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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866588/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Maureen Okam Achebe, Aric Parnes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866587/strange-cells
#2
EDITORIAL
Joel J Heidelbaugh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866586/basics-of-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-for-primary-care-physicians-and-internists
#3
REVIEW
Shahrukh Khurshid Hashmi
More than 60,000 hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) are annually performed worldwide to treat a variety of malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Although HCT is complicated and risky, a majority of the HCT recipients are surviving for many years post-transplant. This article presents the basics of transplantation, HCT types/stem cell sources, mobilization and conditioning procedures, indications for HCT, conditioning regimens, engraftment, graft-versus-host-disease, and survivorship issues.
December 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866585/plasma-cell-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Jorge J Castillo
Plasma cell disorders are benign, premalignant, and malignant conditions characterized by the presence of a monoclonal paraprotein detected in serum or urine. These conditions are biologically, pathologically, and clinically heterogeneous. There have been major advances in the understanding of the biology of these diseases, which are promoting the development of therapies with novel mechanisms of action. Novel agents such as proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, and monoclonal antibodies have gained approval in the United States and Europe for the treatment of plasma cell disorders...
December 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866584/lymphoma
#5
REVIEW
Emiliano N Mugnaini, Nilanjan Ghosh
Lymphomas may be broadly divided into non-Hodgkin (90%) and Hodgkin (10%) types. Most lymphomas (90%) are of B cell origin but can also be T cell or natural killer cell. Clinical management of indolent and aggressive lymphomas is different. Aggressive lymphomas are more dangerous if left untreated yet a higher cell proliferation rate also renders them more chemosensitive, so they are managed with curative intent. Indolent lymphomas are, for the most part, incurable, such that quality of life must be balanced against toxicity of treatment in deciding when and how to treat...
December 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866583/transfusion-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Nathan T Connell
Transfusion of various blood components can provide relief from symptomatic anemia and reduce the bleeding risks associated with low platelet counts or presence of coagulopathy. Blood components are collected from volunteer donors and processed into separate components to maximize efficient utilization of a scarce resource while also providing maximum clinical benefit. Tests including blood type and screening for clinically significant alloantibodies increase the likelihood of successful transfusion. Risks of transfusion include hypersensitivity and hemolytic transfusion reactions, transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, and transmission of infection...
December 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866582/bleeding-diatheses-approach-to-the-patient-who-bleeds-or-has-abnormal-coagulation
#7
REVIEW
Marcia Paddock, John Chapin
Many complex elements contribute to normal hemostasis, and an imbalance of these elements may lead to abnormal bleeding. In addition to evaluating medication effects, the hematologist must evaluate for congenital or acquired deficiencies in coagulation factors and platelet disorders. This evaluation should include a thorough bleeding history with careful attention to prior hemostatic challenges and common laboratory testing, including coagulation studies and/or functional platelet assays. An accurate diagnosis of a bleeding diathesis and selection of appropriate treatment are greatly aided by a basic understanding of the mechanisms of disease and the tests used to diagnose them...
December 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866581/thrombosis-hypercoagulable-states-and-anticoagulants
#8
REVIEW
Marie A Hollenhorst, Elisabeth M Battinelli
Patients with derangements of secondary hemostasis resulting from inherited or acquired thrombophilias are at increased risk of venous thromboemboli (VTE). Evaluation of a patient with suspected VTE proceeds via evidence-based algorithms that involve computing a pretest probability based on the history and physical examination; this guides subsequent work-up, which can include D dimer and/or imaging. Testing for hypercoagulable disorders should be pursued only in patients with VTE with an increased risk for an underlying thrombophilia...
December 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866580/eosinophilia
#9
REVIEW
Anna Kovalszki, Peter F Weller
Eosinophilia is defined as elevation of eosinophils in the bloodstream (450-550 cell/μL). There are many reasons for eosinophilia to exist, including parasitic disease, allergic disease, autoimmune, connective tissue disease, rheumatologic disease, primary eosinophilia such as hypereosinophilic syndrome, and as part of a malignant state. Primary care physicians should have an understanding of the variety of diseases or situations that can produce eosinophilia and know in what setting referral to specialty care may be warranted...
December 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866579/polycythemia-and-thrombocytosis
#10
REVIEW
Aric Parnes, Arvind Ravi
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are diseases of excess cell proliferation from bone marrow precursors. Two classic MPNs, polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocytosis (ET), are conditions of excess proliferation of red blood cells and platelets, respectively. Although PV and ET involve different cells in the myeloid lineage, their clinical presentations have shared features, consistent with overlapping mutations in growth factor signaling. The management of both diseases involves minimizing the risk of thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications...
December 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866578/leukocytosis-and-leukemia
#11
REVIEW
Page Widick, Eric S Winer
Leukocytosis is among the most common findings on peripheral blood smear. A wide range of causes may mediate this finding, and careful clinical and laboratory evaluation assist in differentiating between benign and malignant causes of increased white blood cell counts. In this article, various nonmalignant causes are explored, including infectious, inflammatory, autoimmune, and allergic. In addition, malignant causes of leukocytosis are discussed, including myeloproliferative disorders, acute leukemia, and chronic leukemia, as well as treatment and monitoring for patients with these diseases...
December 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866577/novel-developments-in-leukopenia-and-pancytopenia
#12
REVIEW
Chisom Onuoha, Junaid Arshad, John Astle, Mina Xu, Stephanie Halene
Cytopenias are not disease entities in and of themselves; rather, they are the expression of various underlying disease processes. Careful attention to details in patients' presentation, careful history and examination, as well as attention to the ancillary parameters of the complete blood count with a peripheral blood smear can point the clinician toward the appropriate workup. Causes of cytopenias can be inherited or acquired; the latter include medication related, autoimmune, or neoplastic causes. Emergencies need to be recognized in a timely fashion and expert consultation obtained...
December 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866576/thrombocytopenia
#13
REVIEW
Eun-Ju Lee, Alfred Ian Lee
Thrombocytopenia is a commonly encountered hematologic problem in inpatient and ambulatory medicine. The many underlying mechanisms of thrombocytopenia include pseudothrombocytopenia, splenic sequestration, and marrow underproduction and destruction. This article presents the known causes of thrombocytopenia, a framework for evaluation, and brief descriptions of management in a case-based format.
December 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866575/anemia-for-the-primary-care-physician
#14
REVIEW
Darryl J Powell, Maureen Okam Achebe
Anemia denotes a reduced red blood cell (RBC) mass from any cause. The causes of anemia are numerous and due to decreased (or abnormal) erythropoesis, shortened RBC life span, or blood loss. The most common etiology of anemia is iron deficiency. A judicious work up of anemia includes evaluating the reticulocyte count and peripheral smear. The severity of illness of a patient with anemia is determined by the degree of anemia and the seriousness of the underlying disorder. Management of patients with hereditary and hemolytic anemias should involve a hematologist...
December 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545743/erratum
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545742/allergy-primer-for-primary-care
#16
EDITORIAL
Michael A Malone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545741/-lifesavers
#17
EDITORIAL
Joel J Heidelbaugh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545740/complementary-and-alternative-treatment-for-allergic-conditions
#18
REVIEW
Juan Qiu, Kristen Grine
This article explains the proposed pathophysiology, evidence of efficacy, and adverse effects of several complementary and alternative medicine modalities, for the treatment of allergic conditions, such as traditional Chinese medicine formula, herbal treatments, acupuncture, and homeopathy.
September 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545739/mastocytosis
#19
REVIEW
Ayesha Abid, Michael A Malone, Katherine Curci
Mastocytosis is a rare disease caused by excessive production of mast cells. Clinical presentation is variable, often based on the type of mastocytosis, but in all types of mastocytosis there seems to be an increase in the risk of anaphylaxis. Systemic mastocytosis is diagnosed based on bone marrow biopsy. Treatment is variable based on the type of mastocytosis, but trigger avoidance and anaphylaxis treatment are mainstays. There are no therapies that change the natural course of mastocytosis. For cutaneous mastocytosis, treatment is conservative and aimed at symptom relief...
September 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545738/eosinophilic-disorders-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#20
REVIEW
Samiullah, Hadi Bhurgri, Umair Sohail
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders represent a spectrum of disorders demonstrating gastrointestinal eosinophilia without any known cause for eosinophilia. Pathogenesis is not clearly established, but immune responses to dietary antigens are implicated. These disorders affect children and adults and are seen in association with allergic disorders. Eosinophilic esophagitis is diagnosed in the setting of mucosal eosinophilia on endoscopic biopsy and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is also diagnosed with endoscopic biopsies...
September 2016: Primary Care
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