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Psychological Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741028/transfer-of-time-based-task-expectancy-across-different-timing-environments
#1
Stefanie Aufschnaiter, Andrea Kiesel, Roland Thomaschke
Recent research on time-based expectancy has shown that humans base their expectancies for responses on representations of temporal relations (e.g., shorter vs. longer duration), rather than on representations of absolute durations (e.g., 500 vs. 1000 ms). In the present study, we investigated whether this holds also true for time-based expectancy of tasks instead of responses. Using a combination of the time-event correlation paradigm and the standard task-switching paradigm, participants learned to associate two different time intervals with two different tasks in a learning phase...
July 24, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735359/binding-abstract-concepts
#2
Tarini Singh, Christian Frings, Birte Moeller
Binding theories assume that a stimulus and the response made to it are bound together in an event file (Hommel et al., Behav Brain Sci 24(05):849-937, 2001). Such bindings can occur even after single encounters. If the stimulus or parts of its features are repeated within the time frame in which the event file is still intact, the previously integrated response is retrieved. Stimulus-response binding can exist at a perceptual, conceptual or a response selection level (Henson et al., Trends Cogn Sci 18(7):376-384, 2014)...
July 22, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733770/distinct-and-flexible-rates-of-online-control
#3
John de Grosbois, Luc Tremblay
Elliott et al. (Hum Mov Sci 10:393-418, 1991) proposed a pseudocontinuous model of online control whereby overlapping corrections lead to the appearance of smooth kinematic profiles in the presence of online feedback. More recently, it was also proposed that online control is not a singular process [see Elliott et al. (Psychol Bull 136(6):1023-1044, 2010)]. However, support for contemporary models of online control were based on methodologies that were not designed to be sensitive to different online control sub-processes...
July 21, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733769/communication-for-coordination-gesture-kinematics-and-conventionality-affect-synchronization-success-in-piano-duos
#4
Laura Bishop, Werner Goebl
Ensemble musicians often exchange visual cues in the form of body gestures (e.g., rhythmic head nods) to help coordinate piece entrances. These cues must communicate beats clearly, especially if the piece requires interperformer synchronization of the first chord. This study aimed to (1) replicate prior findings suggesting that points of peak acceleration in head gestures communicate beat position and (2) identify the kinematic features of head gestures that encourage successful synchronization. It was expected that increased precision of the alignment between leaders' head gestures and first note onsets, increased gesture smoothness, magnitude, and prototypicality, and increased leader ensemble/conducting experience would improve gesture synchronizability...
July 21, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725993/are-young-children-able-to-learn-exploratory-strategies-by-observation
#5
Francesca Foti, Domenico Martone, Stefania Orrù, Simone Montuori, Esther Imperlini, Pasqualina Buono, Laura Petrosini, Laura Mandolesi
New competencies may be learned through active experience (experiential learning or learning by doing) or observation of others' experiences (learning by observation). Observing another person performing a complex action facilitates the observer's acquisition of the same action. The present research is aimed at analyzing if the observation of specific explorative strategies adopted in a constrained environment, such as the Radial Arm Maze (RAM), could help young children to explore the maze and to build a cognitive spatial map of the explored environment...
July 20, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712036/synchronization-to-metrical-levels-in-music-depends-on-low-frequency-spectral-components-and-tempo
#6
Birgitta Burger, Justin London, Marc R Thompson, Petri Toiviainen
Previous studies have found relationships between music-induced movement and musical characteristics on more general levels, such as tempo or pulse clarity. This study focused on synchronization abilities to music of finely-varying tempi and varying degrees of low-frequency spectral change/flux. Excerpts from six classic Motown/R&B songs at three different tempos (105, 115, and 130 BPM) were used as stimuli in this experiment. Each was then time-stretched by a factor of 5% with regard to the original tempo, yielding a total of 12 stimuli that were presented to 30 participants...
July 15, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689319/barriers-to-success-physical-separation-optimizes-event-file-retrieval-in-shared-workspaces
#7
Bibiana Klempova, Roman Liepelt
Sharing tasks with other persons can simplify our work and life, but seeing and hearing other people's actions may also be very distracting. The joint Simon effect (JSE) is a standard measure of referential response coding when two persons share a Simon task. Sequential modulations of the joint Simon effect (smJSE) are interpreted as a measure of event-file processing containing stimulus information, response information and information about the just relevant control-state active in a given social situation...
July 8, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689318/destination-memory-the-relationship-between-memory-and-social-cognition
#8
REVIEW
Mohamad El Haj, Ralph Miller
Destination memory refers to the ability to remember to whom one has sent information (e.g., "did I tell my colleague X or Y about the conference?", "did I send that email to my colleague X or Y?"). This review describes empirical studies demonstrating how normal aging and neurological disorders compromise destination memory. Centrally, we propose a comprehensive framework, destination memory framework (DMF), in which destination memory contributes to the uniqueness of a communications episode by creating an association between the content of a communications event and the context of its transmission...
July 8, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689317/intentional-binding-of-two-effects
#9
Miriam Ruess, Roland Thomaschke, Carola Haering, Dorit Wenke, Andrea Kiesel
An action that produced an effect is perceived later in time compared to an action that did not produce an effect. Likewise, the effect of an action is perceived earlier in time compared to a stimulus that was not produced by an action. Despite numerous studies on this phenomenon-referred to as Intentional Binding effect (IB)-the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Typically, IB is investigated in settings where the action produces just one single effect, whereas in everyday action contexts, it rather causes a sequence of effects before leading to the desired outcome...
July 8, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647847/the-processing-of-price-comparison-is-not-holistic-but-componential
#10
Pedro Macizo, Fernando Ojedo
In three experiments, we evaluate whether the processing of prices is holistic or componential. When participants receive two prices and they select the higher price, distance effects are found when the distances between the two prices are defined holistically but not when they are defined in terms of digits (Experiment 1). This result suggests that prices are processed holistically. However, we show that the holistic distance effect can be explained by the compatibility between the digits and the monetary category of prices (euro and cent)...
June 24, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647846/attentional-processing-of-itch
#11
A I M van Laarhoven, S van Damme, A P M Lavrijsen, D M van Ryckeghem, G Crombez, A W M Evers
Itch is a prevalent somatosensory symptom that can be highly disabling, because it is likely to draw attention and, as a result, may interfere with the performance of daily activities. Yet, research experimentally investigating attention to itch is lacking. In this study we aimed to investigate attentional processing of itch using multiple behavioral attention tasks. Forty-one healthy participants performed (1) a modified Stroop task with itch-related words, (2) a dot-probe task with itch-related pictures, and (3) a recently developed somatosensory attention task in which the effect of experimentally induced itch on the localization of visual targets was examined...
June 24, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646363/the-many-routes-of-mental-navigation-contrasting-the-effects-of-a-detailed-and-gist-retrieval-approach-on-using-and-forming-spatial-representations
#12
Signy Sheldon, Alexa Ruel
Navigated routes can be recalled by remembering a schematic layout or with additional sensory and perceptual details, engaging episodic memory processes. In this study, we contrasted the effects of these remembering approaches on retrieving real-world navigated routes, the impact on flexibly using familiar route information and on learning new spatial representations. In a within-subjects design, participants were oriented to recall familiar routes under two remembering conditions-a detail condition that promoted episodic memory processes and a gist condition in which routes were recalled via schematic processes...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624969/movement-timing-and-cognitive-control-adult-age-differences-in-multi-tasking
#13
Anne-Merel Meijer, Ralf T Krampe
Over the course of six sessions, 24 young (M = 19.40 years, SD 1.61) and 24 older participants (M = 71.48 years, SD 3.86) performed simple, repetitive tapping tasks at 300 and 600 ms target durations concurrently with two cognitive tasks under non-switch or switch conditions. Despite substantial improvements, over sessions, reliable switch costs remained, which were pronounced in older adults. Young and older adults alike showed increased drift in the tapping tasks under dual-task conditions. Under dual-task non-switch conditions, older adults maintained the same timing accuracy (variability) as in the single-task condition...
June 17, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623404/action-effects-enhance-explicit-sequential-learning
#14
Sarah Esser, Hilde Haider
Different studies have shown that action-effect associations seem to enhance implicit learning of motor sequences. In a recent study (Haider et al., Conscious Cognit 26:145-161, 2014), we found indications that action-effect learning might play a special role in acquiring explicit knowledge within an implicit learning situation. The current study aims at directly manipulating the action-effect contingencies in a Serial Reaction Time Task and examining its impact on explicit sequence knowledge. For this purpose, we created a situation in which the participants' responses led to a melodic tone sequence...
June 16, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620805/action-effect-features-but-not-anatomical-features-determine-the-backward-crosstalk-effect-evidence-from-crossed-hands-experiments
#15
Sandra Renas, Moritz Durst, Markus Janczyk
The Backward Crosstalk Effect (BCE) indicates that response features of Task 2 in a dual-task paradigm influence even Task 1 performance. However, it can be assumed that responses are represented with multiple features in the cognitive system. In this regard, Ideomotor Theory suggests action effects as one central response feature in human action control and an earlier study by Janczyk, Pfister, Hommel, and Kunde (Cognition 132: 30-43, 2014) already provided some evidence that action effects are a crucial determinant of the BCE...
June 15, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612080/color-and-emotion-effects-of-hue-saturation-and-brightness
#16
Lisa Wilms, Daniel Oberfeld
Previous studies on emotional effects of color often failed to control all the three perceptual dimensions of color: hue, saturation, and brightness. Here, we presented a three-dimensional space of chromatic colors by independently varying hue (blue, green, red), saturation (low, medium, high), and brightness (dark, medium, bright) in a factorial design. The 27 chromatic colors, plus 3 brightness-matched achromatic colors, were presented via an LED display. Participants (N = 62) viewed each color for 30 s and then rated their current emotional state (valence and arousal)...
June 13, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608230/acknowledging-crossing-avoidance-heuristic-violations-when-solving-the-euclidean-travelling-salesperson-problem
#17
Markos Kyritsis, Stephen R Gulliver, Eva Feredoes
If a salesperson aims to visit a number of cities only once before returning home, which route should they take to minimise the total distance/cost? This combinatorial optimization problem is called the travelling salesperson problem (TSP) and has a rapid growth in the number of possible solutions as the number of cities increases. Despite its complexity, when cities and routes are represented in 2D Euclidean space (ETSP), humans solve the problem with relative ease, by applying simple visual heuristics. One of the most important heuristics appears to be the avoidance of path crossings, which will always result in more optimal solutions than tours that contain crossings...
June 12, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597136/tactile-motion-lacks-momentum
#18
Gianluca Macauda, Bigna Lenggenhager, Rebekka Meier, Gregory Essick, Peter Brugger
The displacement of the final position of a moving object in the direction of the observed motion path, i.e. an overestimation, is known as representational momentum. It has been described both in the visual and the auditory domain, and is suggested to be modality-independent. Here, we tested whether a representational momentum can also be demonstrated in the somatosensory domain. While the cognitive literature on representational momentum suggests that it can, previous work on the psychophysics of tactile motion perception would rather predict an underestimation of the perceived endpoint of a tactile stimulus...
June 8, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589208/cues-of-control-modulate-the-ascription-of-object-ownership
#19
Claudia Scorolli, Anna M Borghi, Luca Tummolini
Knowing whether an object is owned and by whom is essential to avoid costly conflicts. We hypothesize that everyday interactions around objects are influenced by a minimal sense of object ownership grounded on respect of possession. In particular, we hypothesize that tracking object ownership can be influenced by any cue that predicts the establishment of individual physical control over objects. To test this hypothesis we used an indirect method to determine whether visual cues of physical control like spatial proximity to an object, temporal priority in seeing it, and touching it influence this minimal sense of object ownership...
June 6, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578525/emerging-features-of-modality-mappings-in-task-switching-modality-compatibility-requires-variability-at-the-level-of-both-stimulus-and-response-modality
#20
Edina Fintor, Denise N Stephan, Iring Koch
The term modality compatibility refers to the similarity between the stimulus modality and the modality of response-related sensory consequences. Previous research showed evidence for modality compatibility benefits in task switching, when participants switch either between two modality compatible tasks (auditory-vocal and visual-manual) or between two modality incompatible tasks (auditory-manual and visual-vocal). However, it remained unclear whether there is also a modality compatibility benefit when participants switch between a modality compatible and an incompatible task...
June 3, 2017: Psychological Research
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