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Cellular Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108005/in-vitro-allogeneic-immune-cell-response-to-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-derived-from-human-adipose-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
P Usha Shalini, J V S Vidyasagar, Lakshmi Kumari Kona, Meenakshi Ponnana, Lakshmi Kiran Chelluri
We investigated the regulatory activity of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) (n=10) towards immune cells in a cohort of 84 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 36 apparently healthy controls. We co-cultured MSCs with lymphocyte subsets of T, B, and T regulatory cells (Tregs). Levels of the pro- and anti-inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-10 (IL-10)) were estimated in serum and co-culture supernatants. The study revealed a two-fold increase in the proportion of Tregs and an increased level of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3...
January 12, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108006/3-4-dihydroxycinnamic-acid-stimulates-immune-system-function-by-modifying-the-humoral-antibody-response-an-in-vivo-study
#2
M Ishwarya, R T Narendhirakannan
The immunomodulatory property of 3,4-Dihydroxy-cinnamic acid (DCA) was studied under the normal and cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressive conditions in animal models. The immunomodulatory activity was evaluated by studying the haematological parameters, humoral antibody, based on the plaque forming cell count, the bone marrow cellularity, the α-esterase's producing active cells, delayed type hypersensitive assay, phagocytic index assays. The chemopreventive effect of DCA was determined by cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression in animals...
January 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093098/tlr-induced-immunomodulatory-cytokine-expression-by-human-gingival-stem-progenitor-cells
#3
Mohamed K Mekhemar, Sabine Adam-Klages, Dietrich Kabelitz, Christof E Dörfer, Karim M Fawzy El-Sayed
During therapeutic application, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may interact with their environment via their expressed toll-like-receptors (TLRs) leading to pro- or anti-inflammatory immune responses. The present study aimed to describe the gingival margin-derived stem/progenitor cells' (G-MSCs) TLR-induced immune regulatory response to specific TLR agonists. Gingival cells were obtained, immunomagnetically sorted via anti-STRO-1 antibodies and seeded out to achieve colony forming units (CFUs). G-MSCs were investigated for stem cell characteristics and TLR expression...
January 10, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089340/activation-of-nk-cell-cytotoxicity-by-aerosolized-cpg-odn-poly-i-c-against-lung-melanoma-metastases-is-mediated-by-alveolar-macrophages
#4
Michele Sommariva, Valentino Le Noci, Chiara Storti, Francesca Bianchi, Elda Tagliabue, Andrea Balsari, Lucia Sfondrini
Controversies remain about NK cells direct responsiveness to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists or dependence on macrophages. In a melanoma lung metastasis model, aerosolized TLR9 and TLR3 agonists have been reported to induce antitumor immunity through NK cells activation. In the current study, we demonstrated that in vitro TLR9/TLR3 stimulation induced IFN-γ secretion by NK cells, but an increase in their cytotoxicity was detected only after NK cells co-culture with in vitro TLR9/TLR3 agonists pretreated alveolar macrophages...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087047/rational-design-of-low-immunogenic-anti-cd25-recombinant-immunotoxin-for-t-cell-malignancies-by-elimination-of-t-cell-epitopes-in-pe38
#5
Ronit Mazor, Gilad Kaplan, Dong Park, Youjin Jang, Fred Lee, Robert Kreitman, Ira Pastan
LMB-2, is a potent recombinant immunotoxin (RIT) that is composed of scFv antibody that targets CD25 (Tac) and a toxin fragment (PE38). It is used to treat T cell leukemias and lymphomas. To make LMB-2 less immunogenic, we introduced a large deletion in domain II and six point mutations in domain III that were previously shown to reduce T cell activation in other RITs. We found that unlike other RITs, deletion of domain II from LMB-2 severely compromised its activity. Rather than deletion, we identified T cell epitopes in domain II and used alanine substitutions to identify point mutations that diminished those epitopes...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073435/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-a-therapeutic-hiv-vaccine-by-in-vitro-stimulation-assay
#6
Xiaozhou He, Wandi Wang, Ke Xu, Xia Feng, Yi Zeng
A novel method for HIV vaccine efficacy evaluation was established and the experimental conditions optimized. This novel method was then applied to determine whether a recombinant adenovirus type 5 HIV therapeutic vaccine expressing Gag antigen (Ad5-HIVgag) could stimulate HIV-specific cellular responses in vitro. The results indicated that HIV-specific IFN-gama production lymphocytes were induced by the Ad5-HIVgag vaccine. Compared with other methods, this in vitro stimulation method is safe and time-efficient, and the result is more intuitive...
January 4, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049560/a-recombinant-fusion-protein-displaying-murine-and-human-mhc-class-i-and-ii-specific-epitopes-protects-against-leishmania-amazonensis-infection
#7
Vívian T Martins, Daniela P Lage, Mariana C Duarte, Ana Maria R S Carvalho, Lourena E Costa, Tiago A O Mendes, Danniele L Vale, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Bruno M Roatt, Carlos A P Tavares, Manuel Soto, Eduardo A F Coelho
Tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) constitutes a major public health problem with significant morbidity worldwide. Synthetic peptide-based vaccines are attractive candidates to protect against leishmaniasis, since T cell-specific epitopes can be delivery to antigen-presenting cells, leading to the generation of a Th1 cell-mediated immunity. In this context, the present study aims to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a vaccine composed of major histocompatibility complex class I and II-restricted epitopes derived from four Leishmania infantum proteins to protect mice against Leishmania amazonensis infection...
December 28, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069109/immunomodulatory-effects-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-overexpressing-heme-oxygenase-1-protective-effects-on-acute-rejection-following-reduced-size-liver-transplantation-in-a-rat-model
#8
Zhong-Yang Shen, Bin Wu, Tao Liu, Yang Yang, Ming-Li Yin, Wei-Ping Zheng, Bo-Ya Zhang, Hong-Li Song
Here we explore the T-lymphocyte suppressive and immunomodulatory effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on acute rejection following reduced-size liver transplantation (RLT) in a rat model. The proliferation activity, cell cycle progression, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, expression of CD25 and CD71 in lymphocytes, and activity of NK cells were found to be significantly lowered, and the proportion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) was found to be increased relative to BMMSCs when Adv-HO-1/BMMSCs were co-cultured with Con A ex vivo; secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines was significantly higher...
December 26, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063598/burn-injury-influences-the-t-cell-homeostasis-in-a-butyrate-acid-sphingomyelinase-dependent-manner
#9
Teresa C Rice, Stephanie M Armocida, Joshua W Kuethe, Emily F Midura, Ayushi Jain, David A Hildeman, Daniel P Healy, Erich Gulbins, Charles C Caldwell
Following burn injury, a key factor for patients susceptible to opportunistic infections is immune suppression. Butyrate levels are important in maintaining a functional immune system and these levels can be altered after injury. The acid sphingomyelinase (Asm) lipid signaling system has been implicated in a T cell actions with some evidence of being influenced by butyrate. Here, we hypothesized that burn-injury changes in butyrate levels would mediate Asm activity and, consequently, T cell homeostasis. We demonstrate that burn injury temporally decreases butyrate levels...
December 26, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077237/interplay-of-extracellular-matrix-and-leukocytes-in-lung-inflammation
#10
REVIEW
Thomas N Wight, Charles W Frevert, Jason S Debley, Stephen R Reeves, William C Parks, Steven F Ziegler
During inflammation, leukocytes influx into lung compartments and interact with extracellular matrix (ECM). Two ECM components, versican and hyaluronan, increase in a range of lung diseases. The interaction of leukocytes with these ECM components controls leukocyte retention and accumulation, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and activation as part of the inflammatory phase of lung disease. In addition, bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic children co-cultured with human lung fibroblasts generate an ECM that is adherent for monocytes/macrophages...
December 23, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104239/cd8-t-cells-of-chronic-hcv-infected-patients-express-multiple-negative-immune-checkpoints-following-stimulation-with-hcv-peptides
#11
Muttiah Barathan, Rosmawati Mohamed, Jamuna Vadivelu, Li Yen Chang, Ramachandran Vignesh, Jayalakshmi Krishnan, Panneer Sigamani, Alireza Saeidi, M Ravishankar Ram, Vijayakumar Velu, Marie Larsson, Esaki M Shankar
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are key to successful viral clearance in HCV disease. Accumulation of exhausted HCV-specific T cells during chronic infection results in considerable loss of protective functional immune responses. The role of T-cell exhaustion in chronic HCV disease remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the frequency of HCV peptide-stimulated T cells expressing negative immune checkpoints (PD-1, CTLA-4, TRAIL, TIM-3 and BTLA) by flow cytometry, and measured the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines secreted by T cells by a commercial Multi-Analyte ELISArray™ following in vitro stimulation of T cells using HCV peptides and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)...
December 16, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993350/monoclonal-antibody-binding-to-the-macrophage-specific-receptor-sialoadhesin-alters-the-phagocytic-properties-of-human-and-mouse-macrophages
#12
Marjorie De Schryver, Davie Cappoen, Dirk Elewaut, Hans J Nauwynck, Louis Maes, Guy Caljon, Paul Cos, Peter L Delputte
Sialoadhesin (Sn) is a surface receptor expressed on macrophages in steady state conditions, but during inflammation, Sn can be upregulated both on macrophages and on circulating monocytes. It was shown for different species that Sn becomes internalized after binding with monoclonal antibodies. These features suggest that Sn is a potential target for immunotherapies. In this study, human and mouse macrophages were treated with anti-Sn monoclonal antibodies or F(ab')2 fragments and the effect of their binding to Sn on phagocytosis was analyzed...
December 9, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993351/mesenchymal-stem-cells-overexpressing-il-35-effectively-inhibit-cd4-t-cell-function
#13
Na Zhao, Hongyue Li, Yongjia Yan, Ruoyu Jiang, Xianghui He
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for cell-based immune tolerance therapy. Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is a relatively newly identified cytokine required for the regulatory and suppressive functions of regulatory T cells (Treg), playing an important role in the prevention of autoimmune diseases. In this study, we isolated adipose tissue-derived MSCs, a good vehicle for cell therapy, which were transfected with a lentivirus vector for the overexpression of the therapeutic murine IL-35 gene...
December 8, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908440/lipid-raft-dependent-endocytosis-negatively-regulates-responsiveness-of-j774-macrophage-like-cells-to-lps-by-down-regulating-the-cell-surface-expression-of-lps-receptors
#14
Szczepan Józefowski, Małgorzata Śróttek
Acting through CD14 and TLR4/MD-2, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers strong pro-inflammatory activation of macrophages, which, if not appropriately controlled, may lead to lethal septic shock. Therefore, numerous mechanisms of negative regulation of responses to LPS exist, but whether they include down-regulation of LPS receptors is not clear. We have found that in J774 cells, the clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway enables activation of TRIF-dependent TLR4 signaling within endosomes, but is not associated with the down-regulation of TLR4 or CD14 surface expression...
November 23, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889082/nod2-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-inflammatory-response-by-mediating-expression-of-tslp-in-human-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#15
Gaoshun Ni, Yang Chen, Fengqin Wu, Pengxian Zhu, Liqiang Song
The newly discovered intracytosolic pattern recognition receptor nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) has been studied as an important indicator of T helper 2 (Th2) inflammation, and its effect on regulatory T (Treg) cells is likely to modulate the immune response. In this study, we attempted to study the expression of NOD2 and its impact in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression level of NOD2 in HASMC and comparisons were made between those from asthmatic and non-asthmatic donors; we found that NOD2 was significantly upregulated in asthma patient tissues and cell lines...
November 17, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884393/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-targeting-vegf-pathway-alleviates-house-dust-mite-hdm-induced-airway-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#16
Ruhui Zhang, Hangming Dong, Haijin Zhao, Liqin Zhou, Fei Zou, Shaoxi Cai
BACKGROUND: In our previous studies, we have indentified that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) can alleviate toluene diisocyanate-induced airway epithelial barrier disruption and we also found that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) derived from airway epithelials cells could disrupt epithelial barrier. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate whether 1,25(OH)2D3 can inhibit house dust mite (HDM) induced airway epithelial barrier dysfunction by regulating the VEGF pathway...
November 16, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865421/cannabidiol-cbd-induces-functional-tregs-in-response-to-low-level-t-cell-activation
#17
Saphala Dhital, John V Stokes, Nogi Park, Keun Seok Seo, Barbara L F Kaplan
Many effects of the non-psychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), have been described in immune responses induced by strong immunological stimuli. It has also been shown that CBD enhances IL-2 production in response to low-level T cell stimulation. Since IL-2, in combination with TGF-β1, are critical for Treg induction, we hypothesized that CBD would induce CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) Tregs in response to low-level stimulation. Low-level T cell stimulation conditions were established based on minimal CD25 expression in CD4(+) cells using suboptimal PMA/Io (4nM/0...
November 9, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847106/mhc-class-ii-peptides-induce-cd8-cd44-ly49-regulatory-t-cells-in-c57bl-6-mice
#18
Yunliang Yao, Xiang Wang, Hongchang Zhou, Hui Zhang, Yinfang Shi, Shiyu Wang, Xiaoyi Wang
CD8(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in regulating peripheral immune tolerance. However, difficulties in the characterization of CD8(+) Tregs that lack suitable markers have a considerably limited research in this area. Moreover, the induction and effector mechanisms of CD8(+) Tregs remain unclear. Herein, we demonstrate the suitability of Ly49 and CD44 as markers for CD8(+) Tregs. Our data also show that MHC class II restricted peptides induce CD8(+)CD44(+)Ly49(+) Tregs via CD4(+) T cell activation...
November 9, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825564/genetic-markers-of-immunoglobulin-g-and-immunity-to-cytomegalovirus-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#19
Janardan P Pandey, Aryan M Namboodiri, Sarumathi Mohan, Paul J Nietert, Lindsay Peterson
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV), a ubiquitous herpesvirus, has been implicated in the etiology of breast cancer. It is clear that not all people exposed to CMV are equally likely to develop this malignancy, implying the presence of host genetic factors that might modulate the cancer-spurring properties of the virus. CMV has evolved sophisticated strategies for evading host immunosurveillance. One strategy involves encoding decoy Fcγ receptors (FcγR) that thwart the Fcγ-mediated effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity...
November 2, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27839672/comprehensive-analysis-of-epigenetically-regulated-genes-in-anergic-t-cells
#20
Yusuke Yoshioka, Toshinori Kozaki, Kazuo Ishii, Ayano Toyoda, Makoto Hattori, Tadashi Yoshida
T cell anergy is one of the important mechanisms for immune tolerance. The results of many studies investigating the mechanism for T cell anergy induction have revealed that the expression of several genes was up-regulated in anergic T cells. It has also been demonstrated that the molecules encoded on those genes played a critical role in anergy induction. However, the mechanism for their up-regulation has not previously been clarified. We examined in this study the changes in gene expression and DNA methylation status caused by anergy induction...
January 2017: Cellular Immunology
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