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Psychological Research

Lucette Toussaint, Yannick Wamain, Christel Bidet-Ildei, Yann Coello
Peripersonal space is a multisensory interface between the environment and the body subserving motor interactions with the physical and social world. Although changing body properties has been shown to alter the functional processing of space, little is known about the effect of short-term limb immobilization specifically on the motor representation of peripersonal space. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a right upper-limb immobilization for a duration of 24 h on a reachability judgment task and a brightness judgment task...
November 12, 2018: Psychological Research
Cai S Longman, Andrea Kiesel, Frederick Verbruggen
Skilled performance is traditionally thought to develop via overt practice. Recent research has demonstrated that merely instructed stimulus-response (S-R) bindings can influence later performance and readily transfer across response modalities. In the present study, we extended this to include instructed category-response (C-R) associations. That is, we investigated whether merely instructed C-R bindings can trigger an unpracticed response (in a different modality) on perception of a novel (previously unseen) stimulus...
November 10, 2018: Psychological Research
Alix G Renault, Hannah Lefumat, R Chris Miall, Lionel Bringoux, Christophe Bourdin, Jean-Louis Vercher, Fabrice R Sarlegna
The human nervous system displays such plasticity that we can adapt our motor behavior to various changes in environmental or body properties. However, how sensorimotor adaptation generalizes to new situations and new effectors, and which factors influence the underlying mechanisms, remains unclear. Here we tested the general hypothesis that differences across participants can be exploited to uncover what drives interlimb transfer. Twenty healthy adults adapted to prismatic glasses while reaching to visual targets with their dominant arm...
November 8, 2018: Psychological Research
Francesco De Bellis, Alfonso Magliacano, Laura Sagliano, Massimiliano Conson, Dario Grossi, Luigi Trojano
Previous studies showed that motor information related to tool use (i.e., functional actions) could affect processing of objects semantic properties, whereas motor information related to grasping or moving tool (i.e., structural actions) cannot. However, little is known about the neural correlates mediating such interaction between motor and semantic information. Here, healthy participants performed a semantic judgment task requiring identification of semantic relations among objects, after observing a functional, a structural or a pointing action prime...
November 8, 2018: Psychological Research
Manuel Perea, María Fernández-López, Ana Marcet
Mixed-case WoRdS disrupt performance in word recognition tasks and sentence reading. There is, however, a controversial issue around this finding as the hindered performance could be related to impoverished lexico-semantic access or to lack of visual familiarity. The present experiments aim to examine whether there is a genuine mixed-case effect during lexico-semantic access or whether the effect is driven by a visual familiarity bias (i.e., lack of familiarity may induce a bias toward "no" responses in word/nonword decisions)...
October 28, 2018: Psychological Research
Leon Gmeindl, Lisa N Jefferies, Steven Yantis
Visual sensory memory (VSM) has a high capacity, but its contents are fleeting. Recent evidence that the breadth of attention strongly influences the efficiency of visual processing suggests that it might also modulate the effective capacity of VSM. We manipulated the breadth of attention with different cue sizes and used the partial-report technique to estimate the capacity of VSM. Whether attention was deployed voluntarily or captured by a salient cue, narrowly focused attention increased the effective capacity of VSM...
October 27, 2018: Psychological Research
Sébastien Hélie, Farzin Shamloo, Shawn W Ell
Categorization decisions are made thousands of times every day, and a typical adult knows tens of thousands of categories. It is thus relatively rare that adults learn new categories without somehow reorganizing pre-existing knowledge. Yet, most perceptual categorization research has investigated the ability to learn new categories without considering they relation to existing knowledge. In this article, we test the ability of young adults to merge already known categories into new categories as a function of training methodology and category structures using two experiments...
October 27, 2018: Psychological Research
Rainer W Alexandrowicz
Response time (RT) data play an important role in psychology. The diffusion model (DM) allows to analyze RT-data in a two-alternative-force-choice paradigm using a particle drift diffusion modeling approach. It accounts for right-skewed distributions in a natural way. However, the model incorporates seven parameters, the roles of which are difficult to comprehend from the model equation. Therefore, the present article introduces the diffusion model visualizer (DMV) allowing for interactive manipulation of each parameter and plotting the resulting RT densities...
October 25, 2018: Psychological Research
Bruno Kopp, Alexander Steinke, Nachshon Meiran, Caroline Seer, Florian Lange
Little is known about how stimulus- and response-based interference might interact to contribute to the costs of switching between cognitive tasks. We analyzed switch costs in a novel cued task-switching/card-matching paradigm in a large study (N = 95). We reasoned that interference from previously active task sets may be contingent upon the retrieval of these task sets via stimulus processing, or alternatively, via response processing. We examined the efficacy of these two factors through eligibility manipulations...
October 25, 2018: Psychological Research
Tobias Heycke, Christoph Stahl
Evaluative conditioning (EC) changes the preference towards a formerly neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus; CS), by pairing it with a valent stimulus (unconditioned stimulus; US), in the direction of the valence of the US. When the CS is presented suboptimally (i.e., too briefly to be consciously perceived), contingency awareness between CS and US can be ruled out. Hence, EC effects with suboptimally presented CSs would support theories claiming that contingency awareness is not necessary for EC effects to occur...
October 17, 2018: Psychological Research
D J Shaw, K Czekóová, C R Pennington, A W Qureshi, B Špiláková, M Salazar, M Brázdil, T Urbánek
This study investigated the structure of social cognition, and how it is influenced by personality; specifically, how various socio-cognitive capabilities, and the pattern of inter-relationships and co-dependencies among them differ between divergent personality styles. To measure social cognition, a large non-clinical sample (n = 290) undertook an extensive battery of self-report and performance-based measures of visual perspective taking, imitative tendencies, affective empathy, interoceptive accuracy, emotion regulation, and state affectivity...
October 15, 2018: Psychological Research
Aleksi H Syrjämäki, Jari K Hietanen
The present study investigated whether another person's direct gaze holds a perceiver's visuospatial attention and whether social exclusion or social inclusion would enhance this effect. Participants were socially excluded, socially included, or underwent a non-social control manipulation in a virtual ball-tossing game. The manipulation was followed by an attentional disengagement task, in which we measured manual response times in identification of peripheral stimuli shown to the left or right of centrally presented faces portraying direct or downward gaze...
October 15, 2018: Psychological Research
Anne Schmidt, Franziska Geringswald, Fariba Sharifian, Stefan Pollmann
We tested if high-level athletes or action video game players have superior context learning skills. Incidental context learning was tested in a spatial contextual cueing paradigm. We found comparable contextual cueing of visual search in repeated displays in high-level amateur handball players, dedicated action video game players and normal controls. In contrast, both handball players and action video game players showed faster search than controls, measured as search time per display item, independent of display repetition...
October 8, 2018: Psychological Research
Muireann Irish, Zoë-Lee Goldberg, Sara Alaeddin, Claire O'Callaghan, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna
An intriguing aspect of human cognition is the unique capacity to mentally retreat from our immediate surroundings to consider perspectives distinct from the here and now. Despite increasing interest in this phenomenon, relatively little is known regarding age-related changes in off-task, self-generated thought (often referred to as "mind-wandering"), particularly under conditions of low cognitive demand. While a number of studies have investigated the temporal orientation of mind-wandering with increasing age, findings have been largely inconsistent...
October 6, 2018: Psychological Research
Elizabeth Ann Warden, Benjamin Plimpton, Lia Kvavilashvili
Previous research on voluntary mental time travel (i.e., deliberately thinking about the past or future) has resulted in negative age effects. In contrast, studies on spontaneous past thoughts (i.e., involuntary autobiographical memories) have reported small or no age effects. The aim of the present research was to investigate the effects of age on the nature and frequency of spontaneous future thoughts in everyday life. In two studies, we examined whether older adults reported spontaneous future thoughts as often as younger adults, and whether these thoughts were predominantly goal-oriented and less dependent on incidental cues than thoughts about the past...
September 29, 2018: Psychological Research
Laura M Fernández-Méndez, María José Contreras, M Rosa Elosúa
Research has shown that mental rotation (MR) can be improved through training. However, studies with preschool children are very scarce, due in part to the lack of consensus as to the age at which this ability arises and can be trained, and due to the difficulties of working on the understanding of this ability when it begins to develop. The present study was designed to observe the effect of an MR training on 1st (3-4-year-old children) and 3rd year (5-6-year-old children) of Early Childhood Education (preschool), as well as the development of this ability between both courses...
September 29, 2018: Psychological Research
Eyal Alef Ophir, Eyal Sherman, Dominique Lamy
The attentional blink refers to the finding that when two visual targets appear within 200-500 ms, observers often miss the second target. In three experiments, we disentangle the roles of spatial attention to and conscious report of the first event in eliciting this cost. We show that allocating spatial attention to the first event is not necessary for a blink to occur: the full temporal pattern of the blink arises when the first event is consciously detected, despite the fact that it is not spatially attended, whereas no cost is observed when the first event is missed...
September 27, 2018: Psychological Research
Karl K Kopiske, Chiara Bozzacchi, Robert Volcic, Fulvio Domini
The perceived distance of objects is biased depending on the distance from the observer at which objects are presented, such that the egocentric distance tends to be overestimated for closer objects, but underestimated for objects further away. This leads to the perceived depth of an object (i.e., the perceived distance from the front to the back of the object) also being biased, decreasing with object distance. Several studies have found the same pattern of biases in grasping tasks. However, in most of those studies, object distance and depth were solely specified by ocular vergence and binocular disparities...
September 27, 2018: Psychological Research
Domicele Jonauskaite, Nele Dael, C Alejandro Parraga, Laetitia Chèvre, Alejandro García Sánchez, Christine Mohr
In 2015, a picture of a Dress (henceforth the Dress) triggered popular and scientific interest; some reported seeing the Dress in white and gold (W&G) and others in blue and black (B&B). We aimed to describe the phenomenon and investigate the role of contextualization. Few days after the Dress had appeared on the Internet, we projected it to 240 students on two large screens in the classroom. Participants reported seeing the Dress in B&B (48%), W&G (38%), or blue and brown (B&Br; 7%). Amongst numerous socio-demographic variables, we only observed that W&G viewers were most likely to have always seen the Dress as W&G...
September 26, 2018: Psychological Research
Shaghayegh Konjedi, Reza Maleeh
By a systematic analysis of the current literature, we compare two states of sleep and meditation in terms of their role in the formation or suppression of Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory. We aim to suggest that the occurrence of false memory under these two states is a result of reinforcing some abilities and changes in cognitive systems which can ultimately improve some aspects of cognitive functions. In our analogy, we propose that: (1) both sleep and meditation may improve source monitoring ability whose failure is one of the most important mechanisms in producing false memories, and (2) despite improvement in source monitoring ability, adaptive cognitive processes, as mechanisms which are common in sleep and meditation, can still produce false memories...
September 22, 2018: Psychological Research
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