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Cellular Immunology

Robert J Binder
The intracellular functions of heat shock proteins (HSPs) as chaperones of macromolecules are well known. Current observations point to a role of these chaperones in initiating and modulating immune responses to tumors via receptor(s) on dendritic cells. In this article we provide an insight into, and a basis for, the importance of these HSP-mediated immune responses in rejecting nascent and emerging tumors.
May 16, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Noelia A-Gonzalez, Antonio Castrillo
Macrophage heterogeneity in the spleen has been long documented, with four subsets populating the different splenic compartments. The diverse environments on the splenic compartments determine their varied phenotype and functions. In the white pulp, highly phagocytic macrophages contribute to the generation of the immune response. The marginal zone contains two populations of macrophages, which also contribute to the immune response. Their strategic position in the bloodstream and their unique phenotype confer them a crucial role in the defense against blood borne pathogens, placing them at the crossroad between innate and adaptive immune responses...
May 15, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Jin Fan, Hua Liang, Tao Shen, Shuo Wang, Xiaolin Ji, Cassian Yee, Fengmin Lu, Yiming Shao
Early immunological events in acute HIV infection are thought to fundamentally influence long-term disease outcomes. Though the contribution of Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses to early viral control is well established, little is known about the role of Env-specific CD8 T cell responses in controlling viral replication during acute infection. In a macaque simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) model, some macaques who were able to control SHIV replication after ART interruption showed expansion of Env-specific CD8 T cell responses during acute infection, compared to macaques who progressed to viral rebound...
May 5, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Sandrine Delignat, Ivan Peyron, Maria El Ghazaly, Srinivas V Kaveri, Jan Rohde, Frank Mueller, Sebastien Lacroix-Desmazes
Hemophilia A is a X-linked recessive bleeding disorder consecutive to the lack of circulating pro-coagulant factor VIII (FVIII). The most efficient strategy to treat or prevent bleeding in patients with hemophilia A relies on replacement therapy using exogenous FVIII. Commercially available recombinant FVIII are produced using an expensive perfusion technology in stainless steel fermenters. A fed-batch fermentation technology was recently developed to produce 'Neureight', a full-length recombinant human FVIII, in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells...
May 5, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Fusheng Zhou, Zhengwei Zhu, Jinping Gao, Chao Yang, Leilei Wen, Lu Liu, Xianbo Zuo, Xiaodong Zheng, Yinjuan Shi, Caihong Zhu, Bo Liang, Xianyong Yin, Wenjun Wang, Hui Cheng, Songke Shen, Xianfa Tang, Huayang Tang, Liangdan Sun, Anping Zhang, Sen Yang, Xuejun Zhang, Yujun Sheng
This study was aimed to investigate whether NFKB1 participates in the pathogenesis of psoriasis by mediating Th1/Th17 cells. In this study, expression of NFKB1 was assessed in skin tissues from psoriasis patients and the healthy controls through Western blot and Immunohistochemistry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyze the serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-17 (IL-17A) and IL-17RA. The imiquimod-induced psoriasis mouse model was employed to examine the role of NFKB1 in psoriasis via the assessment of psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), including erythema, thickness and scales...
May 2, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Man-Ka Zhang, Hui-Min Ma, Jian Zhang, Xin-Cheng Song, Xiao-Hui Ye, Yu-Feng Li, Yi-Fan Zhang, Ling-Ling He, Hong-Shan Wei, Xin Li
The present study was conducted to characterize the C6orf120 gene, by using C6orf120 gene-deleted rats (C6orf120- / - ), to determine its role in the development and severity of autoimmune hepatitis induced by concanavalin A (Con A), as well as the underlying mechanisms. We found that following Con A injection, C6orf120- / - rats were less susceptible to developing autoimmune hepatitis with low levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) post challenge. Additionally, C6orf120 deficiency increased the frequency of cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ CD25+ Forkhead box P3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) among intrahepatic lymphocytes, splenocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and CD4+ T in vitro...
May 2, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Juzeng Zheng, Zhanfan Ou, Xianfan Lin, Lingling Wang, Yang Liu, Sisi Jin, Jinming Wu
Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a worldwide health problem with no current effective strategy to achieve a cure. The Hepatitis B virus (HBV) E antigen (HBeAg) has a negative effect on the immune system and a therapeutic vaccine is a promising strategy in order to treat chronic virus infection. In this study, we analyzed and identified the MHC-I, MHC-II and B cell epitopes of the HBeAg based on a B genotype sequence of HBV using a bioinformatic approach and in vitro experiments. The computational approach provided us with four epitopes (LLWFHISCL, YLVSFGVWI, MQLFHLCLI, TVLEYLVSF) of the specific MHC-I allele HLA-A0201 that conformed to all criteria...
April 30, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Andrea Annoni, Silvia Gregori, Luigi Naldini, Alessio Cantore
Lentiviral vectors (LV) are widely used vehicles for gene transfer and therapy in pre-clinical animal models and clinical trials with promising safety and efficacy results. However, host immune responses against vector- and/or transgene-derived antigens remain a major obstacle to the success and broad applicability of gene therapy. Here we review the innate and adaptive immunological barriers to successful gene therapy, both in the context of ex vivo and in vivo LV gene therapy, mostly concerning systemic LV delivery and discuss possible means to overcome them, including vector design and production and immune modulatory strategies...
April 27, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Xiuju Chen, Ying Guo, Ranran Han, Haijie Liu, Yanan Ding, Yanchao Shi, Dexin Kong, Xiaofeng Ma
The Class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, 2-(2-difluoromethy lbenzimidazol-1-yl)-4,6-dimorpholino-1,3,5-triazine (ZSTK474), has anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties. However, whether it can be used to treat Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)-a neuroinflammatory disorder-is unknown. We induced experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) in Lewis rats, an established model of GBS. Orally administered ZSTK474 decreased neurological deficits in the GBS model, as demonstrated by diminished inflammatory cell infiltration, and ameliorated demyelination of sciatic nerves...
April 26, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Douglas M Oswald, Brian A Cobb
The glycobiology of the immune response is a topic that has garnered increased attention due to a number of key discoveries surrounding IgG function, the specificity of some broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies, cancer immunoregulation by galectin molecules and others. This review is the opening article in a Special Edition of Cellular Immunology focused on glycoimmunology, and has the goal of setting the context for these articles by providing a mini-review of how glycans impact immunity. We also focus on some of the technological and methodological advances in the field of glycobiology that are being deployed to lower the barrier of entry into the glycosciences, and to more fully interrogate the glycome and its function...
April 25, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Susanne F Viehmann, Alexander M C Böhner, Christian Kurts, Sebastian Brähler
The kidney contains a large and complex network of mononuclear phagocytes, which includes dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MØs). The distinction between these cell types is traditionally based on the expression of molecular markers and morphology. However, several classification systems are used in parallel to identify DCs and MØs, leading to considerable uncertainty about their identity and functional roles. The discovery that a substantial proportion of macrophages in tissues like the kidney are embryonically derived further complicates the situation...
April 22, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Daniel R Saban
The number of neurons dedicated to vision itself is thought to be greater than the sum of the four other senses combined. Yet, little attention has been payed to the retina as compared to elsewhere in the central nervous system with respect to microglia, the macrophages of the neural parenchyma. Indeed, major advancements in the understanding of microglial ontogeny and maintenance in brain and spinal cord are now widely appreciated, whereas less notice has been given to the neural retina in this regard. The current Review covers topical concepts on adult microglia and perivascular macrophage ontogenies in the steady state retina, as well as parallels made with these macrophages in other areas of the central nervous system...
April 22, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Sankar Renu, Santosh Dhakal, Eunsoo Kim, Jonathan Goodman, Yashavanth S Lakshmanappa, Michael J Wannemuehler, Balaji Narasimhan, Prosper N Boyaka, Gourapura J Renukaradhya
Intranasal vaccination of pigs with poly lactic-co-glycolic acid and polyanhydride nanoparticles delivered inactivated influenza virus provides cross-reactive T-cell response, but not antibody response, resulting in incomplete protection and no reduction in nasal virus shedding. Expression of BAFF and Th2 transcription factor GATA-3 were downregulated in lungs of pigs vaccinated with influenza nanovaccine, but in mice it upregulated the expression of BAFF and cytokine TGFβ in cervical lymph nodes. However, the intranasal iNKT cell adjuvant, α-Galctosylceramide upregulates the expression of BAFF in pig lungs...
April 11, 2018: Cellular Immunology
N Ashari, H W Pang, T Simon, Y Xiong, J M Coburn, J S Bromberg, D L Kaplan, J McLenithan, M J Fontaine
Silk fibroin is a novel biomaterial for enhancing transplanted islet cell function and survival. This study investigated whether silk fibroin may have unique properties that improve islet function in the face of inflammatory-mediated stress during transplantation. Murine islet function was tested in vitro with either silk fibroin or alginate and challenged with inflammatory cytokines. The glucose-stimulated insulin secretion index for all conditions decreased with inflammatory cytokines, but was better preserved for islets exposed to silk compared to those exposed to alginate or medium...
April 9, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Hye-Youn Son, Vasso Apostolopoulos, June-Key Chung, Chul-Woo Kim, Ji-Ung Park
With DNA vaccines, it is important to monitor the movement of transfectants and to overcome immune deviations. We used a pCMV-LacZ plasmid (expressing β-galactosidase) and a pcDNA-hNIS plasmid (expressing the human sodium/iodide symporter [hNIS] gene) as non-secreted visual-imaging markers. Transfectants carrying the hNIS or LacZ gene migrated to peripheral lymphoid tissues. hNIS-expressing cells were observed specifically in the LNs and spleen. Anti-β-galactosidase was detected in LacZ DNA immunized mice after boosting twice, suggestive of Th2 humoral immune responses...
April 9, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Guo Feng, Xinyu Yang, Yanqiu Li, Xiang Wang, Shiming Tan, Fangping Chen
Platelet is an important cell contributing to hemostasis and immunity. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), mainly functioning by stimulating toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), mediates platelet activation and sepsis. However, the inter-relationship between these players in sepsis remains unknown. We found that the aggregation of platelets was enhanced in complete blood of sepsis patients than that of healthy donors. PRP isolated from complete blood of healthy donors was used in the following study to filter out the interference of irrelevant cells...
April 7, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Jiri Keirsse, Helena Van Damme, Xenia Geeraerts, Alain Beschin, Geert Raes, Jo A Van Ginderachter
The liver is a major target organ for metastasis of both gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal cancers. Due to its frequently inoperable nature, liver metastasis represents a leading cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. In the past years, the pivotal role of the immune system in this process is being increasingly recognised. In particular, the role of the hepatic macrophages, both recruited monocyte-derived macrophages (Mo-Mfs) and tissue-resident Kupffer cells (KCs), has been shown to be more versatile than initially imagined...
April 6, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Katrien Van der Borght, Bart N Lambrecht
Heart disease is the major cause of death and it is broadly recognized that the immune system plays a central role in healthy and injured heart. Here, we focus on the contribution of various subsets of mononuclear phagocytes in the cardiac system. Macrophages and dendritic cells reside in the healthy myocardium to fulfill homeostatic functions and rapidly increase in numbers in diseases like myocardial ischemia and myocarditis to contribute to disease or resolve it. Recent experiments have revealed the extraordinary heterogeneity of cardiac mononuclear phagocytes that differ in origin, lifespan, phenotype and function...
April 5, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Noushin Mossadegh-Keller, Michael H Sieweke
Macrophages are innate immune cells present in essentially every organ of the body with dedicated tissue specific functions. We will present in this review the unique properties and functions of macrophage populations residing in the testis, an immune-privileged organ. Testicular macrophages (tMΦ) could be seen as guardians of fertility due to their immunosuppressive functions protecting spermatogenesis from auto immune-attack. They exhibit testis specific functions with essential roles in normal testis homeostasis and fetal testicular development...
April 3, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Lili Wang, Yongxiang Yi, Wenxiu Jiang, Dandan Yin, Jing Fan, Wei Ye, Wei Zhao
Immune active cells (IACs) have been shown to be an alternative immunotherapy for CHB patients. However, there is a practical problem of different expansion rate and function of HBV inhibition as individual variability exists. Our previous studies have confirmed that the proliferation and cytolysis of IACs were significantly up-regulated by engineered cells for costimulatory enhancement (ECCE) delivering a 4-1BBζ activating signal. In this study, we aimed to investigate the contribution of ECCE to IACs from CHB patients...
April 2, 2018: Cellular Immunology
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