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Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis

Giuseppe Lippi, Emmanuel J Favaloro
The condition sometimes referred to as "economy class syndrome," and also known as "traveler's thrombosis," is a distinctive pathological condition characterized by occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a patient who has recently experienced a long journey (i.e., ≥ 4 h). Typically, the identified travel is by airplane, but travel with other vehicles, such as trains, trucks, buses, or cars, could potentially qualify as contributing to VTE events. Although the enhanced risk of VTE after long haul flights is now widely acknowledged, albeit potentially overhyped, the risk of venous thrombosis after prolonged travel by other modes of transport, in particular, by cars, is less well appreciated...
May 15, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Bernard Tawfik, Elizabeth Pollard, Yu-Min Shen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Cécile Hélène Kicken, Adam Miszta, Hilde Kelchtermans, Bas De Laat
Exercise is protective against cardiovascular disease, but can also provoke sudden cardiac death, a phenomenon referred to as "the exercise paradox." Extreme exertion is known to induce a rebalanced hemostatic state by causing hypercoagulability and concomitantly enhanced fibrinolysis. Over the past decade, novel techniques for quantifying hemostasis have been introduced, which may provide new insights into this process. This review summarizes recent literature on the effect of extreme exertion of both short and long duration on coagulation, fibrinolysis, and recovery of hemostatic balance...
May 4, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Antonella Tufano, Maurizio Galderisi, Luca Esposito, Valentina Trimarco, Daniela Sorriento, Guy Gerusalem, Marco Picardi, Patrizio Lancellotti, Fabrizio Pane
Cancer patients may experience nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) as a manifestation of cardiotoxicity. AF may be a direct effect of a neoplasm or, more often, appear as a postsurgical complication, especially after thoracic surgery. AF may also develop as a consequence of anticancer therapy (chemotherapy or radiotherapy), a condition probably underestimated. Cancer patients with AF require a multidisciplinary approach involving oncologists/hematologists, cardiologists, and coagulation experts. An echocardiogram should be performed to detect possible abnormalities of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, as well as left atrial dilation and the existence of valvular heart disease, to determine pretest probability of sinus rhythm restoration, and identify the best treatment...
May 3, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch
Anxiety, a normal response to stressful situations, is characterized by increased levels of factor VIII, fibrinogen, and von Willebrand factor, and by enhanced platelet aggregability. One would expect acute anxiety to be a prothrombotic state, but since acute mental stress induces tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) release from endothelial and chromaffin cells, fibrinolysis counteracts procoagulant stimuli. It could be said that procoagulant changes accompanying the fight-or-flight response reduce the risk of bleeding in case of potential injuries, while activation of fibrinolysis counteracts activation of hemostasis to prevent intravascular thrombus formation before injuries occur...
May 3, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Antonio Gómez-Outes, Ana Isabel Terleira-Fernández, Ramón Lecumberri, Mª Luisa Suárez-Gea, Gonzalo Calvo-Rojas, Emilio Vargas-Castrillón
Death is more frequent than nonfatal recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding after acute VTE. The analysis of the causes of death is fundamental to explore new strategies to reduce mortality rates in these patients. The authors performed a meta-analysis to analyze mortality and independently adjudicated causes of death in anticoagulated patients due to VTE, and to evaluate potential differences between different anticoagulant schemes. They searched MEDLINE and CENTRAL, from January 1, 2000, to January 31, 2017, and performed additional searches in Web sites of regulatory agencies, clinical trial registers, and conference proceedings...
May 3, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Antonio Coppola, Massimo Franchini, Giancarlo Castaman, Elena Santagostino, Cristina Santoro, Rita Carlotta Santoro, Massimo Morfini, Giovanni Di Minno, Angiola Rocino
The development of neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) against infused factor VIII currently represents the main complication of replacement therapy in patients with severe hemophilia A. Inhibitors, indeed, particularly high-titer inhibitors (>5 BU/mL), greatly complicate the management of bleeding, exposing patients to an increased morbidity and mortality risk, thus representing a significant burden for physicians of Hemophilia Treatment Centers (HTCs). Although bypassing agents (i.e., activated prothrombin complex concentrate [APCC] and recombinant activated factor VII [rFVIIa]) are available for the treatment and prevention of bleeding in inhibitor patients, their efficacy, safety, and cost-benefit outcomes are poorly known in the long term and should be further improved...
May 3, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Sven R Olson, Joseph J Shatzel, Derrick Tao, Garrett Wasp, Thomas G DeLoughery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Abhishek Gadre, Himanshu Deshwal, Jamal Mahar, Divyajot Sadana, Ihab Haddadin, Michael Tong, John R Bartholomew, Gustavo A Heresi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Deepa R J Arachchillage, Maurizio Passariello, Michael Laffan, T C Aw, Leah Owen, Winston Banya, Richard Trimlett, Cliff Morgan, Brijesh V Patel, John Pepper, Stephane Ledot
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a serious complication in patients receiving veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) and is associated with high mortality. It is unknown whether ICH may be a consequence of the ECMO or of an underlying disease. The authors first aimed to assess the incidence of ICH at initiation and during the course of VV-ECMO and its associated mortality. The second aim was to identify clinical and laboratory measures that could predict the development of ICH in severe respiratory failure...
March 22, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Anna Vittoria Mattioli, Antonio Manenti, Alberto Farinetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Emmanuel J Favaloro, Giuseppe Lippi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Emmanuel J Favaloro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Hui Yin Lim, Harshal Nandurkar, Prahlad Ho
The advent of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) has revolutionized anticoagulation management in both stroke prevention and venous thromboembolism (VTE) treatment/prevention. Clinical trials and secondary real-world data have shown that DOACs have similar efficacy and, in some cases, improved bleeding safety profiles compared with vitamin K antagonists. Together with benefits of patient convenience, this has shifted the risk-benefit ratio toward long-term anticoagulation. However, current VTE risk assessment models are based on vitamin K antagonists and do not take into account the new paradigm of DOACs...
April 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Ivar van Asten, Roger E G Schutgens, Rolf T Urbanus
The laboratory diagnostics of (inherited) platelet function disorders mainly comprises aggregation and secretion assays, which may be suitable for diagnosing some specific severe platelet function disorders, but are not reliable enough for diagnosing mild platelet function disorders or disorders associated with low platelet count. Flow cytometric assessment of platelet reactivity will expectedly provide additional value during the diagnostic work-up of platelet function disorders because it only requires a small volume of whole blood and allows the measurement of platelet function in thrombocytopenic samples...
April 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Roger J S Preston, Ton Lisman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Emmanuel J Favaloro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Sophie Maiocchi, Imala Alwis, Mike Chia Lun Wu, Yuping Yuan, Shaun P Jackson
Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a common complication of a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction (MI). While timely re-establishment of blood flow in a thrombosed artery is the primary goal of acute therapy in these diseases, paradoxically, reperfusion of ischemic tissue can cause widespread microvascular dysfunction that significantly exacerbates organ damage. Reperfusion injury is associated with activation of the humoral and cellular components of the hemostatic and innate immune systems and also with excessive reactive oxygen species production, endothelial dysfunction, thrombosis, and inflammation...
March 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Cormac J McDonnell, Erin E Soule, Patrick T Walsh, James S O'Donnell, Roger J S Preston
Tissue injury prompts the initiation of host defense responses to limit blood loss, restrict pathogen entry, and promote repair. Biochemical and cellular pathways that lead to blood coagulation serve a fundamental role in generating a physical barrier at the wound site, but have also evolved to promote immune response to injury. Similarly, anticoagulant pathways that attenuate clot formation also regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Of particular importance is activated protein C (APC) which serves as a principal regulator of thrombin generation, shapes the innate immune response to infection, and has been shown to contribute to the adaptive immune response in several preclinical models of autoimmune disease...
March 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Sacha Zeerleder
Factor VII (FVII)-activating protease (FSAP) is a serine protease in plasma, which was initially described to play a role in coagulation by activation of FVII, independent of tissue factor, and in fibrinolysis by cleavage of single-chain urokinase. Recent studies, however, suggest that FSAP-mediated FVII cleavage is negligible and that FSAP may exert procoagulant functions via cleavage of tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Meanwhile, many substrates of FSAP have been identified, such as platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor/epidermal growth factor, histones, and high-molecular-weight kininogen...
March 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
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