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Psychological Research

Stefanie Schuch, Angelika Sommer, Sarah Lukas
Ideomotor theory posits that actions are controlled by the anticipation of their effects. In line with this theoretical framework, response-contingent action effects have been shown to influence performance in choice-reaction time tasks, both in single-task and task-switching context. Using a task-switching paradigm, the present study investigated whether task-contingent action effects influenced N - 2 repetition costs in task switching. N - 2 repetition costs are thought to be related to task-switch costs, and reflect inhibitory control in task switching...
November 17, 2017: Psychological Research
Timothy L Dunn, Michael Inzlicht, Evan F Risko
Why are some actions evaluated as effortful? In the present set of experiments we address this question by examining individuals' perception of effort when faced with a trade-off between two putative cognitive costs: how much time a task takes vs. how error-prone it is. Specifically, we were interested in whether individuals anticipate engaging in a small amount of hard work (i.e., low time requirement, but high error-likelihood) vs. a large amount of easy work (i.e., high time requirement, but low error-likelihood) as being more effortful...
November 13, 2017: Psychological Research
Michael Schaefer
Several studies demonstrate that physical cleansing is actually efficacious to cope with threatened morality, thus demonstrating that physical and moral purity are psychologically interwoven. This so-called Macbeth effect has been explained, for example, by the conceptual metaphor theory that suggests an embodiment of the moral purity metaphor. Recent research draws attention to individual differences when using conceptual metaphors. The present study shows that the moral purity link interacts with different professions...
November 7, 2017: Psychological Research
Stephanie Wermelinger, Anja Gampe, Moritz M Daum
Action perception and action production are tightly linked and elicit bi-directional influences on each other when performed simultaneously. In this study, we investigated whether age-related differences in manual fine-motor competence and/or age affect the (interfering) influence of action production on simultaneous action perception. In a cross-sectional eye-tracking study, participants of a broad age range (N = 181, 20-80 years) observed a manual grasp-and-transport action while performing an additional motor or cognitive distractor task...
November 7, 2017: Psychological Research
Yukio Maehara, Satoru Saito, John Nicholas Towse
Joint cognition refers to the mental systems that support group performance when carrying out a shared, or jointly owned task. We focused here on understanding the social configurations that underpin key phenomena in joint cognition, in particular, whether individual cognition in task-sharing environments is mostly shaped by social factors or not. To this end, we investigated, first and mainly, whether human presence is necessary for the creation of joint performance; second and separately, whether prior experience of task sharing has an adaptive influence on subsequent individual choices; and third and additionally, whether individual differences in a social trait mediate joint performance...
November 6, 2017: Psychological Research
Kyle J Johnson, Martin Zaback, Craig D Tokuno, Mark G Carpenter, Allan L Adkin
Individuals report directing attention toward and away from multiple sources when standing under height-related postural threat, and these changes in attention focus are associated with postural control modifications. As it is unknown whether these changes generalize to other types of threat situations, this study aimed to quantify changes in attention focus and examine their relationship with postural control changes in response to a direct threat to stability. Eighty young adults stood on a force plate fixed to a translating platform...
November 6, 2017: Psychological Research
Senne Braem, Sabrina Trapp
Recent studies suggest that humans prefer information that is linked to the process of prediction. Yet it remains to be specified whether preference judgments are biased to information that can be predicted, or information that enables to predict. We here use a serial reaction time task to disentangle these two options. In a first learning phase, participants were exposed to a continuous stream of arbitrary shapes while performing a go/no-go task. Embedded in this stream were hidden pairs of go-stimuli (e.g...
November 4, 2017: Psychological Research
Stefan Künzell, Laura Broeker, David Dignath, Harald Ewolds, Markus Raab, Roland Thomaschke
Although multitasking has been the subject of a large number of papers and experiments, the term task is still not well defined. In this opinion paper, we adopt the ideomotor perspective to define the term task and distinguish it from the terms goal and action. In our opinion, actions are movements executed by an actor to achieve a concrete goal. Concrete goals are represented as anticipated sensory consequences that are associated with an action in an ideomotor manner. Concrete goals are nested in a hierarchy of more and more abstract goals, which form the context of the corresponding action...
November 2, 2017: Psychological Research
Noah D Forrin, Evan F Risko, Daniel Smilek
In many situations, increasing task difficulty decreases thoughts that are unrelated to the task (i.e., mind-wandering). In the context of reading, however, recent research demonstrated that increasing passage reading difficulty actually increases mind-wandering rates (e.g., Feng et al. in Psychon Bull Rev 20:586-592, 2013). The primary goal of this research was to elucidate the mechanism that drives this positive relation. Across Experiments 1-3, we found evidence that the effect of Flesch-Kincaid reading difficulty on mind-wandering is partially driven by hard passages having longer sections of text (i...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Research
Carmelo M Vicario, Karolina A Kuran, Cosimo Urgesi
Evidence exists about the influence of interoception on time-keeping functions. In the current study we further addressed this topic by testing the effect of fasting and snack on the ability to estimate the duration of reinforcement-oriented grasping actions. We found that, after fasting, the time estimation for the grasping of a primary reinforcement (i.e., a muffin) was positively influenced by moderate hunger. By contrast, high hunger after fasting interfered with the timing estimation for the grasping of a neutral object (i...
October 30, 2017: Psychological Research
Laura Broeker, Roman Liepelt, Edita Poljac, Stefan Künzell, Harald Ewolds, Rita F de Oliveira, Markus Raab
Performance decrements in multitasking have been explained by limitations in cognitive capacity, either modelled as static structural bottlenecks or as the scarcity of overall cognitive resources that prevent humans, or at least restrict them, from processing two tasks at the same time. However, recent research has shown that individual differences, flexible resource allocation, and prioritization of tasks cannot be fully explained by these accounts. We argue that understanding human multitasking as a choice and examining multitasking performance from the perspective of judgment and decision-making (JDM), may complement current dual-task theories...
October 30, 2017: Psychological Research
Maayan Katzir, Bnaya Ori, Nachshon Meiran
Switching between tasks necessitates maintaining tasks in high readiness, yet readiness creates paradoxical interference from these tasks when they are not currently required. "Optimal suppression", which targets just the interfering information, provides a partial solution to this paradox. By examining the carryover of suppression of a competitor stimulus-response (S-R) set from Trial N - 1 to Trial N, Meiran, Hsieh  and colleagues (Meiran  et al., J Exp Psychol Learn mem cognit 36:992-1002, 2010; Cognit Affect Behav Neurosci 11:292-308, 2011, and Hsieh et al...
October 27, 2017: Psychological Research
Lucia Maria Sacheli, M Meyer, E Hartstra, H Bekkering, S Hunnius
We investigated the cognitive mechanisms underlying turn-taking joint action in 42-month-old children (Experiment 1) and adults (Experiment 2) using a behavioral task of dressing a virtual bear together. We aimed to investigate how participants represent a partners' behavior, i.e., in terms of specific action kinematics or of action effects. The bear was dressed by pressing a smaller and a bigger button. In the Action-response task, instructions asked participants to respond to the partner by pressing the same or opposite button; in the Action-effect task they had to respond to the partner's action effect by dressing the bear with the lacking part of the clothing, which in some cases implied pressing the same button and in other cases implied pressing the opposite button...
October 24, 2017: Psychological Research
Miya K Rand, Herbert Heuer
We previously investigated sensory coupling of the sensed positions of cursor and hand in a cursor-control task and found differential characteristics of implicit and explicit measures of the bias of sensed hand position toward the position of the cursor. The present study further tested whether adaptation to a visuomotor rotation differentially affects these two measures. Participants made center-out reaching movements to remembered targets while looking at a rotated feedback cursor. After sets of practice trials with constant (adaptation condition) or random (control condition) visuomotor rotations, test trials served to assess sensory coupling...
October 20, 2017: Psychological Research
Christine Langhanns, Hermann Müller
Motor and cognitive tasks often interfere when performed concurrently. The amount of interference typically scales with difficulty of the tasks involved. Thus, supposedly 'easy' motor tasks with restricted movement amplitude, like sitting on a chair, should show little or no interference with cognitive tasks at all. We measured the processing load induced by different postural tasks and their effect on cognitive performance under cognitive-motor dual-task conditions. Sixteen subjects performed postural motor tasks in three different positions: 'Lying in a sun lounger', 'Sitting on a bike saddle', and 'Upright on feet'...
October 20, 2017: Psychological Research
Jonathan Schacherer, Eliot Hazeltine
Manipulating the pairings of stimulus and response modalities has been shown to affect how response selection processes for distinct tasks interact. For example, Stephan and Koch (Psychol Res 75(6):491-498, 2011) found smaller performance costs when participants switched between visual-manual (VM) and auditory-vocal (AV) tasks (modality compatible; MC) compared to between visual-vocal (VV) and auditory-manual (AM) tasks (modality incompatible; MI). However, in the Stephan and Koch study, there was conceptual overlap between one set of stimuli and one set of responses...
October 17, 2017: Psychological Research
Edita Poljac, Rianne Haartsen, Renske van der Cruijsen, Andrea Kiesel, Ervin Poljac
Cognitive control processes involved in human multitasking arise, mature, and decline across age. This study investigated how age modulates cognitive control at two different levels: the level of task intentions and the level of the implementation of intentions into the corresponding actions. We were particularly interested in specifying maturation of voluntary task choice (intentions) and task-switching execution (their implementations) between adolescence and middle adulthood. Seventy-four participants were assigned to one of the four age groups (adolescents, 12-17 years; emerging adults, 18-22 years; young adults, 23-27 years; middle-aged adults, 28-56 years)...
October 13, 2017: Psychological Research
Valerio Manippa, Caterina Padulo, Alfredo Brancucci
This article unfortunately contained two mistakes.
October 12, 2017: Psychological Research
Christoph Naefgen, Michael Dambacher, Markus Janczyk
The authors regret that some errors that had been addressed during the proofing process were not corrected by the publisher. Most of these errors are of a stylistic nature and do not change the substance of the article. Please note, however, that the corresponding author's e-mail address is We apologize for any inconvenience caused by this.
October 11, 2017: Psychological Research
Jovita Brüning, Dietrich Manzey
The prevalence and the efficiency of serial and parallel processing under multiple task demands are highly debated. In the present study, we investigated whether individual preferences for serial or overlapping (parallel) processing represent a permanent predisposition or depend on the risk of crosstalk between tasks. Two groups (n = 91) of participants were tested. One group performed a classical task switching paradigm, enforcing a strict serial processing of tasks. The second group of participants performed the same tasks in a task-switching-with-preview paradigm, recently introduced by Reissland and Manzey (2016), which in principle allows for overlapping processing of both tasks in order to compensate for switch costs...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Research
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