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Psychological Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432446/biasing-spatial-attention-with-semantic-information-an-event-coding-approach
#1
Tarek Amer, Davood G Gozli, Jay Pratt
We investigated the influence of conceptual processing on visual attention from the standpoint of Theory of Event Coding (TEC). The theory makes two predictions: first, an important factor in determining the influence of event 1 on processing event 2 is whether features of event 1 are bound into a unified representation (i.e., selection or retrieval of event 1). Second, whether processing the two events facilitates or interferes with each other should depend on the extent to which their constituent features overlap...
April 21, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417198/biases-in-the-production-and-reception-of-collective-knowledge-the-case-of-hindsight-bias-in-wikipedia
#2
Aileen Oeberst, Ina von der Beck, Mitja D Back, Ulrike Cress, Steffen Nestler
The Web 2.0 enabled collaboration at an unprecedented level. In one of the flagships of mass collaboration-Wikipedia-a large number of authors socially negotiate the world's largest compendium of knowledge. Several guidelines in Wikipedia restrict contributions to verifiable information from reliable sources to ensure recognized knowledge. Much psychological research demonstrates, however, that individual information processing is biased. This poses the question whether individual biases translate to Wikipedia articles or whether they are prevented by its guidelines...
April 17, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405777/how-visual-working-memory-contents-influence-priming-of-visual-attention
#3
Nancy B Carlisle, Árni Kristjánsson
Recent evidence shows that when the contents of visual working memory overlap with targets and distractors in a pop-out search task, intertrial priming is inhibited (Kristjánsson, Sævarsson & Driver, Psychon Bull Rev 20(3):514-521, 2013, Experiment 2, Psychonomic Bulletin and Review). This may reflect an interesting interaction between implicit short-term memory-thought to underlie intertrial priming-and explicit visual working memory. Evidence from a non-pop-out search task suggests that it may specifically be holding distractors in visual working memory that disrupts intertrial priming (Cunningham & Egeth, Psychol Sci 27(4):476-485, 2016, Experiment 2, Psychological Science)...
April 12, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393259/sequential-modulation-of-bottom-up-response-activation-and-inhibition-in-a-response-conflict-task-a-single-pulse-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#4
Barbara Treccani, Giorgia Cona, Nadia Milanese, Carlo Umiltà
Many cognitive tasks involve a response conflict between the response selected on the basis of the task-relevant attribute and that primed by an irrelevant attribute. Although response priming has been extensively investigated, we still have little evidence on whether it entails both excitatory and inhibitory processes and the way in which these processes are modulated by the prior occurrence of a conflict between-response alternatives. To shed light on these issues, we tested motor cortex excitability during a two-choice compatibility task (a Simon task) by delivering single pulses of transcranial magnetic stimulation and recording the resulting motor evoked potentials (MEPs)...
April 9, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391368/effects-of-auditory-distraction-on-voluntary-movements-exploring-the-underlying-mechanisms-associated-with-parallel-processing
#5
Marcelo Bigliassi, Costas I Karageorghis, Alexander V Nowicky, Michael J Wright, Guido Orgs
Highly demanding cognitive-motor tasks can be negatively influenced by the presence of auditory stimuli. The human brain attempts to partially suppress the processing of potential distractors in order that motor tasks can be completed successfully. The present study sought to further understand the attentional neural systems that activate in response to potential distractors during the execution of movements. Nineteen participants (9 women and 10 men) were administered isometric ankle-dorsiflexion tasks for 10 s at a light intensity...
April 8, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391367/an-updated-meta-analysis-of-the-ego-depletion-effect
#6
REVIEW
Junhua Dang
The ego depletion effect is one of the most famous phenomena in social psychology. A recent meta-analysis showed that after accounting for small-studies effects by using a newly developed method called PET-PEESE, the ego depletion effect was indistinguishable from zero. However, it is too early to draw such rushing conclusion because of the inappropriate usage of PET-PEESE. The current paper reported a stricter and updated meta-analysis of ego depletion by carefully inspecting problems in the previous meta-analysis, including new studies not covered by it, and testing the effectiveness of each depleting task...
April 8, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391366/defining-stimulus-representation-in-stimulus-response-associations-formed-on-the-basis-of-task-execution-and-verbal-codes
#7
Christina U Pfeuffer, Theresa Hosp, Eva Kimmig, Karolina Moutsopoulou, Florian Waszak, Andrea Kiesel
Responding to stimuli leads to the formation of stimulus-response (S-R) associations that allow stimuli to subsequently automatically trigger associated responses. A recent study has shown that S-R associations are established not only by active task execution, but also by the simultaneous presentation of stimuli and verbal codes denoting responses in the absence of own action [Pfeuffer et al. (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 43:328-347, 2017)]. Here, we used an item-specific priming paradigm to investigate whether the stimulus part of S-R associations formed based on task execution and verbal codes is represented in abstract or specific format by examining whether S-R associations are retrieved for perceptually different forms of the same stimulus or not...
April 8, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389812/on-the-time-course-of-automatic-response-activation-in-the-simon-task
#8
Ruben Ellinghaus, Matthias Karlbauer, Karin M Bausenhart, Rolf Ulrich
The Simon effect (prolonged RT when the task-irrelevant stimulus location is incongruent with the response side) has been reported to decrease at longer RTs, which is reflected in negative-going delta functions. This finding has been attributed to gradual dissipation of the response automatically activated by the task-irrelevant location information. The Diffusion Model for Conflict Tasks (DMC, Ulrich, Schröter, Leuthold, & Birngruber, Cognitive Psychology 78:148-174, 2015) formally specifies the time-course of this automatic activation process as a pulse-like function...
April 7, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361471/perceiver-as-polar-planimeter-direct-perception-of-jumping-reaching-and-jump-reaching-affordances-for-the-self-and-others
#9
Brandon J Thomas, Matthew M Hawkins, Patrick Nalepka
Runeson (Scandanavian Journal of Psychology 18:172-179, 1977) suggested that the polar planimeter might serve as an informative model system of perceptual mechanism. The key aspect of the polar planimeter is that it registers a higher order property of the environment without computational mediation on the basis of lower order properties, detecting task-specific information only. This aspect was posited as a hypothesis for the perception of jumping and reaching affordances for the self and another person. The findings supported this hypothesis...
March 30, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337549/perceptual-impressions-of-causality-are-affected-by-common-fate
#10
Peter A White
Many studies of perceptual impressions of causality have used a stimulus in which a moving object (the launcher) contacts a stationary object (the target) and the latter then moves off. Such stimuli give rise to an impression that the launcher makes the target move. In the present experiments, instead of a single target object, an array of four vertically aligned objects was used. The launcher contacted none of them, but stopped at a point between the two central objects. The four objects then moved with similar motion properties, exhibiting the Gestalt property of common fate...
March 24, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337548/the-effects-of-anxiety-and-situation-specific-context-on-perceptual-motor-skill-a-multi-level-investigation
#11
Oliver R Runswick, André Roca, A Mark Williams, Neil E Bezodis, Jamie S North
We examined the effects of anxiety and situation-specific contextual information on attentional, interpretational, and behavioural processes underpinning perceptual-motor performance as proposed by Nieuwenhuys and Oudejans (Psychological Research 76:747-759; Nieuwenhuys, Oudejans, Psychological Research 76:747-759, 2012) using an in situ task. Twelve skilled cricket batsmen played against a skilled spin bowler under conditions manipulated to induce low and high levels of anxiety and the presence of low and high levels of situation-specific context...
March 23, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303355/false-memory-susceptibility-in-coma-survivors-with-and-without-a-near-death-experience
#12
Charlotte Martial, Vanessa Charland-Verville, Hedwige Dehon, Steven Laureys
It has been postulated that memories of near-death experiences (NDEs) could be (at least in part) reconstructions based on experiencers' (NDErs) previous knowledge and could be built as a result of the individual's attempt to interpret the confusing experience. From the point of view of the experiencer, NDE memories are perceived as being unrivalled memories due to its associated rich phenomenology. However, the scientific literature devoted to the cognitive functioning of NDErs in general, and their memory performance in particular, is rather limited...
March 16, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299462/emotional-faces-influence-evaluation-of-natural-and-transformed-food
#13
Valerio Manippa, Caterina Padulo, Alfredo Brancucci
Previous evidence showed the presence of a straight relationship between feeding behavior and emotions. Despite that, no studies have focused on the influence of emotional faces on food processing. In our study, participants were presented with 72 couples of visual stimuli composed of a neutral, happy, or disgusted faces (5000 ms duration in Experiment 1, adaptation; 150 ms in Experiment 2, priming) followed by a food stimulus (1500 ms). Food stimuli were grouped in pleasant foods, further divided in natural and transformed, and unpleasant rotten foods...
March 15, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286905/explaining-response-repetition-effects-in-task-switching-evidence-from-switching-cue-modality-suggests-episodic-binding-and-response-inhibition
#14
Iring Koch, Christian Frings, Stefanie Schuch
Task switching studies revealed that the usual response-repetition benefit is abolished and often reversed if the task switches. According to episodic binding accounts, performing responses strengthens task-specific bindings, leading to response-repetition benefits in task repetitions, whereas such bindings can lead to interference (i.e., costs of "unbinding") in task switches. An alternative account assumes that responses are generally inhibited after execution but that the assumed sequential carryover of response inhibition is overcompensated by positive priming of stimulus category in task repetitions (resulting in a positive net effect in response-repetition conditions)...
March 12, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285364/hierarchical-task-organization-in-dual-tasks-evidence-for-higher-level-task-representations
#15
Patricia Hirsch, Sophie Nolden, Andrea M Philipp, Iring Koch
To examine whether hierarchical higher level task representations comprising the task sets of Task 1 (T1) and Task 2 (T2) are activated within each trial in dual-task situations, we combined the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm with the task-pair switching logic (Hirsch et al. 2017). In Experiment 1, in which subjects switched between task-pairs including a varying T1 and a constant T2, we found a PRP effect (i.e., worse performance with short stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] than with long SOA) and task-pair switch costs in T1 and T2 (impaired performance in task-pair switches compared to task-pair repetitions)...
March 11, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285363/not-all-identification-tasks-are-born-equal-testing-the-involvement-of-production-processes-in-perceptual-identification-and-lexical-decision
#16
Pietro Spataro, Daniele Saraulli, Neil W Mulligan, Vincenzo Cestari, Marco Costanzi, Clelia Rossi-Arnaud
The distinction between identification and production processes suggests that implicit memory should require more attention resources when there is a competition between alternative solutions during the test phase. The present two experiments assessed this hypothesis by examining the effects of divided attention (DA) at encoding on the high- and low-response-competition versions of perceptual identification (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). In both experiments, words presented in the high-response-competition condition had many orthographic neighbours and at least one higher-frequency neighbour, whereas words presented in the low-response-competition condition had few orthographic neighbours and no higher-frequency neighbour...
March 11, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283749/contingency-and-contiguity-of-imitative-behaviour-affect-social-affiliation
#17
David Dignath, Paul Lotze-Hermes, Harry Farmer, Roland Pfister
Actions of others automatically prime similar responses in an agent's behavioural repertoire. As a consequence, perceived or anticipated imitation facilitates own action control and, at the same time, imitation boosts social affiliation and rapport with others. It has previously been suggested that basic mechanisms of associative learning can account for behavioural effects of imitation, whereas a possible role of associative learning for affiliative processes is poorly understood at present. Therefore, this study examined whether contingency and contiguity, the principles of associative learning, affect also the social effects of imitation...
March 10, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280931/training-working-memory-updating-in-young-adults
#18
Rocío Linares, Erika Borella, M Teresa Lechuga, Barbara Carretti, Santiago Pelegrina
Working memory updating (WMU) is a core mechanism in the human mental architecture and a good predictor of a wide range of cognitive processes. This study analyzed the benefits of two different WMU training procedures, near transfer effects on a working memory measure, and far transfer effects on nonverbal reasoning. Maintenance of any benefits a month later was also assessed. Participants were randomly assigned to: an adaptive training group that performed two numerical WMU tasks during four sessions; a non-adaptive training group that performed the same tasks but on a constant and less demanding level of difficulty; or an active control group that performed other tasks unrelated with working memory...
March 9, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271230/attention-or-instruction-do-sustained-attentional-abilities-really-differ-between-high-and-low-hypnotisable-persons
#19
Jean-Rémy Martin, Jérôme Sackur, Zoltan Dienes
Previous research has suggested that highly hypnotisable participants ('highs') are more sensitive to the bistability of ambiguous figures-as evidenced by reporting more perspective changes of a Necker cube-than low hypnotisable participants ('lows'). This finding has been interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that highs have more efficient sustained attentional abilities than lows. However, the higher report of perspective changes in highs in comparison to lows may reflect the implementation of different expectation-based strategies as a result of differently constructed demand characteristics according to one's level of hypnotisability...
March 7, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255951/what-you-see-and-what-you-are-told-an-action-specific-effect-that-is-unaffected-by-explicit-feedback
#20
Zachary R King, Nathan L Tenhundfeld, Jessica K Witt
A critical question for theories of spatial vision concerns the nature of the inputs to perception. The action-specific account asserts that information related to action, specifically a perceiver's ability to perform the intended action, is one of these sources of information. This claim challenges assumptions about the mind in general and perception in particular, and not surprisingly, has been met with much resistance. Alternative explanations include that these effects are due to response bias, rather than genuine differences in perception...
March 2, 2017: Psychological Research
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