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Cellular Immunology

Arpita Myles, Patricia J Gearhart, Michael P Cancro
Transcription factors regulate various developmental and functional aspects of B cells. T-bet is a recently appreciated transcription factor associated with "Age-associated B cells" or ABCs, the development of autoimmunity, and viral infections. T-bet expression is favored by nucleic acid-containing antigens and immune complexes and is regulated by interplay between various cytokines, notably, the TFH cytokines IL-21, IL-4 and IFNγ. Adaptive signals by themselves cannot upregulate T-bet; however, they have a synergistic effect on induction of T-bet by innate receptors...
September 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Don K Lee, Sun U Song
In the recent years, many studies have shown that MSCs must be stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines or other immune mediators before they can modulate immune cells in inflamed and damaged tissues. MSCs appear to be involved in inducing several regulatory immune cells, such as Tregs, Bregs, and regulatory NK cells. This new immune milieu created by MSCs may establish a tolerogenic environment that leads to an optimal condition for the treatment of immune diseases. The mechanisms of MSC action to treat immune disorders need to be further investigated in more detail...
September 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Hong Sun, Xiaoguang Han, Xiuhui Yan, Jingli Xu, Qiujing Huang, Fanqing Meng, Hongjin Zhang, Shufa Li
Related studies demonstrate that type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by β-cell antigen specific autoreactive CD8+ T cells. ChgA has recently been identified as the autoantigen in NOD mice and T1D patients. Therefore, attenuating the activation of ChgA specific CD8+ T cells might be a promising target for T1D therapy. The negative co-stimulatory PD-L1 inhibits T cell mediated alloimmunity and induces tolerance. In this experiment, a novel mimovirus encoding ChgA10-19 peptide with PD-L1 was constructed. The NOD...
September 7, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Maria Raffaella Romoli, Paola Di Gennaro, Gianni Gerlini, Serena Sestini, Paola Brandani, Soldano Ferrone, Lorenzo Borgognoni
Langerhans cells (LCs) from melanoma patients sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) are poor T cell activators mostly due to an immature immunophenotype. However Antigen Presenting Machinery (APM) role is unknown. We investigated HLA-class I APM components (Delta, LMP-7/10, TAP-1, Calnexin, Tapasin, β2-microglobulin and HLA-A,B,C) in LCs from healthy donors skin and melanoma patients SLN. APM component levels were low in immature epidermal LCs and significantly increased after maturation (p<0.05); their levels were significantly high in SLN LCs (p<0...
August 30, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Wenliang Zhu, Mengqi Li, Yihui Wu, Baoyang Hu
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) promise a foreseeing future for regeneration medicine and cell replacement therapy with their abilities to produce almost any types of somatic cells of the body. The complicated immunogenicity of hPSC derivatives and context dependent responses in variable transplantations greatly hurdle the practical application of hPSCs in clinic. Especially for applications of hPSCs, induction of immune tolerance at the same time increases the risks of tumorigenesis. Over the past few years, thanks to the progress in immunology and practices in organ transplantation, endeavors on exploring strategies to induce long term protection of allogeneic transplants have shed light on overcoming this barrier...
August 30, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Zhibo Yang, Bijun Zeng, Chang Wang, Haizhen Wang, Pan Huang, Yi Pan
Chronic skin inflammation in atopic eczema is associated with elevated expression of proinflammatory genes and activation of innate immune responses in keratinocytes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single-stranded RNA molecules that silence genes via the degradation of target mRNAs or inhibition of translation. Recent studies have demonstrated that miR-124 is associated with regulation of inflammation factors in several diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-124 in skin inflammation of atopic eczema...
August 25, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Wenjun Yang, Ping Hu
The muscle regeneration is a complicated bioprocess that involved in many cell types, including necrotic muscle cells, satellite cells, mesenchymal cells, pericytes, immune cells, and other cell types present at the injury site. Immune cells involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses regulate the progress of muscle regeneration. In this review, we discussed the roles of different immune cells in muscle regeneration. The immune cells regulate muscle regeneration through cytokine production, cell-cell contacts, and general immune environment regulation...
August 24, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Xiao-Juan Hou, Fei Ye, Xiao-Yong Li, Wen-Ting Liu, Ying-Ying Jing, Zhi-Peng Han, Li-Xin Wei
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a typical inflammation-related cancer. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are well-known leading causes of HCC. However, the mechanism of the induction of HCC by these virus is still being debated. This review will focus on the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-induced inflammation and the role of such immune activation in the tumorigenesis of HCC. It is well established that the recruitment of certain number and type of immune cells to liver is essential for the resolution of HBV and HCV infection and the prevention of subsequent chronic persistent infection...
August 24, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Grace E Esebanmen, William H R Langridge
Cholera toxin B subunit fusion to autoantigens such as proinsulin (CTB-INS) down regulate dendritic cell (DC) activation and stimulate synthesis of DC immunosuppressive cytokines. Recent studies of CTB-INS induction of immune tolerance in human DCs indicate that increased biosynthesis of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) may play an important role in CTB-INS vaccine suppression of DC activation. Studies in murine models suggest a role for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in the stimulation of IDO1 biosynthesis, for the induction of tolerance in DCs...
August 21, 2017: Cellular Immunology
S Alice Long, Jerill Thorpe, Kevan C Herold, Mario Ehlers, Srinath Sanda, Noha Lim, Peter S Linsley, Gerald T Nepom, Kristina M Harris
The immunological mechanism(s) of action whereby teplizumab preserves C-peptide levels in the progression of patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) is still not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the kinetics of T cell modulation in peripheral blood following two 14-day courses of teplizumab therapy one year apart in recent onset T1D participants in the AbATE clinical trial. Transient rises in PD-1+Foxp3+ Treg and potentially anergic (CD57-KLRG1-PD-1+) cells in the circulating CD4 T cell compartment were paralleled by more profound increases in circulating CD8 T cells with traits of exhaustion (CD57-KLRG1+PD-1+, TIGIT+KLRG1+, and persistent down-modulation of CD127)...
August 18, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Roland W Herzog, Mario Cooper, George Q Perrin, Moanaro Biswas, Ashley T Martino, Laurence Morel, Cox Terhorst, Brad E Hoffman
Adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene delivery to skeletal muscle is being explored for systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. To better understand the signals that govern antibody formation against secreted transgene products in this approach, we administered an intramuscular dose of AAV1 vector expressing human coagulation factor IX (hFIX), which does not cause antibody formation against hFIX in C57BL/6 mice. Interestingly, co-administration of a TLR9 agonist (CpG-deoxyoligonucleotide, ODN) but not of lipopolysaccharide, caused a transient anti-hFIX response...
August 1, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Hussam S Eltoukhy, Garima Sinha, Caitlyn A Moore, Oleta A Sandiford, Pranela Rameshwar
The immune modulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are mostly controlled by the particular microenvironment. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which can initiate a clinical tumor, have been the subject of intense research. This review article discusses investigative studies of the roles of MSCs on cancer biology including on CSCs, and the potential as drug delivery to tumors. An understanding of how MSCs behave in the tumor microenvironment to facilitate the survival of tumor cells would be crucial to identify drug targets...
August 1, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Liangyu Lin, Liming Du
Stem cells are characterized by self-renew and multipotent differentiation abilities. Besides their roles in cell compensation, stem cells are also rich sources of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, micro-RNAs and exosomes and serve as drug stores to maintain tissue homeostasis. Recent studies have revealed that the secretome of stem cells is regulated by the local inflammatory cues and highlighted the roles of these secretory factors in stem cell based therapies. Importantly, stem cell conditioned medium, in the absence of stem cell engraftment, have shown efficiency in treating diseases involves immune disorders...
July 29, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Jun-Zhu Yi, Zheng-Hua Chen, Feng-Huang Xu, Zhuo-Ya Wang, Hong-Qin Zhang, Guo-Sheng Jiang, Xi-Ying Luan
We investigate the effects of interferon (IFN)-γ on human placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hPMSCs), in particular, their adhesion, proliferation and migration and modulatory effects on the CD4(+)CXCR5(+)Foxp3(+)Treg subset. And we compared hPMSCs ability to induce the generation of different Treg subsets in response to treatment with IFN-γ. We found that IFN-γ suppressed the proliferation and migration for hPMSCs. The ability of hPMSCs to induce the generation of CD4(+)CXCR5(+)Foxp3(+)Treg subset was enhanced by IFN-γ...
July 25, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Gerald T Nepom, David Scott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 22, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Gary M Winslow, Amber M Papillion, Kevin J Kenderes, Russell C Levack
CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells have now been detected and characterized in different experimental and clinical settings, in both mice and humans. Whether such cells are monolithic, or define subsets of B cells with different functions is not yet known. Our studies have identified CD11c+ IgM+ CD19(hi) splenic IgM memory B cells that appear at approximately three weeks post-ehrlichial infection, and persist indefinitely, during low-level chronic infection. Although the CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells we have described are distinct, they appear to share many features with similar cells detected under diverse conditions, including viral infections, aging, and autoimmunity...
July 19, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Denis M Collins, Kathy Gately, Clare Hughes, Connla Edwards, Anthony Davies, Stephen F Madden, Kenneth J O'Byrne, Norma O'Donovan, John Crown
BACKGROUND: Trastuzumab is an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy capable of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and used in the treatment of HER2+ breast cancer. Through interactions with FcƴR+ immune cell subsets, trastuzumab functions as a passive immunotherapy. The EGFR/HER2-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) lapatinib and the next generation TKIs afatinib and neratinib, can alter HER2 levels, potentially modulating the ADCC response to trastuzumab...
July 15, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Michela Manni, Edd Ricker, Alessandra B Pernis
Recent studies have revealed the existence of a T-bet dependent subset of B cells, which expresses unique phenotypic and functional characteristics including high levels of CD11c and CD11b. In the murine system this B cell subset has been termed Age/autoimmune-associated B cells (ABCs) since it expands with age in non-autoimmune mice and it prematurely accumulates in autoimmune-prone strains. The molecular mechanisms that promote the expansion and function of ABCs are largely unknown. This review will focus on the SWEF proteins, a small family of Rho GEFs comprised of SWAP-70 and its homolog DEF6, a newly identified risk variant for human SLE...
July 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Xiaodong Chen, Shijia Wang, Wei Cao
Dysfunction of immune responses has been identified to involve in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormal activation of glia cells and/or infiltration of peripheral adaptive immune cells always sustains neuroinflammation and the disease progression. Obviously, the regulation of neuroinflammation has become a potential therapeutic strategy against neurodegenerative diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit complex interactions with various immune cells including T cells, macrophages and especially resident glia cells in the central nervous system...
July 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Jodi L Karnell, Varsha Kumar, Jingya Wang, Shu Wang, Elisaveta Voynova, Rachel Ettinger
A growing body of evidence suggests that when B cells are chronically stimulated, a phenotypically unique subset expands. Data suggest that this atypical population contains B cell receptor (BCR) specificities capable of binding the antigen, or sets of antigens that initiated the expansion of these cells. These B cells have been given various names, including double negative B cells, atypical memory B cells, tissue-like memory B cells, or age associated B cells (ABCs). However, on close inspection these reports described B cell subsets that closely resemble B cells we refer to as CD11c(+) B cells that often express T-bet...
July 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
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