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Reviews on Environmental Health

Mary A Adewoyin, Anthony I Okoh
Acinetobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, which are oxidase-negative, exhibiting a twitching motility under a magnifying lens. Besides being important soil microorganisms, due to their contribution to the soil fertility, Acinetobacter species, particularly A. baumannii, hold a prominent place within the genus because, it is the most virulent among the other species, causing varying degrees of human infections in clinical environments. However, results of different research have shown that Acinetobacter species can be isolated from such natural environments as surface water, wastewater and sewage, healthy human skin, plant, animal and food material as well as domestic appliances...
July 9, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Alexandra Grippo, Jun Zhang, Li Chu, Yanjun Guo, Lihua Qiao, Jun Zhang, Ajay A Myneni, Lina Mu
The developing fetus is particularly susceptible to environmental pollutants, and evidence has shown adverse effects of air pollutants on pregnancy and birth outcomes. Pregnancy loss, including spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) and stillbirth, is the most severe adverse pregnancy outcome. This review focuses on air pollution exposure during pregnancy in relation to spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. A total of 43 studies are included in this review, including 35 human studies and eight animal studies. Overall, these studies suggest that exposure to air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO) and cooking smoke may be associated with higher risk for stillbirth and spontaneous abortion...
July 5, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Loissi Kalakodio, Moussa Bakayoko, Adiara Kalagodio, Bodjui Olivier Abo, Jean Pierre Muhoza, El Moctar Ismaila
Biochar, coal produced by pyrolysis and used as an amendment, has several advantages and has proven to be a promising avenue for sustainable agriculture. However, the current manufacturing methods, the conditions of pyrolysis and the biomasses used produce biochars of very variable qualities which can differently affect the productivity of the ground and the outputs of plants. Currently, no study makes it possible to elucidate the influence of the physicochemical properties of the biochars on the structure and the microbial diversity of the soil...
June 13, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
S M J Mortazavi
Recent studies show that short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter is associated with more emergency department visits and hospitalizations for pneumonia as well as increased mortality and increased health care costs among older adults. Moreover, exposure to ambient particulate matter is shown to be connected with an increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The association between short-term exposures to particulate matter with a diameter less than 2...
June 12, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Martin Röösli, Hamed Jalilian
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the gradual degeneration and death of motor neurons, with mostly unknown etiology. Some risk factors have been suggested for this disease including extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) exposure. This meta-analysis assesses the association of residential exposure to ELF-MF with the risk of ALS. Five studies have addressed the risk of ALS in relation to overhead power lines. A pooled relative risk (RR) of 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48, 1...
June 6, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Victor Leach, Steven Weller, Mary Redmayne
A significant amount of electromagnetic field/electromagnetic radiation (EMF/EMR) research is available that examines biological and disease associated endpoints. The quantity, variety and changing parameters in the available research can be challenging when undertaking a literature review, meta-analysis, preparing a study design, building reference lists or comparing findings between relevant scientific papers. The Oceania Radiofrequency Scientific Advisory Association (ORSAA) has created a comprehensive, non-biased, multi-categorized, searchable database of papers on non-ionizing EMF/EMR to help address these challenges...
June 6, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Doug Brugge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Punyasloka Pattnaik, G S Dangayach, Awadhesh Kumar Bhardwaj
The textile industry in India plays a vital role in the economic growth of the nation. The growth of the textile industry not only impacts the economy of a country but also influences the global economy and mutual exchange of technology between the countries. However, the textile industry also generates an enormous quantity of waste as waste sludge, fibers and chemically polluted waters. The chemically polluted textile wastewater degrades the quality of the soil and water when it mixes with these natural resources and its dependent habitats and environment...
June 27, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Michelle Heacock, Brittany Trottier, Sharad Adhikary, Kwadwo Ansong Asante, Nil Basu, Marie-Noel Brune, Jack Caravanos, David Carpenter, Danielle Cazabon, Paromita Chakraborty, Aimin Chen, Fernando Diaz Barriga, Bret Ericson, Julius Fobil, Budi Haryanto, Xia Huo, T K Joshi, Philip Landrigan, Adeline Lopez, Frederico Magalini, Panida Navasumrit, Antonio Pascale, Sankar Sambandam, Upik Sitti Aslia Kamil, Leith Sly, Peter Sly, Ann Suk, Inoka Suraweera, Ridwan Tamin, Elena Vicario, William Suk
As one of the largest waste streams, electronic waste (e-waste) production continues to grow in response to global demand for consumer electronics. This waste is often shipped to developing countries where it is disassembled and recycled. In many cases, e-waste recycling activities are conducted in informal settings with very few controls or protections in place for workers. These activities involve exposure to hazardous substances such as cadmium, lead, and brominated flame retardants and are frequently performed by women and children...
June 27, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Zoltán Kmetty, Álmos Tomasovszky, Károly Bozsonyi
INTRODUCTION: Findings concerning the effects of moon phases and sun activity on suicide are mixed in the international literature. AIM: Our aim was to examine the hypothesised effects according to gender and age on Hungarian data covering more than 30 years. METHODS: Time series ARIMA models and dynamic regression models were applied in our analysis. RESULTS: Among women aged 20-49 years, a significant increase in the risk of suicide has been observed during proton solar events...
June 27, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Yahaya Yakubu, Norashidah Mohamed Nor, Emilia Zainal Abidin
In the year 2000, the World Health Organization launched the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which were to be achieved in 2015. Though most of the goals were not achieved, a follow-up post 2015 development agenda, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) was launched in 2015, which are to be achieved by 2030. Maternal mortality reduction is a focal goal in both the MDGs and SDGs. Achieving the maternal mortality target in the SDGs requires multiple approaches, particularly in developing countries with high maternal mortality...
June 27, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Moussa Bakayoko, Loissi Kalakodio, Adiara Kalagodio, Bodjui Olivier Abo, Jean Pierre Muhoza, El Moctar Ismaila
The use of a large number of organic pollutants results in the accumulation of effluents at the places of production and the environment. These substances are, therefore, dangerous for living organisms and can cause heavy environmental damage. Hence, to cure these problems certain methods were used for the elimination of organic effluents. Indeed, the methods of elimination through magnetic adsorption and/or separation prove to be effective in the treatment of certain wastes, but the effectiveness of each one of these methods depends on several characteristics and also present limitations according to the pollutants they adsorb...
June 27, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Sarah Dalibalta, Fatin Samara, Haya Qadri, Hibatallah Adouchana
There is considerable concern on the rise in the incidence of asthma worldwide with statistics in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) indicating that at least 13% of schoolchildren, particularly of Emirati descent, suffer from asthma. With its high rates of hospital admissions, negative socioeconomic impact and significant morbidity, this is a disease that requires optimal guidelines for control and awareness. In this article, we review the current knowledge of asthma in the UAE and draw on studies, especially from the surrounding region, to identify its contributing factors within this population...
June 27, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Sri Rahavi Boovarahan, Gino A Kurian
Air pollution has become an environmental burden with regard to non-communicable diseases, particularly heart disease. It has been reported that air pollution can accelerate the development of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Air pollutants encompass various particulate matters (PMs), which change the blood composition and heart rate and eventually leads to cardiac failure by triggering atherosclerotic plaque ruptures or by developing irreversible ischemia. A series of major epidemiological and observational studies have established the noxious effect of air pollutants on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying molecular mechanisms of its susceptibility and the pathological disease events remain largely elusive and are predicted to be initiated in the cell organelle...
June 27, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Norsyazwani Mohammad, Emilia Zainal Abidin, Vivien How, Sarva Mangala Praveena, Zailina Hashim
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that pesticide production and use have increased continuously in the countries of Southeast Asia in recent years. Within the context of protecting the safety and health of workers in the agricultural sector, there is an existing gap in the implementation of the pesticide management framework because safety and health effects arising from occupational exposures continue to be reported. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide narrative similarities, differences and weaknesses of the existing pesticide management system in Southeast Asian countries (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) within the context of occupational safety and health...
June 27, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Hina Asad, David O Carpenter
Zika is a vector-borne viral disease transmitted to humans primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The increased climate instability has contributed to the emergence of infections carried by mosquitoes like dengue, chikungunya and zika. While infection with the zika virus is not new, the recent epidemic of microcephaly in Brazil and other countries in South America resulting from the infection of pregnant women with the zika virus raise a number of serious public health concerns. These include the question of how climate change affects the range of zika vectors, what can we do to shorten the length of mosquito season, how and why the symptoms of zika infection have changed and what can be done to reduce the burden of human disease from this infection? Another important question that needs to be answered is what are the factors that caused the zika virus to leave the non-human primates and/or other mammals and invade the human population?...
March 28, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Anne-Marie Morrissey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Bernhard Hennig, Michael C Petriello, Mary V Gamble, Young-Joon Surh, Laura A Kresty, Norbert Frank, Nuchanart Rangkadilok, Mathuros Ruchirawat, William A Suk
Human exposure to environmental contaminants such as persistent chlorinated organics, heavy metals, pesticides, phthalates, flame retardants, electronic waste and airborne pollutants around the world, and especially in Southeast Asian regions, are significant and require urgent attention. Given this widespread contamination and abundance of such toxins as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the ecosystem, it is unlikely that remediation alone will be sufficient to address the health impacts associated with this exposure...
March 28, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Arun Kumar Sharma, Palak Baliyan, Prashant Kumar
Mitigating the impact of pollution on human health worldwide is important to limit the morbidity and mortality arising from exposure to its effect. The level and type of pollutants vary in different urban and rural settings. Here, we explored the extent of air pollution and its impacts on human health in the megacity of Delhi (India) through a review of the published literature. The study aims at describing the extent of air pollution in Delhi, the magnitude of health problems due to air pollution and the risk relationship between air pollution and associated health effects...
March 28, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Harriet Whiley, Sharyn Gaskin, Tiffany Schroder, Kirstin Ross
Concerns regarding indoor air quality, particularly the presence of fungi and moulds, are increasing. The potential for essential oils to reduce, control or remove fungi, is gaining interest as they are seen as a "natural" alternative to synthetic chemical fungicides. This review examines published research on essential oils as a method of fungal control in indoor environments. It was difficult to compare the relative performances of essential oils due to differences in research methods and reporting languages...
March 28, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
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