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Psychological Research

Pauline M Hilt, Pasquale Cardellicchio
Motor inhibition and attentional processing are tightly linked. Recent neurophysiological studies have shown that both processes might rely on similar cognitive and neural mechanisms (Wessel and Aron, Neuron 93:259-280, 2017). However, it remains unclear whether attentional reorientation influences inhibition of a subsequent action. Therefore, we combined two tasks that are commonly used in the motor inhibition and visual attention reorientation field [respectively: the stop-signal task (Logan and Cowan, Psychol Rev 91:295-327, 1984) and the Posner endogenous cueing paradigm (Posner, Q J Exp Psychol 32(1):3-25, 1980)] to investigate how different aspects of visual attention modulate subsequent voluntary inhibition...
March 8, 2018: Psychological Research
Heath E Matheson, Ariana M Familiar, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
Theories of embodied cognition propose that we recognize tools in part by reactivating sensorimotor representations of tool use in a process of simulation. If motor simulations play a causal role in tool recognition then performing a concurrent motor task should differentially modulate recognition of experienced vs. non-experienced tools. We sought to test the hypothesis that an incompatible concurrent motor task modulates conceptual processing of learned vs. non-learned objects by directly manipulating the embodied experience of participants...
March 2, 2018: Psychological Research
Brandon T Saxton, Samantha K Myhre, Tharaki Siyaguna, Paul D Rokke
Previous research has shown that emotions differentially influence attention across time, especially when the valence of the attended stimuli is congruent with the emotion of observer. Sadness produces a larger attentional blink while fear and happiness produce smaller attentional blinks. We report on four dual-task rapid serial visual presentation experiments in which participant emotion and the affective features of the first target (T1) were systematically varied to determine whether arousal and valence have unique and consistent influences on attention performance...
February 28, 2018: Psychological Research
Niyat Henok, Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau, Gaëlle Vallée-Tourangeau
Insight is commonly viewed as originating from the restructuring of a mental representation. Distributed cognition frameworks such as the Systemic Thinking Model (SysTM, Vallée-Tourangeau and Vallée-Tourangeau, Cognition beyond the brain: interactivity and human thinking, pp 133-154, 2017), however, assumes that information processing can be transformed when it is distributed across mental and material resources. The experiments reported here investigated whether interactivity enhanced incubation effects with the cheap necklace problem...
February 26, 2018: Psychological Research
Kyle Morrissey, Darcy Hallett, Rutanya Wynes, Jingmei Kang, Ming Han
Previous research in embodied mathematical cognition has found differences between those who start counting on their left hand and those who start counting on the right hand. However, if starting hand is a finger-embodied effect, then finger-specific interference may affect these differences between left and right starters. Furthermore, cultures that demonstrate different finger-counting habits may also be differently affected by this interference. In the current study, a total of 66 Canadians and 60 Chinese participants completed a single/dual-task paradigm and were also assessed on their starting hand for counting...
February 23, 2018: Psychological Research
Magdalena Ewa Król, Michał Król
The aim of the study was not only to demonstrate whether eye-movement-based task decoding was possible but also to investigate whether eye-movement patterns can be used to identify cognitive processes behind the tasks. We compared eye-movement patterns elicited under different task conditions, with tasks differing systematically with regard to the types of cognitive processes involved in solving them. We used four tasks, differing along two dimensions: spatial (global vs. local) processing (Navon, Cognit Psychol, 9(3):353-383 1977) and semantic (deep vs...
February 20, 2018: Psychological Research
Aleksi H Syrjämäki, Pessi Lyyra, Jari K Hietanen
Previous research has shown that ostracized participants seek inclusive cues, such as gaze directed at them, when trying to reaffiliate. However, instead of seeking reinclusion, ostracized individuals may sometimes withdraw from interactions if not offered an opportunity for reaffiliation. In the current study, after an ostracism manipulation with no reaffiliation opportunity, participants judged whether faces portraying direct gaze or slightly averted gaze (2°-8° to the left and to the right) were looking at them or not...
February 20, 2018: Psychological Research
Martin Riemer, Thomas Wolbers
In time reproduction tasks, the reaction time of motor responses is intrinsically linked to the measure of perceptual timing. Decisions are based on a continuous comparison between elapsed time and a memory trace of the to-be-reproduced interval. Here, we investigate the possibility that negative reproduction errors can be explained by the tendency to prefer earlier over later response times, or whether the whole range of possible response times is shifted. In experiment 1, we directly compared point reproduction (participants indicate the exact time point of equality) and range reproduction (participants bracket an interval containing this time point)...
February 19, 2018: Psychological Research
Anton Aluja, Ferran Balada, Eduardo Blanco, Ignacio Lucas, Angel Blanch
The current research was designed to assess possible differences in the emotional content of pleasant and unpleasant face emoji using acoustically evoked eyeblink startle reflex response. Stimuli were selected from Emojipedia Webpage. First, we assessed these stimuli with a previous independent sample of 190 undergraduate students (46 males and 144 females) mean age of 21.43 years (SD 3.89). A principal axis method was performed using the 30 selected emoji faces, extracting two factors (15 pleasant and 15 unpleasant emoji)...
February 17, 2018: Psychological Research
Greg Huffman, Davood G Gozli, Bernhard Hommel, Jay Pratt
Voluntary action control is accomplished through anticipating that action's perceptual outcomes. Some evidence suggests that this is only true when responses are intention-based rather than stimulus-based and that this difference is evidence of different response modes. More recently, however, it has been shown that response-outcome retrieval effects can occur with stimulus-based responses, and that the retrieval depended on response selection efficiency as decreasing the response selection efficiency increased response-outcome retrieval (Gozli et al...
February 16, 2018: Psychological Research
Cassandra Philine Köller, Christian H Poth, Arvid Herwig
Object perception across saccadic eye movements is assumed to result from integrating two information sources: incoming peripheral object information and information from a foveal prediction (Herwig and Schneider, J Exp Psychol Gen 143(5):1903-1922, 2014, Herwig, J Vis 15(16), 7, 2015). Predictions are supposed to be based on transsaccadic associations of peripheral and foveal object information. The main function of these predictions may be to conceal discrepancies in resolution and locations across saccades...
January 31, 2018: Psychological Research
Yi-Huang Su, Peter E Keller
Motor simulation has been implicated in how musicians anticipate the rhythm of another musician's action to achieve interpersonal synchronization. Here, we investigated whether similar mechanisms govern a related form of rhythmic action: dance. We examined (1) whether synchronization with visual dance stimuli was influenced by movement agency, (2) whether music training modulated simulation efficiency, and (3) what cues were relevant for simulating the dance rhythm. Participants were first recorded dancing the basic Charleston steps paced by a metronome, and later in a synchronization task they tapped to the rhythm of their own point-light dance stimuli, stimuli of another physically matched participant or one matched in movement kinematics, and a quantitative average across individuals...
January 29, 2018: Psychological Research
Matteo De Tommaso, Tommaso Mastropasqua, Massimo Turatto
Reward-predicting cues attract attention because of their motivational value. A debated question regards the conditions under which the cue's attentional salience is governed more by reward expectancy rather than by reward uncertainty. To help shedding light on this relevant issue, here, we manipulated expectancy and uncertainty using three levels of reward-cue contingency, so that, for example, a high level of reward expectancy (p = .8) was compared with the highest level of reward uncertainty (p = ...
January 25, 2018: Psychological Research
A Yankouskaya, R Bührle, E Lugt, M Stolte, J Sui
In their seminal paper 'Is our self nothing but reward', Northoff and Hayes (Biol Psychiatry 69(11):1019-1025, Northoff, Hayes, Biological Psychiatry 69(11):1019-1025, 2011) proposed three models of the relationship between self and reward and opened a continuing debate about how these different fields can be linked. To date, none of the proposed models received strong empirical support. The present study tested common and distinct effects of personal relevance and reward values by de-componenting different stages of perceptual decision making using a drift-diffusion approach...
January 24, 2018: Psychological Research
Ke Ma, Bernhard Hommel, Hong Chen
Previous rubber/virtual hand illusion studies have established important constraints for the illusion that an artificial effector becomes part of one's own body (perceived ownership), and that its actions are being caused by oneself (perceived agency). We can take these observed constraints to establish two of three Wegner's (Trends Cogn Sci 7:65-69; Wegner, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7:65-69, 2003) criteria for the perception of personal agency: priority and consistency, but not Wegner's third criterion-exclusivity...
January 23, 2018: Psychological Research
Lorenza S Colzato, Laura Steenbergen, Bernhard Hommel
The aim of the study was to throw more light on the relationship between rumination and cognitive-control processes. Seventy-eight adults were assessed with respect to rumination tendencies by means of the LEIDS-r before performing a Stroop task, an event-file task assessing the automatic retrieval of irrelevant information, an attentional set-shifting task, and the Attentional Network Task, which provided scores for alerting, orienting, and executive control functioning. The size of the Stroop effect and irrelevant retrieval in the event-five task were positively correlated with the tendency to ruminate, while all other scores did not correlate with any rumination scale...
January 23, 2018: Psychological Research
Blaire J Weidler, Abhishek Dey, Julie M Bugg
Much research has shown that humans can allocate attentional control differentially to multiple locations based on the amount of conflict historically associated with a given location. Additionally, once established, these control settings can transfer to nearby locations that themselves have no conflict bias. Here we examined if these control settings also extend to nearby locations that are presented outside of the original frame of reference of biased stimuli. During training, participants first responded to biased flanker stimuli that were likely high conflict in one location and low conflict in another location...
January 22, 2018: Psychological Research
S Oliver Kobald, Edmund Wascher, Holger Heppner, Stephan Getzmann
There is increasing evidence that spontaneous eye blinks are related to mental states and can predict performance in certain tasks because of their relation to dopaminergic activity. Moreover, it has been shown that eye blinks while performing visual tasks are preferably executed not before all available information and even the manual response has been processed and given. Thus, blinks provide a natural endpoint of visual information processing. In the present study, we investigate to what degree such functional assignment of eye blinks also applies when only auditory stimuli are processed...
January 20, 2018: Psychological Research
Amory H Danek, Joshua Williams, Jennifer Wiley
Two hallmarks of insightful problem solving are thought to be suddenness in the emergence of solution due to changes in problem representation, and the subjective Aha! EXPERIENCE: Although a number of studies have explored the Aha! experience, few studies have attempted to measure representational change. Following the lead of Durso et al. (Psychol Sci 5(2):94-97, 1994) and Cushen and Wiley (Conscious Cognit 21(3):1166-1175, 2012), in this study, participants made importance-to-solution ratings throughout their solution attempts as a way to assess representational change...
January 18, 2018: Psychological Research
Edita Poljac, Andrea Kiesel, Iring Koch, Hermann Müller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2018: Psychological Research
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