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Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology

Sung Ryul Lee, Bernd Nilius, Jin Han
Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), and nitric oxide (NO) constitute endogenous gaseous molecules produced by specific enzymes. These gases are chemically simple, but exert multiple effects and act through shared molecular targets to control both physiology and pathophysiology in the cardiovascular system (CVS). The gases act via direct and/or indirect interactions with each other in proteins such as heme-containing enzymes, the mitochondrial respiratory complex, and ion channels, among others. Studies of the major impacts of CO, H2 S, and NO on the CVS have revealed their involvement in controlling blood pressure and in reducing cardiac reperfusion injuries, although their functional roles are not limited to these conditions...
January 26, 2018: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Gabriel A Aguirre, José Luis González-Guerra, Luis Espinosa, Inma Castilla-Cortazar
Non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. For this reason, a tremendous effort is being made worldwide to effectively circumvent these afflictions, where insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is being proposed both as a marker and as a central cornerstone in these diseases, making it an interesting molecule to focus on. Firstly, at the initiation of metabolic deregulation by overfeeding, IGF1 is decreased/inhibited. Secondly, such deficiency seems to be intimately related to the onset of MetS and establishment of vascular derangements leading to atherosclerosis and finally playing a definitive part in cerebrovascular and myocardial accidents, where IGF1 deficiency seems to render these organs vulnerable to oxidative and apoptotic/necrotic damage...
January 3, 2018: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Jacopo Meldolesi
In the last few years, exciting reports have emerged regarding the role of the two types of neurotrophin receptors, p75(NTR) and Trks, not only in neurons, where they were discovered, but also in non-neural cells and, especially, in numerous cancers, including breast, lung, colon-rectum, pancreas, prostate, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, myeloma, and lymphoid tumors. Traditionally, p75(NTR), activated by all neurotrophins and their precursors, is an inhibitor. In various cancers, however, activated p75(NTR) induces variable effects, from inhibition to stimulation of cell proliferation, dependent on their direct or coordinate/indirect mechanism(s) of action...
September 8, 2017: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Prasenjit Prasad Saha, Vinaya Vishwanathan, Kondalarao Bankapalli, Patrick D'Silva
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters serve as a fundamental inorganic constituent of living cells ranging from bacteria to human. The importance of Fe-S clusters is underscored by their requirement as a co-factor for the functioning of different enzymes and proteins. The biogenesis of Fe-S cluster is a highly coordinated process which requires specialized cellular machinery. Presently, understanding of Fe-S cluster biogenesis in human draws meticulous attention since defects in the biogenesis process result in development of multiple diseases with unresolved solutions...
August 22, 2017: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Lei-Miao Yin, Ting-Ting Duan, Luis Ulloa, Yong-Qing Yang
Ezrin is a critical structural protein that organizes receptor complexes and orchestrates their signal transduction. In this study, we review the ezrin-meditated regulation of critical receptor complexes, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), CD44, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), and the deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) receptor. We also analyze the ezrin-meditated regulation of critical pathways associated with asthma, such as the RhoA, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), and protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathways...
July 13, 2017: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
B M Fonseca, N A Teixeira, G Correia-da-Silva
Endocannabinoids are bioactive lipids that modulate various physiological processes through G-protein-coupled receptors (CB1 and CB2) and other putative targets. By sharing the activation of the same receptors, some phytocannabinoids and a multitude of synthetic cannabinoids mimic the effects of endocannabinoids. In recent years, a growing interest has been dedicated to the study of cannabinoids properties for their analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In addition to these well-recognized effects, various studies suggest that cannabinoids may affect cell survival, cell proliferation or cell death...
April 20, 2017: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Mohammad Tariqur Rahman, Nazmul Haque, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim, Marc De Ley
Toxic heavy metals, toxic organic compounds, reactive oxygen species (ROS), infections, and temperature are well-known metallothionein (MT) inducers in human blood. The current review aims to summarize synthesis, function, and fate of human blood MT in response to the known MT inducers. Part of the MTs that are synthesized in different organs such as the liver, kidney, and spleen is transported and stored in different blood cells and in plasma. Cells of the circulatory system also synthesize MT. From the circulation, MT returns to the kidney where the metal-bound MTs are degraded to release the metal ion that in turn induces MT expression therein...
April 18, 2017: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Pedro Bastos, Tiago Gomes, Laura Ribeiro
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that catalyses the methylation of catechol substrates, classically in catecholamine metabolism, but also acting upon other substrates such as oestrogen and polyphenols. Although its classical function has been established for more than five decades, an ever expanding COMT role in other pathways and diseases has become a subject of active study in recent years. The most highlighted domains are related with COMT involvement in neuropsychiatric disorders and its role in the neurobiology of cognition, behaviour, emotions, pain processing and perception, sleep regulation, addictive behaviour and neurodegeneration...
2017: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Xun Ai, Jiajie Yan, Elena Carrillo, Wenmao Ding
Stress-response kinases, the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated in response to the challenge of a myriad of stressors. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), and p38 MAPKs are the predominant members of the MAPK family in the heart. Extensive studies have revealed critical roles of activated MAPKs in the processes of cardiac injury and heart failure and many other cardiovascular diseases. Recently, emerging evidence suggests that MAPKs also promote the development of cardiac arrhythmias...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Jessica Carrière, Nicolas Barnich, Hang Thi Thu Nguyen
Since their first description in the 1980s, exosomes, small endosomal-derived extracellular vesicles, have been involved in innate and adaptive immunity through modulating immune responses and mediating antigen presentation. Increasing evidence has reported the role of exosomes in host-pathogen interactions and particularly in the activation of antimicrobial immune responses. The growing interest concerning exosomes in infectious diseases, their accessibility in various body fluids, and their capacity to convey a rich content (e...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Christine E Genge, Eric Lin, Ling Lee, XiaoYe Sheng, Kaveh Rayani, Marvin Gunawan, Charles M Stevens, Alison Yueh Li, Sanam Shafaat Talab, Thomas W Claydon, Leif Hove-Madsen, Glen F Tibbits
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are widely used as vertebrate model in developmental genetics and functional genomics as well as in cardiac structure-function studies. The zebrafish heart has been increasingly used as a model of human cardiac function, in part, due to the similarities in heart rate and action potential duration and morphology with respect to humans. The teleostian zebrafish is in many ways a compelling model of human cardiac function due to the clarity afforded by its ease of genetic manipulation, the wealth of developmental biological information, and inherent suitability to a variety of experimental techniques...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Refaat Omar, Jiaqi Yang, Haoyuan Liu, Neal M Davies, Yuewen Gong
Hepatic fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to either acute or chronic liver injury caused by hepatitis B or C, alcohol, and toxic agents. Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by excessive accumulation and reduced degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Excessive accumulation of ECM alters the hepatic architecture leading to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis results in failure of common functions of the liver. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a major role in the development of liver fibrosis as HSC are the main source of the excessive production of ECM in an injured liver...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Sara Hassanpour Tamrin, Fatemeh Sadat Majedi, Mahdi Tondar, Amir Sanati-Nezhad, Mohammad Mahdi Hasani-Sadrabadi
Controlling stem cell (SC) fate is an extremely important topic in the realm of SC research. A variety of different external cues mainly mechanical, chemical, or electrical stimulations individually or in combination have been incorporated to control SC fate. Here, we will deconstruct the probable relationship between the functioning of electromagnetic (EMF) and SC fate of a variety of different SCs. The electromagnetic (EM) nature of the cells is discussed with the emphasis on the effects of EMF on the determinant factors that directly and/or indirectly influence cell fate...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Amir Abbas Momtazi, Fahimeh Shahabipour, Sepideh Khatibi, Thomas P Johnston, Matteo Pirro, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Curcumin is a natural dietary polyphenol for which anti-tumor effects have been documented. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of curcumin, along with its immunomodulatory, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic properties, are often referred to as the main mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor effects. At the molecular level, inhibition of NF-kB, Akt/PI3K, and MAPK pathways and enhancement of p53 are among the most important anticancer alterations induced by curcumin. Recent evidence has suggested that epigenetic alterations are also involved in the anti-tumor properties of curcumin...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Aleksey V Zima, Stefan R Mazurek
Type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) serves as the major intracellular Ca(2+) release channel that drives heart contraction. RyR2 is activated by cytosolic Ca(2+) via the process of Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). To ensure stability of Ca(2+) dynamics, the self-reinforcing CICR must be tightly controlled. Defects in this control cause sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) mishandling, which manifests in a variety of cardiac pathologies that include myocardial infarction and heart failure. These pathologies are also associated with oxidative stress...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
I Martín-Estal, R G de la Garza, I Castilla-Cortázar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Péter Hegyi, Michael Wilschanski, Shmuel Muallem, Gergely L Lukacs, Miklós Sahin-Tóth, Aliye Uc, Michael A Gray, Zoltán Rakonczay, József Maléth
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ion channel that conducts chloride and bicarbonate ions across epithelial cell membranes. Mutations in the CFTR gene diminish the ion channel function and lead to impaired epithelial fluid transport in multiple organs such as the lung and the pancreas resulting in cystic fibrosis. Heterozygous carriers of CFTR mutations do not develop cystic fibrosis but exhibit increased risk for pancreatitis and associated pancreatic damage characterized by elevated mucus levels, fibrosis, and cyst formation...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Katharina Held, Thomas Voets, Joris Vriens
Opening and closing of voltage-gated cation channels allows the regulated flow of cations such as Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) across cell membranes, which steers essential physiological processes including shaping of action potentials and triggering Ca(2+)-dependent processes. Classical textbooks describe the voltage-gated cation channels as membrane proteins with a single, central aqueous pore. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated for the existence of additional ion permeation pathways in this group of cation channels, distinct from the central pore, which here we collectively name non-canonical pores...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Hyoung Kyu Kim, Bernd Nilius, Nari Kim, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jin Han
The heart works without resting, requiring enormous amounts of energy to continuously pump blood throughout the body. Because of its considerable energy requirements, the heart is vulnerable to oxidative stress caused by the generation of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the heart has effective regulatory and adaptive mechanisms to protect against oxidative stress. Inherited or acquired mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction disrupts energy metabolism and causes excessive ROS production and oxidative stress...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
I Martín-Estal, R G de la Garza, I Castilla-Cortázar
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone with several biological activities, such as proliferation, mitochondrial protection, cell survival, tissue growth and development, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antifibrogenic and antiaging. This hormone plays an important role in embryological and postnatal states, being essential for normal foetal and placental growth and differentiation. During gestation, the placenta is one of the major sources of IGF-1, among other hormones. This intrauterine organ expresses IGF-1 receptors and IGF-1 binding proteins (IGFBPs), which control IGF-1 activities...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
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