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Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology

Christine E Genge, Eric Lin, Ling Lee, XiaoYe Sheng, Kaveh Rayani, Marvin Gunawan, Charles M Stevens, Alison Yueh Li, Sanam Shafaat Talab, Thomas W Claydon, Leif Hove-Madsen, Glen F Tibbits
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are widely used as vertebrate model in developmental genetics and functional genomics as well as in cardiac structure-function studies. The zebrafish heart has been increasingly used as a model of human cardiac function, in part, due to the similarities in heart rate and action potential duration and morphology with respect to humans. The teleostian zebrafish is in many ways a compelling model of human cardiac function due to the clarity afforded by its ease of genetic manipulation, the wealth of developmental biological information, and inherent suitability to a variety of experimental techniques...
August 19, 2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Sara Hassanpour Tamrin, Fatemeh Sadat Majedi, Mahdi Tondar, Amir Sanati-Nezhad, Mohammad Mahdi Hasani-Sadrabadi
Controlling stem cell (SC) fate is an extremely important topic in the realm of SC research. A variety of different external cues mainly mechanical, chemical, or electrical stimulations individually or in combination have been incorporated to control SC fate. Here, we will deconstruct the probable relationship between the functioning of electromagnetic (EMF) and SC fate of a variety of different SCs. The electromagnetic (EM) nature of the cells is discussed with the emphasis on the effects of EMF on the determinant factors that directly and/or indirectly influence cell fate...
August 12, 2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Amir Abbas Momtazi, Fahimeh Shahabipour, Sepideh Khatibi, Thomas P Johnston, Matteo Pirro, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Curcumin is a natural dietary polyphenol for which anti-tumor effects have been documented. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of curcumin, along with its immunomodulatory, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic properties, are often referred to as the main mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor effects. At the molecular level, inhibition of NF-kB, Akt/PI3K, and MAPK pathways and enhancement of p53 are among the most important anticancer alterations induced by curcumin. Recent evidence has suggested that epigenetic alterations are also involved in the anti-tumor properties of curcumin...
July 23, 2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Xun Ai, Jiajie Yan, Elena Carrillo, Wenmao Ding
Stress-response kinases, the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated in response to the challenge of a myriad of stressors. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), and p38 MAPKs are the predominant members of the MAPK family in the heart. Extensive studies have revealed critical roles of activated MAPKs in the processes of cardiac injury and heart failure and many other cardiovascular diseases. Recently, emerging evidence suggests that MAPKs also promote the development of cardiac arrhythmias...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Jessica Carrière, Nicolas Barnich, Hang Thi Thu Nguyen
Since their first description in the 1980s, exosomes, small endosomal-derived extracellular vesicles, have been involved in innate and adaptive immunity through modulating immune responses and mediating antigen presentation. Increasing evidence has reported the role of exosomes in host-pathogen interactions and particularly in the activation of antimicrobial immune responses. The growing interest concerning exosomes in infectious diseases, their accessibility in various body fluids, and their capacity to convey a rich content (e...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Refaat Omar, Jiaqi Yang, Haoyuan Liu, Neal M Davies, Yuewen Gong
Hepatic fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to either acute or chronic liver injury caused by hepatitis B or C, alcohol, and toxic agents. Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by excessive accumulation and reduced degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Excessive accumulation of ECM alters the hepatic architecture leading to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis results in failure of common functions of the liver. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a major role in the development of liver fibrosis as HSC are the main source of the excessive production of ECM in an injured liver...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Aleksey V Zima, Stefan R Mazurek
Type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) serves as the major intracellular Ca(2+) release channel that drives heart contraction. RyR2 is activated by cytosolic Ca(2+) via the process of Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). To ensure stability of Ca(2+) dynamics, the self-reinforcing CICR must be tightly controlled. Defects in this control cause sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) mishandling, which manifests in a variety of cardiac pathologies that include myocardial infarction and heart failure. These pathologies are also associated with oxidative stress...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
I Martín-Estal, R G de la Garza, I Castilla-Cortázar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Péter Hegyi, Michael Wilschanski, Shmuel Muallem, Gergely L Lukacs, Miklós Sahin-Tóth, Aliye Uc, Michael A Gray, Zoltán Rakonczay, József Maléth
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ion channel that conducts chloride and bicarbonate ions across epithelial cell membranes. Mutations in the CFTR gene diminish the ion channel function and lead to impaired epithelial fluid transport in multiple organs such as the lung and the pancreas resulting in cystic fibrosis. Heterozygous carriers of CFTR mutations do not develop cystic fibrosis but exhibit increased risk for pancreatitis and associated pancreatic damage characterized by elevated mucus levels, fibrosis, and cyst formation...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Katharina Held, Thomas Voets, Joris Vriens
Opening and closing of voltage-gated cation channels allows the regulated flow of cations such as Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) across cell membranes, which steers essential physiological processes including shaping of action potentials and triggering Ca(2+)-dependent processes. Classical textbooks describe the voltage-gated cation channels as membrane proteins with a single, central aqueous pore. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated for the existence of additional ion permeation pathways in this group of cation channels, distinct from the central pore, which here we collectively name non-canonical pores...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Hyoung Kyu Kim, Bernd Nilius, Nari Kim, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jin Han
The heart works without resting, requiring enormous amounts of energy to continuously pump blood throughout the body. Because of its considerable energy requirements, the heart is vulnerable to oxidative stress caused by the generation of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the heart has effective regulatory and adaptive mechanisms to protect against oxidative stress. Inherited or acquired mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction disrupts energy metabolism and causes excessive ROS production and oxidative stress...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
I Martín-Estal, R G de la Garza, I Castilla-Cortázar
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone with several biological activities, such as proliferation, mitochondrial protection, cell survival, tissue growth and development, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antifibrogenic and antiaging. This hormone plays an important role in embryological and postnatal states, being essential for normal foetal and placental growth and differentiation. During gestation, the placenta is one of the major sources of IGF-1, among other hormones. This intrauterine organ expresses IGF-1 receptors and IGF-1 binding proteins (IGFBPs), which control IGF-1 activities...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Jonathan P Mochel, Meindert Danhof
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality with an increasing prevalence in human and canine populations. Recognition of the role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) overactivation in the pathophysiology of CHF has led to significant medical advances. By decreasing systemic vascular resistance and angiotensin II (AII) production, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors such as benazepril improve cardiac hemodynamics and reduce mortality in human and dog CHF patients...
2015: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Kristina Friedland, Christian Harteneck
Meantime, it is well accepted that hyperforin, the chemical instable phloroglucinol derivative of Hypericum perforatum, St. John's wort, is the pharmacophore of St. John's wort extracts. With the decline of this scientific discussion, another controversial aspect has been arisen, the question regarding the underlying mechanism leading to the pharmacological profile of the plant extract used in therapy of depression. We will summarize the different concepts described for hyperforin's antidepressive activity...
2015: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Eric Honoré, Joana Raquel Martins, David Penton, Amanda Patel, Sophie Demolombe
Piezo1 and Piezo2 are critically required for nonselective cationic mechanosensitive channels in mammalian cells. Within the last 5 years, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the function of Piezo1/2 in embryonic development, physiology, and associated disease states. A recent breakthrough was the discovery of a chemical opener for Piezo1, indicating that mechanosensitive ion channels can be opened independently of mechanical stress. We will review these new exciting findings, which might pave the road for the identification of novel therapeutic strategies...
2015: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Diane Hooton, Roger Lentle, John Monro, Martin Wickham, Robert Simpson
Microvilli are conventionally regarded as an extension of the small intestinal absorptive surface, but they are also, as latterly discovered, a launching pad for brush border digestive enzymes. Recent work has demonstrated that motor elements of the microvillus cytoskeleton operate to displace the apical membrane toward the apex of the microvillus, where it vesiculates and is shed into the periapical space. Catalytically active brush border digestive enzymes remain incorporated within the membranes of these vesicles, which shifts the site of BB digestion from the surface of the enterocyte to the periapical space...
2015: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Lauriane Y M Michel, Joost G J Hoenderop, René J M Bindels
The Na²⁺-Ca²⁺ exchanger (NCX) is critical for Ca²⁺ homeostasis throughout the body. Of the three isoforms in the NCX family, NCX1 has been extensively studied, providing a good basis for understanding the molecular aspects of the NCX family, including structural resemblances, stoichiometry, and mechanism of exchange. However, the tissue expression of the third isoform of the family, NCX3, together with its proposed involvement in the Ca²⁺ fluxes of the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria suggests a distinctive role for this isoform...
2015: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Eva Lasič, Tanja Višnjar, Mateja Erdani Kreft
The primary function of the urinary bladder is to store and periodically release urine. How the urothelium prevents permeation of water, ions, solutes, and noxious agents back into the bloodstream and underlying tissues as well as serving as a sensor and transducer of physiological and nociceptive stimuli is still not completely understood, and thus its unique functional complexity remains to be fully elucidated. This article reviews the permeation routes across urothelium as demonstrated in extensive morphological and electrophysiological studies on in vivo and in vitro urothelia...
2015: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Etienne E Tevoufouet, Erastus N Nembo, Maxine Dibué-Adjei, Jürgen Hescheler, Filomain Nguemo, Toni Schneider
Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) are ubiquitous in excitable cells. These channels play key roles in many physiological events like cardiac regulation/pacemaker activity due to intracellular Ca(2+) transients. In the myocardium, the Cav1 subfamily (L-type: Cav1.2 and Cav1.3) is the main contributor to excitation-contraction coupling and/or pacemaking, whereas the Cav3 subfamily (T-type: Cav3.1 and Cav3.2) is important in rhythmically firing of the cardiac nodal cells. No established cardiac function has been attributed to the Cav2 family (E-/R-type: Cav2...
2014: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Joanna Lazniewska, Norbert Weiss
Ion channels play a crucial role in cell functioning, contributing to transmembrane potential and participating in cell signalling and homeostasis. To fulfil highly specialised functions, cells have developed various mechanisms to regulate channel expression and activity at particular subcellular loci, and alteration of ion channel regulation can lead to serious disorders. Glycosylation, one of the most common forms of co- and post-translational protein modification, is rapidly emerging as a fundamental mechanism not only controlling the proper folding of nascent channels but also their subcellular localisation, gating and function...
2014: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
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