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Cellular Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511921/myeloperoxidase-a-new-player-in-autoimmunity
#1
REVIEW
Anna Strzepa, Kirkwood A Pritchard, Bonnie N Dittel
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is the most toxic enzyme found in the azurophilic granules of neutrophils. MPO utilizes H2O2 to generate hypochlorous acid (HClO) and other reactive moieties, which kill pathogens during infections. In contrast, in the setting of sterile inflammation, MPO and MPO-derived oxidants are thought to be pathogenic, promoting inflammation and causing tissue damage. In contrast, evidence also exists that MPO can limit the extent of immune responses. Elevated MPO levels and activity are observed in a number of autoimmune diseases including in the central nervous system (CNS) of multiple sclerosis (MS) and the joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients...
May 10, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499490/frequent-inoculations-with-radiation-attenuated-sporozoite-is-essential-for-inducing-sterile-protection-that-correlates-with-a-threshold-level-of-plasmodia-liver-stage-specific-cd8-t-cells
#2
Hardik Patel, Naveen Yadav, Rajesh Parmar, Satish Patel, Agam P Singh, Neeta Shrivastava, Sarat K Dalai
Whole sporozoite vaccine (WSV) is shown to induce sterile protection that targets Plasmodium liver-stage infection. There are many underlying issues associated with induction of effective sterile protracted protection. In this study, we have addressed how the alterations in successive vaccine regimen could possibly affect the induction of sterile protection. We have demonstrated that the pattern of vaccination with RAS (radiation attenuated sporozoites) induces varying degrees of protection among B6 mice. Animals receiving four successive doses generated 100% sterile protection...
May 4, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477840/leukotriene-receptor-expression-in-mast-cells-is-affected-by-their-agonists
#3
Justyna Agier, Sylwia Różalska, Karolina Wódz, Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk
The effects of LTs are mediated by GPCRs: cysLTs interact with CYSLTR1, CYSLTR2, or GPR17, and LTB4 acts via BLT1R or BLT2R. Data relating to the presence of these receptors in mature tissue mast cells are not entirely known. By confocal microscopy with image analyses and flow cytometry, we established that native rat mast cells isolated from peritoneal cavity constitutively express all studied receptors. Moreover, we clearly documented that LTs by themselves can influence their own receptor expression. Low concentrations of LTs induce translocation of LT receptors from cell interior to plasma membrane, which can lead to increased mast cell responsiveness to LT stimulation...
April 30, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476343/immune-responses-to-fungal-aeroallergen-in-heligmosomoides-polygyrus-infected-mice-vary-by-age
#4
Nopporn Apiwattanakul, Maneesha Palipane, Amali Eashani Samarasinghe
Parasite infections in the developing world have been considered to promote resistance to immune-mediated diseases such as asthma. Mouse studies have shown that helminths and their products reduce the development of allergic asthma. Since epidemiologic studies that show similar protection are in relation to geohelminth infections that occur in early life, we hypothesized that the parasite-mediated protection against asthma may differ by age. Mice infected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus at 3-weeks of age had similar asthma phenotype compared to mice infected at 28-weeks of age wherein airway eosinophilia was unaltered but tissue inflammation and GC metaplasia were reduced...
April 27, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457482/aging-effects-on-t-bet-expression-in-human-b-cell-subsets
#5
Daniela Frasca, Alain Diaz, Maria Romero, Francesca D'Eramo, Bonnie B Blomberg
In order to compare human and mouse B cell subset markers, we evaluated T-bet expression in human B cell subsets from individuals of different ages. We found T-bet expressed in unstimulated memory more than naïve B cells, and more in young individuals. TLR7 stimulation up-regulated T-bet in all B cell subsets from young and elderly individuals, and more in the elderly. By fold-increase the best effect was seen in subsets of the elderly and especially in those that undergo class switch (naïve and IgM). We also evaluated CD11c expression, as T-bet+CD11c+ B cells are expanded in healthy elderly individuals and also in patients with autoimmunity...
April 24, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449847/loss-of-wdfy3-ameliorates-severity-of-serum-transfer-induced-arthritis-independently-of-autophagy
#6
Dennis J Wu, Iannis E Adamopoulos
WDFY3 is a master regulator of selective autophagy that we recently showed to interact with TRAF6 and augment RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo via the NF-κB pathway. Since the NF-κB pathway plays a major role in inflammation herein, we investigate the role of WDFY3 in an arthritis animal model. Our data show that WDFY3 conditional knockout mice (Wdfy3(loxP/loxP)-LysM-Cre+) were protected in the K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis animal model. These effects were independent of alterations in starvation-induced autophagy as evidenced by Western blot analysis of the autophagy marker LC3, autophagosome formation in osteoclast precursors and lysosome formation in osteoclasts derived from WDFY3-cKO mice compared to controls...
April 22, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438315/tgf-%C3%AE-1-improving-abnormal-pregnancy-outcomes-induced-by-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-regulating-nkg2d-dap10-and-killer-subset-of-decidual-nk-cells
#7
Xiaoyan Xu, Jian Zhang, Shaowei Zhan, Zhidan Li, Xianbing Liu, Haixia Zhang, Yuzhu Jiang, Xuemei Hu
Our current aim was to investigate whether injection of TGF-β1 played an important role in improving abnormal pregnancy outcomes with T. gondii infection and how the TGF-β1 regulated. Results showed that TGF-β1 exhibited improved pregnancy outcomes induced by T. gondii infection. dNK cytotoxicity was increased with T. gondii infection while decreased with TGF-β1 treatment. dNK cytotoxicity related NKG2D/DAP10 expression, perforin, granzyme, IFN-γ and killer subsets were all increased with T. gondii infection while decreased after TGF-β1 treatment...
April 18, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438314/progression-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-is-associated-with-up-regulation-of-major-sodium-transporters-in-the-mouse-kidney-cortex-under-a-normal-salt-diet
#8
Xiaoming Zhou, Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Yao Xiao, Saule Nurmukhambetova, Jason R Lees
Recent demonstrations of exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by high salt diets prompted us to study whether EAE stimulated Na absorption by the renal cortex, a primary regulatory site for Na balance, even under a normal NaCl diet. We found that as EAE progressed from mild to severe symptoms, there were parallel increases in the protein abundance of NHE3 and αENaC and the Na,K-ATPase activity with an affiliated elevation of its β1-subunit protein. These effects are associated with increases in the protein levels of the well-known regulators SGK1 and scaffold NHERF2, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2...
April 18, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433198/tumor-promoting-role-of-anti-tumor-macrophages-in-tumor-microenvironment
#9
REVIEW
Kuntal Kanti Goswami, Tithi Ghosh, Sarbari Ghosh, Madhurima Sarkar, Anamika Bose, Rathindranath Baral
Recent advances in tumor biology demand detailed analysis of the complex interaction of tumor cells with their adjacent microenvironment (tumor stroma) to understand the various mechanisms involved in tumor growth and metastasis. Mononuclear phagocytes or macrophages, a type of innate immune cells, defend the organism against infection and injury. On the otherhand, tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute a significant part of the tumor-infiltrating immune cells, have been linked to the growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis of a variety of cancers, most likely through polarization of TAMs to the M2 (alternative) phenotype...
April 13, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413062/assessment-of-mucosal-integrity-by-quantifying-neutrophil-granulocyte-influx-in-murine-models-of-acute-intestinal-injury
#10
Julius Clemens Fischer, Alexander Wintges, Tobias Haas, Hendrik Poeck
Intact epithelial body surfaces represent physical barriers which protect the organism from invading pathogens and loss of nutrients. Barrier malfunction is closely linked to disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and graft-versus-host disease. In fact, several pharmacological or radiobiological therapeutic strategies have side effects that affect epithelial surfaces. In this context, assays that accurately assess epithelial barrier integrity in patients and animal models are crucial to create a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to disease or limiting therapeutic approaches due to barrier disruption...
April 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391993/sodium-azide-suppresses-lps-induced-expression-mcp-1-through-regulating-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE-and-stat1-activities-in-macrophages
#11
Cho-Yi Park, Jae-Nyoung Heo, Kyoungho Suk, Won-Ha Lee
Sodium azide (NaN3) is a chemical compound with multiple toxic effects on vascular and neuronal systems, causing hypotension and neurotoxicity, respectively. In order to test its effects on the immune system, human and mouse macrophage-like cell lines were treated with nontoxic doses of NaN3 and the changes in LPS-induced inflammatory activation was measured. Interestingly, the LPS-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 was suppressed by NaN3 without affecting the expression of IL-8 and TNF-α...
April 4, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433199/glycoprotein-non-metastatic-melanoma-protein-b-gpnmb-is-highly-expressed-in-macrophages-of-acute-injured-kidney-and-promotes-m2-macrophages-polarization
#12
Letian Zhou, Hui Zhuo, Huiyu Ouyang, Yexin Liu, Fang Yuan, Lin Sun, Fuyou Liu, Hong Liu
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an increasingly common disorder that is strongly linked to short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. During AKI process, macrophages, one of the important immune response cells, can polarize into M1 and M2 subtype from M0 subtype. It is well-known that M1 macrophages play a pro inflammatory role while M2 macrophages play an anti-inflammatory role. Glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein b (Gpnmb) is a glycosylated transmembrane protein highly expressed in numerous cells, including osteoblasts, dendritic cells and macrophages...
March 31, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372797/unique-high-and-homogenous-surface-expression-of-the-transferrin-receptor-cd71-on-murine-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-in-different-tissues
#13
Anne Lippitsch, Yuri Chukovetskyi, Nelli Baal, Gregor Bein, Holger Hackstein
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are of increasing interest in cancer vaccine development, but many functions of these highly specialized, multifaceted cells are poorly understood. The transferrin receptor CD71 has also been suggested to function as an antigen uptake receptor on professional antigen-presenting cells. In this study, we employed multiparameter flow cytometry to investigate CD71 expression on various leukocyte subsets, including DC subsets, granulocytes, macrophages, T and B lymphocytes, γδ T cells, and natural killer cells...
March 29, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372798/stimulation-of-hiv-specific-t-cell-clonotypes-using-allogeneic-hla
#14
Coral-Ann Almeida, Paula van Miert, Kane O'Driscoll, Yvonne M Zoet, Abha Chopra, Mark Watson, Dianne de Santis, Campbell Witt, Mina John, Frans H J Claas, Lloyd J D'Orsogna
We hypothesized that HIV-specific CD8 T cell clonotypes can be stimulated by allogeneic HLA molecules. Multiple HIV-specific CD8 T cell clones were derived from 12 individuals with chronic HIV infection, specific for 13 different HIV Gag antigens and restricted to 7 different HLA molecules. The generated T cell clones were assayed for alloreactivity against a panel of single HLA class I expressing cell lines (SALs). HIV-specific T cells recognising at least one allogeneic HLA molecule could be identified from 7 of 12 patients tested...
March 28, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366195/a-minimum-number-of-autoimmune-t-cells-to-induce-autoimmunity
#15
Angela J T Bosch, Beatrice Bolinger, Simone Keck, Ondrej Stepanek, Aleksandra J Ozga, Virginie Galati-Fournier, Jens V Stein, Ed Palmer
While autoimmune T cells are present in most individuals, only a minority of the population suffers from an autoimmune disease. To better appreciate the limits of T cell tolerance, we carried out experiments to determine how many autoimmune T cells are required to initiate an experimental autoimmune disease. Variable numbers of autoimmune OT-I T cells were transferred into RIP-OVA mice, which were injected with antigen-loaded DCs in a single footpad; this restricted T cell priming to a few OT-I T cells that are present in the draining popliteal lymph node...
March 12, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285710/role-of-immune-cells-in-obesity-induced-low-grade-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#16
REVIEW
Ambreen Asghar, Nadeem Sheikh
The frequency of obesity is enormously growing worldwide. Obesity results when energy intake exceeds, energy expenditure. Excess adiposity is a major risk factor in the progress of various metabolic disorders accounting insulin resistance, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovarian disease and several types of cancers. Obesity is characterized by pro-inflammatory condition in which hypertrophied adipose tissue along with immune cells contribute to increase the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
March 7, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341057/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-suppress-immature-dendritic-cell-s-migration-by-regulating-cc-chemokine-receptor-1-expression
#17
Young-Hoon Kim, Jae Kwon Lee
The modulation of immature dendritic cells (iDCs), which involves processes such as phagocytosis, migration, and maturation, is considered a beneficial research theme. Once activated by an antigen, iDCs turn to mature DCs (mDCs) and migrate towards secondary lymphoid organs, and initiate the progress of cellular immunity. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are also thought to be a major modulator of cellular immunity. Herein, we demonstrate that HDACis (trichostatin-A (TSA), sodium butylate (SB), scriptaid (ST)) play a central regulatory role in the migratory activity of iDCs...
February 28, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258715/human-macrophages-chronically-exposed-to-lps-can-be-reactivated-by-stimulation-with-mdp-to-acquire-an-antimicrobial-phenotype
#18
Silvia Guzmán-Beltrán, Martha Torres, Monserrat Arellano, Esmeralda Juárez
Macrophages are important in host defense and can differentiate into functionally distinct subsets named classically (M1) or alternatively (M2) activated. In several inflammatory disorders, macrophages become tolerized to prevent deleterious consequences. This tolerization reduces the ability of macrophages to respond to bacterial components (e.g., LPS) maintaining a low level of inflammation but compromising the ability of macrophages to mount an effective immune response during subsequent pathogen encounters...
May 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242024/enhancement-of-macrophage-inflammatory-responses-by-ccl2-is-correlated-with-increased-mir-9-expression-and-downregulation-of-the-erk1-2-phosphatase-dusp6
#19
William F Carson, Sarah E Salter-Green, Melissa M Scola, Amrita Joshi, Katherine A Gallagher, Steven L Kunkel
Macrophage polarization plays a central role in both protective immunity and immunopathology. While the role of cytokines in driving macrophage polarization is well characterized, less is understood about the role of chemokines. The purpose of this study was to determine if CC chemokine 2 (CCL2/MCP1) could influence macrophage polarization in response to subsequent activation with cytokines and microbial products. Treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with CCL2 alone did not result in increased expression of either classical or alternatively-activated macrophage genes as compared to standard skewing cytokines or Toll-like receptor agonists...
April 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238361/macrophage-regulation-of-b-cell-proliferation
#20
Naomi Goldman, Kornelija Valiuskyte, Jennifer Londregan, Adam Swider, John Somerville, James E Riggs
Unlike organized lymphoid tissue, the tumor microenvironment (TME) often includes a high proportion of immunosuppressive macrophages. We model the TME by culturing peritoneal cavity (PerC) cells that naturally have a high macrophage to lymphocyte ratio. Prior studies revealed that, following TCR ligation, PerC T cell proliferation is suppressed due to IFNγ-triggered inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In this study we assessed the ability of PerC B cells to respond to surrogate activating signals in the presence of high numbers of macrophages...
April 2017: Cellular Immunology
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