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Computers in Biology and Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917120/automated-arteriole-and-venule-classification-using-deep-learning-for-retinal-images-from-the-uk-biobank-cohort
#1
R A Welikala, P J Foster, P H Whincup, A R Rudnicka, C G Owen, D P Strachan, S A Barman
The morphometric characteristics of the retinal vasculature are associated with future risk of many systemic and vascular diseases. However, analysis of data from large population based studies is needed to help resolve uncertainties in some of these associations. This requires automated systems that extract quantitative measures of vessel morphology from large numbers of retinal images. Associations between retinal vessel morphology and disease precursors/outcomes may be similar or opposing for arterioles and venules...
September 8, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917119/a-mechanistic-model-for-drug-release-from-plga-based-drug-eluting-stent-a-computational-study
#2
Jahed Naghipoor, Timon Rabczuk
Atherosclerosis in the coronary artery is one of the leading causes of death in the world. The stenting as a minimally invasive technique was considered as an effective tool to reduce the severity of atherosclerotic stenosis. In-stent restenosis is the main drawback of the stenting in the coronary artery. Understanding the mechanism of drug release from drug-eluting stents and drug uptake in the arterial wall and obtaining more information about their functionality using mathematical modeling and numerical simulation, could be considered as a predictive tool to investigate in-stent restenosis growth which is experimentally expensive to study...
September 8, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918063/a-pca-based-method-for-determining-craniofacial-relationship-and-sexual-dimorphism-of-facial-shapes
#3
Wuyang Shui, Mingquan Zhou, Steve Maddock, Taiping He, Xingce Wang, Qingqiong Deng
Previous studies have used principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate the craniofacial relationship, as well as sex determination using facial factors. However, few studies have investigated the extent to which the choice of principal components (PCs) affects the analysis of craniofacial relationship and sexual dimorphism. In this paper, we propose a PCA-based method for visual and quantitative analysis, using 140 samples of 3D heads (70 male and 70 female), produced from computed tomography (CT) images...
September 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910701/biomechanical-analysis-of-lumbar-decompression-surgery-in-relation-to-degenerative-changes-in-the-lumbar-spine-validated-finite-element-analysis
#4
Quan You Li, Ho-Joong Kim, Juhyun Son, Kyoung-Tak Kang, Bong-Soon Chang, Choon-Ki Lee, Hyun Sik Seok, Jin S Yeom
BACKGROUND: There are no studies about the biomechanical analysis of lumbar decompression surgery in relation to degenerative changes of the lumbar spine. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare, by using finite element (FE) analysis, the biomechanical changes of the lumbar spine in terms of annulus stress and nucleus pressure after two different kinds of lumbar decompression surgery in relation to disc degenerative changes. METHODS: The validated intact and degenerated FE models (L2-5) were used in this study...
September 6, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910689/numerical-simulation-of-endoscopic-magnetoacoustic-tomography-with-magnetic-induction
#5
Sun Zheng, Ma Zhen
Endoscopic magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (EMAT-MI) provides an interventional tool to detect the electrical conductivity distribution of a tubular structure with high spatial resolution. In this work, a preliminary study on the numerical simulation of EMAT-MI images was conducted. The magnetic excitation, generation and propagation of magnetoacoustic (MA) waves in the multi-layered wall tissues were modeled and numerically simulated. The cross-sectional distribution of the acoustic source and electrical conductivity was recovered from the acoustic pressure series based on time-reversal...
September 6, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898771/contrast-enhancement-of-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-using-spectrum-correction
#6
Guangming Ni, Linbo Liu, Xiaojun Yu, Xin Ge, Si Chen, Xinyu Liu, Xianghong Wang, Shi Chen
We report a spectrum correction method to enhance the image contrast of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Our method treats SD-OCT signals as the product of harmonic signals backscattered from a sample comprising a series of discrete reflectors and a window corresponding to the light source spectrum. The method restores the magnitude of the main lobe of the axial point spread function (PSF) by estimating the magnitudes of the backscattered harmonic signals and strengthens OCT signals using these estimated values...
September 6, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889076/genesurv-an-interactive-web-based-tool-for-survival-analysis-in-genomics-research
#7
Selcuk Korkmaz, Dincer Goksuluk, Gokmen Zararsiz, Sevilay Karahan
Survival analysis methods are often used in cancer studies. It has been shown that the combination of clinical data with genomics increases the predictive performance of survival analysis methods. But, this leads to a high-dimensional data problem. Fortunately, new methods have been developed in the last decade to overcome this problem. However, there is a strong need for easily accessible, user-friendly and interactive tool to perform survival analysis in the presence of genomics data. We developed an open-source and freely available web-based tool for survival analysis methods that can deal with high-dimensional data...
September 5, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886482/area-based-cell-colony-surviving-fraction-evaluation-a-novel-fully-automatic-approach-using-general-purpose-acquisition-hardware
#8
Carmelo Militello, Leonardo Rundo, Vincenzo Conti, Luigi Minafra, Francesco Paolo Cammarata, Giancarlo Mauri, Maria Carla Gilardi, Nunziatina Porcino
BACKGROUND: The current methodology for the Surviving Fraction (SF) measurement in clonogenic assay, which is a technique to study the anti-proliferative effect of treatments on cell cultures, involves manual counting of cell colony forming units. This procedure is operator-dependent and error-prone. Moreover, the identification of the exact colony number is often not feasible due to the high growth rate leading to the adjacent colony merging. As a matter of fact, conventional assessment does not deal with the colony size, which is generally correlated with the delivered radiation dose or the administered cytotoxic agent...
September 5, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889077/a-method-for-quantifying-recurrent-patterns-of-local-wavefront-direction-during-atrial-fibrillation
#9
James P Hummel, Alex Baher, Ben Buck, Manuel Fanarjian, Charles L Webber, Joseph G Akar
INTRODUCTION: Spiral wave reentry is a potential mechanism of atrial fibrillation (AF), but is difficult to differentiate clinically from multiple wavelet breakup using standard bipolar recordings. We developed a new methodology using bipolar recordings to estimate the direction of local activation wavefronts during AF by calculating the electrogram conformation (Egm-C). We subsequently used recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) of Egm-C to differentiate regions of spiral wave reentry from wavelet breakup...
September 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886481/identifying-sleep-spindles-with-multichannel-eeg-and-classification-optimization
#10
Ning Mei, Michael D Grossberg, Kenneth Ng, Karen T Navarro, Timothy M Ellmore
Researchers classify critical neural events during sleep called spindles that are related to memory consolidation using the method of scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Manual classification is time consuming and is susceptible to low inter-rater agreement. This could be improved using an automated approach. This study presents an optimized filter based and thresholding (FBT) model to set up a baseline for comparison to evaluate machine learning models using naïve features, such as raw signals, peak frequency, and dominant power...
September 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886480/intelligent-visual-localization-of-wireless-capsule-endoscopes-enhanced-by-color-information
#11
George Dimas, Evaggelos Spyrou, Dimitris K Iakovidis, Anastasios Koulaouzidis
Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is performed with a miniature swallowable endoscope enabling the visualization of the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract. One of the most challenging problems in WCE is the localization of the capsule endoscope (CE) within the GI lumen. Contemporary, radiation-free localization approaches are mainly based on the use of external sensors and transit time estimation techniques, with practically low localization accuracy. Latest advances for the solution of this problem include localization approaches based solely on visual information from the CE camera...
September 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866303/fuzzy-inference-model-evaluating-turn-for-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#12
Christopher Ornelas-Vences, Luis Pastor Sanchez-Fernandez, Luis Alejandro Sanchez-Perez, Alejandro Garza-Rodriguez, Albino Villegas-Bastida
Parkinson's disease is a chronic illness that affects motor skills. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale sponsored by the Movement Disorder Society (MDS-UPDRS) quantifies the current state of the disease based on clinician's observations. In this scale, turning is part of the gait assessment, yet specific guidelines on which features to observe and rate are still unclear. What is more, only visual impairment detection is used as the main subjective rating tool. In this respect, four biomechanical features are extracted from sensors worn on the lower limbs in this work...
August 30, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869900/integration-of-rna-seq-and-rppa-data-for-survival-time-prediction-in-cancer-patients
#13
Zerrin Isik, Muserref Ece Ercan
Integration of several types of patient data in a computational framework can accelerate the identification of more reliable biomarkers, especially for prognostic purposes. This study aims to identify biomarkers that can successfully predict the potential survival time of a cancer patient by integrating the transcriptomic (RNA-Seq), proteomic (RPPA), and protein-protein interaction (PPI) data. The proposed method -RPBioNet- employs a random walk-based algorithm that works on a PPI network to identify a limited number of protein biomarkers...
August 26, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881280/a-computational-study-of-the-fontan-circulation-with-fenestration-or-hepatic-vein-exclusion
#14
Charles Puelz, Sebastián Acosta, Béatrice Rivière, Daniel J Penny, Ken M Brady, Craig G Rusin
Fontan patients may undergo additional surgical modifications to mitigate complications like protein-losing enteropathy, liver cirrhosis, and other issues in their splanchnic circulation. Recent case reports show promise for several types of modifications, but the subtle effects of these surgeries on the circulation are not well understood. In this paper, we employ mathematical modeling of blood flow to systematically quantify the impact of these surgical changes on extracardiac Fontan hemodynamics. We investigate two modifications: (1) the fenestrated Fontan and (2) the Fontan with hepatic vein exclusion...
August 25, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869899/a-deep-convolutional-neural-network-model-to-classify-heartbeats
#15
U Rajendra Acharya, Shu Lih Oh, Yuki Hagiwara, Jen Hong Tan, Muhammad Adam, Arkadiusz Gertych, Ru San Tan
The electrocardiogram (ECG) is a standard test used to monitor the activity of the heart. Many cardiac abnormalities will be manifested in the ECG including arrhythmia which is a general term that refers to an abnormal heart rhythm. The basis of arrhythmia diagnosis is the identification of normal versus abnormal individual heart beats, and their correct classification into different diagnoses, based on ECG morphology. Heartbeats can be sub-divided into five categories namely non-ectopic, supraventricular ectopic, ventricular ectopic, fusion, and unknown beats...
August 24, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865348/prediction-of-muscle-activation-for-an-eye-movement-with-finite-element-modeling
#16
Abbas Karami, Mohammad Eghtesad, Seyyed Arash Haghpanah
In this paper, a 3D finite element (FE) modeling is employed in order to predict extraocular muscles' activation and investigate force coordination in various motions of the eye orbit. A continuum constitutive hyperelastic model is employed for material description in dynamic modeling of the extraocular muscles (EOMs). Two significant features of this model are accurate mass modeling with FE method and stimulating EOMs for motion through muscle activation parameter. In order to validate the eye model, a forward dynamics simulation of the eye motion is carried out by variation of the muscle activation...
August 24, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863405/phantom-study-evaluating-detection-of-simulated-upper-airway-occlusion-using-piezoelectric-ultrasound-transducers
#17
Mohammad Al-Abed, Peter Antich, Donald E Watenpaugh, Khosrow Behbehani
Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is characterized by repetitive narrowing or full collapse of the upper airway concomitant with continued respiratory effort during sleep lasting 10s or more. OSAHS is the most prevalent form of sleep-disordered breathing, affecting more than 17% of the middle-aged U.S. POPULATION: Hence, many individuals need to be tested for having OSAHS. Currently, detection of airway occlusion due to OSAHS is achieved by indirect measurements, often requiring multiple sensor types, such as a flow transducer combined with chest and abdomen plethysmography...
August 24, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858647/hair-segmentation-using-adaptive-threshold-from-edge-and-branch-length-measures
#18
Ian Lee, Xian Du, Brian Anthony
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive imaging techniques allow the monitoring of skin structure and diagnosis of skin diseases in clinical applications. However, hair in skin images hampers the imaging and classification of the skin structure of interest. Although many hair segmentation methods have been proposed for digital hair removal, a major challenge in hair segmentation remains in detecting hairs that are thin, overlapping, of similar contrast or color to underlying skin, or overlaid on highly-textured skin structure...
August 24, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858645/simulation-study-of-the-ionic-mechanisms-underlying-torsade-de-pointes-in-a-2d-cardiac-tissue
#19
Ponnuraj Kirthi Priya, M Ramasubba Reddy
BACKGROUND: To understand the ionic mechanism behind the genesis of Torsade de Pointes (TdP) occurring with long QT syndrome 2 (LQTS2) in a remodelled transmural tissue. METHODS: The TP06 model is used to simulate the electrical activity of cells in a 2D transmural ventricular model. LQTS2 is realised by reducing the potassium current (IKr) to 0.5 in each cell. Each cell of the tissue is remodelled by increasing the conductance of calcium current (GCaL). The above two factors make the cells prone to early after depolarizations (EADs) development...
August 24, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858644/a-computational-theoretical-model-for-radiofrequency-ablation-of-tumor-with-complex-vascularization
#20
Y L Shao, B Arjun, H L Leo, K J Chua
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for liver tumors is a minimally invasive procedure that uses electrical energy and heat to destroy cancer cells. One of the critical factors that impedes its successful outcome is the thermal heat sink effects from complex vascular systems that give rise to incomplete destruction of the target tumor tissue, resulting in therapy failure. To better understand the thermal influence of the complex vascular system during RFA, this work proposes the employment of two 3D fractal tree-like branched networks to investigate which key factors of the tree-like vascular system impact heating process...
August 24, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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