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Psychological Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646363/the-many-routes-of-mental-navigation-contrasting-the-effects-of-a-detailed-and-gist-retrieval-approach-on-using-and-forming-spatial-representations
#1
Signy Sheldon, Alexa Ruel
Navigated routes can be recalled by remembering a schematic layout or with additional sensory and perceptual details, engaging episodic memory processes. In this study, we contrasted the effects of these remembering approaches on retrieving real-world navigated routes, the impact on flexibly using familiar route information and on learning new spatial representations. In a within-subjects design, participants were oriented to recall familiar routes under two remembering conditions-a detail condition that promoted episodic memory processes and a gist condition in which routes were recalled via schematic processes...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624969/movement-timing-and-cognitive-control-adult-age-differences-in-multi-tasking
#2
Anne-Merel Meijer, Ralf T Krampe
Over the course of six sessions, 24 young (M = 19.40 years, SD 1.61) and 24 older participants (M = 71.48 years, SD 3.86) performed simple, repetitive tapping tasks at 300 and 600 ms target durations concurrently with two cognitive tasks under non-switch or switch conditions. Despite substantial improvements, over sessions, reliable switch costs remained, which were pronounced in older adults. Young and older adults alike showed increased drift in the tapping tasks under dual-task conditions. Under dual-task non-switch conditions, older adults maintained the same timing accuracy (variability) as in the single-task condition...
June 17, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623404/action-effects-enhance-explicit-sequential-learning
#3
Sarah Esser, Hilde Haider
Different studies have shown that action-effect associations seem to enhance implicit learning of motor sequences. In a recent study (Haider et al., Conscious Cognit 26:145-161, 2014), we found indications that action-effect learning might play a special role in acquiring explicit knowledge within an implicit learning situation. The current study aims at directly manipulating the action-effect contingencies in a Serial Reaction Time Task and examining its impact on explicit sequence knowledge. For this purpose, we created a situation in which the participants' responses led to a melodic tone sequence...
June 16, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620805/action-effect-features-but-not-anatomical-features-determine-the-backward-crosstalk-effect-evidence-from-crossed-hands-experiments
#4
Sandra Renas, Moritz Durst, Markus Janczyk
The Backward Crosstalk Effect (BCE) indicates that response features of Task 2 in a dual-task paradigm influence even Task 1 performance. However, it can be assumed that responses are represented with multiple features in the cognitive system. In this regard, Ideomotor Theory suggests action effects as one central response feature in human action control and an earlier study by Janczyk, Pfister, Hommel, and Kunde (Cognition 132: 30-43, 2014) already provided some evidence that action effects are a crucial determinant of the BCE...
June 15, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612080/color-and-emotion-effects-of-hue-saturation-and-brightness
#5
Lisa Wilms, Daniel Oberfeld
Previous studies on emotional effects of color often failed to control all the three perceptual dimensions of color: hue, saturation, and brightness. Here, we presented a three-dimensional space of chromatic colors by independently varying hue (blue, green, red), saturation (low, medium, high), and brightness (dark, medium, bright) in a factorial design. The 27 chromatic colors, plus 3 brightness-matched achromatic colors, were presented via an LED display. Participants (N = 62) viewed each color for 30 s and then rated their current emotional state (valence and arousal)...
June 13, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608230/acknowledging-crossing-avoidance-heuristic-violations-when-solving-the-euclidean-travelling-salesperson-problem
#6
Markos Kyritsis, Stephen R Gulliver, Eva Feredoes
If a salesperson aims to visit a number of cities only once before returning home, which route should they take to minimise the total distance/cost? This combinatorial optimization problem is called the travelling salesperson problem (TSP) and has a rapid growth in the number of possible solutions as the number of cities increases. Despite its complexity, when cities and routes are represented in 2D Euclidean space (ETSP), humans solve the problem with relative ease, by applying simple visual heuristics. One of the most important heuristics appears to be the avoidance of path crossings, which will always result in more optimal solutions than tours that contain crossings...
June 12, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597136/tactile-motion-lacks-momentum
#7
Gianluca Macauda, Bigna Lenggenhager, Rebekka Meier, Gregory Essick, Peter Brugger
The displacement of the final position of a moving object in the direction of the observed motion path, i.e. an overestimation, is known as representational momentum. It has been described both in the visual and the auditory domain, and is suggested to be modality-independent. Here, we tested whether a representational momentum can also be demonstrated in the somatosensory domain. While the cognitive literature on representational momentum suggests that it can, previous work on the psychophysics of tactile motion perception would rather predict an underestimation of the perceived endpoint of a tactile stimulus...
June 8, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589208/cues-of-control-modulate-the-ascription-of-object-ownership
#8
Claudia Scorolli, Anna M Borghi, Luca Tummolini
Knowing whether an object is owned and by whom is essential to avoid costly conflicts. We hypothesize that everyday interactions around objects are influenced by a minimal sense of object ownership grounded on respect of possession. In particular, we hypothesize that tracking object ownership can be influenced by any cue that predicts the establishment of individual physical control over objects. To test this hypothesis we used an indirect method to determine whether visual cues of physical control like spatial proximity to an object, temporal priority in seeing it, and touching it influence this minimal sense of object ownership...
June 6, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578525/emerging-features-of-modality-mappings-in-task-switching-modality-compatibility-requires-variability-at-the-level-of-both-stimulus-and-response-modality
#9
Edina Fintor, Denise N Stephan, Iring Koch
The term modality compatibility refers to the similarity between the stimulus modality and the modality of response-related sensory consequences. Previous research showed evidence for modality compatibility benefits in task switching, when participants switch either between two modality compatible tasks (auditory-vocal and visual-manual) or between two modality incompatible tasks (auditory-manual and visual-vocal). However, it remained unclear whether there is also a modality compatibility benefit when participants switch between a modality compatible and an incompatible task...
June 3, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578524/the-role-of-feedback-delay-in-dual-task-performance
#10
Wilfried Kunde, Robert Wirth, Markus Janczyk
Doing two things at once is hard, and it is probably hard for various reasons. Here we aim to demonstrate that one so far barely considered reason is the monitoring of sensory action feedback, which detracts from processing of other concurrent tasks. To demonstrate this, we engaged participants in a psychological refractory period paradigm. The responses in the two tasks produced visual action effects. These effects occurred either immediately or they were delayed for the first of the two responses. We assumed that delaying these effects would engage a process of monitoring visual feedback longer, and delay a concurrent task more, as compared to immediate effects...
June 3, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567604/preparation-of-timing-structure-involves-two-independent-sub-processes
#11
Dana Maslovat, Romeo Chua, Stuart T Klapp, Ian M Franks
The current study examined the processes involved in the preparation of sequencing and timing initiation for multi-component responses. In two experiments, participants performed a reaction time (RT) task involving a three key-press sequence with either a simple (isochronous) or complex (non-isochronous) timing structure. Conditions involved a precue that provided information about all features of the movement (simple RT), no features of the movement (choice RT), sequencing only, or timing structure only. When sequencing was precued, RT decreased significantly as compared to choice RT, indicative of advance preparation of sequencing...
May 31, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540479/the-role-of-learning-in-sensory-motor-modality-switching
#12
Simone Schaeffner, Iring Koch, Andrea M Philipp
Previous research has indicated that modality switching is considerably affected by modality compatibility. It has been shown that switch costs are higher for switching between relatively incompatible sensory-motor modality mappings (i.e., auditory-manual and visual-vocal) compared to switching between compatible mappings (i.e., auditory-vocal and visual-manual). So far, however, it has been unclear whether these findings are influenced by learning processes resulting from very small stimulus sets and a large number of stimulus repetitions...
May 24, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502021/the-visual-and-haptic-contributions-to-hand-perception
#13
Lara A Coelho, Claudia Lr Gonzalez
Previous research has found that the perception of our hands is distorted. The characteristics of this distortion are an overestimation of hand width and an underestimation of finger length. The present study examined the role that different sensory modalities (vision and/or haptics) play in the perception of our hands. Participants pointed to their concealed hand in one of three groups: Vision+Haptics, Vision-only, or Haptics-only. Participants in the Vision+Haptics group had vision (non-informative) of the experimental setup and of the pointing hand, but no vision of the hand being estimated...
May 13, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455652/attentional-capture-by-spatiotemporally-task-irrelevant-faces-supportive-evidence-for-sato-and-kawahara-2015
#14
Atsunori Ariga, Katsuhiko Arihara
Visual attention is captured exogenously by stimuli that are congruent with the viewer's current behavioral goals or intentions. However, Sato and Kawahara (Psychol Res 79:523-533, 2015) recently suggested that distractor faces capture attention in an entirely stimulus-driven manner without top-down control of attention, which then attenuates subsequent target identification, using a rapid serial visual presentation paradigm. We tested this suggestion, developing a hypothesis that the faces used in the previous study served as task-relevant temporal cues that predicted target timing...
April 28, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444468/a-new-statistical-model-for-analyzing-rating-scale-data-pertaining-to-word-meaning
#15
Felipe Munoz-Rubke, Karen Kafadar, Karin H James
The concrete-abstract categorization scheme has guided several research programs. A popular way to classify words into one of these categories is to calculate a word's mean value in a Concreteness or Imageability rating scale. However, this procedure has several limitations. For instance, results can be highly distorted by outliers, ascribe differences among words when none may exist, and neglect rating trends in participants. We suggest using an alternative procedure to analyze rating scale data called median polish analysis (MPA)...
April 25, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444467/the-role-of-perspective-in-discriminating-between-social-and-non-social-intentions-from-reach-to-grasp-kinematics
#16
Francesca Ciardo, Isabella Campanini, Andrea Merlo, Sandro Rubichi, Cristina Iani
Making correct inferences regarding social and individual intentions may be crucial for successful interactions, especially when we are required to discriminate between cooperative and competitive behaviors. The results of previous studies indicate that reach-to-grasp kinematic parameters may be used to infer the social or individual outcome of a movement. However, the majority of the studies investigated this ability by presenting reach-to-grasp movements from a third-person perspective only. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the ability to recognize the intent associated to a reach-to-grasp movement varies as a function of perspective by manipulating the perspective of observation (second- and third-perspective) within participants...
April 25, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432446/biasing-spatial-attention-with-semantic-information-an-event-coding-approach
#17
Tarek Amer, Davood G Gozli, Jay Pratt
We investigated the influence of conceptual processing on visual attention from the standpoint of Theory of Event Coding (TEC). The theory makes two predictions: first, an important factor in determining the influence of event 1 on processing event 2 is whether features of event 1 are bound into a unified representation (i.e., selection or retrieval of event 1). Second, whether processing the two events facilitates or interferes with each other should depend on the extent to which their constituent features overlap...
April 21, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417198/biases-in-the-production-and-reception-of-collective-knowledge-the-case-of-hindsight-bias-in-wikipedia
#18
Aileen Oeberst, Ina von der Beck, Mitja D Back, Ulrike Cress, Steffen Nestler
The Web 2.0 enabled collaboration at an unprecedented level. In one of the flagships of mass collaboration-Wikipedia-a large number of authors socially negotiate the world's largest compendium of knowledge. Several guidelines in Wikipedia restrict contributions to verifiable information from reliable sources to ensure recognized knowledge. Much psychological research demonstrates, however, that individual information processing is biased. This poses the question whether individual biases translate to Wikipedia articles or whether they are prevented by its guidelines...
April 17, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405777/how-visual-working-memory-contents-influence-priming-of-visual-attention
#19
Nancy B Carlisle, Árni Kristjánsson
Recent evidence shows that when the contents of visual working memory overlap with targets and distractors in a pop-out search task, intertrial priming is inhibited (Kristjánsson, Sævarsson & Driver, Psychon Bull Rev 20(3):514-521, 2013, Experiment 2, Psychonomic Bulletin and Review). This may reflect an interesting interaction between implicit short-term memory-thought to underlie intertrial priming-and explicit visual working memory. Evidence from a non-pop-out search task suggests that it may specifically be holding distractors in visual working memory that disrupts intertrial priming (Cunningham & Egeth, Psychol Sci 27(4):476-485, 2016, Experiment 2, Psychological Science)...
April 12, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393259/sequential-modulation-of-bottom-up-response-activation-and-inhibition-in-a-response-conflict-task-a-single-pulse-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#20
Barbara Treccani, Giorgia Cona, Nadia Milanese, Carlo Umiltà
Many cognitive tasks involve a response conflict between the response selected on the basis of the task-relevant attribute and that primed by an irrelevant attribute. Although response priming has been extensively investigated, we still have little evidence on whether it entails both excitatory and inhibitory processes and the way in which these processes are modulated by the prior occurrence of a conflict between-response alternatives. To shed light on these issues, we tested motor cortex excitability during a two-choice compatibility task (a Simon task) by delivering single pulses of transcranial magnetic stimulation and recording the resulting motor evoked potentials (MEPs)...
April 9, 2017: Psychological Research
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