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Cellular Immunology

Min Zhang, Guangmin Lu, Fanqing Meng, Shufa Li, Xunhua Li, Xiaoyun Gong
T-cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic β cells leads to Type 1 diabetes (TID). Vitamin D-Binding Protein (VDBP) has been identified as an autoantigen and T cell reactivity against VDBP increases in the development of T1D. Autoreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) recognize β-cell-derived peptides in the context of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. However, little is known about the VDBP-derived immunogenic peptides that are presented in the context of human HLA molecules. Here, we predicted and identified VDBP derived immunogenic peptides that were presented in association with human HLA-A2 molecule...
March 5, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Leen Catrysse, Geert van Loo
Adipose tissue is a special tissue environment due to its high lipid content. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) help maintain adipose tissue homeostasis in steady state by clearing dead adipocytes. However, adipose tissue changes drastically during obesity, resulting in a state of chronic low grade inflammation and a shift in the adipose immune landscape. In this review we will discuss how these changes influence the polarization of ATMs.
March 5, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Gaizhi Zhu, Xiaoling Liu, Ying Fang, Bing Zhai, Ruonan Xu, Gencheng Han, Guojiang Chen, He Xiao, Chunmei Hou, Beifen Shen, Yan Li, Yoichiro Iwakura, Liang Wang, Zhenyu Jiang, Ning Ma, Guangchao Liu, Renxi Wang
IL-1α in vitro promotes immunoglobulin secretion by inducing proliferation of mature B cells, whereas IL-1α deficiency has no effect on in vivo antibody production. However, the reason IL-1α deficiency does not reduce in vivo antibody production is still unclear. In this study, we found that similar as in vivo data, IL-1α deficiency did not affect antibody production in in vitro LPS-stimulated B cells. Surprisingly, LPS-stimulated IL-1α-/- B cells reduced a key antibody production-related transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp-1) expression...
February 24, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Ying Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Nicole Janssen, Lisa Speigl, Graham Pawelec, Heike Niessner, Christopher Shipp
Metastatic melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, with an ever-increasing incidence worldwide. Despite encouraging results with immunotherapeutic approaches, long-term survival is still poor. This is likely partly due to tumour-induced immune suppression mediated by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which were shown to be associated with response to therapy and survival. Thus, identifying pathways responsible for MDSC differentiation may provide new therapeutic targets and improve efficacy of existing immunotherapies...
February 21, 2018: Cellular Immunology
M N Karpenko, A A Vasilishina, E A Gromova, Z M Muruzheva, A Bernadotte
Several parameters representing the clinical diversity of Parkinson's disease (PD), including severity, phenotypes, cognitive decline, anxiety and depression were analyzed to examine the link with interleukin-1β (IL-1β), the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and also to determine the relationship between levels of these factors in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Significantly elevated serum IL-1β and IL-6 and reduced IL-1RA levels were found in the PD group...
February 19, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Alessia Gallo, Monica Miele, Ester Badami, Pier Giulio Conaldi
Patients following solid organ transplantation show a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Elevated risk is likely due to the interplay of a combination of factors, such as chronic inflammation, coexisting medical conditions, immunosuppressive regimen and persistent infection with oncogenic viruses. In addition, the tumor microenvironment plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, by driving recruitment and in situ differentiation of anti-inflammatory cells of the adaptive and innate immune system such as regulatory T cells, Th17, Dendritic Cells, Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells, Type 2 Macrophages...
February 16, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Alicia Bellomo, Rebecca Gentek, Marc Bajénoff, Myriam Baratin
Lymph nodes (LN) are secondary lymphoid organs dispersed throughout the body that filter lymph and assist the immune system in mounting immune responses. These functions are supported by a complex stromal microarchitecture composed of mesenchymal and vascular elements. Different subsets of macrophages (MΦ) reside in the LN and are endowed with immune and trophic functions. Here we review these different subsets with particular emphasis on the recently described T cell zone MΦ. We also address the potential crosstalk between LN stromal cells and MΦ, proposing that the former constitute niches for the latter by supplying factors required for their specification, survival and turnover...
February 15, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Mate Kiss, Sofie Van Gassen, Kiavash Movahedi, Yvan Saeys, Damya Laoui
Tumors of various histological origins show abundant infiltration of myeloid cells from early stages of disease progression. These cells have a profound impact on antitumor immunity and influence fundamental processes that underlie malignancy, including neoangiogenesis, sustained cancer cell proliferation, metastasis and therapy resistance. For these reasons, development of therapeutic approaches to deplete or reprogram myeloid cells in cancer is an emerging field of interest. However, knowledge about the heterogeneity of myeloid cells in tumors and their variability between patients and disease stages is still limited...
February 14, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Wouter T'Jonck, Martin Guilliams, Johnny Bonnardel
Tissue-resident macrophages form an essential part of the first line of defense in all tissues of the body. Next to their immunological role, they play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Recently, it was shown that they are primarily of embryonic origin. During embryogenesis, precursors originating in the yolk sac and fetal liver colonize the embryonal tissues where they develop into mature tissue-resident macrophages. Their development is governed by two distinct sets of transcription factors...
February 13, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Gil Katz, Kelsey Voss, Toria F Yan, Yong Chan Kim, Robert L Kortum, David W Scott, Andrew L Snow
Restimulation-induced cell death (RICD) is an apoptotic program that regulates effector T cell expansion, triggered by repeated stimulation through the T cell receptor (TCR) in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Although CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) consume IL-2 and experience frequent TCR stimulation, they are highly resistant to RICD. Resistance in Tregs is dependent on the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) transcription factor, although the mechanism remains unclear. T cells from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP-1), that lack the adaptor molecule SLAM-associated protein (SAP), are also resistant to RICD...
February 12, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Xiaole Zhang, Lei Gao, Kai Meng, Chunting Han, Qiang Li, Zhenjun Feng, Lei Chen
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable cancer characterized by the development of malignant plasma cells. The CD8 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity is considered a major player in antitumor immunity, but in MM patients, the CD8 T cells displayed senescence markers and were functionally impaired. To investigate whether cytotoxic CD4 T cells could act as a treatment alternative in MM, we examined the frequency and function of naturally occurring cytotoxic CD4 T cells in MM patients. The cytotoxic CD4 T cells were identified as granzyme-A, granzyme B-, and perforin-expressing CD4 T cells, and their frequencies were significantly upregulated in MM patients when compared with healthy controls...
February 12, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Guomu Liu, Xiaoyu Zhai, Hongyue Zhou, Xiaoyu Yang, Nannan Zhang, Guixiang Tai, Weihua Ni
Our previous study demonstrated that maltose-binding protein (MBP) activated Th1 through the TLR2-mediated MyD88-dependent pathway and the TLR4-mediated TRIF-dependent pathway. The combination of MBP and BCG synergistically induced Th1 activation, and the TLR2/9-mediated MyD88-dependent pathway is involved in this process. To further explore this mechanism, we stimulated purified mouse CD4 + T cells with MBP and BCG in vitro. The results demonstrated that MBP combined with BCG synergistically increased IFN-γ production and TLR2/4/9 expression, suggesting the involvement of TLR2/4/9 in the combination-induced Th1 activation...
February 12, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Hong Sun, Wenqing Geng, Hualu Cui, Guoxin Liang, Yajing Fu, Zining Zhang, Yongjun Jiang, Haibo Ding, Junjie Xu, Hong Shang
The profound deficiency of Th17 cells contributes to HIV disease progression. The mechanisms of their perturbation remain unclear. Recently, CCR6+ CD95+ CD4+ naïve T cells (CCR6+ CD95+ CD4+ TNA ), identified as pre-committed Th17 precursors, were recognized as a subpopulation of CD4+ T cells with stem cell properties. Following phenotypical identification, we evaluated their level in patients during chronic HIV infection and following antiretroviral therapy (ART) using flow cytometry. The levels of CCR6+ CD95+ CD4+ TNA were decreased during chronic HIV infection and correlated with CD4+ T cell counts...
February 10, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Wonki Kim, Seung Hyeon Kim, Jeong-Hoon Jang, Chaekyun Kim, Kyeojin Kim, Young-Ger Suh, Yeonsoo Joe, Hun Taeg Chung, Young-Nam Cha, Young-Joon Surh
Phagocytosis of pathogens by macrophages is crucial for the successful resolution of inflammation induced by microbial infection. Taurine chloramine (TauCl), an endogenous anti-inflammatory and antioxidative substance, is produced by reaction between taurine and hypochlorous acid by myeloperoxidase activity in neutrophils under inflammatory conditions. In the present study, we investigated the effect of TauCl on resolution of acute inflammation caused by fungal infection using a zymosan A-induced murine peritonitis model...
February 9, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Maude Liegeois, Celine Legrand, Christophe J Desmet, Thomas Marichal, Fabrice Bureau
Lung macrophages have mostly been studied considering only their most accessible and well-defined representative, the alveolar macrophage (AM). In contrast, the identity and putative immune functions of their tissue counterpart, the interstitial macrophage (IM), have long remained much more elusive. Yet, recent evidence supports the notion that IMs perform important immune functions in the lung, notably in terms of innate immunoregulation. Here, we review current knowledge on the phenotype, ontogeny and function of IMs and propose strategies for the unambiguous identification and study of this important and dynamic lung innate immune cell population...
February 8, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Peiliang Wang, Bing Huang, Yi Gao, Jianjian Yang, Zhihui Liang, Ni Zhang, Xiangning Fu, Lequn Li
CD103 + CD8 + tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been linked to prolonged survival in various types of cancer including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the factors associated with the retention of CD103 + CD8 + TILs in lung cancer tissues remain largely unknown. Additionally, the contribution of CD103 + CD8 + TILs to effective PD-1 based immunotherapy has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we identified that the expression levels of E-cadherin and TGF-β were significantly correlated with the distribution and the density of CD103 + TILs in lung cancer tumor tissues...
February 7, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Christel Claes, Johanna Van den Daele, Catherine M Verfaillie
Over the past decades, the importance of the immune system in a broad scope of pathologies, has drawn attention towards tissue-resident macrophages, such as microglia in the brain. To enable the study of for instance microglia, it is crucial to recreate in vitro (and in vivo) assays. However, very fast loss of tissue-specific features of primary tissue resident macrophages, including microglia, upon in vitro culture has complicated such studies. Moreover, limited knowledge of macrophage developmental pathways and the role of local 'niche factors', has hampered the generation of tissue-resident macrophages from pluripotent stem cells (PSC)...
February 2, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Anneleen Remmerie, Charlotte L Scott
Distinct macrophage populations throughout the body display highly heterogeneous transcriptional and epigenetic programs. Recent research has highlighted that these profiles enable the different macrophage populations to perform distinct functions as required in their tissue of residence, in addition to the prototypical macrophage functions such as in innate immunity. These 'extra' tissue-specific functions have been termed accessory functions. One such putative accessory function is lipid metabolism, with macrophages in the lung and liver in particular being associated with this function...
February 2, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Livia Lacerda Mariano, Molly A Ingersoll
Macrophages are instrumental in the response to infectious and noninfectious diseases, however, their role in the bladder is poorly understood. Indeed, the bladder is a mucosal tissue frequently overlooked in research, despite the prevalence of illnesses such as urinary tract infection and bladder cancer. Notably, bladder tissue macrophages are among the most populous resident immune cells in this organ and recent studies support that resident macrophages and infiltrating monocytes play nonredundant roles in response to infection, immunotherapy, and inflammation...
February 2, 2018: Cellular Immunology
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