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Cellular Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433198/tumor-promoting-role-of-anti-tumor-macrophages-in-tumor-microenvironment
#1
REVIEW
Kuntal Kanti Goswami, Tithi Ghosh, Sarbari Ghosh, Madhurima Sarkar, Anamika Bose, Rathindranath Baral
Recent advances in tumor biology demand detailed analysis of the complex interaction of tumor cells with their adjacent microenvironment (tumor stroma) to understand the various mechanisms involved in tumor growth and metastasis. Mononuclear phagocytes or macrophages, a type of innate immune cells, defend the organism against infection and injury. On the otherhand, tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute a significant part of the tumor-infiltrating immune cells, have been linked to the growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis of a variety of cancers, most likely through polarization of TAMs to the M2 (alternative) phenotype...
April 13, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413062/assessment-of-mucosal-integrity-by-quantifying-neutrophil-granulocyte-influx-in-murine-models-of-acute-intestinal-injury
#2
Julius Clemens Fischer, Alexander Wintges, Tobias Haas, Hendrik Poeck
Intact epithelial body surfaces represent physical barriers which protect the organism from invading pathogens and loss of nutrients. Barrier malfunction is closely linked to disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and graft-versus-host disease. In fact, several pharmacological or radiobiological therapeutic strategies have side effects that affect epithelial surfaces. In this context, assays that accurately assess epithelial barrier integrity in patients and animal models are crucial to create a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to disease or limiting therapeutic approaches due to barrier disruption...
April 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391993/sodium-azide-suppresses-lps-induced-expression-mcp-1-through-regulating-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE-and-stat1-activities-in-macrophages
#3
Cho-Yi Park, Jae-Nyoung Heo, Kyoungho Suk, Won-Ha Lee
Sodium azide (NaN3) is a chemical compound with multiple toxic effects on vascular and neuronal systems, causing hypotension and neurotoxicity, respectively. In order to test its effects on the immune system, human and mouse macrophage-like cell lines were treated with nontoxic doses of NaN3 and the changes in LPS-induced inflammatory activation was measured. Interestingly, the LPS-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 was suppressed by NaN3 without affecting the expression of IL-8 and TNF-α...
April 4, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433199/glycoprotein-non-metastatic-melanoma-protein-b-gpnmb-is-highly-expressed-in-macrophages-of-acute-injured-kidney-and-promotes-m2-macrophages-polarization
#4
Letian Zhou, Hui Zhuo, Huiyu Ouyang, Yexin Liu, Fang Yuan, Lin Sun, Fuyou Liu, Hong Liu
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an increasingly common disorder that is strongly linked to short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. During AKI process, macrophages, one of the important immune response cells, can polarize into M1 and M2 subtype from M0 subtype. It is well-known that M1 macrophages play a pro inflammatory role while M2 macrophages play an anti-inflammatory role. Glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein b (Gpnmb) is a glycosylated transmembrane protein highly expressed in numerous cells, including osteoblasts, dendritic cells and macrophages...
March 31, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372797/unique-high-and-homogenous-surface-expression-of-the-transferrin-receptor-cd71-on-murine-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-in-different-tissues
#5
Anne Lippitsch, Yuri Chukovetskyi, Nelli Baal, Gregor Bein, Holger Hackstein
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are of increasing interest in cancer vaccine development, but many functions of these highly specialized, multifaceted cells are poorly understood. The transferrin receptor CD71 has also been suggested to function as an antigen uptake receptor on professional antigen-presenting cells. In this study, we employed multiparameter flow cytometry to investigate CD71 expression on various leukocyte subsets, including DC subsets, granulocytes, macrophages, T and B lymphocytes, γδ T cells, and natural killer cells...
March 29, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372798/stimulation-of-hiv-specific-t-cell-clonotypes-using-allogeneic-hla
#6
Coral-Ann Almeida, Paula van Miert, Kane O'Driscoll, Yvonne M Zoet, Abha Chopra, Mark Watson, Dianne de Santis, Campbell Witt, Mina John, Frans H J Claas, Lloyd J D'Orsogna
We hypothesized that HIV-specific CD8 T cell clonotypes can be stimulated by allogeneic HLA molecules. Multiple HIV-specific CD8 T cell clones were derived from 12 individuals with chronic HIV infection, specific for 13 different HIV Gag antigens and restricted to 7 different HLA molecules. The generated T cell clones were assayed for alloreactivity against a panel of single HLA class I expressing cell lines (SALs). HIV-specific T cells recognising at least one allogeneic HLA molecule could be identified from 7 of 12 patients tested...
March 28, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366195/a-minimum-number-of-autoimmune-t-cells-to-induce-autoimmunity
#7
Angela J T Bosch, Beatrice Bolinger, Simone Keck, Ondrej Stepanek, Aleksandra J Ozga, Virginie Galati-Fournier, Jens V Stein, Ed Palmer
While autoimmune T cells are present in most individuals, only a minority of the population suffers from an autoimmune disease. To better appreciate the limits of T cell tolerance, we carried out experiments to determine how many autoimmune T cells are required to initiate an experimental autoimmune disease. Variable numbers of autoimmune OT-I T cells were transferred into RIP-OVA mice, which were injected with antigen-loaded DCs in a single footpad; this restricted T cell priming to a few OT-I T cells that are present in the draining popliteal lymph node...
March 12, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285710/role-of-immune-cells-in-obesity-induced-low-grade-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#8
REVIEW
Ambreen Asghar, Nadeem Sheikh
The frequency of obesity is enormously growing worldwide. Obesity results when energy intake exceeds, energy expenditure. Excess adiposity is a major risk factor in the progress of various metabolic disorders accounting insulin resistance, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovarian disease and several types of cancers. Obesity is characterized by pro-inflammatory condition in which hypertrophied adipose tissue along with immune cells contribute to increase the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
March 7, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341057/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-suppress-immature-dendritic-cell-s-migration-by-regulating-cc-chemokine-receptor-1-expression
#9
Young-Hoon Kim, Jae Kwon Lee
The modulation of immature dendritic cells (iDCs), which involves processes such as phagocytosis, migration, and maturation, is considered a beneficial research theme. Once activated by an antigen, iDCs turn to mature DCs (mDCs) and migrate towards secondary lymphoid organs, and initiate the progress of cellular immunity. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are also thought to be a major modulator of cellular immunity. Herein, we demonstrate that HDACis (trichostatin-A (TSA), sodium butylate (SB), scriptaid (ST)) play a central regulatory role in the migratory activity of iDCs...
February 28, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400057/tslp-signaling-blocking-alleviates-e-cadherin-dysfunction-of-airway-epithelium-in-a-hdm-induced-asthma-model
#10
Yahui Hu, Hangming Dong, Mengchen Zou, Chaowen Huang, Lishan Luo, Changhui Yu, JiaLong Chen, Zhefan Xie, Haijin Zhao, Yanqing Le, Fei Zou, Laiyu Liu, Shaoxi Cai
Recent studies have indicated that Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of asthma. However the role of TSLP in dysfunction of airway epithelial adherens junctions E-cadherin in house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma has not been addressed. We hypothesized that TSLP contributed to HDM-induced E-cadherin dysfunction in asthmatic BALB/c mice and 16HBE cells. In vivo, a HDM-induced asthma mouse model was set up for 8weeks. Mice inhaled an anti-TSLP monoclonal antibody (mAb) before HDM...
February 21, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258715/human-macrophages-chronically-exposed-to-lps-can-be-reactivated-by-stimulation-with-mdp-to-acquire-an-antimicrobial-phenotype
#11
Silvia Guzmán-Beltrán, Martha Torres, Monserrat Arellano, Esmeralda Juárez
Macrophages are important in host defense and can differentiate into functionally distinct subsets named classically (M1) or alternatively (M2) activated. In several inflammatory disorders, macrophages become tolerized to prevent deleterious consequences. This tolerization reduces the ability of macrophages to respond to bacterial components (e.g., LPS) maintaining a low level of inflammation but compromising the ability of macrophages to mount an effective immune response during subsequent pathogen encounters...
February 21, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219652/influence-of-age-sex-and-hcmv-serostatus-on-blood-lymphocyte-subpopulations-in-healthy-adults
#12
P A Apoil, B Puissant-Lubrano, N Congy-Jolivet, M Peres, J Tkaczuk, F Roubinet, A Blancher
Using a standardized immunophenotyping procedure we studied thirty-eight distinct subpopulations of T, B and NK lymphocytes in 253 healthy blood donors aged from 19 to 67. We analysed the influence of age, sex and HCMV seropositivity on each lymphocyte subpopulations and established reference ranges. We observed that aging influences the largest number of lymphocyte subpopulations with a slow increase of CD8+ EMRA T lymphocytes and of the numbers of circulating Tregs. The proportion of HLA-DR+ cells among Tregs increased with age and was correlated to the proportion of HLA-DR+ cells among effector T CD4+ lymphocytes...
February 9, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215626/dendritic-cells-that-highly-express-socs1-induce-t-cell-hypo-responsiveness-and-prolong-islet-allograft-survival
#13
Xinjun Lu, Maogen Chen, Zhicheng Xue, Xuzhi Zhang, Jiejie Xu, Linwei Wu, Ronghai Deng, Yi Ma
The capability of dendritic cells (DCs) to induce an immune response or immune tolerance is dependent on their status. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is a pivotal regulator that participates in negative feedback of the JAK-STAT pathway, which plays a key role in the differentiation, activation, and maturation of DCs. DCs that highly express SOCS1 may modulate DCs, and induce immune anergy or immune tolerance. In this study, we transduced DCs with the recombinant adenovirus Ad5F35 to highly express SOCS1...
February 2, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190517/calcium-mobilizing-treatment-acts-as-a-co-signal-for-tlr-mediated-induction-of-interleukin-12-il-12p70-secretion-by-murine-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells
#14
Emily Huang, Loral Showalter, Shuwen Xu, Brian J Czernliecki, Gary K Koski
We sought to determine whether pharmacological calcium-mobilizing agents could act in cooperation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) signals to induce high-level IL-12 production from murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. We found that calcium mobilization alone induced no IL-12, yet dramatically enhanced IL-12p70 secretion elicited by TLR ligands. Enhanced IL-12 production induced by calcium ionophore plus single TLR ligands, but not through dual TLR ligands, was inhibited by the calcineurin antagonist cyclosporine A, suggesting divergent mechanisms of IL-12 induction...
February 1, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242024/enhancement-of-macrophage-inflammatory-responses-by-ccl2-is-correlated-with-increased-mir-9-expression-and-downregulation-of-the-erk1-2-phosphatase-dusp6
#15
William F Carson, Sarah E Salter-Green, Melissa M Scola, Amrita Joshi, Katherine A Gallagher, Steven L Kunkel
Macrophage polarization plays a central role in both protective immunity and immunopathology. While the role of cytokines in driving macrophage polarization is well characterized, less is understood about the role of chemokines. The purpose of this study was to determine if CC chemokine 2 (CCL2/MCP1) could influence macrophage polarization in response to subsequent activation with cytokines and microbial products. Treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with CCL2 alone did not result in increased expression of either classical or alternatively-activated macrophage genes as compared to standard skewing cytokines or Toll-like receptor agonists...
April 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238361/macrophage-regulation-of-b-cell-proliferation
#16
Naomi Goldman, Kornelija Valiuskyte, Jennifer Londregan, Adam Swider, John Somerville, James E Riggs
Unlike organized lymphoid tissue, the tumor microenvironment (TME) often includes a high proportion of immunosuppressive macrophages. We model the TME by culturing peritoneal cavity (PerC) cells that naturally have a high macrophage to lymphocyte ratio. Prior studies revealed that, following TCR ligation, PerC T cell proliferation is suppressed due to IFNγ-triggered inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In this study we assessed the ability of PerC B cells to respond to surrogate activating signals in the presence of high numbers of macrophages...
April 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110884/tumor-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cells-are-negatively-regulated-by-pd-1-and-tim-3-in-human-gastric-cancer
#17
Xu Lu, Lin Yang, Daxing Yao, Xuan Wu, Jingpo Li, Xuesong Liu, Lijuan Deng, Caiting Huang, Yue Wang, Dan Li, Jingwei Liu
Cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes that are present in tumors and capable of recognizing tumor epitopes are nevertheless generally important in eliciting tumor rejection. NY-ESO-1 is a major target of CD8(+) T cell recognition in gastric cancer (GC) and is among the most immunogenic tumor antigens defined to date. Thus, identifying the immune escape mechanisms responsible for inducing tumor-specific CD8(+) T cell dysfunction may reveal effective strategies for immunotherapy. In an effort to understand in vivo tolerance mechanisms, we assessed the phenotype and function of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8(+) T cells derived from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and tumor-associated lymphocytes (TALs) of GC patients...
March 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104239/cd8-t-cells-of-chronic-hcv-infected-patients-express-multiple-negative-immune-checkpoints-following-stimulation-with-hcv-peptides
#18
Muttiah Barathan, Rosmawati Mohamed, Jamuna Vadivelu, Li Yen Chang, Ramachandran Vignesh, Jayalakshmi Krishnan, Panneer Sigamani, Alireza Saeidi, M Ravishankar Ram, Vijayakumar Velu, Marie Larsson, Esaki M Shankar
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are key to successful viral clearance in HCV disease. Accumulation of exhausted HCV-specific T cells during chronic infection results in considerable loss of protective functional immune responses. The role of T-cell exhaustion in chronic HCV disease remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the frequency of HCV peptide-stimulated T cells expressing negative immune checkpoints (PD-1, CTLA-4, TRAIL, TIM-3 and BTLA) by flow cytometry, and measured the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines secreted by T cells by a commercial Multi-Analyte ELISArray™ following in vitro stimulation of T cells using HCV peptides and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)...
March 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089340/activation-of-nk-cell-cytotoxicity-by-aerosolized-cpg-odn-poly-i-c-against-lung-melanoma-metastases-is-mediated-by-alveolar-macrophages
#19
Michele Sommariva, Valentino Le Noci, Chiara Storti, Francesca Bianchi, Elda Tagliabue, Andrea Balsari, Lucia Sfondrini
Controversies remain about NK cells direct responsiveness to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists or dependence on macrophages. In a melanoma lung metastasis model, aerosolized TLR9 and TLR3 agonists have been reported to induce antitumor immunity through NK cells activation. In the current study, we demonstrated that in vitro TLR9/TLR3 stimulation induced IFN-γ secretion by NK cells, but an increase in their cytotoxicity was detected only after NK cells co-culture with in vitro TLR9/TLR3 agonists pretreated alveolar macrophages...
March 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087047/rational-design-of-low-immunogenic-anti-cd25-recombinant-immunotoxin-for-t-cell-malignancies-by-elimination-of-t-cell-epitopes-in-pe38
#20
Ronit Mazor, Gilad Kaplan, Dong Park, Youjin Jang, Fred Lee, Robert Kreitman, Ira Pastan
LMB-2, is a potent recombinant immunotoxin (RIT) that is composed of scFv antibody that targets CD25 (Tac) and a toxin fragment (PE38). It is used to treat T cell leukemias and lymphomas. To make LMB-2 less immunogenic, we introduced a large deletion in domain II and six point mutations in domain III that were previously shown to reduce T cell activation in other RITs. We found that unlike other RITs, deletion of domain II from LMB-2 severely compromised its activity. Rather than deletion, we identified T cell epitopes in domain II and used alanine substitutions to identify point mutations that diminished those epitopes...
March 2017: Cellular Immunology
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