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Marine Biology

Gaëtan Richard, Olga A Filatova, Filipa I P Samarra, Ivan D Fedutin, Marc Lammers, Patrick J Miller
Herring-eating killer whales debilitate herring with underwater tail slaps and likely herd herring into tighter schools using a feeding-specific low-frequency pulsed call ('herding' call). Feeding on herring may be dependent upon daylight, as the whales use their white underside to help herd herring; however, feeding at night has not been investigated. The production of feeding-specific sounds provides an opportunity to use passive acoustic monitoring to investigate feeding behaviour at different times of day...
2017: Marine Biology
ALan F Rees, Carlos Carreras, Annette C Broderick, Dimitris Margaritoulis, Thomas B Stringell, Brendan J Godley
Many marine megavertebrate taxa, including sea turtles, disperse widely from their hatching or birthing locations but display natal homing as adults. We used flipper tagging, satellite tracking and genetics to identify the origin of loggerhead turtles living in Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece. This location has been identified as hosting regionally important numbers of large-juvenile to adult sized turtles that display long-term residency and/or association to the area, and also presents a male biased sex ratio for adults...
2017: Marine Biology
R E Sherlock, K R Walz, K L Schlining, B H Robison
Bathochordaeus mcnutti sp. nov. is described from the mesopelagic northeast Pacific Ocean (Monterey Bay, California, USA). Larvaceans in the genus Bathochordaeus are large, often abundant zooplankters found throughout much of the world ocean, but until recently it was unclear whether more than a single species of Bathochordaeus existed. Using remotely operated vehicles, we have made hundreds of in situ observations, compiled two decades of time-series data, and carefully collected enough specimens to determine that three species of Bathochordaeus occur in Monterey Bay: B...
2017: Marine Biology
Tjalling Jager, Iurgi Salaberria, Dag Altin, Trond Nordtug, Bjørn Henrik Hansen
Mechanistic models are essential tools for interpreting and predicting the consequences of a changing environment and stressors such as pollution on the life histories of marine organisms. Here, we apply the simple and generic energy-budget model DEBkiss to the life history of the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Model modifications were needed to accommodate the copepod life cycle, which deviates in several respects from most other animals (e.g., a sudden stop of growth after the final moult). We identified an acceleration of growth in the early copepodite stages, which could be linked to an increase in the specific feeding rate of the animals...
2017: Marine Biology
Sofia A Wikström, Jacob Carstensen, Mats Blomqvist, Dorte Krause-Jensen
Coastal vegetation communities are important for primary production, biodiversity, coastal protection, carbon and nutrient cycling which, in combination with their sensitivity to eutrophication, render them potential indicators of environmental status for environmental policies like the EU Water and Marine Strategy Framework Directives. We evaluated one potential indicator for coastal vegetation, the cumulative cover at depths where the vegetation is light limited, by investigating its response to eutrophication along gradients in natural conditions...
2016: Marine Biology
Farrah T Chan, Hugh J MacIsaac, Sarah A Bailey
Human-mediated vectors often inadvertently translocate species assemblages to new environments. Examining the dynamics of entrained species assemblages during transport can provide insights into the introduction risk associated with these vectors. Ship biofouling is a major transport vector of nonindigenous species in coastal ecosystems globally, yet its magnitude in the Arctic is poorly understood. To determine whether biofouling organisms on ships can survive passages in Arctic waters, we examined how biofouling assemblage structure changed before, during, and after eight round-trip military voyages from temperate to Arctic ports in Canada...
2016: Marine Biology
Nikki Traylor-Knowles
Wound healing is a critical physiological function needed for survival in all marine organisms. However, it is particularly critical in organisms like corals, which cannot escape predators. In this study, I characterized the gross morphology of wound healing in Pocillopora damicornis and Acropora hyacinthus found in two pools with distinct previously documented temperature profiles in Ofu, American Samoa. I observed differences between healing rates of A. hyacinthus versus P. damicornis, but no significant difference in healing rates between A...
2016: Marine Biology
Lucy M Turner, Elena Ricevuto, Alexia Massa Gallucci, Maurizio Lorenti, Maria-Cristina Gambi, Piero Calosi
We are starting to understand the relationship between metabolic rate responses and species' ability to respond to exposure to high pCO2. However, most of our knowledge has come from investigations of single species. The examination of metabolic responses of closely related species with differing distributions around natural elevated CO2 areas may be useful to inform our understanding of their adaptive significance. Furthermore, little is known about the physiological responses of marine invertebrate juveniles to high pCO2, despite the fact they are known to be sensitive to other stressors, often acting as bottlenecks for future species success...
2016: Marine Biology
Lena Bergström, Martin Karlsson, Ulf Bergström, Leif Pihl, Patrik Kraufvelin
Shallow nearshore habitats are highly valued for supporting marine ecosystems, but are subject to intense human-induced pressures. Mesopredatory fish are key components in coastal food webs, and alterations in their abundance may have evident effects also on other parts of the ecosystem. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the abundance of coastal mesopredatory fish, defined as mid-trophic level demersal and benthic species with a diet consisting predominantly of invertebrates, and ambient environmental variables in a fjord system influenced by both eutrophication and overfishing...
2016: Marine Biology
Victoria Foster, Rebecca J Giesler, A Meriwether W Wilson, Christopher R Nall, Elizabeth J Cook
Marine invasive non-native species (NNS) are one of the greatest threats to global marine biodiversity, causing significant economic and social impacts. Marinas are increasingly recognised as key reservoirs for invasive NNS. They provide submersed artificial habitat that unintentionally supports the establishment of NNS introduced from visiting recreational vessels. While ballast water and shipping vectors have been well documented, the role of recreational vessels in spreading NNS has been relatively poorly studied...
2016: Marine Biology
Lodewijk van Walraven, Floor Driessen, Judith van Bleijswijk, Anneke Bol, Pieternella C Luttikhuizen, Joop W P Coolen, Oscar G Bos, Adriaan Gittenberger, Niels Schrieken, Victor T Langenberg, Henk W van der Veer
For many species of metagenic jellyfish the location of the benthic polyps is unknown. To gain insight in the distribution, species composition and population structure of scyphozoan jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area, polyp samples were collected from natural and artificial substrates (settling plates, marina floats and wrecks) at ten inshore locations in the Netherlands, seven offshore locations in the North Sea and in the Gullmar Fjord in Sweden. Polyps were identified to species level by sequencing both a fragment of 18S rDNA and a fragment of mitochondrial COI, and comparing these sequences to reference sequences available in GenBank and to newly obtained sequences from medusae collected in the area...
2016: Marine Biology
V Warwick-Evans, P W Atkinson, J P Y Arnould, R Gauvain, L Soanes, L A Robinson, J A Green
The at-sea distribution of seabirds primarily depends on the distance from their breeding colony, and the abundance, distribution and predictability of their prey, which are subject to strong spatial and temporal variation. Many seabirds have developed flexible foraging strategies to deal with this variation, such as increasing their foraging effort or switching to more predictable, less energy dense, prey, in poor conditions. These responses may vary both within and between individuals, and understanding this variability is vital to predict the population-level impacts of spatially explicit environmental disturbances, such as offshore windfarms...
2016: Marine Biology
Marinus van der Gaag, Gerard van der Velde, Sander Wijnhoven, Rob S E W Leuven
The benthic stages of Dreissenidae and Mytilidae may be dispersed over long distances while attached to ship hulls. Alternatively, larvae may be transported by water currents and in the ballast and bilge water of ships and vessels. To gain insight into dispersal potential and habitat suitability, survival of the benthic stages of two invasive dreissenid species (Dreissena polymorpha and Mytilopsis leucophaeata) and one mytilid species (Mytilus edulis) chosen based on their occurrence in fresh, brackish and sea water, respectively, were tested in relation to salinity...
2016: Marine Biology
Guoli Zhu, Wenqiao Tang, Liangjiang Wang, Cong Wang, Xiaomei Wang
A number of studies have suggested that olfaction plays an important role in fish migration. Fish use several distinct families of olfactory receptors to detect environmental odorants, including MORs (main olfactory receptors), V1Rs (vomeronasal type-1 receptors), V2Rs (vomeronasal type-2 receptors), TAARs (trace amine-associated receptors), and FPRs (formyl peptide receptors). The V1Rs have been reported to detect pheromones, and a pheromone hypothesis for the spawning migration of anadromous fish has been proposed...
2016: Marine Biology
Magdalena Guardiola, Johanna Frotscher, Maria-J Uriz
Sponges are considered poor invaders, and no genetic studies on introduced sponges have been performed up to now. Paraleucilla magna is the first calcareous sponge introduced to the Mediterranean and Northeastern Atlantic. The study aimed at investigating the genetic makeup and connectivity of the introduced populations of P. magna and at exploring signs of local phenotypic adaptation, to gain insight on the species invasive potential. Ten populations along the species introduction range (Brazil, Açores, Madeira, and continental Europe) were genetically characterized by using nine microsatellite markers...
2016: Marine Biology
Jamileh Javidpour, Ashlie N Cipriano-Maack, Agnes Mittermayr, Jan Dierking
A temporal change in the stable isotope (SI) composition of jellyfish in the Kiel Fjord, Western Baltic Sea, was documented by analyzing δ(13)C, δ(15)N and δ(34)S of bell tissue of Aurelia aurita and Cyanea capillata in the period between June and October 2011. A strong and significant temporal change in all SI values of A. aurita was found, including an increase of ~3 ‰ in δ(13)C, a decrease of ~4 ‰ in δ(15)N and sharp decline of ~7 ‰ in δ(34)S. While knowledge gaps in jellyfish isotope ecology, in particular the lack of reliable trophic enrichment factors, call for a conservative interpretation of our data, observed changes in particular in δ(34)S, as indicated by means of a MixSIR mixing model, would be consistent with a temporal dietary shift in A...
2016: Marine Biology
Ante Žuljević, Akira F Peters, Vedran Nikolić, Boris Antolić, Marija Despalatović, Ivan Cvitković, Igor Isajlović, Hrvoje Mihanović, Slavica Matijević, Dawn M Shewring, Simonepietro Canese, Christos Katsaros, Frithjof C Küpper
Deep-water kelps are little-known large brown algae occurring close to the lower limit of photosynthetic life in the sea. This study compares historical and recent records of the deep-water Mediterranean kelp Laminaria rodriguezii in the Adriatic Sea. Historical records include data from herbarium collections and trawling fishery expeditions in the mid-twentieth century, while recent data comprise records of the last 17 years from MEDITS expeditions, ROV surveys of historical kelp locations, benthic surveys and records by fishermen...
2016: Marine Biology
Akiko Shoji, Stéphane Aris-Brosou, Ellie Owen, Mark Bolton, Dave Boyle, Annette Fayet, Ben Dean, Holly Kirk, Robin Freeman, Chris Perrins, Tim Guilford
In order to maximize foraging efficiency in a varying environment, predators are expected to optimize their search strategy. Environmental conditions are one important factor affecting these movement patterns, but variations in breeding constraints (self-feeding vs. feeding young and self-feeding) during different breeding stages (incubation vs. chick-rearing) are often overlooked, so that the mechanisms responsible for such behavioral shifts are still unknown. Here, to test how search patterns are affected at different breeding stages and to explore the proximate causes of these variations, we deployed data loggers to record both position (global positioning system) and dive activity (time-depth recorders) of a colonial breeding seabird, the razorbill Alca torda...
2016: Marine Biology
Maximilian Strer, Arne Hammrich, Lars Gutow, Sylvia Moenickes
On the shore of the rocky island of Helgoland (North Sea) two closely related isopod species, Idotea balthicaPallas, 1772, and Idotea granulosaRathke, 1843, share a similar fundamental niche but inhabit well-separated habitats. Idotea balthica inhabits floating algae at the sea surface and accumulations of decaying algae on the seafloor, whereas I. granulosa primarily occurs in intertidal macroalgal belts. In laboratory experiments on individually reared isopods I. balthica outperformed I. granulosa with regard to growth, reproduction, and mortality in both a fully inundated habitat and in a tidal habitat with 5 h of daily emergence...
2016: Marine Biology
Lucy R Quinn, Andrew A Meharg, Jan A van Franeker, Isla M Graham, Paul M Thompson
Many wildlife studies use chemical analyses to explore spatio-temporal variation in diet, migratory patterns and contaminant exposure. Intrinsic markers are particularly valuable for studying non-breeding marine predators, when direct methods of investigation are rarely feasible. However, any inferences regarding foraging ecology are dependent upon the time scale over which tissues such as feathers are formed. In this study, we validate the use of body feathers for studying non-breeding foraging patterns in a pelagic seabird, the northern fulmar...
2016: Marine Biology
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