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Computers in Biology and Medicine

Sara Bernardi, Annachiara Colombi, Marco Scianna
In this article, we present a microscopic discrete mathematical model describing collective dynamics of a bee swarm. More specifically, each bee is set to move according to individual strategies and social interactions, the former involving the desire to reach a target destination, the latter accounting for repulsive/attractive stimuli and for alignment processes. The insects tend in fact to remain sufficiently close to the rest of the population, while avoiding collisions, and they are able to track and synchronize their movement to the flight of a given set of neighbors within their visual field...
January 2, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Dimitri Berh, Aaron Scherzinger, Nils Otto, Xiaoyi Jiang, Christian Klämbt, Benjamin Risse
The importance of studying model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster has significantly increased in recent biological research. Amongst others, Drosophila can be used to study heart development and heartbeat related diseases. Here we propose a method for automatic in vivo heartbeat detection of Drosophila melanogaster pupae based on morphological structures which are recorded without any dissection using FIM imaging. Our approach is easy-to-use, has low computational costs, and enables high-throughput experiments...
December 29, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Neda Sangsefidi, Amir Hossein Foruzan, Ardeshir Dolati
PURPOSE: The accurate delineation of hepatic vessels is important to diagnosis and treatment planning. To improve the segmentation of these vessels and extract small structures, we adaptively calculate the data term in conventional graph-cuts algorithm. METHOD: To assign higher costs to the data term in small vessel regions, we estimate the statistical parameters of the vessel adaptively. After preprocessing an input CT image, we model the liver and its vessels by two Gaussian distributions...
December 27, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
M Żulpo, J Balbus, P Kuropka, K Kubica
Impaired gallbladder motility leads to some clinical manifestations associated with its muscle contraction and/or the rate of filling with bile. To gain a better understanding of the possible reasons for different filling/emptying patterns we developed a mathematical model of the gallbladder that takes into account the kinetics of its filling and emptying and changes in the concentration of the accumulated bile. The model is based on four parameters responsible for the maximum speed of bile evacuation (Mg), pulsation of contractions (ω), the kinetic filling rate (kg) and the maximum bile mass accumulated in the gallbladder (mtotal)...
December 26, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Bakul Gohel, Sanghyun Lim, Min-Young Kim, Hyukchan Kwon, Kiwoong Kim
Recently, an increasing number of studies have employed multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) rather than univariate analysis for the dynamic pattern decoding of event-related responses recorded with a MEG/EEG sensor. The use of the MVPA approach for source-reconstructed MEG/EEG data is uncommon. For these data, we need to consider the source orientation information and the signal leakage among brain regions. In the present study, we evaluate the perspective of the MVPA approach in the context of source orientation information and signal leakage in source-reconstructed MEG data...
December 26, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Bakheet Aldosari, Abdullah Alanazi
This paper aims to evaluate the authorship, privacy capabilities and functions of QuadraMed and BestCare systems, implemented at the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (MNGHA) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A survey was conducted by interviewing back-end users of the EMR system in the KAMC hospital to check the aforementioned systems' authorship capabilities. Both the systems scored the same, with the overall result being 146/165 including the compliance level, which represents 88% availability of all authorship functions...
December 25, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Yubing Shi, Theodosios Korakianitis
Previous numerical models of impeller pumps for ventricular assist devices utilize curve-fitted polynomials to simulate experimentally-obtained pressure difference versus flow rate characteristics of the pumps, with pump rotational speed as a parameter. In this paper the numerical model for the pump pressure difference versus flow rate characteristics is obtained by analytic derivation. The mass, energy and angular momentum conservation laws are applied to the working fluid passing through the impeller geometry and coupled with the turbomachine's velocity diagram...
December 22, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
D Babin, A Pižurica, L Velicki, V Matić, I Galić, H Leventić, V Zlokolica, W Philips
Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) presents a great health threat due to its high probability of rupture that can cause severe brain damage. Image segmentation alone is not sufficient to support AVM embolization procedure. In order to successfully navigate the catheter and perform embolization, the segmented blood vessels need to be classified into feeding arteries, draining veins and the AVM nidus. For this reason we address here the AVM localization and vessel decomposition problem. We propose in this paper a novel AVM localization and vessel delineation method using ordered thinning-based skeletonization...
December 19, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Badr Kaoui, Marco Lauricella, Giuseppe Pontrelli
We propose a novel in silico model for computing drug release from multi-layer capsules. The diffusion problem in such heterogeneous layer-by-layer composite medium is described by a system of coupled partial differential equations, which we solve analytically using separation of variables. In addition to the conventional partitioning and mass transfer interlayer conditions, we consider a surface finite mass transfer resistance, which corresponds to the case of a coated capsule. The drug concentration in the core and through all the layers, as well as in the external release medium, is given in terms of a Fourier series that we compute numerically to describe and characterize the drug release mechanism...
December 18, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Chun Wai Liew, Tiffany Phuong, Carli B Jones, Samantha Evans, Justin Hoot, Kendall Weedling, Damarcus Ingram, Stacy Nganga, Robert A Kurt
We developed an agent-based model to simulate a signaling cascade which allowed us to focus on the behavior of each class of agents independently of the other classes except when they were in physical contact. A critical piece was the ratio of the populations of agents that interact with one another, not their absolute values. This ratio reflects the effects of the density of each agent in the biological cascade as well as their size and velocity. Although the system can be used for any signaling cascade in any cell type, to validate the system we modeled Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in two very different types of cells; tumor cells and white blood cells...
December 18, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Jun Liu, Ling Li, Lei Wang
Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) remains a main cervical cancer screening tool in developing countries. However, it depends on the operator's experience, and its utility is often limited by the lack of trained doctors. Smart colposcope devices to automatically detect the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, the early stage of cervical cancer) may provide a promising alternative. As the acetowhite (AW) region is the most important feature of CIN during VIA, its segmentation is considered an important procedure in the automatic detection of CIN...
December 16, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Yong Xia, Naren Wulan, Kuanquan Wang, Henggui Zhang
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. The incidence of AF increases with age, causing high risks of stroke and increased morbidity and mortality. Efficient and accurate diagnosis of AF based on the ECG is valuable in clinical settings and remains challenging. In this paper, we proposed a novel method with high reliability and accuracy for AF detection via deep learning. METHOD: The short-term Fourier transform (STFT) and stationary wavelet transform (SWT) were used to analyze ECG segments to obtain two-dimensional (2-D) matrix input suitable for deep convolutional neural networks...
December 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
José Díaz, Jesús Acosta, Rafael González, Juan Cota, Ernesto Sifuentes, Àngela Nebot
The control of the central nervous system (CNS) over the cardiovascular system (CS) has been modeled using different techniques, such as fuzzy inductive reasoning, genetic fuzzy systems, neural networks, and nonlinear autoregressive techniques; the results obtained so far have been significant, but not solid enough to describe the control response of the CNS over the CS. In this research, support vector machines (SVMs) are used to predict the response of a branch of the CNS, specifically, the one that controls an important part of the cardiovascular system...
December 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Marine Bruneau, Thierry Mottet, Serge Moulin, Maël Kerbiriou, Franz Chouly, Stéphane Chretien, Christophe Guyeux
In this article, a new Python package for nucleotide sequences clustering is proposed. This package, freely available on-line, implements a Laplacian eigenmap embedding and a Gaussian Mixture Model for DNA clustering. It takes nucleotide sequences as input, and produces the optimal number of clusters along with a relevant visualization. Despite the fact that we did not optimise the computational speed, our method still performs reasonably well in practice. Our focus was mainly on data analytics and accuracy and as a result, our approach outperforms the state of the art, even in the case of divergent sequences...
December 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Yanyan Yu, Yang Xiao, Jieyu Cheng, Bernard Chiu
Supersonic shear-wave elastography (SWE) has emerged as a useful imaging modality for breast lesion assessment. Regions of interest (ROIs) were required to be specified for extracting features that characterize malignancy of lesions. Although analyses have been performed in small rectangular ROIs identified manually by expert observers, the results were subject to observer variability and the analysis of small ROIs would potentially miss out important features available in other parts of the lesion. Recent investigations extracted features from the entire lesion segmented by B-mode ultrasound images either manually or semi-automatically, but lesion delineation using existing techniques is time-consuming and prone to variability as intensive user interactions are required...
December 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Stephen M Kengyelics, Laura A Treadgold, Andrew G Davies
OBJECTIVES: To develop x-ray simulation software tools to support delivery of radiological science education for a range of learning environments and audiences including individual study, lectures, and tutorials. METHODS: Two software tools were developed; one simulated x-ray production for a simple two dimensional radiographic system geometry comprising an x-ray source, beam filter, test object and detector. The other simulated the acquisition and display of two dimensional radiographic images of complex three dimensional objects using a ray casting algorithm through three dimensional mesh objects...
December 13, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Garima Verma, Maria Laura Luciani, Alessandro Palombo, Linda Metaxa, Giovanna Panzironi, Federica Pediconi, Alessandro Giuliani, Mariano Bizzarri, Virginia Todde
INTRODUCTION: Herein, we propose a Systems Biology approach aimed at identifying quantitative morphological parameters useful in discriminating benign from malignant breast microcalcifications at digital mammography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study includes 31 patients in which microcalcifications had been detected during XR mammography and were further confirmed by stereotactic (XR-guided) biopsies. Patients were classified according to the BIRADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System), along with their parenchyma fractal dimension and biopsy size...
December 11, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Maxime Yochum, Jérémy Laforêt, Catherine Marque
Preterm labor is an important public health problem. However, the efficiency of the uterine muscle during labor is complex and still poorly understood. This work is a first step towards a model of the uterine muscle, including its electrical and mechanical components, to reach a better understanding of the uterus synchronization. This model is proposed to investigate, by simulation, the possible role of mechanotransduction for the global synchronization of the uterus. The electrical diffusion indeed explains the local propagation of contractile activity, while the tissue stretching may play a role in the synchronization of distant parts of the uterine muscle...
December 9, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Paul Fergus, Malarvizhi Selvaraj, Carl Chalmers
Human visual inspection of Cardiotocography traces is used to monitor the foetus during labour and avoid neonatal mortality and morbidity. The problem, however, is that visual interpretation of Cardiotocography traces is subject to high inter and intra observer variability. Incorrect decisions, caused by miss-interpretation, can lead to adverse perinatal outcomes and in severe cases death. This study presents a review of human Cardiotocography trace interpretation and argues that machine learning, used as a decision support system by obstetricians and midwives, may provide an objective measure alongside normal practices...
December 8, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Kristen M Meiburger, U Rajendra Acharya, Filippo Molinari
B-mode ultrasound imaging is used extensively in medicine. Hence, there is a need to have efficient segmentation tools to aid in computer-aided diagnosis, image-guided interventions, and therapy. This paper presents a comprehensive review on automated localization and segmentation techniques for B-mode ultrasound images. The paper first describes the general characteristics of B-mode ultrasound images. Then insight on the localization and segmentation of tissues is provided, both in the case in which the organ/tissue localization provides the final segmentation and in the case in which a two-step segmentation process is needed, due to the desired boundaries being too fine to locate from within the entire ultrasound frame...
December 6, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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