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Cellular Immunology

Daniel S Dias, Patrícia A F Ribeiro, Vívian T Martins, Daniela P Lage, Fernanda F Ramos, Anna L T Dias, Marcella R Rodrigues, Áquila S B Portela, Lourena E Costa, Rachel B Caligiorne, Bethina T Steiner, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Beatriz C S Salles, Thaís T O Santos, Julia A G Silveira, Danielle F Magalhães-Soares, Bruno M Roatt, Ricardo A Machado-de-Ávila, Mariana C Duarte, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Eduardo S Silva, Alexsandro S Galdino, Eduardo A F Coelho
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) represents a serious public health problem, as Leishmania infantum is one of main disease causative agents in the Americas. In a previous immunoproteomic study, the prohibitin (PHB) protein was identified in L. infantum promastigote and amastigote extracts by antibodies in asymptomatic and symptomatic VL dog sera. This protein was found to be highly conserved between different Leishmania spp., but it presented a low identity with amino acid sequences of other organisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cellular response induced by the recombinant PHB (rPHB) protein in BALB/c mice, as well as in PBMCs purified from untreated and treated VL patients, as well as to evaluate its protective efficacy against an infection by L...
November 9, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Guang Gu, Jian-Zhu Yang, Li-Xia Sun
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) offers an important curative therapy for hematological malignancies and other diseases. A number of studies have demonstrated the association of immune compositions in allografts with outcomes after allo-SCT, which promote graft engineering to improve transplant prognosis. This review summarizes the advances in investigating the correlation of the graft immune compositions with transplant outcomes in different transplant modalities, focusing on the immune subsets likely to have the greatest impact on clinical outcomes...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Wei Chen, Hector Sandoval, Jacek Z Kubiak, Xian C Li, Rafik M Ghobrial, Malgorzata Kloc
Different macrophage subtypes have different morphologies/shapes and functions. Naïve M0 macrophages are elongated. Pro-inflammatory M1 that produce the bactericidal molecule iNos are round. Anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages that produce the pro-healing enzyme Arg-1 are highly elongated. We showed previously that the morphologies of M0 and M2 but not M1 macrophages are RhoA-dependent. Macrophage-specific deletion of RhoA causes the extreme elongation (hummingbird phenotype) of M0 and M2 but not M1 macrophages...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Jonathan Schupp, Franziska K Krebs, Niklas Zimmer, Emily Trzeciak, Detlef Schuppan, Andrea Tuettenberg
Myeloid cells are the most abundant cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The tumor recruits and modulates endogenous myeloid cells to tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), dendritic cells (DC), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and neutrophils (TAN), to sustain an immunosuppressive environment. Pathologically overexpressed mediators produced by cancer cells like granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating- and vascular endothelial growth factor induce myelopoiesis in the bone marrow. Excess of myeloid cells in the blood, periphery and tumor has been associated with tumor burden...
November 2, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Marie-Françoise Heymann, Frédéric Lézot, Dominique Heymann
Osteosarcoma is a rare primary bone cancer characterized by cancer cells producing calcified osteoid extracellular matrix and inducing lung metastases with a high frequency. The local microenvironment defined several tumor niches controlling the tumor growth and cell extravasation. The immune infiltrate composes one of these niches. The immune environment of osteosarcoma is mainly composed by T-lymphocytes and macrophages but also contains other subpopulations including B-lymphocytes and mast cells. Osteosarcoma cells control the recruitment and differentiation of immune infiltrating cells and establish a local immune tolerant environment favorable to the tumor growth, drug resistance and the occurrence of metastases...
November 2, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Shannon L Okada, Randi M Simmons, Secil Franke-Welch, Thuy H Nguyen, Alan J Korman, Stacey R Dillon, Debra G Gilbertson
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature myeloid cells critical in mediating immune suppression in cancer patients. To develop an in vitro assay system that functionally mimics the tumor microenvironment, we cultured human monocytes with conditioned media from several cancer cell lines. Conditioned media from five tumor cell lines induced survival and differentiation of monocytes into cells characteristically similar to macrophages and MDSCs. Notably, media from the 786.O renal cell carcinoma line induced monocytes to acquire a monocytic MDSC phenotype characterized by decreased HLA-DR expression, increased nitric oxide production, enhanced proliferation, and ability to suppress autologous CD3(+) T cell proliferation...
October 31, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Zahra Asadzadeh, Hamed Mohammadi, Elham Safarzadeh, Maryam Hemmatzadeh, Ahmad Mahdian-Shakib, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Gholamreza Azizi, Behzad Baradaran
Immune system acts as a host defensive mechanism protecting against attacking pathogens and transformed cells, including cancer cells. Th17 cells are a specific subset of T helper lymphocytes determined by high secretion of IL-17 and other inflammatory cytokines. Th17 cells increase tumor progression by activating angiogenesis and immunosuppressive activities. They can also mediate antitumor immune responses through recruiting immune cells into tumors, stimulating effector CD8+ T cells, or surprisingly by altering toward Th1 phenotype and producing IFN-γ, so Th17 cells are supposed as a double-edged sword in cancer...
October 31, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Fujimi Kudo, Masashi Ikutani, Masanori Iseki, Satoshi Takaki
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a well-known immunosuppressant that is used against steroid-resistant asthma. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and type 2 helper T (Th2) cells produce Th2 cytokines including IL-5 and play important roles in asthma pathogenesis. Here, we studied the effects of CsA in allergen-induced lung inflammation in mice and found that CsA decreased the number of lung ILC2s and attenuated papain-induced activation of ILC2s accompanied with IL-5 expression. The ILC2 suppression mediated by CsA was not observed in culture or in lymphocyte-deficient Rag2(-/-) mice...
October 27, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Masaaki Hashiguchi, Yuji Kashiwakura, Yumiko Kanno, Hidefumi Kojima, Tetsuji Kobata
Intestinal immunoglobulins (Igs) protect against microbes. However, the regulation of intestinal Ig production is poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the roles of APRIL (tumor necrosis factor superfamily member [TNFSF] 13) and BAFF (TNFSF13B) in intestinal Ig induction. Peyer's patches (PPs) are, at least in part, an inductive site for Igs, including IgA. Introducing APRIL and BAFF in vivo lowered the frequency of IgG1(+) or IgG2b(+) B cells in PPs. Administration of TACI-Fc upregulated the frequency of IgG1(+), IgG2b(+), and IgA(+) B cells in PPs, suggesting that APRIL and BAFF attenuate Ig production in these regions...
October 27, 2017: Cellular Immunology
William F Carson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Yan Bai, Lijuan Bai, Jing Zhou, Huali Chen, Liangke Zhang
Angiogenesis is an organized series of events, beginning with vessel destabilization, followed by endothelial cell re-organization, and ending with vessel maturation. The formation of a mature vascular network requires precise spatial and temporal regulation of a large number of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). VEGF aids in vascular permeability and endothelial cell recruitment, FGF-2 activates endothelial cell proliferation and migration while PDGF stimulates vascular stability...
October 23, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Min Su, Yujun Lin, Cheng Cui, Xiaohong Tian, Xiuling Lu, Zhixu He, Laijun Lai
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), and is induced by immunization with disease-causative self-antigens such as myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). We have previously reported that transplantation of MOG expressing thymic epithelial progenitors (TEPs) derived from 129S6SvEv Tac mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) prevented the development of EAE. In this study, we expand our previous studies to show that transplantation of MOG expressing mESC-TEPs derived from C57BL/6 mice also prevents EAE development...
October 18, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Lindsey Devisscher, Charlotte L Scott, Sander Lefere, Sarah Raevens, Eliene Bogaerts, Annelies Paridaens, Xavier Verhelst, Anja Geerts, Martin Guilliams, Hans Van Vlierberghe
Kupffer cells (KCs) and monocyte-derived macrophages are implicated in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) pathogenesis but their functions remain unclear due to the lack of specific markers to distinguish between the different cell types. Additionally, it is unclear if multiple subsets of KCs are present during NASH. Here, we characterized the liver macrophage subsets during methionine/choline deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH and recovery. We observed a significant reduced contribution of Ly6C(lo)Clec4F(+)Tim4(+)KCs to the hepatic macrophage pool in MCD fed mice, which normalized during recovery...
October 16, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Thi Tho Bui, Chun Hua Piao, Chang Ho Song, Hee Soon Shin, Dong-Hwa Shon, Ok Hee Chai
Piper nigrum (Piperaceae) is commonly used as a spice and traditional medicine in many countries. P. nigrum has been reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-mutagenic, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of P. nigrum on allergic asthma has not been known. This study investigated the effect of P. nigrum ethanol extracts (PNE) on airway inflammation in asthmatic mice model. In the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma model, we analysed the number of inflammatory cells and cytokines production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue; histological structure; as well as the total immunoglobulin (Ig)E, anti-OVA IgE, anti-OVA IgG1 and histamine levels in serum...
October 16, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Huiying Lu, Rui-Di Xie, Ritian Lin, Cuicui Zhang, Xiao-Jun Xiao, Lin-Jing Li, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Li-Tao Yang, Bai-Sui Feng, Zhan-Ju Liu, Ping-Chang Yang
Eosinophils (Eo) play a critical role in immunity and immune inflammation. The maintenance of Eo homeostasis is not fully understood yet. Vitamin D (VitD) is involved in the regulation of a large number of biochemical reactions. This study tests a hypothesis that VitD receptor (VDR) contributes to the homeostasis of Eos. In this study, EoL-1 cells (an Eo cell line) were cultured in the presence or absence of calcitriol. The Eo-mediators, including major basic protein (MBP), Eo peroxidase (EPX), Eo cationic protein (ECP) and Eo-derived neurotoxin (EDN), were assessed in the culture supernatant and in EoL-1 cells...
October 12, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Mohammad Davoodzadeh Gholami, Gholam Ali Kardar, Yousef Saeedi, Sahel Heydari, Johan Garssen, Reza Falak
T lymphocytes play crucial roles in adaptive immune responses to tumors. However, due to different tolerance mechanisms and inhibitory effects of the tumor microenvironment (TME) on T cells, responses to tumors are insufficient. In fact, cellular and molecular suppressive mechanisms repress T cell responses in the TME, resulting in senescent, anergic and exhausted lymphocytes. Exhaustion is a poor responsive status of T cells, with up-regulated expression of inhibitory receptors, decreased production of effective cytokines, and reduced cytotoxic activity...
October 10, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Goo-Young Seo, Jeong-Min Lee, Young-Saeng Jang, Seung Goo Kang, Sung-Il Yoon, Hyun-Jeong Ko, Geun-Shik Lee, Seok-Rae Park, Cathryn R Nagler, Pyeung-Hyeun Kim
The present study extends an earlier report that retinoic acid (RA) down-regulates IgE Ab synthesis in vitro. Here, we show the suppressive activity of RA on IgE production in vivo and its underlying mechanisms. We found that RA down-regulated IgE class switching recombination (CSR) mainly through RA receptor α (RARα). Additionally, RA inhibited histone acetylation of germ-line ε (GL ε) promoter, leading to suppression of IgE CSR. Consistently, serum IgE levels were substantially elevated in vitamin A-deficient (VAD) mice and this was more dramatic in VAD-lecithin:retinol acyltransferase deficient (LRAT(-/-)) mice...
October 3, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Rohini Bhattacharya, Cristian Ovies, Deisi Williamson, Sarah Mitchell, Phillip E Funk
In chickens, B cells develop in the bursa of Fabricius, a unique organ for B cell development. Most B cells will die within the bursa, mirroring cell losses seen in mammalian bone marrow as central tolerance is enforced at the transition to mature cells. B cell responses are shaped by a complex interplay of signals. Signals in addition to BCR that impact central tolerance have recently been described. We have been interested in chB6, a novel alloantigen on B cells in the chicken. chB6 is found in close proximity to the BCR and can trigger apoptosis after cross-linking by antibody...
September 28, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Jamie Josephine Avila McLeod, Heather L Caslin, Andrew J Spence, Elizabeth M Kolawole, Amina Abdul Qayum, Anuya Paranjape, Marcela Taruselli, Tamara T Haque, Kasalina N Kiwanuka, Howard L Elford, John J Ryan
Mast cell activation via the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) elicits production of inflammatory mediators central to allergic disease. As a synthetic antioxidant and a potent ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor, Didox (3,4-dihyroxybenzohydroxamic acid) has been tested in clinical trials for cancer and is an attractive therapeutic for inflammatory disease. We found that Didox treatment of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) reduced IgE-stimulated degranulation and cytokine production, including IL-6, IL-13, TNF and MIP-1a (CCL3)...
September 21, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Jacek Rutkowski, Marta Cyman, Tomasz Ślebioda, Kamila Bemben, Aleksandra Rutkowska, Marcin Gruchała, Zbigniew Kmieć, Agnieszka Pliszka, Renata Zaucha
Lung cancer cells harboring multiple mutations as a consequence of long-term damage by different etiologic factors are responsible for high immunogenicity. Immune checkpoint inhibitors significantly improve treatment results in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Unfortunately, the role of T-lymphocytes in early NSCLC has not been sufficiently elucidated. The aim of this study was to characterize peripheral blood T cells expressing several selected surface antigens (CD4, CD8, CD25, CD28, PD-1, CTLA-4) and transcription factors (T-bet, ROR-yt, Fox-P3, GATA-3) in this patient population...
September 18, 2017: Cellular Immunology
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