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Reviews on Environmental Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875321/the-impact-of-selected-environmental-behavioral-and-psychosocial-factors-on-schoolchildren-s-somatic-and-mental-health
#1
Diana Vondrova, Daniela Kapsdorfer, Lubica Argalasova, Katarina Hirosova, Martin Samohyl, Ludmila Sevcikova
Children develop rapidly and many exogenous determinants of health significantly affect their somatic and mental development. There is a subjective perception of cognitive load associated with the educational process. The aim of the study is to assess individual environmental, behavioral and psychosocial factors influencing physical health and to investigate the amount of mental load in children. We investigated 87 schoolchildren (47 girls and 40 boys) aged 10-12 years, who were attending primary school in Bratislava...
November 22, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837601/emerging-roles-of-xenobiotic-detoxification-enzymes-in-metabolic-diseases
#2
Michael C Petriello, Jessie B Hoffman, Andrew J Morris, Bernhard Hennig
Mammalian systems have developed extensive molecular mechanisms to protect against the toxicity of many exogenous xenobiotic compounds. Interestingly, many detoxification enzymes, including cytochrome P450s and flavin-containing monooxygenases, and their associated transcriptional activators [e.g. the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)], have now been shown to have endogenous roles in normal physiology and the pathology of metabolic diseases. This mini-review will focus on two such instances: the role of flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) in the formation of the cardiometabolic disease biomarker trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and the role of AhR as a sensor of endogenous ligands such as those generated by the gut microbiota...
November 12, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837600/air-exchange-rates-and-alternative-vapor-entry-pathways-to-inform-vapor-intrusion-exposure-risk-assessments
#3
Rivka Reichman, Mohammadyousef Roghani, Evan J Willett, Elham Shirazi, Kelly G Pennell
Vapor intrusion (VI) is a term used to describe indoor air (IA) contamination that occurs due to the migration of chemical vapors in the soil and groundwater. The overall vapor transport process depends on several factors such as contaminant source characteristics, subsurface conditions, building characteristics, and general site conditions. However, the classic VI conceptual model does not adequately account for the physics of airflow around and inside a building and does not account for chemical emissions from alternative "preferential" pathways (e...
November 12, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837599/the-ceeche-a-practical-approach-for-reducing-exposures-and-disease-outcomes-in-central-and-eastern-europe
#4
William A Suk
While each region of the world faces unique challenges, environmental threats to vulnerable populations throughout Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) present a significant public health challenge. Environmental pollution is widespread, resulting from the consequences of rapid industrialization during the Soviet Union era. To help address these concerns, a meeting, sponsored in part by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP), was convened in 1994...
November 12, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837597/respiratory-toxicity-of-fe3o4-nanoparticles-experimental-study
#5
Marta Hurbankova, Katarina Volkovova, Dominika Hraskova, Sona Wimmerova, Stefania Moricova
INTRODUCTION: In the medical field, nanoparticles (NP) Fe3O4 are currently considered to be a relatively inert carrier for therapeutic and diagnostic pharmaceuticals, and they are also presumed for intravenous (i.v.) administration. Because they have nano dimensions, they probably can penetrate through various membranes and pass from the bloodstream to other organs in the body (Borm P, Muller-Schulte D. Nanoparticles in medicine, 2007, Chapter 21, pp. 387-413, Particle Toxicology, ed...
November 12, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783561/corrigendum-to-reliable-disease-biomarkers-characterizing-and-identifying-electrohypersensitivity-and-multiple-chemical-sensitivity-as-two-etiopathogenic-aspects-of-a-unique-pathological-disorder
#6
Dominique Belpomme, Christine Campagnac, Philippe Irigaray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768585/future-of-environmental-research-in-the-age-of-epigenomics-and-exposomics
#7
Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754971/perinatal-health-in-the-danube-region-new-birth-cohort-justified
#8
Lisbeth E Knudsen, Zorana J Andersen, Radim J Sram, Markéta Braun Kohlová, Eugen S Gurzau, Aleksandra Fucic, Laura Gribaldo, Pavel Rossner, Andrea Rossnerova, Vojtěch Máca, Iva Zvěřinová, Dagmar Gajdosova, Hanns Moshammer, Peter Rudnai, Milan Ščasný
In 2013-2015, a consortium of European scientists - NEWDANUBE - was established to prepare a birth cohort in the Danube region, including most of the countries with the highest air pollution in Europe, the area being one-fifth of the European Union's (EU's) territory, including 14 countries (nine EU member states), over 100 million inhabitants, with numerous challenges: big socioeconomic disparities, and a region-specific environmental pollution. The consortium reflects the EU Strategy for the Danube Region Strategy (2010), which identified 11 thematic Priority Areas - one of which is the environmental risks...
October 18, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754970/markers-of-lipid-oxidative-damage-among-office-workers-exposed-intermittently-to-air-pollutants-including-nanotio2-particles
#9
Daniela Pelclova, Vladimir Zdimal, Petr Kacer, Martin Komarc, Zdenka Fenclova, Stepanka Vlckova, Nadezda Zikova, Jaroslav Schwarz, Otakar Makes, Tomas Navratil, Sergey Zakharov, Dhimiter Bello
Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial used in numerous applications. Experimental studies with nanotitania have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Production workers in TiO2 manufacturing with a high proportion of nanoparticles and a mixture of other air pollutants, such as gases and organic aerosols, had increased markers of oxidative stress, including DNA and protein damage, as well as lipid peroxidation in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC) compared to unexposed controls...
October 18, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740932/determinants-of-ets-exposure-in-a-sample-of-slovak-pregnant-women
#10
Ľubica Argalášová, Ľudmila Ševčíková, Jana Jurkovičová, Jana Babjaková, Etela Janeková, Adrián Totka, Martin Šimko, Michael Weitzman
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the greatest and the most frequent environmental toxic exposures presenting a high risk to children and to their mothers as well. The aim of the study was to find determinants of the household ETS in the sample of pregnant women living in the household with smokers and to assess their physical and mental health. The survey was distributed to women being seen for follow-up at the obstetric/gynecology departments in hospitals and at gynecological out-patient departments in Bratislava, Slovakia...
October 14, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701139/epigenomic-reprogramming-in-inorganic-arsenic-mediated-gene-expression-patterns-during-carcinogenesis
#11
Meredith Eckstein, Rebekah Eleazer, Matthew Rea, Yvonne Fondufe-Mittendorf
Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid that is not mutagenic but is carcinogenic. The mechanism(s) by which arsenic causes cancer remain unknown. To date, several mechanisms have been proposed, including the arsenic-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, it is also becoming evident that inorganic arsenic (iAs) may exert its carcinogenic effects by changing the epigenome, and thereby modifying chromatin structure and dynamics. These epigenetic changes alter the accessibility of gene regulatory factors to DNA, resulting in specific changes in gene expression both at the levels of transcription initiation and gene splicing...
October 4, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902455/inaccurate-official-assessment-of-radiofrequency-safety-by-the-advisory-group-on-non-ionising-radiation
#12
Sarah J Starkey
The Advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation (AGNIR) 2012 report forms the basis of official advice on the safety of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields in the United Kingdom and has been relied upon by health protection agencies around the world. This review describes incorrect and misleading statements from within the report, omissions and conflict of interest, which make it unsuitable for health risk assessment. The executive summary and overall conclusions did not accurately reflect the scientific evidence available...
December 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902454/environmental-chemicals-as-endocrine-disruptors
#13
David O Carpenter, Peter D Sly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902453/environmental-and-occupational-exposure-to-cadmium-in-iran-a-systematic-review
#14
Leila Tavakkoli, Narges Khanjani
INTRODUCTION: Cadmium (Cd) is one of the heavy metals that have negative effects on human health. In Iran, there is no policy to regularly measure Cd in the general population. However, some studies have been performed on special groups and in different cities of Iran. This paper has reviewed these studies and human contamination levels in Iran. METHOD AND MATERIALS: All accessible electronic information resources such as Scientific Information Database (SID), Magiran, IranMedex, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar and Science Direct were searched, with relevant phrases and their Persian translations...
December 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902452/high-ambient-noise-levels-in-vadodara-city-india-affected-by-urbanization
#15
Neha Singh, Hitesh Dhiman, Sadaf Shaikh, Purvish Shah, Roma Sarkar, Shashin Patel
The present research was conducted to study the urbanization of Vadodara city and to monitor the ambient noise level in the industrial, commercial, residential and silence zones of the city. A settlement map created by unsupervised classification for the land use and land cover study of Vadodara city clearly shows the increasing pattern of urbanization in its central part, which may be the result of urban sprawl due to migration of people from the rural to the urban areas. The fluctuation in ambient noise level was recorded using an A-weighted sound level meter in all the four zones of Vadodara city for 3 h at regular intervals of 15 min on 3 consecutive days at the same time...
December 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883330/effects-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-e2-on-aqueous-organisms-and-its-treatment-problem-a-review
#16
Emad Nazari, Fatihah Suja
Natural estrogens, estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3) are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are discharged consistently and directly into surface waters with wastewater treatment plants (WWPTs) effluents, disposal sludges and in storm-water runoff. The most common and highest potential natural estrogen that causes estrogen activity in wastewater influent is E2. This review describes and attempts to summarize the main problems involved in the removal of E2 from WWTP by traditional processes, which fundamentally rely on activated sludge and provide an insufficient treatment for E2, as well as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) that are applied in tertiary section treatment works...
December 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845887/a-review-of-heavy-metals-in-indoor-dust-and-its-human-health-risk-implications
#17
Sock Yin Tan, Sarva Mangala Praveena, Emilia Zainal Abidin, Manraj Singh Cheema
Indoor dust acts as a media for heavy metal deposition. Past studies have shown that heavy metal concentration in indoor dust is affected by local human activities and atmospheric transport can have harmful effects on human health. Additionally, children are more sensitive to heavy metals due to their hand-to-mouth behaviour and rapid body development. However, limited information on health risks were found in past dust studies as these studies aimed to identify heavy metal concentrations and sources of indoor dust...
December 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845886/environmental-pediatrics-an-introduction-and-evaluation-of-online-resources
#18
Hannah Weinstangel, Irena Buka, Sandra Campbell
INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that three million children under the age of 5 die annually from environmentally related disease. In the United States, the cost of environmentally related public health concerns is estimated as greater than $55 billion. Environmental exposure is among parents' top health concerns for children. Yet, the study of the effects of environmental exposure on health outcomes is a developing field, and clinicians feel inadequately prepared to address these concerns...
December 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837598/lung-function-and-dust-in-climbing-halls-two-pilot-studies
#19
Hanns Moshammer, Shifra Shahraki, Thomas Mondel, Patrik Gebhart
In climbing halls, high levels of dust are found because magnesia powder is used to dry hands. Concerns have been raised about possible health effects after reports from asthmatics experiencing worsening of symptoms while or after climbing. We investigated acute and sub-acute effects of climbing in dusty halls on lung function in two pilot studies. The first study examined 109 climbers before and after a climbing activity that lasted at least 1 h. In the second study, 25 climbers from different age classes participated in a 2-day climbing competition...
December 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487487/hormonally-active-agents-in-the-environment-a-state-of-the-art-review
#20
Faizan Anwer, Savita Chaurasia, Abid Ali Khan
After the Second World War, infatuation with modern products has exponentially widened the spectrum of chemicals used. Some of them are capable of hijacking the endocrine system by blocking or imitating a hormone and are referred to as hormonally active chemicals or endocrine disruptors. These are chemicals that the body was not designed for evolutionarily and they are present in every matrix of the environment. We are living in a chemical world where the exposures are ubiquitous and take place in combinations that can interact with the endocrine system and some other metabolic activities in unexpected ways...
December 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
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