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Reviews on Environmental Health

Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Lisbeth E Knudsen, Zorana J Andersen, Radim J Sram, Markéta Braun Kohlová, Eugen S Gurzau, Aleksandra Fucic, Laura Gribaldo, Pavel Rossner, Andrea Rossnerova, Vojtěch Máca, Iva Zvěřinová, Dagmar Gajdosova, Hanns Moshammer, Peter Rudnai, Milan Ščasný
In 2013-2015, a consortium of European scientists - NEWDANUBE - was established to prepare a birth cohort in the Danube region, including most of the countries with the highest air pollution in Europe, the area being one-fifth of the European Union's (EU's) territory, including 14 countries (nine EU member states), over 100 million inhabitants, with numerous challenges: big socioeconomic disparities, and a region-specific environmental pollution. The consortium reflects the EU Strategy for the Danube Region Strategy (2010), which identified 11 thematic Priority Areas - one of which is the environmental risks...
October 18, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Daniela Pelclova, Vladimir Zdimal, Petr Kacer, Martin Komarc, Zdenka Fenclova, Stepanka Vlckova, Nadezda Zikova, Jaroslav Schwarz, Otakar Makes, Tomas Navratil, Sergey Zakharov, Dhimiter Bello
Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial used in numerous applications. Experimental studies with nanotitania have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Production workers in TiO2 manufacturing with a high proportion of nanoparticles and a mixture of other air pollutants, such as gases and organic aerosols, had increased markers of oxidative stress, including DNA and protein damage, as well as lipid peroxidation in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC) compared to unexposed controls...
October 18, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Ľubica Argalášová, Ľudmila Ševčíková, Jana Jurkovičová, Jana Babjaková, Etela Janeková, Adrián Totka, Martin Šimko, Michael Weitzman
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the greatest and the most frequent environmental toxic exposures presenting a high risk to children and to their mothers as well. The aim of the study was to find determinants of the household ETS in the sample of pregnant women living in the household with smokers and to assess their physical and mental health. The survey was distributed to women being seen for follow-up at the obstetric/gynecology departments in hospitals and at gynecological out-patient departments in Bratislava, Slovakia...
October 14, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Meredith Eckstein, Rebekah Eleazer, Matthew Rea, Yvonne Fondufe-Mittendorf
Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid that is not mutagenic but is carcinogenic. The mechanism(s) by which arsenic causes cancer remain unknown. To date, several mechanisms have been proposed, including the arsenic-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, it is also becoming evident that inorganic arsenic (iAs) may exert its carcinogenic effects by changing the epigenome, and thereby modifying chromatin structure and dynamics. These epigenetic changes alter the accessibility of gene regulatory factors to DNA, resulting in specific changes in gene expression both at the levels of transcription initiation and gene splicing...
October 4, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Faizan Anwer, Savita Chaurasia, Abid Ali Khan
After the Second World War, infatuation with modern products has exponentially widened the spectrum of chemicals used. Some of them are capable of hijacking the endocrine system by blocking or imitating a hormone and are referred to as hormonally active chemicals or endocrine disruptors. These are chemicals that the body was not designed for evolutionarily and they are present in every matrix of the environment. We are living in a chemical world where the exposures are ubiquitous and take place in combinations that can interact with the endocrine system and some other metabolic activities in unexpected ways...
August 3, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Peter D Sly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Igor Belyaev, Amy Dean, Horst Eger, Gerhard Hubmann, Reinhold Jandrisovits, Markus Kern, Michael Kundi, Hanns Moshammer, Piero Lercher, Kurt Müller, Gerd Oberfeld, Peter Ohnsorge, Peter Pelzmann, Claus Scheingraber, Roby Thill
Chronic diseases and illnesses associated with non-specific symptoms are on the rise. In addition to chronic stress in social and work environments, physical and chemical exposures at home, at work, and during leisure activities are causal or contributing environmental stressors that deserve attention by the general practitioner as well as by all other members of the health care community. It seems necessary now to take "new exposures" like electromagnetic fields (EMF) into account. Physicians are increasingly confronted with health problems from unidentified causes...
September 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Jackie Wright, John Edwards, Stewart Walker
The clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine in residential homes may represent significant hazards and exposures not only to those involved in the manufacture of the drugs but also to others living in the home (including children), neighbours and first responders to the premises. These hazards are associated with the nature and improper storage and use of precursor chemicals, intermediate chemicals and wastes, gases and methamphetamine residues generated during manufacture and the drugs themselves. Many of these compounds are persistent and result in exposures inside a home not only during manufacture but after the laboratory has been seized or removed...
September 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
William J Rea
Histories of mold, pollen, dust, food, chemicals, and electromagnetic field (EMF) sensitivities are the major categories of triggers for chemical sensitivity. They are tied together by the coherence phenomenon, where each has its own frequencies and identifiable EMF; therefore, they can be correlated. The diagnosis of chemical sensitivity can be done accurately in a less-polluted, controlled environment, as was done in these studies. The principles of diagnosis and treatment depend on total environmental and total body pollutant loads, masking or adaptation, bipolarity of response, and biochemical individuality, among others...
September 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
João F S Silva, Inês E Mattos, Laércio L Luz, Cleber N Carmo, Ricardo D Aydos
INTRODUCTION: Investigations about the association between prostate cancer and environmental and/or occupational pesticide exposure have evidenced a possible role of these chemical substances on tumor etiology, related to their action as endocrine disruptors. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between pesticide exposure and prostate cancer by conducting a systematic review of the scientific literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Articles published until August 18, 2015 were searched in the databases MEDLINE/Pubmed, Scielo, and Lilacs using the keywords "pesticides" and "prostate cancer"...
September 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Laura A Rodriguez-Villamizar, Colin Berney, Cristina Villa-Roel, Maria B Ospina, Alvaro Osornio-Vargas, Brian H Rowe
BACKGROUND: The role of socioeconomic position (SEP) as an effect modifier of the association between asthma exacerbations and outdoor air pollution remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To identify and summarize the evidence regarding SEP as an effect modifier of the association between asthma exacerbations and outdoor air pollution in children. METHODS: We conducted searches in five electronic databases from January 1950 to June 2015 with no language restriction...
September 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
David O Carpenter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Katya Vangelova, Irina Dimitrova
Bulgaria totally banned the import, production and use of asbestos in 2005, but produced and used asbestos products during the last 3-4 decades of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to follow the incidence and mortality of mesothelioma in Bulgaria in relation to past occupational exposures. A literature search between 1960 and 2014 was conducted to obtain information on asbestos consumption, occupational exposure and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). Data on registered mesotheliomas were provided by the National Cancer Register and data for recognized occupational ARDs were provided by the National Social Security Institute...
June 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Puleng Matatiele, Mary Gulumian
Renewable energy technologies (wind turbines, solar cells, biofuels, etc.) are often referred to as 'clean' or 'green' energy sources, while jobs linked to the field of environmental protection and energy efficiency are referred to as 'green' jobs. The energy efficiency of clean technologies, which is likely to reduce and/or eliminate reliance on fossil fuels, is acknowledged. However, the potential contribution of green technologies and associated practices to ill health and environmental pollution resulting from consumption of energy and raw materials, generation of waste, and the negative impacts related to some life cycle phases of these technologies are discussed...
June 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Ellen Webb, Jake Hays, Larysa Dyrszka, Brian Rodriguez, Caroline Cox, Katie Huffling, Sheila Bushkin-Bedient
Research on air pollutant emissions associated with unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development has grown significantly in recent years. Empirical investigations have focused on the identification and measurement of oil and gas air pollutants [e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), methane] and the influence of UOG on local and regional ambient air quality (e.g. tropospheric ozone). While more studies to better characterize spatial and temporal trends in exposure among children and newborns near UOG sites are needed, existing research suggests that exposure to air pollutants emitted during lifecycle operations can potentially lead to adverse respiratory outcomes in this population...
June 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Phillip J Albrecht, Frank L Rice
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a clinical disorder predominant in females with unknown etiology and medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), similar to other afflictions, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Gulf War illness (GFI), and others. External environmental stimuli drive behavior and impact physiologic homeostasis (internal environment) via autonomic functioning. These environments directly impact the individual affective state (mind), which feeds back to regulate physiology (body)...
June 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Nour Abdo, Yousef S Khader, Mostafa Abdelrahman, Ashley Graboski-Bauer, Mazen Malkawi, Munjed Al-Sharif, Ahmad M Elbetieha
Exposure to air pollution can cause detrimental health and be an economic burden. With newly developed equipment, monitoring of different air pollutants, identifying the sources, types of air pollutants and their corresponding concentrations, and applying mitigation intervention techniques became a crucial step in public health protection. Countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) are highly exposed to dust storms, have high levels of particulate matter (PM) concentrations, and have a unique climatic as well as topographic and socio-economic structure...
June 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Charles J Everett, Olivia M Thompson
We assessed the association of three chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, a chlorinated dibenzofuran, and four dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human blood with nephropathy (microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria) among teens and young adults (12-30 years old) having normal glycohemoglobin (A1c <5.7%). The data were derived from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (unweighted n=1504, population estimate=38,806,338). In this paper, nephropathy refers to normal A1c with nephropathy...
June 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Nicholas A Kusnezov, Hamed Yazdanshenas, Eddie Garcia, Arya N Shamie
INTRODUCTION: Musculoskeletal injury exerts a significant burden on US industry. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and characteristics of musculoskeletal injuries in the California (CA) film and motion picture (FMP) industry which may result in unforeseen morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We reviewed the workers' compensation (WC) claims database of the Workers' Compensation Insurance Rating Bureau of California (WCIRB) and employment statistics through the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)...
June 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
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