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Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196381/direct-oral-anticoagulants-for-thromboprophylaxis-in-patients-with-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#1
Hannah Cohen, Maria Efthymiou, Carolyn Gates, David Isenberg
The current mainstay of the treatment and secondary thromboprophylaxis of thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is anticoagulation with warfarin or other vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). In addition to their well-known limitations, VKAs are often problematic in APS patients because of the variable sensitivity of thromboplastins to lupus anticoagulant. As a result, the international normalized ratio may not accurately reflect the intensity of anticoagulation. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are established as therapeutic alternatives to VKAs for a wide range of indications, including the treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism...
February 14, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196380/bleeding-scores-for-the-diagnosis-of-von-willebrand-disease
#2
Mackenzie L Bowman, Paula D James
Obtaining a personal history of bleeding is a critical component to the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (VWD). The collection of this information can be challenging for physicians, however, as the reporting and interpretation of bleeding symptoms is subjective. The need for more precise quantification of bleeding symptoms was recognized and the Vicenza Bleeding Questionnaire was developed in 2005. This questionnaire collects data regarding the presence and severity of bleeding symptoms and generates a bleeding score by summing the severity of all symptoms reported by a patient...
February 14, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196379/pulmonary-embolism-and-atrial-fibrillation-two-sides-of-the-same-coin-a-systematic-review
#3
Behnood Bikdeli, Maen D Abou Ziki, Gregory Y H Lip
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common, potentially fatal thrombotic disease. Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia, may also lead to thromboembolic complications. Although initially appearing as distinct entities, PE and AF may coexist. The direction and extent of this association has not been well characterized. We performed a search of PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for publications that reported coexisting AF in patients with PE, or vice versa, to provide a systematic overview of pathophysiological and epidemiological aspects of this association (last search: October 13, 2016)...
February 14, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166602/managing-the-precarious-hemostatic-balance-during-extracorporeal-life-support-implications-for-coagulation-laboratories
#4
Anne M Winkler
For the past four decades, extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has been used to treat critically ill adult and pediatric patients with cardiac and/or respiratory failure unresponsive to medical management, and there are increasing numbers of centers performing ECLS for numerous indications worldwide. Despite the progress with advancing technology, hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications occur frequently and are associated with worse outcomes, but the exact cause is often elusive or multifactorial. As a result of the interaction between blood and a nonendothelialized circuit, there is activation of coagulation, fibrinolysis, as well as an increased inflammatory response; thus, anticoagulation of the patient and circuit is necessary...
February 6, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166601/mechanisms-of-cellular-activation-in-the-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#5
Nadine Müller-Calleja, Karl J Lackner
It is long known that antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) induce proinflammatory and procoagulant cellular responses. The underlying signal transduction has been a major focus of research and is the topic of this review. An amazingly heterogeneous panel of signaling pathways has been described and it turns out that at least some of this heterogeneity can be explained by effects of distinct aPL species. On the one hand, there are antibodies against β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) which appear to exert their cellular effects only as a complex of β2GPI/anti-β2GPI...
February 6, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166600/prognostic-scores-for-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#6
Raquel Morillo, Lisa Moores, David Jiménez
Rapid and accurate risk stratification is critical in determining the optimal treatment strategy for patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Early identification of patients with normal blood pressure and a favorable prognosis (low-risk PE) might select a subset of patients for outpatient treatment, which is associated with reduced cost and improved patient satisfaction, and has been shown to be effective and safe. Alternatively, identification of normotensive patients deemed as having a high risk for PE-related adverse clinical events (intermediate-high-risk PE) might select a subset of patients for close observation and consideration of escalation of therapy...
February 6, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166599/scoring-systems-for-estimating-risk-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-surgical-patients
#7
Benjamin Jacobs, Christopher Pannucci
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the most common and feared complications in surgical patients, and its prevention has been the subject of a Call to Action from the Surgeon General of the United States. Here, we review the literature on the use of risk assessment models for the stratification of surgical patients into risk groups to guide the administration of pharmacoprophylaxis. Despite some disagreement in the literature and among various guidelines, there is good evidence that risk stratification identifies a 7- to 20-fold variation in postoperative VTE risk among the overall surgical population, including patients at both low and high risk...
February 6, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166598/scoring-systems-for-estimating-risk-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-hospitalized-medical-patients
#8
Sofia Barbar, Paolo Prandoni
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, accounting for up to 10% of hospitalization-related deaths in both surgical and medical patients. Pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis has been demonstrated to be effective, safe, and cost-effective in preventing hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism (VTE) among medical inpatients, and clinician awareness of thrombotic risk promotes prescription of thromboprophylaxis. Guidelines recommend stratification of thrombotic risk for all patients and, unless contraindicated, administration of VTE prophylaxis...
February 6, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129663/risk-stratification-models-in-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Farhan Shahid, Gregory Y H Lip
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of stroke compared with the general population. AF-related stroke confers a higher mortality and morbidity risk, and thus, early detection and assessment for the initiation of effective stroke prevention with oral anticoagulation are crucial. Simple and practical risk assessment tools are essential to facilitate stroke and bleeding risk assessment in busy clinics and wards to aid decision making. At present, the CHA2DS2VASc score is recommended by guidelines as the most simple and practical method of assessing stroke risk in AF patients...
January 27, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129662/new-insights-in-the-pathophysiology-of-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#10
Anastasia Sacharidou, Philip W Shaul, Chieko Mineo
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by an elevated risk for arterial and venous thrombosis and pregnancy-related morbidity. Since the discovery of the disease in 1980s, numerous studies in cell culture systems, in animal models, and in patient populations have been reported, leading to a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of APS. These studies have determined that circulating autoantibodies, collectively called antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), the majority of which recognize cell surface proteins attached to the plasma membrane phospholipids, play a causal role in the development of the disease...
January 27, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052306/laboratory-monitoring-of-parenteral-direct-thrombin-inhibitors
#11
Elizabeth M Van Cott, A Joshua Roberts, William E Dager
Argatroban and bivalirudin are parenteral direct inhibitors of the activity of thrombin, but, unlike heparin, can inhibit both soluble as well as clot-bound thrombin. These agents do not require antithrombin as a cofactor for activity. The parenteral direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) can be used in a variety of settings, including heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) or an allergy to heparin, and patients requiring anticoagulation for an invasive cardiovascular intervention. Both agents have a relatively short half-life in patients without organ system failure and are typically administered by continuous infusion...
January 4, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052305/plasmin-ogen-at-the-nexus-of-fibrinolysis-inflammation-and-complement
#12
Jonathan H Foley
The diverse mechanisms by which the plasmin(ogen) system is involved in human physiology and pathology are constantly being delineated. For many years, the plasmin(ogen) system was chiefly known as the system responsible for vascular fibrinolysis. Although this is an important function of the plasmin(ogen) system, we now recognize that plasmin(ogen) is critically important as a mediator of inflammation and the innate immune system, which impacts upon a diverse set of mechanisms underlying the pathologies of many diseases...
January 4, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923263/microparticles-and-fibrinolysis
#13
Loris Vallier, Sylvie Cointe, Romaric Lacroix, Amandine Bonifay, Coralie Judicone, Françoise Dignat-George, Hau C Kwaan
Microparticles (MPs) are submicronic vesicles which are formed by budding of the cellular membrane of virtually any cell type in response to cell activation or apoptosis. Both circulating MPs and MPs generated within tissues harbor molecules with a large repertoire of biological activities and transfer material to target cells. Depending on their cellular origin, the stimuli triggering their formation, or their localization, they may participate in the maintenance of organ or vascular homeostasis as well as inducing dysfunction...
December 6, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907937/tranexamic-acid-for-trauma-resuscitation-in-the-united-states-of-america
#14
Mark Walsh, Scott Thomas, Ernest Moore, Hunter Moore, Andres Piscoya, Daniel Hake, Michael Son, Tim Pohlman, Julie Wegner, John Bryant, Alberto Grassetto, Patrick Davis, Nathan Nielsen, Anton Crepinsek, Jacob T Shreve, Francis Castellino
The utilization of tranexamic acid (TXA) for the management of bleeding trauma patients has been a subject of much debate on both sides of the Atlantic and in Australia. As a result of the large randomized controlled study called the Clinical Randomization of an Antifibrinolytic in Severe Hemorrhage (CRASH-2), there was an initial enthusiasm for the use of TXA to treat bleeding patients. However, the adoption of TXA in the United States was delayed by concerns of "knowledge and evidence gaps" of the CRASH-2 study and because of a lack of mechanistic rationale that would explain the survival benefit noted in the study...
December 1, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196388/editorial-compilation-iii
#15
Emmanuel J Favaloro, Giuseppe Lippi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196387/welcome-to-seminars-in-thrombosis-hemostasis-2017-new-2015-impact-factor-and-most-highly-cited-papers
#16
Emmanuel J Favaloro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008575/response-to-innovation-in-hemophilia-therapies-and-miles-to-go-before-we-sleep
#17
Pier Mannuccio Mannucci, Massimo Franchini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992938/bortezomib-potential-key-role-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma-related-acquired-hemophilia-a
#18
Gil de Paiva Brás, Ricardo Jorge Sancio Moreira Pinto, Maria Manuela Marques Cardoso Carvalho, Susana Patrícia Beleza Nobre Fernandes, Joaquim José Aguiar Andrade, José Eduardo Torres Eckenroth Guimarães
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978591/phenotypic-parameters-in-genotypically-selected-type-2b-von-willebrand-disease-patients-a-large-single-center-experience-including-a-new-novel-mutation
#19
Adriana Ines Woods, Ana Catalina Kempfer, Juvenal Paiva, Analia Sanchez-Luceros, Emilse Bermejo, Roberto Chuit, Maria Fabiana Alberto, Alicia Noemi Blanco, Maria Angela Lazzari
von Willebrand disease type 2B (VWD2B) expresses gain-of-function mutations that enhance binding of an individual's von Willebrand factor (VWF) to its platelet ligand, glycoprotein Ib (GPIb), and which are usually identified by increased ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA). We describe here the phenotypic profile of 38 genotypically selected VWD2B-affected family members (AFMs) belonging to 19 unrelated families. Major bleeding was observed in 68.4% of AFMs (previous to their diagnosis and registered by lifetime interviews), with a total of 46 episodes (1...
February 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978590/laboratory-testing-for-von-willebrand-disease-the-past-present-and-future-state-of-play-for-von-willebrand-factor-assays-that-measure-platelet-binding-activity-with-or-without-ristocetin
#20
Sarah Just
von Willebrand disease (VWD) was first described nearly a century ago in 1924 by Erik Adolf von Willebrand. Diagnostic testing at the time was very limited and it was not until the mid to late 1900s that more tests became available to assist with the diagnosis and classification of VWD. Two of these tests are based on ristocetin, one being ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) and the other the von Willebrand factor (VWF) ristocetin cofactor assay (VWF:RCo). The VWF:RCo assay provides functional assessment of in vitro VWF binding to the platelet glycoprotein (Gp) complex, GPIb-IX-V...
February 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
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