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Computers in Biology and Medicine

Carlos Hoyos-Barceló, Jesús Monge-Álvarez, Zeeshan Pervez, Luis M San-José-Revuelta, Pablo Casaseca-de-la-Higuera
Health Monitoring apps for smartphones have the potential to improve quality of life and decrease the cost of health services. However, they have failed to live up to expectation in the context of respiratory disease. This is in part due to poor objective measurements of symptoms such as cough. Real-time cough detection using smartphones faces two main challenges namely, the necessity of dealing with noisy input signals, and the need of the algorithms to be computationally efficient, since a high battery consumption would prevent patients from using them...
July 14, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Yingxi Yang, Hui Wang, Jun Ding, Yan Xu
MOTIVATION: Posttranslational modification (PTM) is a biological mechanism involved in the enzymatic modification of proteins after translation by ribosomes. Two or more modifications occurring at one residue can be transformed into a multi-label system. Two or more simultaneous modifications on a residue is more common than single PTMs. Lysine residues in proteins can be subjected to a variety of PTMs, such as ubiquitination, acetylation, sumoylation, methylation, and succinylation. Identification of uncharacterized sequences in proteins is a highly significant and state-of-the-art issue...
July 10, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Alain Sánchez-González, Begonya García-Zapirain, Daniel Sierra-Sosa, Adel Elmaghraby
The increasing use of colorectal cancer screening programs has contributed to the growing number of colonoscopies performed by health centers. Hence, in recent years there has been a tendency to develop medical diagnosis support tools in order to assist specialists. This research has designed an automatized polyp detection system that allows a reduction in the rate of missed polyps that can lead to interval cancer; one of the main risks existing in colonoscopy. A characterization has therefore been made of the shape, color and curvature of edges and their regions, enabling the segmentation of polyps present in colonoscopy images...
July 6, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Gerardo J Félix-Martínez, Amparo Gil, Javier Segura, José Villanueva, Luis M Gutíerrez
Catecholamines secretion from chromaffin cells is mediated by a Ca2+ -dependent process in the submembrane space where the exocytotic machinery is located and high-Ca2+ microdomains (HCMDs) are formed by the coordinated activity of a functional triad composed of Ca2+ channels, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. It has been observed experimentally that subpopulations of cortical mitochondria and ER associate to secretory sites in bovine chromaffin cells. Here, we study the effect of the geometrical distribution of the co-localized cortical organelles both in the formation of HCMDs in the vicinity of Ca2+ channels and on the secretory activity of bovine chromaffin cells in response to a single voltage pulse...
July 2, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Christian Kirschneck, Benjamin Kamuf, Christine Putsch, Sachin Chhatwani, Mozhgan Bizhang, Gholamreza Danesh
BACKGROUND: In dentistry, digitization of dental arches with intraoral scanners could one day replace impressions and plaster model digitization processes, if accuracy is clinically sufficient. This study aimed to assess the reliability, validity and conformity of an intraoral scanning procedure (Lythos© , Ormco) and of two extraoral digitization workflows via alginate impression and plaster model scanning with the D810© (3shape) or the Atos II Triple Scan© (GOM) under clinical conditions...
June 30, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Noor Pratap Singh, Raju S Bapi, P K Vinod
Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma (PRCC) is a heterogeneous disease with variations in disease progression and clinical outcomes. The advent of next generation sequencing techniques (NGS) has generated data from patients that can be analysed to develop a predictive model. In this study, we have adopted a machine learning approach to identify biomarkers and build classifiers to discriminate between early and late stages of PRCC from gene expression profiles. A machine learning pipeline incorporating different feature selection algorithms and classification models is developed to analyse RNA sequencing dataset (RNASeq)...
June 28, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Sang Ho Choi, Heenam Yoon, Hyun Seok Kim, Han Byul Kim, Hyun Bin Kwon, Sung Min Oh, Yu Jin Lee, Kwang Suk Park
Sleep apnea-hypopnea event detection has been widely studied using various biosignals and algorithms. However, most minute-by-minute analysis techniques have difficulty detecting accurate event start/end positions. Furthermore, they require hand-engineered feature extraction and selection processes. In this paper, we propose a new approach for real-time apnea-hypopnea event detection using convolutional neural networks and a single-channel nasal pressure signal. From 179 polysomnographic recordings, 50 were used for training, 25 for validation, and 104 for testing...
June 28, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Stefania Chetcuti Zammit, David S Sanders, Reena Sidhu
Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) can identify macroscopic changes of coeliac disease and assess the extent of disease in the small bowel beyond the duodenum. SBCE has a good sensitivity for the detection of coeliac disease in comparison to histology owing to several ideal features such as a high magnification. It also plays a useful role in detecting complications in patients with refractory coeliac disease. Several studies have been carried out on transforming images obtained from small bowel capsule endoscopy to enable the automated detection of features related to coeliac disease...
June 28, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Christos T Chasapis
BACKGROUND: Increasing amounts of evidence strongly suggest that mutations located in RING (Really Interesting New Gene) domains of E3 ligases are involved in cancer development. Despite the existence of many experimentally defined E3 RING structures, there are still many RING mutations in the Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), with an unknown structural or functional significance, which are usually substitutions of amino acids with no conservation at the corresponding position...
June 28, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
V Covello, C Pipolo, A Saibene, G Felisati, M Quadrio
This work describes an extensive numerical investigation of thermal water delivery for the treatment of inflammatory disorders in the human nasal cavity. The numerical simulation of the multiphase air-droplets flow is based upon the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique, with droplets of thermal water described via a Lagrangian approach. Droplet deposition is studied for different sizes of water droplets, corresponding to two different thermal treatments, i.e. aerosol and inhalation. Numerical simulations are conducted on a patient-specific anatomy, employing two different grid sizes, under steady inspiration at two breathing intensities...
June 28, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Francisco Peñaranda, Valery Naranjo, Gavin R Lloyd, Lena Kastl, Björn Kemper, Jürgen Schnekenburger, Jayakrupakar Nallala, Nicholas Stone
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a highly versatile tool for cell and tissue analysis. Modern commercial FTIR microspectroscopes allow the acquisition of good-quality hyperspectral images from cytopathological samples within relatively short times. This study aims at assessing the abilities of FTIR spectra to discriminate different types of cultured skin cell lines by different computer analysis technologies. In particular, 22700 single skin cells, belonging to two non-tumoral and two tumoral cell lines, were analysed...
June 28, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Hozhabr Mozafari, Pengfei Dong, Shijia Zhao, Yonghua Bi, Xinwei Han, Linxia Gu
OBJECTIVE: Stenting is one of the major treatments for malignant esophageal cancer. However, stent migration compromises clinical outcomes. A flared end design of the stent diminishes its migration. The goal of this work is to quantitatively characterize stent migration to develop new strategies for better clinical outcomes. METHODS: An esophageal stent with flared ends and a straight counterpart were virtually deployed in an esophagus with asymmetric stricture using the finite element method...
June 28, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Tariq Shahzad, Saqib Saleem, Saeeda Usman, Jawad Mirza, Qamar-Ul Islam, Khmaies Ouahada, Tshilidzi Marwala
The baroreflex being a key modulator of cardiovascular control ensures adequate blood pressure regulation under orthostatic stress which otherwise may cause severe hypotension. Contrary to conventional baroreflex sensitivity indices derived across a-priori traditional frequency bands, the present study is aimed at proposing new indices for the assessment of baroreflex drive which follows active (supine to stand-up) and passive (supine to head-up tilt) postural changes. To achieve this, a novel system identification approach of principal dynamic modes (PDM) was utilized to extract data-adaptive frequency components of closed-loop interactions between beat-to-beat interval and systolic blood pressure recorded from 10 healthy humans...
June 26, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Baris Bozkurt, Ioannis Germanakis, Yannis Stylianou
This study concerns the task of automatic structural heart abnormality risk detection from digital phonocardiogram (PCG) signals aiming at pediatric heart disease screening applications. Recently, various systems based on convolutional neural networks trained on time-frequency representations of segmental PCG frames have been presented that outperform systems using hand-crafted features. This study focuses on the segmentation and time-frequency representation components of the CNN-based designs. We consider the most commonly used features (MFCC and Mel-Spectrogram) used in state-of-the-art systems and a time-frequency representation influenced by domain-knowledge, namely sub-band envelopes as an alternative feature...
June 25, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Maria G Vavva, Konstantinos N Grivas, Aurélie Carlier, Demosthenes Polyzos, Liesbet Geris, Hans Van Oosterwyck, Dimitrios I Fotiadis
Bone healing is a complex biological procedure in which several cellular actions, directed by biochemical and mechanical signals, take place. Experimental studies have shown that ultrasound accelerates bone ossification and has a multiple influence on angiogenesis. In this study a mathematical model predicting bone healing under the presence of ultrasound is demonstrated. The primary objective is to account for the ultrasound effect on angiogenesis and more specifically on the transport of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)...
June 25, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Leif Sörnmo, Andrius Petrėnas, Mikael Henriksson, Vaidotas Marozas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 25, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Anne Humeau-Heurtier, Ana Carolina Mieko Omoto, Luiz E V Silva
The multiscale entropy (MSE1D ) measure is now widely used to quantify the complexity of time series. The development of complexity measures for images is also a long-standing goal. Recently, the bi-dimensional version of MSE1D has been proposed (MSE2D ) to analyze images. The interpretation of MSE2D curves and the applications to real data are still emergent. Because the coarse-graining step in the MSE2D computation changes the frequency content of the image, we hypothesized a possible dependence between MSE2D and the discrete Fourier transform (DFT)...
June 25, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Mohammed Baqur S Al-Shuhaib, Fadhil R Al-Kafajy, Milad Ali Badi, Sayed AbdulAzeez, Kasi Marimuthu, Hussein Ali Imran Al-Juhaishi, J Francis Borgio
Because of variable inconvenient living conditions in some places around the world, it is difficult to collect reliable physiological data for ostriches. Therefore, this study aims to provide a comprehensive in silico insight for the nature of polymorphism of important genetic loci that are related to physiological and reproductive traits. Sixty-nine mature ostriches ranging over half of Iraq were screened. Six exonic genetic loci, including cytochrome c oxidase I (COX1), cytochrome b (CYTB), secretogranin V (SCG5), feather keratin 2-like (FK2), prolactin (PRL) and placenta growth factor (PGF) were genotyped by PCR-single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP)...
June 23, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Nabeel Ali Khan, Sadiq Ali
The detection of seizure activity in electroencephalogram (EEG) segments is very important for the classification and localization of epileptic seizures. The evolution of a seizure in an EEG usually appears as a train of non-uniformly spaced spikes and/or as piecewise linear frequency modulated signals. If a seizure is present, then the energy of the EEG is concentrated along the time axis and the frequency axis in the time-frequency plane. However, in the absence of a seizure, the energy of the EEG signal is uniformly distributed along all directions in the time-frequency plane...
June 21, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Michele Scipioni, Assuero Giorgetti, Daniele Della Latta, Sabrina Fucci, Vincenzo Positano, Luigi Landini, Maria Filomena Santarelli
In this work, we propose and test a new approach for non-linear kinetic parameters' estimation from dynamic PET data. A technique is discussed, to derive an analytical closed-form expression of the compartmental model used for kinetic parameters' evaluation, using an auxiliary parameter set, with the aim of reducing the computational burden and speeding up the fitting of these complex mathematical expressions to noisy TACs. Two alternative algorithms based on numeric calculations are considered and compared to the new proposal...
June 20, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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