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Cellular Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908440/lipid-raft-dependent-endocytosis-negatively-regulates-responsiveness-of-j774-macrophage-like-cells-to-lps-by-down-regulating-the-cell-surface-expression-of-lps-receptors
#1
Szczepan Józefowski, Małgorzata Śróttek
Acting through CD14 and TLR4/MD-2, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers strong pro-inflammatory activation of macrophages, which, if not appropriately controlled, may lead to lethal septic shock. Therefore, numerous mechanisms of negative regulation of responses to LPS exist, but whether they include down-regulation of LPS receptors is not clear. We have found that in J774 cells, the clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway enables activation of TRIF-dependent TLR4 signaling within endosomes, but is not associated with the down-regulation of TLR4 or CD14 surface expression...
November 23, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889082/nod2-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-inflammatory-response-by-mediating-expression-of-tslp-in-human-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#2
Gaoshun Ni, Yang Chen, Fengqin Wu, Pengxian Zhu, Liqiang Song
The newly discovered intracytosolic pattern recognition receptor nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) has been studied as an important indicator of T helper 2 (Th2) inflammation, and its effect on regulatory T (Treg) cells is likely to modulate the immune response. In this study, we attempted to study the expression of NOD2 and its impact in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression level of NOD2 in HASMC and comparisons were made between those from asthmatic and non-asthmatic donors; we found that NOD2 was significantly upregulated in asthma patient tissues and cell lines...
November 17, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884393/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-targeting-vegf-pathway-alleviates-house-dust-mite-hdm-induced-airway-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#3
Ruhui Zhang, Hangming Dong, Haijin Zhao, Liqin Zhou, Fei Zou, Shaoxi Cai
BACKGROUND: In our previous studies, we have indentified that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) can alleviate toluene diisocyanate-induced airway epithelial barrier disruption and we also found that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) derived from airway epithelials cells could disrupt epithelial barrier. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate whether 1,25(OH)2D3 can inhibit house dust mite (HDM) induced airway epithelial barrier dysfunction by regulating the VEGF pathway...
November 16, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865421/cannabidiol-cbd-induces-functional-tregs-in-response-to-low-level-t-cell-activation
#4
Saphala Dhital, John V Stokes, Nogi Park, Keun Seok Seo, Barbara L F Kaplan
Many effects of the non-psychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), have been described in immune responses induced by strong immunological stimuli. It has also been shown that CBD enhances IL-2 production in response to low-level T cell stimulation. Since IL-2, in combination with TGF-β1, are critical for Treg induction, we hypothesized that CBD would induce CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) Tregs in response to low-level stimulation. Low-level T cell stimulation conditions were established based on minimal CD25 expression in CD4(+) cells using suboptimal PMA/Io (4nM/0...
November 9, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847106/mhc-class-ii-peptides-induce-cd8-cd44-ly49-regulatory-t-cells-in-c57bl-6-mice
#5
Yunliang Yao, Xiang Wang, Hongchang Zhou, Hui Zhang, Yinfang Shi, Shiyu Wang, Xiaoyi Wang
CD8(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in regulating peripheral immune tolerance. However, difficulties in the characterization of CD8(+) Tregs that lack suitable markers have a considerably limited research in this area. Moreover, the induction and effector mechanisms of CD8(+) Tregs remain unclear. Herein, we demonstrate the suitability of Ly49 and CD44 as markers for CD8(+) Tregs. Our data also show that MHC class II restricted peptides induce CD8(+)CD44(+)Ly49(+) Tregs via CD4(+) T cell activation...
November 9, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27839672/comprehensive-analysis-of-epigenetically-regulated-genes-in-anergic-t-cells
#6
Yusuke Yoshioka, Toshinori Kozaki, Kazuo Ishii, Ayano Toyoda, Makoto Hattori, Tadashi Yoshida
T cell anergy is one of the important mechanisms for immune tolerance. The results of many studies investigating the mechanism for T cell anergy induction have revealed that the expression of several genes was up-regulated in anergic T cells. It has also been demonstrated that the molecules encoded on those genes played a critical role in anergy induction. However, the mechanism for their up-regulation has not previously been clarified. We examined in this study the changes in gene expression and DNA methylation status caused by anergy induction...
November 2, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825564/genetic-markers-of-immunoglobulin-g-and-immunity-to-cytomegalovirus-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#7
Janardan P Pandey, Aryan M Namboodiri, Sarumathi Mohan, Paul J Nietert, Lindsay Peterson
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV), a ubiquitous herpesvirus, has been implicated in the etiology of breast cancer. It is clear that not all people exposed to CMV are equally likely to develop this malignancy, implying the presence of host genetic factors that might modulate the cancer-spurring properties of the virus. CMV has evolved sophisticated strategies for evading host immunosurveillance. One strategy involves encoding decoy Fcγ receptors (FcγR) that thwart the Fcγ-mediated effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity...
November 2, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825563/resveratrol-inhibits-lung-cancer-growth-by-suppressing-m2-like-polarization-of-tumor-associated-macrophages
#8
Liwei Sun, Bonian Chen, Rong Jiang, Jinduo Li, Bin Wang
In cancer, tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in the cancer progression, evasion of immunity and dissemination of cancer cells. Inhibition of the activation or the M2 polarization of TAMs is an effective therapy for cancer. In the present study, we investigated the ability of resveratrol (RES) to inhibit lung cancer growth using in vitro and in vivo studies, and examined the underlying mechanisms. We demonstrated that M2 polarization of human monocyte derived macrophage (HMDMs) induced by the lung cancer cells conditioned medium was inhibited by RES...
November 2, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823764/cxcr6-promotes-tumor-cell-proliferation-and-metastasis-in-osteosarcoma-through-the-akt-pathway
#9
Yunsheng Ma, Xin Xu, Mei Luo
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6 (CXCR6) is up-regulated in many malignancies, indicating that CXCR6 plays an important role in tumor progression. However, the expression and function of CXCR6 in osteosarcoma (OS) remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the expression levels and function of CXCR6 in OS tissues and osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63, HOS and U2OS. The protein expression levels of CXCR6 in OS patient tissues and three osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63, HOS and U2OS were assessed. CXCR6-overexpression MG-63 cell lines were established and then the proliferation, invasion and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in those cells were assessed...
November 1, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816167/inhibition-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptors-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injured-autoimmunity-prone-mice
#10
Jess Edison, Sharon Frattalone, Christopher Tracy, Geoffrey E Woodard, Melissa Butts, C M Moratz
B6.MRL/lpr mice, an autoimmune strain, have an accelerated injury time course, increased intensity of tissue damage, and increased CD4+ T cell infiltration in the mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion injury model. In this study, the mechanism by which CD4+ T cells were recruited into injured tissue was addressed. Fingolimod (FTY720) was utilized to assess the role of infiltrating CD4+ T cells. FTY720 treatment was more effective in attenuating injury in B6.MRL/lpr mice then in control mice. Reduced CD4+ cell infiltration and tissue injury correlated with decreased neutrophil infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokine generation...
October 27, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793335/role-of-heterogeneous-cell-population-on-modulation-of-dendritic-cell-phenotype-and-activation-of-cd8-t-cells-for-use-in-cell-based-immunotherapies
#11
Hannah Frizzell, Jaehyung Park, Natacha Comandante Lou, Kim A Woodrow
Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapies have much utility in their ability to prime antigen-specific adaptive immune responses. However, there does not yet exist a consensus standard to how DCs should be primed. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of heterogeneous co-cultures, composed of both CD11c+ (DCs) and CD11c- cells, in combination with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) stimulation on DC phenotype and function. Upon DC priming in different co-culture ratios, we observed reduced expression of MHCII and CD86 and increased antigen uptake among CD11c+ cells in a CD11c- dependent manner...
October 13, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776738/bone-marrow-derived-innate-macrophages-attenuate-oxazolone-induced-colitis
#12
Zhao Cheng, Hong-Ling Peng, Rong Zhang, Xian-Ming Fu, Guang-Sen Zhang
Previous studies have shown that a subpopulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent F4/80(high) CD11b(high) innate macrophages could be derived from bone marrow cells by continuous in vitro culturing. These cells could be induced to differentiate into M1 or M2 macrophages in vitro. In the current study, we sought to determine whether bone marrow cell-derived innate macrophages (BMIMs) could be used to fulfill an anti-inflammatory purpose by intravenous transplantation in vivo after being stimulated to differentiate into M2 macrophages...
October 12, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743606/hepatic-expansion-of-virus-specific-cd8-btla-t-cells-with-regulatory-properties-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#13
Huaizhou Wang, Beiying Wu, Lei Li, Liang Hu, Jiafei Lin, Cen Jiang, Gang Cai, Qian Shen
Similar to programmed death-1 (PD-1), B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is a co-inhibitory molecule of the CD28 family. PD-1 is involved in T cell exhaustion during chronic viral infection. However, the role of BTLA in virus-specific T cells is poorly defined. Here we investigated the expression and function of BTLA in T cells from patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The phenotype of peripheral and intrahepatic HBV-specific T cells from 43 patients with chronic HBV infection was assessed by flow cytometry...
October 6, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729107/mammalian-host-defense-peptides-and-their-implication-on-combating-leishmania-infection
#14
Zahra Abdossamadi, Negar Seyed, Sima Rafati
Infection with parasites of the genus Leishmania is a health problem in many countries around the world. No effective vaccine is available against leishmaniasis, so chemotherapy is the only alternative for treatment of all forms of the disease. However, drawbacks including toxicity and severe adverse reactions restrain the use of currently available chemotherapeutics. Therefore development of new drugs and therapeutic approaches is highly demanded. Mammalian host defense peptides (mHDP) and/or mammalian antimicrobial peptides (mAMP) are among promising compounds considered effective to control the infectious diseases...
October 4, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717503/btla-expressing-cd11c-antigen-presenting-cells-in-patients-with-active-tuberculosis-exhibit-low-capacity-to-stimulate-t-cell-proliferation
#15
Wan-Dang Wang, Yu-Chi Gao, Yuan-Bin Lu, Jun-Ai Zhang, Gan-Bin Liu, Bin Kong, Wen-Yu Xiang, You-Chao Dai, Shi-Yan Yu, Yan Jia, Xiao-Xia Fu, Lai-Long Yi, Bin-Ying Zheng, Zheng W Chen, Jixin Zhong, Jun-Fa Xu
Despite past extensive studies on B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA)-mediated negative regulation of T cell activation, the role of BTLA in antigen presenting cells (APCs) in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (ATB) remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that BTLA expression on CD11c APCs increased in patients with ATB. Particularly, BTLA expression in CD11c APCs was likely associated with the attenuated stimulatory capacity on T cells (especially CD8+ T cell) proliferation. BTLA-expressing CD11c APCs showed lower antigen uptake capacity, lower CD86 expression, higher HLA-DR expression, and enhanced IL-6 secretion, compared to counterpart BTLA negative CD11c APCs in healthy controls (HC)...
September 30, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702443/brazilian-propolis-promotes-immunomodulation-on-human-cells-from-american-tegumentar-leishmaniasis-patients-and-healthy-donors-infected-with-l-braziliensis
#16
Ana Paula Fortes Dos Santos Thomazelli, Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Suelen Santos da Silva, Carolina Panis, Tatiane Marcusso Orsini, Allan Henrique Depieri Cataneo, Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla, Luiz Antonio Custódio, Vera Lúcia Hideko Tatakihara, Juliano Bordignon, Guilherme Ferreira Silveira, José Maurício Sforcin, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ivete Conchon-Costa
American Tegumentar Leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania parasites with ineffective treatment. The properties of propolis have been studied in different experimental studies, however, few works have investigated the effects of propolis on human-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in leishmaniasis models. Thus, we investigate the immunomodulatory effects of propolis treatment on PBMC from ATL patients and on PBMC from healthy donors infected with Leishmania braziliensis...
September 29, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697286/the-effect-of-transplanted-human-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-treated-with-ifn-%C3%AE-on-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice
#17
Mohammad Torkaman, Marzieh Ghollasi, Mousa Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Ali Salimi, Afshin Amari
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) increases the immunosuppressive property of human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJ-MSCs). In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of IFN-γ primed WJ-MSCs in EAE mice. IFN-γ primed WJ-MSCs were injected on days 3 and 11 after EAE induction. 21 days after EAE induction, splenocytes and cervical lymph node cells were isolated and cell proliferation, secretion of inflammatory cytokines and frequency of regulatory T-cells was measured. On day 50 of the study, cell infiltration and gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in brain of mice were studied...
September 28, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697285/vitamin-d3-regulates-lamp3-expression-in-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells
#18
L Malaguarnera, A Marsullo, K Zorena, G Musumeci, M Di Rosa
The family of lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) encompassing LAMP1, LAMP2 and DC-LAMP (LAMP3) are the major constituents of the glycoconjugates coat present on the inside of the lysosomal membrane. LAMP3 is highly expressed only in certain cell types and during the differentiation stages. Its expression is linked the maturation of dendritic cells, inflammation, poor prognosis of certain tumors, and the locus where it is encoded was identified as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we investigated the capacity of Vitamin D3 to modulate the expression of LAMP3 during the dendritic cells differentiation and maturation...
September 28, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671672/tak1-knockdown-enhances-lipopolysaccharide-induced-secretion-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-myeloid-cells-via-unleashing-mekk3-activity
#19
Kun Li, Meichen Wang, Yaping Hu, Na Xu, Qin Yu, Qinfu Wang
TGF-β activating protein kinase 1 (TAK1) belongs to the MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family. TAK1 is involved in many signaling pathways, especially the innate and adaptive immune responses. TAK1 mediates nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and MAPK signaling pathway in response to interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and toll-like receptor agonists, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The regulatory roles of TAK1 in LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines production are dependent on the cell types. In this study, we examined the effects of TAK1 on the LPS induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in myeloid cells...
September 21, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667759/b10-cells-play-a-role-in-the-immune-modulation-of-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-immune-responses-in-mouse-islet-allograft-rejection
#20
Yao Qin, Mei Zhang, Rui-Mei Jiang, Qian Wu, Xin-Yu Xu, Heng Chen, Tao Yang
Recently, pancreatic islet transplantation has been shown to be a viable option for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, immune destruction becomes the major impediment to the clinical application of islet transplantation. Here, we evaluated changes affecting multiple types of immune cells and cytokines in allogeneic islet transplantation immunity after the administration of B10 cells alone and explored the regulatory mechanisms of B10 cells in T cell-mediated allograft rejection. In vitro assays, B10 cells significantly decreased the proliferative capacity of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells (13...
September 19, 2016: Cellular Immunology
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