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Computers in Biology and Medicine

Roilhi F Ibarra-Hernández, Miguel A Alonso-Arévalo, Alejandro Cruz-Gutiérrez, Ana L Licona-Chávez, Salvador Villarreal-Reyes
Heart sound analysis plays an important role in the auscultative diagnosis process to detect the presence of cardiovascular diseases. In this paper we propose a novel parametric heart sound model that accurately represents normal and pathological cardiac audio signals, also known as phonocardiograms (PCG). The proposed model considers that the PCG signal is formed by the sum of two parts: one of them is deterministic and the other one is stochastic. The first part contains most of the acoustic energy. This part is modeled by the Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm, which performs an analysis-synthesis procedure to represent the PCG signal as a linear combination of elementary waveforms...
August 9, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Nabila Eladawi, Mohammed Elmogy, Omar Helmy, Ahmed Aboelfetouh, Alaa Riad, Harpal Sandhu, Shlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz
The retinal vascular network reflects the health of the retina, which is a useful diagnostic indicator of systemic vascular. Therefore, the segmentation of retinal blood vessels is a powerful method for diagnosing vascular diseases. This paper presents an automatic segmentation system for retinal blood vessels from Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) images. The system segments blood vessels from the superficial and deep retinal maps for normal and diabetic cases. Initially, we reduced the noise and improved the contrast of the OCTA images by using the Generalized Gauss-Markov random field (GGMRF) model...
August 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Sajad Ashouri, Mohsen Abedi, Masoud Abdollahi, Farideh Dehghan Manshadi, Mohamad Parnianpour, Kinda Khalaf
This paper presents a novel approach for evaluating LBP in various settings. The proposed system uses cost-effective inertial sensors, in conjunction with pattern recognition techniques, for identifying sensitive classifiers towards discriminate identification of LB patients. 24 healthy individuals and 28 low back pain patients performed trunk motion tasks in five different directions for validation. Four combinations of these motions were selected based on literature, and the corresponding kinematic data was collected...
August 4, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
U K Lopes, J F Valiati
It is estimated that in 2015, approximately 1.8 million people infected by tuberculosis died, most of them in developing countries. Many of those deaths could have been prevented if the disease had been detected at an earlier stage, but the most advanced diagnosis methods are still cost prohibitive for mass adoption. One of the most popular tuberculosis diagnosis methods is the analysis of frontal thoracic radiographs; however, the impact of this method is diminished by the need for individual analysis of each radiography by properly trained radiologists...
August 4, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Dimitrios G Mpairaktaris, Johannes V Soulis, George D Giannoglou
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The distribution of Low density lipoprotein (LDL) within the arterial wall is helpful in understanding the onset and development of atherosclerosis. The objective of the study is to study the transport and LDL distribution within patient-specific arterial wall using computational analysis under normal and hypertensive conditions. METHODS: Patient specific model of the thoracic aorta is computationally examined. The arterial wall is treated macroscopically as homogeneous (one layered) porous media of variable thickness...
August 3, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Zaneta Swiderska-Chadaj, Tomasz Markiewicz, Robert Koktysz, Szczepan Cierniak
The context-based examination of stained tissue specimens is one of the most important procedures in histopathological practice. The development of image processing methods allows for the automation of this process. We propose a method of automatic segmentation of placental structures and assessment of edema present in placental structures from a spontaneous miscarriage. The presented method is based on texture analysis, mathematical morphology, and region growing operations that are applicable to the heterogeneous microscopic images representing histological slides of the placenta...
August 3, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
S J Wilkinson, A Naylor, K L Goh
This paper describes a simple protocol for measuring the joint space of the rheumatoid arthritic (RA) wrist from projection radiographs. The protocol is implemented using a computer algorithm based upon the Interactive Data Language platform. The computerized algorithm features a user-friendly graphical interface to aid the operator to measure joint space parameters, namely distance and area, of the wrist vertebral morphometry at the radiocarpal region. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) radiograph of a standard hand and wrist phantom was evaluated using the measurement protocol to determine the accuracy and precision of the protocol...
August 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Christian J Roth, Lena Yoshihara, Wolfgang A Wall
The respiratory zone of mammalian lungs contains several millions of so-called alveoli. The geometrical and mechanical properties of this microstructure are crucial for respiration and influence the macroscopic behaviour of the entire organ in health and disease. Hence, if computational models are sought to gain more insight into lung behaviour, predict lung states in certain scenarios or suggest better treatment options in early stages of respiratory dysfunction, an adequate representation of this microstructure is essential...
August 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Muhammad Moazzam Jawaid, Atif Riaz, Ronak Rajani, Constantino Carlos Reyes-Aldasoro, Greg Slabaugh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The high mortality rate associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) has driven intensive research in cardiac imaging and image analysis. The advent of computed tomography angiography (CTA) has turned non-invasive diagnosis of cardiovascular anomalies into reality as calcified coronary plaques can be easily identified due to their high intensity values. However, the detection of non-calcified plaques in CTA is still a challenging problem because of lower intensity values, which are often similar to the nearby blood and muscle tissues...
August 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Mariam Al Harrach, Sofiane Boudaoud, Vincent Carriou, Jeremy Laforet, Adrien J Letocart, Jean-François Grosset, Frédéric Marin
This work presents an evaluation of the High Density surface Electromyogram (HD-sEMG) Probability Density Function (PDF) shape variation according to contraction level. On that account, using PDF shape descriptors: High Order Statistics (HOS) and Shape Distances (SD), we try to address the absence of a consensus for the sEMG non-Gaussianity evolution with force variation. This is motivated by the fact that PDF shape information are relevant in physiological assessment of the muscle architecture and function, such as contraction level classification, in complement to classical amplitude parameters...
August 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Pratik Dutta, Sriparna Saha
One of the crucial problems in the field of functional genomics is to identify a set of genes which are responsible for a particular cellular mechanism. The current work explores the usage of a multi-objective optimization based genetic clustering technique to classify genes into groups with respect to their functional similarities and biological relevance. Our contribution is two-fold: firstly a new quality measure to compute the goodness of gene-clusters namely protein-protein interaction confidence score is developed...
August 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Feng Zhang, Han Chen, Yukan Huang
Recently, subconjunctival and episcleral implants have been proposed in the treatment of anterior eye diseases. In order to improve the delivery efficacy, it is important to understand the transport process of the implanted drugs. A 3D computational model, which includes heat transfer, aqueous humor (AH) flow, as well as diffusive and convective transport of the drug concentration, is developed to study the temporal and spatial evolution of the drug in the anterior segment of a human eye after subconjunctival and episcleral implantation, with a focus on drug delivery to three targets: iris, lens, and trabecular meshwork (TM)...
July 31, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Faisal Mohammad, Kausalendra Mahadas, George K Hung
A reliable and practical app for mobile devices was developed to detect driver drowsiness. It consisted of two main components: a Haar cascade classifier, provided by a computer vision framework called OpenCV, for face/eye detection; and a dedicated JAVA software code for image processing that was applied over a masked region circumscribing the eye. A binary threshold was performed over the masked region to provide a quantitative measure of the number of white pixels in the sclera, which represented the state of eye opening...
July 31, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Laurent Simon
Expressions for a single time constant were developed in Maple (Waterloo Maple, Inc.) to calculate the rate at which a drug reaches steady-state levels in the blood capillaries and neighboring tissues. The solute concentration in the capillary region was represented by a one-dimensional convection-diffusion model. In a first case study, the plasma and the tissue reached equilibrium very quickly. Within the dynamic regime, the amount of drugs collected in both compartments increased with the Peclet number while the relaxation time to a steady-state value decreased...
July 31, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
M Ariane, W Wen, D Vigolo, A Brill, F G B Nash, M Barigou, A Alexiadis
The hemodynamics in flexible deep veins valves is modelled by means of discrete multi-physics and an agglomeration algorithm is implemented to account for blood accrual in the flow. Computer simulations of a number of valves typologies are carried out. The results show that the rigidity and the length of the valve leaflets play a crucial role on both mechanical stress and stagnation in the flow. Rigid and short membranes may be inefficient in preventing blood reflux, but reduce the volume of stagnant blood potentially lowering the chances of thrombosis...
July 29, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Lei Wang, Hasan Ayaz, Meltem Izzetoglu, Banu Onaral
Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neuroimaging technique that utilizes near infrared light to detect cortical concentration changes of oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin non-invasively. Using light sources and detectors over the scalp, multi-wavelength light intensities are recorded as time series and converted to concentration changes of hemoglobin via modified Beer-Lambert law. Here, we describe a potential source for systematic error in the calculation of hemoglobin changes and light intensity measurements...
July 29, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Eman Rezk, Zainab Awan, Fahad Islam, Ali Jaoua, Somaya Al Maadeed, Nan Zhang, Gautam Das, Nasir Rajpoot
Data analytics have become increasingly complicated as the amount of data has increased. One technique that is used to enable data analytics in large datasets is data sampling, in which a portion of the data is selected to preserve the data characteristics for use in data analytics. In this paper, we introduce a novel data sampling technique that is rooted in formal concept analysis theory. This technique is used to create samples reliant on the data distribution across a set of binary patterns. The proposed sampling technique is applied in classifying the regions of breast cancer histology images as malignant or benign...
July 29, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Mohsen Motie Shirazi, Omid Abouali, Homayoun Emdad, Mohammadreza Nabavizadeh, Hossein Mirhadi, Goodarz Ahmadi
Irrigation is one of the most important steps in root canal therapy. Sodium hypochlorite is inserted into the root canal to eliminate bacteria and dissolve necrotic tissue. Dentinal tubules are micrometer sized channels along the dentin thickness. An irrigant should have the ability to penetrate into these tubules to remove bacteria residing in them. The difference between the concentrations of the inserted irrigant and the dentinal tubule fluid is the main factor of penetration. This study attempts to model dentinal tubules with precise dimensions and to study the time dependent irrigant penetration into them by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)...
July 24, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Yang Chen, Yan Luo, Wei Huang, Die Hu, Rong-Qin Zheng, Shu-Zhen Cong, Fan-Kun Meng, Hong Yang, Hong-Jun Lin, Yan Sun, Xiu-Yan Wang, Tao Wu, Jie Ren, Shu-Fang Pei, Ying Zheng, Yun He, Yu Hu, Na Yang, Hongmei Yan
Hepatic fibrosis is a common middle stage of the pathological processes of chronic liver diseases. Clinical intervention during the early stages of hepatic fibrosis can slow the development of liver cirrhosis and reduce the risk of developing liver cancer. Performing a liver biopsy, the gold standard for viral liver disease management, has drawbacks such as invasiveness and a relatively high sampling error rate. Real-time tissue elastography (RTE), one of the most recently developed technologies, might be promising imaging technology because it is both noninvasive and provides accurate assessments of hepatic fibrosis...
July 20, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Giuseppe Coppini, Sara Colantonio
The quality of life and individual well-being are universally recognised as key factors in disease prevention. In particular, lifestyle interventions are effective tools for reducing the risk and incidence of major illnesses, such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. On the other hand, patient role is progressively shifting from being a passive recipient of care towards being a co-producer of her/his health. In this frame, novel devices and systems able to help individuals in self-evaluation are expected to play a crucial role...
July 19, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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