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Psychological Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915365/now-you-make-false-memories-now-you-do-not-the-order-of-presentation-of-words-in-drm-lists-influences-the-production-of-the-critical-lure-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Christelle Evrard, Anne-Laure Gilet, Fabienne Colombel, Elodie Dufermont, Yves Corson
Why do some Alzheimer's patients produce fewer false memories than healthy older participants in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, which was especially designed for the study of false memories in a laboratory setting? Using a very simple methodology, this study examines a new explanatory factor inherent in the paradigm itself: the order of presentation of the words in the lists. A sample comprising 149 participants (36 younger, 40 middle-aged, 37 healthy older adults, and 36 Alzheimer's patients) performed a DRM task with either a classic descending forward associative strength (FAS) presentation order of the words or an ascending FAS presentation order...
December 3, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915364/focusing-on-task-conflict-in-the-stroop-effect
#2
Olga Entel, Joseph Tzelgov
Two types of conflict underlie performance in the Stroop task-informational (between the incongruent word and its ink color) and task (between the relevant color-naming task and the irrelevant word-reading task). We manipulated congruent-to-neutral trial ratio in an attempt to reveal whether task conflict can be monitored and controlled in the absence of an informational conflict. In our first experiment, no incongruent trials were included, thus allowing examination of a pure task conflict situation. The results revealed an impressively large facilitation when most of the stimuli were congruent and a smaller yet significant facilitation when most of the stimuli were neutrals...
December 3, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900481/trial-by-trial-switching-between-procedural-and-declarative-categorization-systems
#3
Matthew J Crossley, Jessica L Roeder, Sebastien Helie, F Gregory Ashby
Considerable evidence suggests that human category learning recruits multiple memory systems. A popular assumption is that procedural memory is used to form stimulus-to-response mappings, whereas declarative memory is used to form and test explicit rules about category membership. The multiple systems framework has been successful in motivating and accounting for a broad array of empirical observations over the past 20 years. Even so, only a couple of studies have examined how the different categorization systems interact...
November 30, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900467/what-makes-a-smiling-face-look-happy-visual-saliency-distinctiveness-and-affect
#4
Manuel G Calvo, Aida Gutiérrez-García, Mario Del Líbano
We investigated the relative contribution of (a) perceptual (eyes and mouth visual saliency), (b) conceptual or categorical (eye expression distinctiveness), and (c) affective (rated valence and arousal) factors, and (d) specific morphological facial features (Action Units; AUs), to the recognition of facial happiness. The face stimuli conveyed truly happy expressions with a smiling mouth and happy eyes, or blended expressions with a smile but non-happy eyes (neutral, sad, fearful, disgusted, surprised, or angry)...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889815/modulating-adaptation-to-emotional-faces-by-spatial-frequency-filtering
#5
Giulia Prete, Bruno Laeng, Luca Tommasi
In four experiments, we investigated the presence and strength of perceptual aftereffects to emotional faces, using spatial frequency filtering to manipulate awareness of emotional content. We presented angry and happy faces as adapters and used a control condition without adaptation. Participants were subsequently requested to judge the friendliness level of a neutral target face. We confirmed the well-known aftereffect for unfiltered emotional faces in Experiment 1. In the experiment, friendliness judgments were greater for the angry than the happy or the control condition...
November 26, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888354/effects-of-reward-and-punishment-on-the-interaction-between-going-and-stopping-in-a-selective-stop-change-task
#6
Frederick Verbruggen, Rosamund McLaren
Inhibition of no-longer relevant go responses supports flexible and goal-directed behavior. The present study explored if the interaction between going and stopping is influenced by monetary incentives. Subjects (N = 108) performed a selective stop-change task, which required them to stop and change a go response if a valid signal occurred, but to execute the planned go response if invalid signals or no signals occurred. There were two incentive groups: the punishment group lost points for unsuccessful valid-signal trials, whereas the reward group gained points for successful valid-signal trials...
November 25, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873017/erratum-to-no-evidence-for-shared-representations-of-task-sets-in-joint-task-switching
#7
Motonori Yamaguchi, Helen J Wall, Bernhard Hommel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832377/how-to-point-and-to-interpret-pointing-gestures-instructions-can-reduce-pointer-observer-misunderstandings
#8
Oliver Herbort, Wilfried Kunde
In everyday communication, people often point. However, a pointing act is often misinterpreted as indicating a different spatial referent position than intended by the pointer. It has been suggested that this happens because pointers put the tip of the index finger close to the line joining the eye to the referent. However, the person interpreting the pointing act extrapolates the vector defined by the arm and index finger. As this line crosses the eye-referent line, it suggests a different referent position than the one that was meant...
November 10, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832376/on-the-importance-of-considering-heterogeneity-in-witnesses-competence-levels-when-reconstructing-crimes-from-multiple-witness-testimonies
#9
Berenike Waubert de Puiseau, Sven Greving, André Aßfalg, Jochen Musch
Aggregating information across multiple testimonies may improve crime reconstructions. However, different aggregation methods are available, and research on which method is best suited for aggregating multiple observations is lacking. Furthermore, little is known about how variance in the accuracy of individual testimonies impacts the performance of competing aggregation procedures. We investigated the superiority of aggregation-based crime reconstructions involving multiple individual testimonies and whether this superiority varied as a function of the number of witnesses and the degree of heterogeneity in witnesses' ability to accurately report their observations...
November 10, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826656/conflict-and-disfluency-as-aversive-signals-context-specific-processing-adjustments-are-modulated-by-affective-location-associations
#10
Gesine Dreisbach, Anna-Lena Reindl, Rico Fischer
Context-specific processing adjustments are one signature feature of flexible human action control. However, up to now the precise mechanisms underlying these adjustments are not fully understood. Here it is argued that aversive signals produced by conflict- or disfluency-experience originally motivate such context-specific processing adjustments. We tested whether the efficiency of the aversive conflict signal for control adaptation depends on the affective nature of the context it is presented in. In two experiments, high vs...
November 8, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826655/sharing-tasks-or-sharing-actions-evidence-from-the-joint-simon-task
#11
Motonori Yamaguchi, Helen J Wall, Bernhard Hommel
In a joint Simon task, a pair of co-acting individuals divide labors of performing a choice-reaction task in such a way that each actor responds to one type of stimuli and ignores the other type that is assigned to the co-actor. It has been suggested that the actors share the mental representation of the joint task and perform the co-actor's trials as if they were their own. However, it remains unclear exactly which aspects of co-actor's task-set the actors share in the joint Simon task. The present study addressed this issue by manipulating the proportions of compatible and incompatible trials for one actor (inducer actor) and observing its influences on the performance of the other actor (diagnostic actor) for whom there were always an equal proportion of compatible and incompatible trials...
November 8, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822658/the-test-of-both-worlds-identifying-feature-binding-and-control-processes-in-congruency-sequence-tasks-by-means-of-action-dynamics
#12
Stefan Scherbaum, Simon Frisch, Maja Dshemuchadse, Matthias Rudolf, Rico Fischer
Cognitive control processes enable us to act flexibly in a world posing ever-changing demands on our cognitive system. To study cognitive control, conflict tasks and especially congruency sequence effects have been regarded as a fruitful tool. However, for the last decade a dispute has arisen whether or not congruency sequence effects are indeed a valid measure of cognitive control processes. This debate has led to the development of increasingly complex paradigms involving numerous, intricately designed experimental conditions which are aimed at excluding low-level, associative learning mechanisms like feature binding as an alternative explanation for the emergence of congruency sequence effects...
November 7, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785567/the-effect-of-facial-expressions-on-peripersonal-and-interpersonal-spaces
#13
Gennaro Ruggiero, Francesca Frassinetti, Yann Coello, Mariachiara Rapuano, Armando Schiano di Cola, Tina Iachini
Identifying individuals' intent through the emotional valence conveyed by their facial expression influences our capacity to approach-avoid these individuals during social interactions. Here, we explore if and how the emotional valence of others' facial expressiveness modulates peripersonal-action and interpersonal-social spaces. Through Immersive Virtual Reality, participants determined reachability-distance (for peripersonal space) and comfort-distance (for interpersonal space) from male/female virtual confederates exhibiting happy, angry and neutral facial expressions while being approached by (passive-approach) or walking toward (active-approach) them...
October 26, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783147/crowded-environments-reduce-spatial-memory-in-older-but-not-younger-adults
#14
Niamh A Merriman, Jan Ondřej, Alicia Rybicki, Eugenie Roudaia, Carol O'Sullivan, Fiona N Newell
Previous studies have reported an age-related decline in spatial abilities. However, little is known about whether the presence of other, task-irrelevant stimuli during learning further affects spatial cognition in older adults. Here we embedded virtual environments with moving crowds of virtual human pedestrians (Experiment 1) or objects (Experiment 2) whilst participants learned a route and landmarks embedded along that route. In subsequent test trials we presented clips from the learned route and measured spatial memory using three different tasks: a route direction task (i...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778123/spatial-attention-across-perception-and-action
#15
Moran M Israel, Pierre Jolicoeur, Asher Cohen
We hypothesize that a shared spatial attention mechanism is used for both perception and action. To this end we created a new dual-task version of the classical Simon task. In one task, the spatial-input task, associated with input spatial attention, participants named one shape out of two bilaterally presented colored shapes. In a second task, the spatial-output task, associated with output spatial attention, participants discriminated between high and low pitch tones by pressing either a left or a right key...
October 24, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770287/cue-target-contingencies-modulate-voluntary-orienting-of-spatial-attention-dissociable-effects-for-speed-and-accuracy
#16
Mario Bonato, Matteo Lisi, Sara Pegoraro, Gilles Pourtois
Voluntary orienting of spatial attention is typically investigated by visually presented directional cues, which are called predictive when they indicate where the target is more likely to appear. In this study, we investigated the nature of the potential link between cue predictivity (the proportion of valid trials) and the strength of the resulting covert orienting of attention. Participants judged the orientation of a unilateral Gabor grating preceded by a centrally presented, non-directional, color cue, arbitrarily prompting a leftwards or rightwards shift of attention...
October 21, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752773/orthogonal-compatibility-effects-confound-automatic-imitation-implications-for-measuring-self-other-distinction
#17
Daniel Joel Shaw, Kristína Czekóová, Michaela Porubanová
Accurate distinction between self and other representations is fundamental to a range of social cognitive capacities, and understanding individual differences in this ability is an important aim for psychological research. This demands accurate measures of self-other distinction (SOD). The present study examined an experimental paradigm employed frequently to measure SOD in the action domain; specifically, we evaluated the rotated finger-action stimuli used increasingly to measure automatic imitation (AI). To assess the suitability of these stimuli, we compared AI elicited by different action stimuli to the performance on a perspective-taking task believed to measure SOD in the perception domain...
October 17, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747370/how-serially-organized-working-memory-information-interacts-with-timing
#18
Maya De Belder, Jean-Philippe van Dijck, Marinella Cappelletti, Wim Fias
The temporary storage of serial order information in working memory (WM) has been demonstrated to be crucial to higher order cognition. The previous studies have shown that the maintenance of serial order can be a consequence of the construction of position markers to which to-be-remembered information will be bound. However, the nature of these position markers remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate the crucial involvement of time in the construction of these markers by establishing a bidirectional relationship...
October 17, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744586/approaching-behavior-reduces-gender-differences-in-the-mental-rotation-performance
#19
Petra Jansen, Sandra Kaltner, Daniel Memmert
In this study, we investigated if the enactment of an approaching or avoiding behavior influences the mental rotation performance. Thirty-five females and thirty males completed a chronometric mental rotation task either in an approaching or in an avoiding condition while manipulating their arm position. The results showed a significant influence of this embodied behavior dependent on gender and task difficulty. The approaching condition caused no gender difference in reaction times and a reduced gender difference in accuracy for the most difficult tasks, while the avoidance condition produced the well-known gender differences in mental rotation for both reaction time and accuracy...
October 15, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744585/no-evidence-for-shared-representations-of-task-sets-in-joint-task-switching
#20
Motonori Yamaguchi, Helen J Wall, Bernhard Hommel
It has been suggested that actors co-represent a shared task context when they perform a task in a joint fashion. The present study examined the possibility of co-representation in joint task switching, in which two actors shared two tasks that switched randomly across trials. Experiment 1 showed that when an actor performed the tasks individually, switch costs were obtained if the actors responded on the previous trial (go trial), but not if they did not respond (no-go trial). When two actors performed the tasks jointly, switch costs were obtained if the actor responded on the previous trial (actor-repeat trials) but not if the co-actor responded (actor-switch trials)...
October 15, 2016: Psychological Research
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