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Psychological Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337549/perceptual-impressions-of-causality-are-affected-by-common-fate
#1
Peter A White
Many studies of perceptual impressions of causality have used a stimulus in which a moving object (the launcher) contacts a stationary object (the target) and the latter then moves off. Such stimuli give rise to an impression that the launcher makes the target move. In the present experiments, instead of a single target object, an array of four vertically aligned objects was used. The launcher contacted none of them, but stopped at a point between the two central objects. The four objects then moved with similar motion properties, exhibiting the Gestalt property of common fate...
March 24, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337548/the-effects-of-anxiety-and-situation-specific-context-on-perceptual-motor-skill-a-multi-level-investigation
#2
Oliver R Runswick, André Roca, A Mark Williams, Neil E Bezodis, Jamie S North
We examined the effects of anxiety and situation-specific contextual information on attentional, interpretational, and behavioural processes underpinning perceptual-motor performance as proposed by Nieuwenhuys and Oudejans (Psychological Research 76:747-759; Nieuwenhuys, Oudejans, Psychological Research 76:747-759, 2012) using an in situ task. Twelve skilled cricket batsmen played against a skilled spin bowler under conditions manipulated to induce low and high levels of anxiety and the presence of low and high levels of situation-specific context...
March 23, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303355/false-memory-susceptibility-in-coma-survivors-with-and-without-a-near-death-experience
#3
Charlotte Martial, Vanessa Charland-Verville, Hedwige Dehon, Steven Laureys
It has been postulated that memories of near-death experiences (NDEs) could be (at least in part) reconstructions based on experiencers' (NDErs) previous knowledge and could be built as a result of the individual's attempt to interpret the confusing experience. From the point of view of the experiencer, NDE memories are perceived as being unrivalled memories due to its associated rich phenomenology. However, the scientific literature devoted to the cognitive functioning of NDErs in general, and their memory performance in particular, is rather limited...
March 16, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299462/emotional-faces-influence-evaluation-of-natural-and-transformed-food
#4
Valerio Manippa, Caterina Padulo, Alfredo Brancucci
Previous evidence showed the presence of a straight relationship between feeding behavior and emotions. Despite that, no studies have focused on the influence of emotional faces on food processing. In our study, participants were presented with 72 couples of visual stimuli composed of a neutral, happy, or disgusted faces (5000 ms duration in Experiment 1, adaptation; 150 ms in Experiment 2, priming) followed by a food stimulus (1500 ms). Food stimuli were grouped in pleasant foods, further divided in natural and transformed, and unpleasant rotten foods...
March 15, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286905/explaining-response-repetition-effects-in-task-switching-evidence-from-switching-cue-modality-suggests-episodic-binding-and-response-inhibition
#5
Iring Koch, Christian Frings, Stefanie Schuch
Task switching studies revealed that the usual response-repetition benefit is abolished and often reversed if the task switches. According to episodic binding accounts, performing responses strengthens task-specific bindings, leading to response-repetition benefits in task repetitions, whereas such bindings can lead to interference (i.e., costs of "unbinding") in task switches. An alternative account assumes that responses are generally inhibited after execution but that the assumed sequential carryover of response inhibition is overcompensated by positive priming of stimulus category in task repetitions (resulting in a positive net effect in response-repetition conditions)...
March 12, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285364/hierarchical-task-organization-in-dual-tasks-evidence-for-higher-level-task-representations
#6
Patricia Hirsch, Sophie Nolden, Andrea M Philipp, Iring Koch
To examine whether hierarchical higher level task representations comprising the task sets of Task 1 (T1) and Task 2 (T2) are activated within each trial in dual-task situations, we combined the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm with the task-pair switching logic (Hirsch et al. 2017). In Experiment 1, in which subjects switched between task-pairs including a varying T1 and a constant T2, we found a PRP effect (i.e., worse performance with short stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] than with long SOA) and task-pair switch costs in T1 and T2 (impaired performance in task-pair switches compared to task-pair repetitions)...
March 11, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285363/not-all-identification-tasks-are-born-equal-testing-the-involvement-of-production-processes-in-perceptual-identification-and-lexical-decision
#7
Pietro Spataro, Daniele Saraulli, Neil W Mulligan, Vincenzo Cestari, Marco Costanzi, Clelia Rossi-Arnaud
The distinction between identification and production processes suggests that implicit memory should require more attention resources when there is a competition between alternative solutions during the test phase. The present two experiments assessed this hypothesis by examining the effects of divided attention (DA) at encoding on the high- and low-response-competition versions of perceptual identification (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). In both experiments, words presented in the high-response-competition condition had many orthographic neighbours and at least one higher-frequency neighbour, whereas words presented in the low-response-competition condition had few orthographic neighbours and no higher-frequency neighbour...
March 11, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283749/contingency-and-contiguity-of-imitative-behaviour-affect-social-affiliation
#8
David Dignath, Paul Lotze-Hermes, Harry Farmer, Roland Pfister
Actions of others automatically prime similar responses in an agent's behavioural repertoire. As a consequence, perceived or anticipated imitation facilitates own action control and, at the same time, imitation boosts social affiliation and rapport with others. It has previously been suggested that basic mechanisms of associative learning can account for behavioural effects of imitation, whereas a possible role of associative learning for affiliative processes is poorly understood at present. Therefore, this study examined whether contingency and contiguity, the principles of associative learning, affect also the social effects of imitation...
March 10, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280931/training-working-memory-updating-in-young-adults
#9
Rocío Linares, Erika Borella, M Teresa Lechuga, Barbara Carretti, Santiago Pelegrina
Working memory updating (WMU) is a core mechanism in the human mental architecture and a good predictor of a wide range of cognitive processes. This study analyzed the benefits of two different WMU training procedures, near transfer effects on a working memory measure, and far transfer effects on nonverbal reasoning. Maintenance of any benefits a month later was also assessed. Participants were randomly assigned to: an adaptive training group that performed two numerical WMU tasks during four sessions; a non-adaptive training group that performed the same tasks but on a constant and less demanding level of difficulty; or an active control group that performed other tasks unrelated with working memory...
March 9, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271230/attention-or-instruction-do-sustained-attentional-abilities-really-differ-between-high-and-low-hypnotisable-persons
#10
Jean-Rémy Martin, Jérôme Sackur, Zoltan Dienes
Previous research has suggested that highly hypnotisable participants ('highs') are more sensitive to the bistability of ambiguous figures-as evidenced by reporting more perspective changes of a Necker cube-than low hypnotisable participants ('lows'). This finding has been interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that highs have more efficient sustained attentional abilities than lows. However, the higher report of perspective changes in highs in comparison to lows may reflect the implementation of different expectation-based strategies as a result of differently constructed demand characteristics according to one's level of hypnotisability...
March 7, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255951/what-you-see-and-what-you-are-told-an-action-specific-effect-that-is-unaffected-by-explicit-feedback
#11
Zachary R King, Nathan L Tenhundfeld, Jessica K Witt
A critical question for theories of spatial vision concerns the nature of the inputs to perception. The action-specific account asserts that information related to action, specifically a perceiver's ability to perform the intended action, is one of these sources of information. This claim challenges assumptions about the mind in general and perception in particular, and not surprisingly, has been met with much resistance. Alternative explanations include that these effects are due to response bias, rather than genuine differences in perception...
March 2, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251371/delta-plots-with-negative-going-slopes-as-a-potential-marker-of-decreasing-response-activation-in-masked-semantic-priming
#12
Ruben Ellinghaus, Jeff Miller
Delta plots with negative-going slopes (nDPs) reflect the phenomenon that an RT difference between two conditions is greater for relatively fast than for relatively slow responses. This unusual distributional pattern has predominantly been observed in the spatial Simon task, where it has been interpreted as reflecting the selective inhibition of an automatically activated response. The literature suggesting that a similar fading mechanism influences RTs in masked identity priming inspired us to check an analogous semantic priming paradigm for nDPs...
March 1, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251370/comt-genotype-is-associated-with-plasticity-in-sense-of-body-ownership-a-pilot-study
#13
Motoyasu Honma, Takuya Yoshiike, Hiroki Ikeda, Kenichi Kuriyama
The sense of body ownership constantly adapts to new environments, and awareness of a distinction between oneself and others is a fundamental ability. However, it remains unclear whether plasticity in the sense of body ownership is dependent on genetic factors. The present study investigated the influence of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met genotype on illusory learning of a sense of body ownership and dissociation. 76 healthy Japanese participants experienced the rubber hand illusion (RHI), which is produced by sensory integration of conflicting modalities, with the intent to experimentally alter objective perceived locations and subjective ownership ratings...
March 1, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243728/anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-primary-motor-cortex-does-not-enhance-the-learning-benefits-of-self-controlled-feedback-schedules
#14
Michael J Carter, Victoria Smith, Anthony N Carlsen, Diane M Ste-Marie
A distinct learning advantage has been shown when participants control their knowledge of results (KR) scheduling during practice compared to when the same KR schedule is imposed on the learner without choice (i.e., yoked schedules). Although the learning advantages of self-controlled KR schedules are well-documented, the brain regions contributing to these advantages remain unknown. Identifying key brain regions would not only advance our theoretical understanding of the mechanisms underlying self-controlled learning advantages, but would also highlight regions that could be targeted in more applied settings to boost the already beneficial effects of self-controlled KR schedules...
February 27, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239771/can-training-change-attentional-breadth-failure-to-find-transfer-effects
#15
Lin Fang, Kristof Hoorelbeke, Lynn Bruyneel, Lies Notebaert, Colin MacLeod, Rudi De Raedt, Ernst H W Koster
Recently, there is increasing interest in the causal relationship between attentional breadth and emotion regulation. To test this causal relationship, attentional breadth needs to be manipulated stringently. The aim of the current research was to establish whether visual attentional breadth could be manipulated through experimental training procedures. We conducted two single-session training experiments and one multiple-session training experiment, all of which contained pre- and post-training assessments to test the direct transfer effects of training on attentional breadth construed in different measures...
February 26, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210819/evidence-for-instructions-based-updating-of-task-set-representations-the-informed-fadeout-effect
#16
Maayan Pereg, Nachshon Meiran
The cognitive system can be updated rapidly and efficiently to maximize performance in cognitive tasks. This paper used a task-switching task to explore updating at the level of the plausible task-sets held for future performance. Previous research suggested a "fadeout effect", performance improvement when moving from task-switching context to single-task context, yet this effect could reflect passive learning rather than intentional control. In a novel "informed fadeout paradigm", one of two tasks was canceled for a certain number of trials and participants were informed or uninformed regarding task cancelation...
February 16, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154938/the-delay-period-as-an-opportunity-to-think-about-future-intentions-effects-of-delay-length-and-delay-task-difficulty-on-young-adult-s-prospective-memory-performance
#17
Caitlin E V Mahy, Katharina Schnitzspahn, Alexandra Hering, Jacqueline Pagobo, Matthias Kliegel
The current study examined the impact of length and difficulty of the delay task on young adult's event-based prospective memory (PM). Participants engaged in either a short (2.5 min) or a long (15 min) delay that was filled with either a simple item categorization task or a difficult cognitive task. They also completed a questionnaire on whether they thought about the PM intention during the delay period and how often they thought about it. Results revealed that participants' PM was better after a difficult delay task compared to an easy delay task...
February 2, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138754/motor-sequence-learning-and-the-effect-of-context-on-transfer-from-part-to-whole-and-from-whole-to-part
#18
Zipi Rhein, Eli Vakil
The present study attempts to characterize the contextual conditions (i.e., addition versus omission of elements) that enable or prevent transfer of an acquired skill. The effect of learning and transfer from part-to-whole and from whole-to-part was studied with the serial reaction time (SRT) task. In this study, two alternative sequences of the SRT task were utilized, a short (i.e., 'part') sequence consisting of six elements (ADBACD), and a long (i.e., 'whole') one consisting of 12 elements (BDCADBACDABC) in which the short sequence was embedded...
January 30, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124117/pain-and-executive-functions-a-unique-relationship-between-stroop-task-and-experimentally-induced-pain
#19
Jovana Bjekić, Marko Živanović, Danka Purić, Joukje M Oosterman, Saša R Filipović
There is a growing body of evidence that a higher level of cognitive inhibition is associated with lower experimental pain sensitivity. However, a systematic examination of the association between executive functions, which include not only inhibition but also updating and shifting, and experimental pain sensitivity is lacking. This study aimed to overcome this limitation by exploring the relationship between a range of executive functions and different measures of experimentally induced cold pain in healthy participants...
January 25, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108792/numerical-magnitude-affects-online-execution-and-not-planning-of-visuomotor-control
#20
Gal Namdar, Tzvi Ganel
Recent literature has established a directional influence of irrelevant numerical magnitude on actions performed toward neutral objects. For example, fingers' aperture during grasping is larger when associated with large compared with small numerical digits. This interaction between symbolic magnitude and visuomotor control has been attributed to the planning stage of the action prior to motor execution. However, this assumption has not been directly tested. In two experiments, we tested whether the effects of numerical magnitude on grasping derive from action planning or from action execution...
January 20, 2017: Psychological Research
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