlled by setting the number of iterations at each time frame...
February 22, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Alessandro Satriano, Edward J Vigmond, David S Schwartzman, Elena S Di Martino
Mechanical stretch plays a major role in modulating atrial function, being responsible for beat-by-beat responses to changes in chamber preload, enabling a prompt regulation of cardiac function. Mechano-electric coupling (MEC) operates through many mechanisms and has many targets, making it experimentally difficult to isolate causes and effects especially under sinus conditions where effects are more transient and subtle. Therefore, modelling is a powerful tool to help understand the role of MEC with respect to the atrial electromechanical interaction...
February 21, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Leandro Abraham, Facundo Bromberg, Raymundo Forradellas
BACKGROUND: Muscle activation level is currently being captured using impractical and expensive devices which make their use in telemedicine settings extremely difficult. To address this issue, a prototype is presented of a non-invasive, easy-to-install system for the estimation of a discrete level of muscle activation of the biceps muscle from 3D point clouds captured with RGB-D cameras. METHODS: A methodology is proposed that uses the ensemble of shape functions point cloud descriptor for the geometric characterization of 3D point clouds, together with support vector machines to learn a classifier that, based on this geometric characterization for some points of view of the biceps, provides a model for the estimation of muscle activation for all neighboring points of view...
February 21, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Patrick McAllister, Huiru Zheng, Raymond Bond, Anne Moorhead
Obesity is increasing worldwide and can cause many chronic conditions such as type-2 diabetes, heart disease, sleep apnea, and some cancers. Monitoring dietary intake through food logging is a key method to maintain a healthy lifestyle to prevent and manage obesity. Computer vision methods have been applied to food logging to automate image classification for monitoring dietary intake. In this work we applied pretrained ResNet-152 and GoogleNet convolutional neural networks (CNNs), initially trained using ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC) dataset with MatConvNet package, to extract features from food image datasets; Food 5K, Food-11, RawFooT-DB, and Food-101...
February 17, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Michael B Sano, Matthew R DeWitt, Stephanie D Teeter, Lei Xing
High-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE) is an emerging ablation modality, delivering rapid bursts of bipolar microsecond-duration electrical pulses to non-thermally ablate tissue including tumors. With advantages over current electroporation techniques including mitigation of muscle stimulation and reduced susceptibility to heterogeneous tissue properties, H-FIRE may produce more uniform and predictable ablations and can potentially be delivered with a single applicator device. However, the resulting ablations tend to be smaller than those provided with equivalent energy monopolar pulse protocols...
February 17, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Youngjoon Suh, Joong Yull Park
BACKGROUND: The human airway is exposed to the development of diverse flow patterns based on differences in its morphological/geometrical parameters across individuals. Although effects of the asymmetry between the right and left main bronchi on airway flows have been investigated in the past, there exists a paucity in terms of studies that focus on the role of stronger physiological asymmetric features, such as off-plane bifurcation angles of primary bronchi, in expiratory flows. METHOD: Computational fluid dynamic techniques have been used to demonstrate presence of Dean-type secondary flows and vortices in the bifurcation region...
February 16, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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