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Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis

Beverley J Hunt
Extremes of body weight are not uncommon in the modern world and include anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity. Both conditions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality: AN has the highest mortality rate of all mental illnesses and unfortunately obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is a well-recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease including venous thromboembolism (VTE). This article summarizes the current understanding of hemostatic changes of these extremes of body weight. The hemostatic changes of AN have not been well described...
July 9, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Cho Yeow Koh, Cassandra M Modahl, Namrata Kulkarni, R Manjunatha Kini
Venomous and hematophagous animals use their venom or saliva for survival, to obtain food, and for self-defense. Venom and saliva from these animals are cocktails of bioactive molecules primarily composed of proteins and peptides. These molecules are called toxins because they cause unwanted consequences on prey. They exhibit unique, diverse, and specific biological activities that perturb normal physiological processes of their prey and host. However, the potential of toxins as inspirations for the development of therapeutic agents or pharmacological tools has also long been recognized...
June 28, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Jaime Francisco Borjas-Howard, Karina de Leeuw, Abraham Rutgers, Karina Meijer, Vladimir Ynse Ieuwe Gerardus Tichelaar
Despite an abundance of literature on the risk of a first venous thromboembolic event (VTE) in autoimmune diseases, specific recommendations about managing VTE in autoimmune diseases are lacking. This article aimed to collect evidence on the risk of recurrent VTE in patients with autoimmune diseases. The authors searched PubMed/Embase for studies including patients with VTE and autoimmune diseases as an exposure or studies including patients with autoimmune diseases in which recurrent VTE was one of the outcomes...
June 28, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Maurizio Margaglione, Mariano Intrieri
Over the past few decades, important knowledge on why inhibitors develop and better information about significant risk factors have become available. A series of both genetic and nongenetic factors are recognized and clinical score systems were proposed to quantify the risk for each patient. In addition, modulation of the immunological response was acknowledged to play a pivotal role in the occurrence of inhibitors. However, with the exception of mutation testing in severe hemophilia B patients, no single risk factor or clinical score is currently utilized in clinical practice...
June 25, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Cristina Santoro, Gabriele Quintavalle, Giancarlo Castaman, Erminia Baldacci, Antonietta Ferretti, Federica Riccardi, Annarita Tagliaferri
Hemophilia B (HB) is an X-linked bleeding disorder caused by deficiency of factor IX (FIX). Patients with the severe form (FIX <1%) account approximately for 30 to 45% of persons with HB and usually suffer from recurrent joint, soft-tissue, and muscle bleeds. The availability of safe plasma-derived and recombinant products has virtually abolished the risk of viral infections and the adoption of prophylactic regimens has attenuated the impact of hemophilic arthropathy. Therefore, the development of an inhibitor against FIX is currently the most serious complication that can still occur in the new generations of HB patients...
June 20, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Zahava Vadasz, Elias Toubi
The involvement of the hemostatic system in immune-mediated inflammation is widely reported. Many coagulation factors play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Hemostatic disorders are also involved in asthma and chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Factor XIIa (FXIIa) was one of the first coagulation factors implicated in inducing both humoral and cellular responses and is therefore considered a prime new therapeutic target in immune-mediated inflammation...
June 19, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Inna Tzoran, Ron Hoffman, Manuel Monreal
There is a growing proportion of the elderly population in the Western world, and these individuals require special considerations regarding a broad variety of aspects, including treatment approaches to illnesses that affect all age groups. The hemostatic system in individuals changes considerably with aging. Specifically, changes in levels of procoagulant and natural anticoagulant factors along with thrombopathy simultaneously create a hypercoagulable state and hemostatic difficulties. Underlying morbidities, such as congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer, increase the risk for venous and arterial thrombosis...
June 19, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Marcel Levi
The delicate biochemistry of coagulation and anticoagulation is greatly affected by deviations from the optimal temperature required for the interactions between various coagulation enzymes, cellular receptors, and intracellular mechanisms. Hyperthermia will lead to a prothrombotic state and, if sufficiently severe such as in heatstroke, a consumption coagulopathy, which will clinically manifest with the simultaneous appearance of intravascular thrombotic obstruction and an increased bleeding tendency. Hypothermia slows down the coagulation process, but as this seems to be adequately balanced by impairment of anticoagulant and fibrinolytic processes, its clinical effects are modest; however, hypothermia may be modestly linked to a somewhat higher risk of localized thrombosis...
June 19, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Francesca Stufano, Marco Boscarino, Paolo Bucciarelli, Luciano Baronciani, Alberto Maino, Giovanna Cozzi, Flora Peyvandi
An increased von Willebrand factor propeptide (VWFpp) to VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) ratio (VWFpp/VWF:Ag) indicates an enhanced clearance of VWF. This finding has been described in von Willebrand disease (VWD) and in acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). A distinction between these two diseases, one congenital and the other acquired, is primarily based on family and personal history of bleeding. However, if this information is scanty, the diagnosis might be challenging due to the lack of an effective diagnostic biomarker...
June 18, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Gili Kenet, Assaf Arie Barg, Ulrike Nowak-Göttl
Hemostasis is a dynamic process that starts in utero. The coagulation system evolves with age, as evidenced by marked physiological differences in the concentration of the majority of hemostatic proteins in early life compared with adulthood. This concept, known as "developmental hemostasis," has important biological and clinical implications. Overall, impaired platelet function, along with physiologically reduced levels of vitamin K-dependent and contact coagulation factors, may cause poorer clot firmness even in healthy neonates...
June 18, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Indri Hapsari Putri, Rahajeng N Tunjungputri, Philip G De Groot, Andre J van der Ven, Quirijn de Mast
Thrombocytopenia is a well-known manifestation of acute tropical infectious diseases. The role of platelets in infections has received much attention recently because of their emerging activities in modulation of inflammatory responses, host defense, and vascular integrity. However, while many studies have addressed thrombocytopenia in tropical infections, abnormalities in platelet function have been largely overlooked. This is an important research gap, as platelet dysfunction may contribute to the bleeding tendency that characterizes some tropical infections...
June 18, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Ohad S Bentur, Galit Sarig, Benjamin Brenner, Giris Jacob
Stress, the nonspecific response to any demand for change, is an adaptive response of the human body to various stimulants. As such, stress-induced hypercoagulation may represent an adaptive response to bleeding. Numerous epidemiological studies have revealed that a correlation exists between stress and thrombotic risk and biochemically, links of the relationship between psychological stress and coagulation pathways have been made. The stress reaction is coupled with neurohormonal changes mediated mainly by the sympathetic neural system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis...
June 18, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Man-Chiu Poon, Roseline d'Oiron
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) and Bernard-Soulier's syndrome (BSS) are well-understood congenital bleeding disorders, showing defect/deficiency of platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa (integrin αIIbβ3) and GPIb-IX-V complexes respectively, with relevant clinical, laboratory, biochemical, and genetic features. Following platelet transfusion, affected patients may develop antiplatelet antibodies (to human leukocyte antigen [HLA], and/or αIIbβ3 in GT or GPIb-IX in BSS), which may render future platelet transfusion ineffective...
June 7, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Carlos Treceño-Lobato, María-Isabel Jiménez-Serranía, Raquel Martínez-García, Francisco Corzo-Delibes, Luis H Martín Arias
The aim of this study was to evaluate the adverse drug reaction (ADR) incidence rate and new signals thereof for classic compared with new anticoagulants in real-life ambulatory settings. The authors performed an observational cross-sectional study in two cohorts of surveyed patients treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs; acenocoumarol or warfarin) or nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs; apixaban, edoxaban, rivaroxaban, dabigatran etexilate). Descriptive, clinical, and ADRs data were reported and analyzed through a bivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR]) to compare the ADRs incidence rate and an adaptation of Bayesian methodology (false discovery rate [FDR] < 0...
June 4, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Giuseppe Lippi, Emmanuel J Favaloro, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar
Although few doubts remain that physical exercise should be widely promoted for maintenance of health and fitness, the risk of adverse events such as sudden death (especially due to cardiac causes, i.e., sudden cardiac death [SCD]) during exercise remains tangible. The overall risk of sudden death in athletes is relatively low (i.e., usually comprised between 0.1 and 38/100,000 person-years), and globally comparable to that of the general population. However, up to 20% of all sudden death cases are still recorded while exercising...
June 4, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Sandrine Delignat, Julie Rayes, Jules Russick, Srinivas V Kaveri, Sebastien Lacroix-Desmazes
The immunogenicity of therapeutic factor VIII (FVIII) in patients with hemophilia A has been puzzling scientific and clinical communities for more than 3 decades. Indeed, the development of inhibitory antibodies to FVIII remains a major clinical challenge and is associated with enormous societal costs. Thus, the reasons for which a presumably innocuous, short-lived, intravenously administered glycoprotein triggers such a deleterious, long-lasting neutralizing immune response is an enigma. This review does not pretend to bring an answer to this challenging question...
June 4, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Deepa R J Arachchillage, Mike Makris
Recurrent miscarriages and pregnancy-related complications cause significant stress to couples looking for successful pregnancy outcome as well as to health care professionals. There is conflicting evidence with respect to the presence and the strength of associations between inherited thrombophilia and these complications. A complete thrombophilia screen is expensive, and no proven effective treatment for women with recurrent miscarriage and inherited thrombophilia is currently available. Based on the concept of microvascular thrombosis of the placenta, women with recurrent miscarriage and placenta-related complications frequently get treated with antithrombotic therapy...
June 4, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Giuseppe Lippi, Emmanuel J Favaloro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 4, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Cécile Hélène Kicken, Adam Miszta, Hilde Kelchtermans, Bas De Laat
Exercise is protective against cardiovascular disease, but can also provoke sudden cardiac death, a phenomenon referred to as "the exercise paradox." Extreme exertion is known to induce a rebalanced hemostatic state by causing hypercoagulability and concomitantly enhanced fibrinolysis. Over the past decade, novel techniques for quantifying hemostasis have been introduced, which may provide new insights into this process. This review summarizes recent literature on the effect of extreme exertion of both short and long duration on coagulation, fibrinolysis, and recovery of hemostatic balance...
May 4, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
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