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Psychological Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232546/exploring-the-temporal-boundary-conditions-of-the-articulatory-in-out-preference-effect
#1
Judith Gerten, Sascha Topolinski
Earlier research has documented a preference for words with consonantal articulation patterns that move from the front to the back of the mouth (e.g., MENIKA) over words with reversely wandering consonantal articulation spots (e.g., KENIMA). The present experiments explored the temporal dynamics of the reading process in this in-out preference effect. In three experiments (total N = 344), we gradually reduced the presentation durations of inward and outward wandering words from 1000 ms down to 25 ms to approximate the minimum length of visual stimulus presentation required to trigger the effect...
September 19, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229296/influence-of-metrical-structure-on-learning-of-positional-regularities-in-movement-sequences
#2
Talieh Kazemi Esfeh, Javad Hatami, Masoud Gholamali Lavasani
Sequential stimuli are usually perceived to have hierarchical temporal structures. However, some of these structures are only investigated in one type of sequence, regardless of the existing evidence, showing the domain-generality of the representation of these structures. Here, we assess whether the hierarchical representation of regularly segmented action sequences resembles the perceived metrical patterns that organize the representation of events hierarchically in temporally regular sequences. In all our experiments, we presented the participants with sequences of human movements and tested the perception of metrical pattern by segmenting the movement streams into temporally equal groups containing four movements...
September 18, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209571/the-expected-oddball-effects-of-implicit-and-explicit-positional-expectation-on-duration-perception
#3
Jordan J Wehrman, John Wearden, Paul Sowman
The oddball duration effect describes how a rare stimulus amongst a string of standard stimuli is perceived to have a longer duration than the standards, even if they are of the same objective duration. Several theories have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. In order to adjudicate between opposing explanations, we have borrowed three extensively studied paradigms from the variable foreperiod literature: the sequential foreperiod, temporal cueing and a skewed foreperiod distribution. This approach allowed us to examine the effects of positional expectation on perceived oddball duration, while avoiding confounds from first-order positioning of the oddball in a sequence of standards...
September 12, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206685/attention-for-future-reward
#4
Helen Tibboel, Baptist Liefooghe
When stimuli are consistently paired with reward, attention toward these stimuli becomes biased (e.g., Abrahamse, Braem, Notebaert & Verguts, et al., Psychological Bulletin 142:693-728, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000047 ). An important premise is that participants need to repeatedly experience stimulus-reward pairings to obtain these effects (e.g., Awh, Belopolsky & Theeuwes, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16:437-443, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2012.06.010 ). This idea is based on associative learning theories (e...
September 11, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194486/recognising-and-reacting-to-angry-and-happy-facial-expressions-a-diffusion-model-analysis
#5
Jason Tipples
Researchers have reported two biases in how people recognise and respond to angry and happy facial expressions: (1) a gender-expression bias (Becker et al. in J Pers Soc Psychol, 92(2):179-190, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.92.2.179 , 2007)-faster identification of male faces as angry and female faces as happy and (2) an approach-avoidance bias-faster avoidance of people who appear angry and faster approach responses people who appear happy (Heuer et al. in Behav Res The, 45(12):2990-3001, https://doi.org/10...
September 7, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191316/visuo-motor-interference-with-a-virtual-partner-is-equally-present-in-cooperative-and-competitive-interactions
#6
Vanessa Era, Salvatore Maria Aglioti, Carolina Mancusi, Matteo Candidi
Automatic imitation of observed actions is thought to be a powerful mechanism, one that may mediate the reward value of interpersonal interactions, but that could also generate visuo-motor interference when interactions involve complementary movements. Since interpersonal coordination seems to be crucial both when cooperating and competing with others, the questions arises as to whether imitation-and thus visuo-motor interference-occurs in both scenarios. To address this issue, we asked human participants to engage in high- or low-interactive (Interactive or Cued condition, respectively), cooperative or competitive, joint reach-to-grasps with a virtual partner...
September 6, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191315/the-influence-of-threat-on-perceived-spatial-distance-to-out-group-members
#7
Chiara Fini, Pieter Verbeke, Sophie Sieber, Agnes Moors, Marcel Brass, Oliver Genschow
A classic example of discriminatory behavior is keeping spatial distance from an out-group member. To explain this social behavior, the literature offers two alternative theoretical options that we label as the "threat hypothesis" and the "shared-experience hypothesis". The former relies on studies showing that out-group members create a sense of alertness. Consequently, potentially threatening out-group members are represented as spatially close allowing the prevention of costly errors...
September 6, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187115/children-s-behavior-and-spontaneous-talk-in-a-future-thinking-task
#8
Julian S Caza, Cristina M Atance
We explored 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds' (N = 120) "explicit" and "spontaneous" future-oriented cognition. Specifically, children had to think ahead to meet a future physiological need (desire for food) or psychological need (avoiding boredom). One group of children alternated between a room with candy and a room without candy, spending 3 min per visit. Children were explicitly asked which room they wanted to put extra candy in for a future visit to the lab (correct answer: room without candy)...
September 5, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182261/the-volatile-nature-of-positive-affect-effects-opposite-effects-of-positive-affect-and-time-on-task-on-proactive-control
#9
Carmen Hefer, Gesine Dreisbach
There is growing evidence suggesting that positive affect promotes cognitive flexibility at the cost of increased distractibility and decreased proactive control. Regarding the latter effect, some studies revealed inconsistent or even diverging findings casting doubt on the reliability of this observation. Recently, it has been shown that motivation can counteract positive affect effects. Here, the authors provide evidence for another factor that opposes positive affect effects, namely time on and experience with a task...
September 4, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178085/sumacku-or-smack-the-value-of-analyzing-acoustic-signals-when-investigating-the-fundamental-phonological-unit-of-language-production
#10
Rinus G Verdonschot, Hinako Masuda
An ongoing debate in the speech production literature suggests that the initial building block to build up speech sounds differs between languages. That is, Germanic languages are suggested to use the phoneme, but Japanese and Chinese are proposed to use the mora or syllable, respectively. Several studies investigated this matter from a chronometric perspective (i.e., RTs and accuracy). However, a less attention has been paid to the actual acoustic utterances. The current study investigated the verbal responses of two Japanese-English bilingual groups of different proficiency levels (i...
September 3, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178084/comparison-of-two-psychophysical-methods-across-visual-and-haptic-perception-of-stand-on-ability
#11
Alen Hajnal, Catalina X Olavarria, Tyler Surber, Joseph D Clark, Jonathan K Doyon
Recent research (Hajnal et al. in Perception 45(7):768-786, 2016) found apparent differences between haptic and visual perception of the affordance of stand-on-ability. One reason for this discrepancy might be the imprecision of the measurement method. We compared the psychophysical method of adjustment with a dynamic staircase method of stimulus presentation in an affordance task. Three groups of participants either visually inspected a flat sturdy sloped ramp, placed one foot onto the ramp occluded from view, or placed one foot on the ramp while allowed to look at it, in the visual, haptic, or multimodal condition, respectively...
September 3, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30173279/less-imageable-words-lead-to-more-looks-to-blank-locations-during-memory-retrieval
#12
Alper Kumcu, Robin L Thompson
People revisit spatial locations of visually encoded information when they are asked to retrieve that information, even when the visual image is no longer present. Such "looking at nothing" during retrieval is likely modulated by memory load (i.e., mental effort to maintain and reconstruct information) and the strength of mental representations. We investigated whether words that are more difficult to remember also lead to more looks to relevant, blank locations. Participants were presented four nouns on a two by two grid...
September 1, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30173278/distractor-based-retrieval-in-action-control-the-influence-of-encoding-specificity
#13
Ruth Laub, Christian Frings
If a target stimulus is presented together with a response irrelevant distractor stimulus, both stimuli can be encoded together with the response in an event file [see Hommel (Trends Cogn Sci 8:494-500, 2004)]. The repetition of the distractor can retrieve the encoded response. This kind of distractor-based retrieval is an important mechanism in action control. In the present experiment, we investigate whether and how distractor-based retrieval of event files is influenced by encoding specificity-a retrieval principle that has been suggested to affect retrieval in short-term and long-term memory...
September 1, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171425/a-meta-analysis-of-contingent-capture-effects
#14
Christian Büsel, Martin Voracek, Ulrich Ansorge
The present meta-analyses investigated the widely used contingent-capture protocol. Contingent-capture theory postulates that only top-down matching stimuli capture attention. Evidence comes from the contingent-capture protocol, in which participants search for a predefined target stimulus preceded by a spatial cue. The cue is typically uninformative of the target's position but either presented at target position (valid condition) or away from the target (invalid condition). The common finding is that seemingly only top-down matching cues capture attention as shown by a selective cueing effect (faster responses in valid than invalid conditions) for cues with a feature similar to the searched-for target only, but not for cues without target-similar feature...
August 31, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171424/more-than-simple-facts-cross-linguistic-differences-in-place-value-processing-in-arithmetic-fact-retrieval
#15
Julia Bahnmueller, Silke M Göbel, Silvia Pixner, Verena Dresen, Korbinian Moeller
Linguistic specificities such as the inversion property of number words (e.g., in German 43 is spoken dreiundvierzig, literally three and  forty) moderate Arabic number processing. So far, cross-linguistic studies have mostly focused on inversion-related effects on simple (e.g., number comparison) and calculation-based (e.g., multi-digit addition) magnitude processing of numerical information. Despite the assumption that multiplication facts are represented in verbal format, not much attention has been paid to inversion-related influences on multiplication fact retrieval...
August 31, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171423/retrieval-based-skill-learning-testing-promotes-the-acquisition-of-scientific-experimentation-skills
#16
Tobias Tempel, Katrin Kaufmann, Johanna Kranz, Andrea Möller
We investigated whether retrieval-based learning can facilitate the acquisition of cognitive skills, focusing on the control-of-variables strategy. This core scientific experimentation skill is regularly taught in science education classes because understanding it is essential for understanding experimental investigations in science. In the present study, participants initially read a text explaining the control-of-variables strategy. We compared the effects of subsequent retrieval practice and restudy of the text in performing a transfer test requiring the application of the control-of-variables strategy by judging the validity of a number of experimental designs...
August 31, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159671/space-time-interaction-visuo-spatial-processing-affects-the-temporal-focus-of-mind-wandering
#17
Manila Vannucci, Claudia Pelagatti, Carlo Chiorri, Peter Brugger
Our understanding of mind wandering (MW) has dramatically increased over the past decade. Studies have shown that in the vast majority of cases, MW is directed to times other than the present, and a bias toward the future has been reported (prospective bias). The processing of time is not independent of the processing of space: humans represent time along a spatial continuum, on a "mental time line" (MTL). In cultures with a left to right reading/writing system, the MTL expands from left to right...
August 29, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30155734/retrieval-mediated-directed-forgetting-in-the-item-method-paradigm-the-effect-of-semantic-cues
#18
Ivan Marevic, Jan Rummel
Item-method directed forgetting is widely considered a storage phenomenon. However, by applying a multinomial model, which separates storage and retrieval effect components, Rummel et al. (J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 42(10):1526-1543, 2016) recently provided evidence that item-method directed forgetting effects are reflected by both storage and retrieval changes. The current investigation demonstrates that supposedly intentionally forgotten information can still be retrieved to some extent when semantic cuing facilitates retrieval of this information...
August 28, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159672/do-children-and-adolescents-have-a-future-oriented-bias-a-developmental-study-of-spontaneous-and-cued-past-and-future-thinking
#19
Teresa McCormack, Patrick Burns, Patrick O'Connor, Agnieszka Jaroslawska, Eugene M Caruso
Previous research has indicated that adults have a future-oriented cognitive bias, one illustration of which is their tendency to report more thoughts about the future than the past during mind-wandering. We examined whether children showed a similar bias, and whether there were any developmental changes in the magnitude of such a bias. Children aged 6-7 and 9-10 years, adolescents, and adults completed two tasks in which they could report either past or future thoughts: a mind-wandering task assessing spontaneous past and future thinking and a cued episodic thinking task in which they were free to describe either past or future events...
August 25, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132194/trait-anxiety-and-the-alignment-of-attentional-bias-with-controllability-of-danger
#20
Lies Notebaert, Jessie Veronica Georgiades, Matthew Herbert, Ben Grafton, Sam Parsons, Elaine Fox, Colin MacLeod
Attentional bias to threat cues is most adaptive when the dangers they signal can readily be controlled by timely action. This study examined whether heightened trait anxiety is associated with impaired alignment between attentional bias to threat and variation in the controllability of danger, and whether this is moderated by executive functioning. Participants completed a task in which threat cues signalled money loss and an aversive noise burst (the danger). In 'high control' blocks, attending to the threat cue offered a high chance of avoiding this danger...
August 21, 2018: Psychological Research
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