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Reviews on Environmental Health

Michelle Heacock, Brittany Trottier, Sharad Adhikary, Kwadwo Ansong Asante, Nil Basu, Marie-Noel Brune, Jack Caravanos, David Carpenter, Danielle Cazabon, Paromita Chakraborty, Aimin Chen, Fernando Diaz Barriga, Bret Ericson, Julius Fobil, Budi Haryanto, Xia Huo, T K Joshi, Philip Landrigan, Adeline Lopez, Frederico Magalini, Panida Navasumrit, Antonio Pascale, Sankar Sambandam, Upik Sitti Aslia Kamil, Leith Sly, Peter Sly, Ann Suk, Inoka Suraweera, Ridwan Tamin, Elena Vicario, William Suk
As one of the largest waste streams, electronic waste (e-waste) production continues to grow in response to global demand for consumer electronics. This waste is often shipped to developing countries where it is disassembled and recycled. In many cases, e-waste recycling activities are conducted in informal settings with very few controls or protections in place for workers. These activities involve exposure to hazardous substances such as cadmium, lead, and brominated flame retardants and are frequently performed by women and children...
May 11, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Zoltán Kmetty, Álmos Tomasovszky, Károly Bozsonyi
INTRODUCTION: Findings concerning the effects of moon phases and sun activity on suicide are mixed in the international literature. AIM: Our aim was to examine the hypothesised effects according to gender and age on Hungarian data covering more than 30 years. METHODS: Time series ARIMA models and dynamic regression models were applied in our analysis. RESULTS: Among women aged 20-49 years, a significant increase in the risk of suicide has been observed during proton solar events...
May 9, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Yahaya Yakubu, Norashidah Mohamed Nor, Emilia Zainal Abidin
In the year 2000, the World Health Organization launched the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which were to be achieved in 2015. Though most of the goals were not achieved, a follow-up post 2015 development agenda, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) was launched in 2015, which are to be achieved by 2030. Maternal mortality reduction is a focal goal in both the MDGs and SDGs. Achieving the maternal mortality target in the SDGs requires multiple approaches, particularly in developing countries with high maternal mortality...
May 5, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Moussa Bakayoko, Loissi Kalakodio, Adiara Kalagodio, Bodjui Olivier Abo, Jean Pierre Muhoza, El Moctar Ismaila
The use of a large number of organic pollutants results in the accumulation of effluents at the places of production and the environment. These substances are, therefore, dangerous for living organisms and can cause heavy environmental damage. Hence, to cure these problems certain methods were used for the elimination of organic effluents. Indeed, the methods of elimination through magnetic adsorption and/or separation prove to be effective in the treatment of certain wastes, but the effectiveness of each one of these methods depends on several characteristics and also present limitations according to the pollutants they adsorb...
April 25, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Sarah Dalibalta, Fatin Samara, Haya Qadri, Hibatallah Adouchana
There is considerable concern on the rise in the incidence of asthma worldwide with statistics in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) indicating that at least 13% of schoolchildren, particularly of Emirati descent, suffer from asthma. With its high rates of hospital admissions, negative socioeconomic impact and significant morbidity, this is a disease that requires optimal guidelines for control and awareness. In this article, we review the current knowledge of asthma in the UAE and draw on studies, especially from the surrounding region, to identify its contributing factors within this population...
April 17, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Hina Asad, David O Carpenter
Zika is a vector-borne viral disease transmitted to humans primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The increased climate instability has contributed to the emergence of infections carried by mosquitoes like dengue, chikungunya and zika. While infection with the zika virus is not new, the recent epidemic of microcephaly in Brazil and other countries in South America resulting from the infection of pregnant women with the zika virus raise a number of serious public health concerns. These include the question of how climate change affects the range of zika vectors, what can we do to shorten the length of mosquito season, how and why the symptoms of zika infection have changed and what can be done to reduce the burden of human disease from this infection? Another important question that needs to be answered is what are the factors that caused the zika virus to leave the non-human primates and/or other mammals and invade the human population?...
March 28, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Anne-Marie Morrissey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Bernhard Hennig, Michael C Petriello, Mary V Gamble, Young-Joon Surh, Laura A Kresty, Norbert Frank, Nuchanart Rangkadilok, Mathuros Ruchirawat, William A Suk
Human exposure to environmental contaminants such as persistent chlorinated organics, heavy metals, pesticides, phthalates, flame retardants, electronic waste and airborne pollutants around the world, and especially in Southeast Asian regions, are significant and require urgent attention. Given this widespread contamination and abundance of such toxins as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the ecosystem, it is unlikely that remediation alone will be sufficient to address the health impacts associated with this exposure...
March 28, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Arun Kumar Sharma, Palak Baliyan, Prashant Kumar
Mitigating the impact of pollution on human health worldwide is important to limit the morbidity and mortality arising from exposure to its effect. The level and type of pollutants vary in different urban and rural settings. Here, we explored the extent of air pollution and its impacts on human health in the megacity of Delhi (India) through a review of the published literature. The study aims at describing the extent of air pollution in Delhi, the magnitude of health problems due to air pollution and the risk relationship between air pollution and associated health effects...
March 28, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Harriet Whiley, Sharyn Gaskin, Tiffany Schroder, Kirstin Ross
Concerns regarding indoor air quality, particularly the presence of fungi and moulds, are increasing. The potential for essential oils to reduce, control or remove fungi, is gaining interest as they are seen as a "natural" alternative to synthetic chemical fungicides. This review examines published research on essential oils as a method of fungal control in indoor environments. It was difficult to compare the relative performances of essential oils due to differences in research methods and reporting languages...
March 28, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Ellen Webb, Julie Moon, Larysa Dyrszka, Brian Rodriguez, Caroline Cox, Heather Patisaul, Sheila Bushkin, Eric London
Heavy metals (arsenic and manganese), particulate matter (PM), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been linked to significant neurodevelopmental health problems in infants, children and young adults. These substances are widely used in, or become byproducts of unconventional oil and natural gas (UOG) development and operations. Every stage of the UOG lifecycle, from well construction to extraction, operations, transportation and distribution can lead to air and water contamination...
March 28, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Danielle J Carlin, Heather Henry, Michelle Heacock, Brittany Trottier, Christina H Drew, William A Suk
The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP) funds university-based, multidisciplinary research on human health and environmental science and engineering with the central goals to understand how hazardous substances contribute to disease and how to prevent exposures to these environmental chemicals. This multi-disciplinary approach allows early career scientists (e.g. graduate students and postdoctoral researchers) to gain experience in problem-based, solution-oriented research and to conduct research in a highly collaborative environment...
March 28, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Catherine E Slavik, Sheila Kalenge, Paul A Demers
BACKGROUND: In 2010, Ontario, Canada's most populous province, implemented its Toxics Reduction Act, Ontario Regulation 455/09 (TRA), which requires four major manufacturing and mineral processing industry groups that already report releases of pollutants federally to the National Pollutant Release Inventory to additionally track, account and report their use and creation. The TRA was modeled after the Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act of 1989, which has been very successful and reported significant reduction in toxic use and carcinogen release...
March 28, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Aziemah Zulkifli, Emilia Zainal Abidin, Najihah Zainol Abidin, Amer Siddiq Amer Nordin, Sarva Mangala Praveena, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail, Irniza Rasdi, Karmegam Karuppiah, Anita Abd Rahman
OBJECTIVE: This paper primarily aimed to review articles which specifically quantified the risk of electronic cigarette's (e-cigarette) usage via the health risk assessment (HRA) approach. METHODS: Systematic literature searches were conducted using PubMed search engine databases. Search terms such as "electronic cigarette", "e-cigarette", "electronic nicotine delivery systems", "electronic cigarette liquid", "electronic cigarette vapors", and "health risk assessment" were used to identify the relevant articles to be included in this review...
March 28, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Sri Rahavi Boovarahan, Gino A Kurian
Air pollution has become an environmental burden with regard to non-communicable diseases, particularly heart disease. It has been reported that air pollution can accelerate the development of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Air pollutants encompass various particulate matters (PMs), which change the blood composition and heart rate and eventually leads to cardiac failure by triggering atherosclerotic plaque ruptures or by developing irreversible ischemia. A series of major epidemiological and observational studies have established the noxious effect of air pollutants on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying molecular mechanisms of its susceptibility and the pathological disease events remain largely elusive and are predicted to be initiated in the cell organelle...
January 18, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Gunnar Heuser, Sylvia A Heuser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
Susan D Shaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
Somayeh Rahimi Moghadam, Siavosh Abedi, Mahdi Afshari, Ehsan Abedini, Mahmood Moosazadeh
BACKGROUND: Several studies with different results have been performed regarding cement dust exposure and its pathogenic outcomes during the previous years. This study aims to combine these results to obtain a reliable estimate of the effect of exposure to cement dust. METHODS: PubMed and other data banks were searched to identify required electronic articles. The search was extended interviewing with relevant experts and research centers. Point and pooled estimates of outcome with 95% confidence intervals were estimated...
December 20, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
Noopur Sharma, Deepali Garg, Roumi Deb, Ratika Samtani
Several epidemiological studies have suggested various environmental factors as a possible cause for increased incidence of various abnormalities. Of the various environmental contaminants, the most prevalent and the most discussed are the endocrine disrupting chemicals. Contact of such disruptors with humans has become inevitable today. They are cosmopolitan and present from agriculture to industrial sectors, even in day-to-day consumer products. Aldrin and dieldrin belong to one such class of substances which are known to have a toxic effect on various physiological systems of the human body...
December 20, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
Renee-Marie Ragguett, Danielle S Cha, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Nicole E Carmona, Yena Lee, Duanduan Yuan, Carola Rong, Roger S McIntyre
OBJECTIVE: Risk factors for suicide can be broadly categorized as sociodemographic, clinical and treatment. There is interest in environmental risk and protection factors for suicide. Emerging evidence suggests a link between environmental factors in the form of air pollution and aeroallergens in relation to suicidality. METHODS: Herein, we conducted a systematic review of 15 articles which have met inclusion criteria on the aforementioned effects. RESULTS: The majority of the reviewed articles reported an increased suicide risk alongside increased air pollutants or aeroallergens (i...
December 20, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
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