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Quality & Quantity

Manuchehr Irandoust
Despite the fact that previous studies have extensively investigated the causal nexus between military expenditure and economic growth in both developed and developing countries, those studies have not considered the role of globalization. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between militarism and globalization for the top 15 military expenditure spenders over the period 1990-2012. The bootstrap panel Granger causality approach is utilized to detect the direction of causality. The results show that military expenditure and overall globalization are causally related in most of the countries under review...
2018: Quality & Quantity
Hilde Tobi, Jarl K Kampen
Many of today's global scientific challenges require the joint involvement of researchers from different disciplinary backgrounds (social sciences, environmental sciences, climatology, medicine, etc.). Such interdisciplinary research teams face many challenges resulting from differences in training and scientific culture. Interdisciplinary education programs are required to train truly interdisciplinary scientists with respect to the critical factor skills and competences. For that purpose this paper presents the Methodology for Interdisciplinary Research (MIR) framework...
2018: Quality & Quantity
Jonathan A Odukoya, Olajide Adekeye, Angie O Igbinoba, A Afolabi
Teachers and Students worldwide often dance to the tune of tests and examinations. Assessments are powerful tools for catalyzing the achievement of educational goals, especially if done rightly. One of the tools for 'doing it rightly' is item analysis. The core objectives for this study, therefore, were: ascertaining the item difficulty and distractive indices of the university wide courses. A range of 112-1956 undergraduate students participated in this study. With the use of secondary data, the ex-post facto design was adopted for this project...
2018: Quality & Quantity
Gebrenegus Ghilagaber
The study examines the association between the size of previous environmental sanction charges and subsequent compliance towards environmental regulations. Data used for the study come from about 9000 Swedish firms fined sometime between January 2002 and December 2012. Probabilities of compliance across various levels of sanctions are estimated using life-table methods and tested for equality using standard nonparametric methods. Association between size of sanction charges and subsequent behaviour is modelled by proportional hazard model for the rate of recidivism as well as by a family of flexible parametric accelerated failure-time models for the duration of compliance...
2018: Quality & Quantity
Jessica Gabriele Walter
The measures of attitudes toward gender roles included in many representative international and national omnibus surveys were developed mostly in the 1970s and 1980s with a focus on the male breadwinner model. This article deals with the issue of whether the measures provided in these omnibus surveys need to be adjusted to specific social changes. A review of these measures has found that adjustments have occurred in a limited way that focused on the role of women and disregarded the role of men. Furthermore, most of these measures only examined the traditional roles of men and women...
2018: Quality & Quantity
Andrew Bell, Kelvyn Jones
It is claimed the hierarchical-age-period-cohort (HAPC) model solves the age-period-cohort (APC) identification problem. However, this is debateable; simulations show situations where the model produces incorrect results, countered by proponents of the model arguing those simulations are not relevant to real-life scenarios. This paper moves beyond questioning whether the HAPC model works, to why it produces the results it does. We argue HAPC estimates are the result not of the distinctive substantive APC processes occurring in the dataset, but are primarily an artefact of the data structure-that is, the way the data has been collected...
2018: Quality & Quantity
Keming Yang
While age has been identified as a risk factor for loneliness, whether it is a necessary or sufficient condition for loneliness has never been examined. This is the first study that applies fuzzy-set QCA, a special type of set-theoretic method, to discover the necessary and sufficient causal conditions for loneliness, respectively, among adults in the UK, analysing the data collected from the UK sample of Round 6 of the European Social Survey (ESS, 2012, n = 2163). It firstly examines the configurations of five conditions: being female, old age, not living with spouse/partner, bad health, and not being frequently social with others...
2018: Quality & Quantity
Carolina Plescia, Lorenzo De Sio
Ecological inference refers to the study of individuals using aggregate data and it is used in an impressive number of studies; it is well known, however, that the study of individuals using group data suffers from an ecological fallacy problem (Robinson in Am Sociol Rev 15:351-357, 1950). This paper evaluates the accuracy of two recent methods, the Rosen et al. (Stat Neerl 55:134-156, 2001) and the Greiner and Quinn (J R Stat Soc Ser A (Statistics in Society) 172:67-81, 2009) and the long-standing Goodman's (Am Sociol Rev 18:663-664, 1953; Am J Sociol 64:610-625, 1959) method designed to estimate all cells of R × C tables simultaneously by employing exclusively aggregate data...
2018: Quality & Quantity
Christopher Deeming, Ron Johnston
Major changes in the British welfare state were initiated during the 1980s in response to the 1970s' stagflation, rapid globalisation and the government's inability to ensure full employment: the relatively unrestricted payment of unemployment benefits was replaced by a jobseekers' allowance with applicants obliged to seek work actively and, if required, undergo training. Public support for this shift lagged behind the policy introductions, but from 1997 on there was a major change in attitudes towards welfare beneficiaries...
2018: Quality & Quantity
Piotr Tarka
This paper is a tribute to researchers who have significantly contributed to improving and advancing structural equation modeling (SEM). It is, therefore, a brief overview of SEM and presents its beginnings, historical development, its usefulness in the social sciences and the statistical and philosophical (theoretical) controversies which have often appeared in the literature pertaining to SEM. Having described the essence of SEM in the context of causal analysis, the author discusses the years of the development of structural modeling as the consequence of many researchers' systematically growing needs (in particular in the social sciences) who strove to effectively understand the structure and interactions of latent phenomena...
2018: Quality & Quantity
Małgorzata Stec, Mariola Grzebyk
The European Union (EU), striving to create economic dominance on the global market, has prepared a comprehensive development programme, which initially was the Lisbon Strategy and then the Strategy Europe 2020. The attainment of the strategic goals included in the prospective development programmes shall transform the EU into the most competitive economy in the world based on knowledge. This paper presents a statistical evaluation of progress being made by EU member states in meeting Europe 2020. For the basis of the assessment, the authors proposed a general synthetic measure in dynamic terms, which allows to objectively compare EU member states by 10 major statistical indicators...
2018: Quality & Quantity
Macario Rodríguez-Entrena, Florian Schuberth, Carsten Gelhard
Structural equation modeling using partial least squares (PLS-SEM) has become a main-stream modeling approach in various disciplines. Nevertheless, prior literature still lacks a practical guidance on how to properly test for differences between parameter estimates. Whereas existing techniques such as parametric and non-parametric approaches in PLS multi-group analysis solely allow to assess differences between parameters that are estimated for different subpopulations, the study at hand introduces a technique that allows to also assess whether two parameter estimates that are derived from the same sample are statistically different...
2018: Quality & Quantity
Florian Schuberth, Jörg Henseler, Theo K Dijkstra
This article introduces a new consistent variance-based estimator called ordinal consistent partial least squares (OrdPLSc). OrdPLSc completes the family of variance-based estimators consisting of PLS, PLSc, and OrdPLS and permits to estimate structural equation models of composites and common factors if some or all indicators are measured on an ordinal categorical scale. A Monte Carlo simulation (N [Formula: see text]) with different population models shows that OrdPLSc provides almost unbiased estimates. If all constructs are modeled as common factors, OrdPLSc yields estimates close to those of its covariance-based counterpart, WLSMV, but is less efficient...
2018: Quality & Quantity
Rossella Ciccia
Typologies have represented an important tool for the development of comparative social policy research and continue to be widely used in spite of growing criticism of their ability to capture the complexity of welfare states and their internal heterogeneity. In particular, debates have focused on the presence of hybrid cases and the existence of distinct cross-national pattern of variation across areas of social policy. There is growing awareness around these issues, but empirical research often still relies on methodologies aimed at classifying countries in a limited number of unambiguous types...
2017: Quality & Quantity
Eva van Vlimmeren, Guy B D Moors, John P T M Gelissen
Survey data are often used to map cultural diversity by aggregating scores of attitude and value items across countries. However, this procedure only makes sense if the same concept is measured in all countries. In this study we argue that when (co)variances among sets of items are similar across countries, these countries share a common way of assigning meaning to the items. Clusters of cultures can then be observed by doing a cluster analysis on the (co)variance matrices of sets of related items. This study focuses on family values and gender role attitudes...
2017: Quality & Quantity
Martin Haselmayer, Marcelo Jenny
Sentiment is important in studies of news values, public opinion, negative campaigning or political polarization and an explosive expansion of digital textual data and fast progress in automated text analysis provide vast opportunities for innovative social science research. Unfortunately, tools currently available for automated sentiment analysis are mostly restricted to English texts and require considerable contextual adaption to produce valid results. We present a procedure for collecting fine-grained sentiment scores through crowdcoding to build a negative sentiment dictionary in a language and for a domain of choice...
2017: Quality & Quantity
Rosalind Edwards, Ann Phoenix, David Gordon, Karen Bell, Heather Elliott, Eldin Fahmy
This article brings together analyses of the micro paradata 'by-products' from the 1967/1968 Poverty in the United Kingdom (PinUK) and 2012 Poverty and Social Exclusion in the UK (PSE) surveys to explore changes in the conditions of production over this 45 year period. We highlight technical, social and professional role continuities and changes, shaped by the institutionalisation of survey researchers, the professionalization of the field interviewer, and economisation. While there are similarities between the surveys in that field interviewers were and are at the bottom of the research hierarchy, we demonstrate an increasing segregation between the core research team and field interviewers...
2017: Quality & Quantity
Jarl K Kampen, Arie Weeren
A simulation study was carried out to study the behaviour of the polychoric correlation coefficient in data not compliant with the assumption of underlying continuous variables. Such data can produce relatively high estimated polychoric correlations (in the order of .62). Applied researchers are prone to accept these artefacts as input for elaborate modelling (e.g., structural equation models) and inferences about reality justified by sheer magnitude of the correlations. In order to prevent this questionable research practice, it is recommended that in applications of the polychoric correlation coefficient, data is tested with goodness-of-fit of the BND, that such statistic is reported in published applications, and that the polychoric correlation is not applied when the test is significant...
2017: Quality & Quantity
Rana Mostaghel, Pejvak Oghazi
The number of senior citizens is growing globally and governments are striving to find innovative solutions to deal with complex care demands of this part of the population. Technology has been an answer to this situation; however, it is very important that the elderly accept and actually use the technology. This paper empirically tests the senior technology acceptance model using the fsQCA method to analyse data with a sample of 811 seniors aged 60 and over living in Sweden. The results revealed that the necessary conditions for high "perceived ease of use" and "perceived usefulness" are gerontechnology self-efficacy, gerontechnology anxiety, and cognitive abilities; however, each of these is not sufficient on its own...
2017: Quality & Quantity
Anna Bluszcz
The sustainable development and energy security are currently the priority challenges for the European Union countries. The sustainable and stable development of European economies is closely dependent on the stable access to energy resources. The constant increase of the demand for electricity requires long-term planning of the common European policy. The aim of the article is to analyse the fuel and energy resources situation of the member states with regard to their energy balances and with the determination of their import dependence in relation to fossil fuels, such as: coal, oil and natural gas...
2017: Quality & Quantity
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