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Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222218/reduced-inflammatory-responses-of-follicular-helper-t-cell-promote-the-development-of-regulatory-b-cells-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#1
Junfang Zhan, Liyu Huang, Haiyong Ma, Huan Chen, Yuan Yang, Sheng Tan, Wendy Song, Weiguo Zhao, Xiaojiang Dai
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective strategy in treating severe obesity and its comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the mechanism through which bariatric surgery mediates its benefits is not completely understood. Since obesity and T2D represent yet another inflammatory disease, and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells play important roles in inflammatory disorders, we investigated whether the Tfh activity was altered after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), one of the most common bariatric surgery procedures...
February 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218955/antihyperglycemiac-action-of-diosmin-a-citrus-flavonoid-is-induced-through-endogenous-%C3%AE-endorphin-in-type-i-like-diabetic-rats
#2
Chia-Chen Hsu, Mang Hung Lin, Juei Tang Cheng, Ming Chang Wu
Diosmin is one of the flavonoids contained in citrus and has been demonstrated to improve glucose metabolism in diabetic disorders. However, the mechanism(s) of diosmin in glucose regulation remain obscure. Therefore, we investigated the potential mechanism(s) for the antihyperglycemic action of diosmin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). Diosmin lowered hyperglycemia in a dose-dependent manner in STZ-diabetic rats. This action was inhibited by naloxone at a dose sufficient to block opioid receptors...
February 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199751/impact-of-polymorphisms-in-angiogenesis-related-genes-on-clinical-outcomes-of-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#3
Wan-Le Ma, Rong Liu, Li-Hua Huang, Chan Zou, Jie Huang, Jing Wang, Shao-Jun Chen, Xiang-Guang Meng, Jing-Ke Yang, Han Li, Guo-Ping Yang, Cheng-Xian Guo
PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between gene polymorphism in angiogenesis-related genes and radiation responses in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. METHODS: The genotypes of 180 NPC patients were analyzed by Sequenom MassARRAY. The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors were used for assessing efficacies. And The criteria of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group or European Organization for Research & Treatment of Cancer were utilized for evaluating acute toxic reactions in response to radiation...
February 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135768/population-pharmacokinetics-analysis-of-intravenous-busulfan-in-chinese-patients-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#4
Xuemei Wu, Helin Xie, Weiwei Lin, Ting Yang, Nainong Li, Shanshan Lin, Xiaohong Yuan, Jinhua Ren, Xiaofan Li, Xian Huang
There are several reports describing population pharmacokinetic (popPK) models of busulfan (BU). However, limited information is available in Chinese hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. The present study aimed to establish a popPK model of intravenous BU in Chinese HSCT patients for individualized drug therapy. The popPK model of BU was developed from a total of 284 concentration-time points from 53 patients. The effects of demographic and biochemical covariates were investigated by NONMEM(®) software...
January 30, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135761/palmitoleic-acid-reduces-the-inflammation-in-lps-stimulated-macrophages-by-inhibition-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-independently-of-ppars
#5
Camila O Souza, Alexandre A S Teixeira, Luana A Biondo, Loreana S Silveira, Philip Calder, José C Rosa Neto
Palmitoleic acid (PM, 16:1n-7) has anti-inflammatory properties that could be linked to higher expression of PPARα, an inhibitor of NFκB. Macrophages play a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, however, the effects of PM on macrophages are underexplored. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of PM in activated macrophages as well the role of PPARα. Primary macrophages were isolated from C57BL6 (WT) and PPARα knockout (KO) mice, cultured under standard conditions and exposed to LPS (2...
January 30, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109180/the-intrauterine-renin-angiotensin-system-sex-specific-effects-on-the-prevalence-of-spontaneous-preterm-birth
#6
Kirsty G Pringle, Tamas Zakar, Eugenie R Lumbers
Preterm birth (PTB) is the single largest cause of death in infants and young children. The rate of PTB is significantly higher in male infants, particularly those that are born very preterm. Here we present evidence to suggest that the decidual renin-angiotensin system may play a role in inhibiting inflammation and maintaining the integrity of the fetal membranes during pregnancy, and that sex-specific alterations in the intrauterine RAS could contribute to the increased risk of PTB in male babies. Women carrying female fetuses have high levels of expression of decidual prorenin at term...
January 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109170/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-urine-and-laser-microdissected-glomeruli-in-iga-nephropathy
#7
Xiaoyuan Ning, Zhong Yin, Zuoxiang Li, Jiayun Xu, Linna Wang, Wanjun Shen, Yang Lu, Guangyan Cai, Xueguang Zhang, Xiangmei Chen
The purpose of the present study was to identify the differential proteins that synchronously change in urine and glomeruli and could be used to monitor glomerular lesions of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). The proteomes of urine and glomeruli from 4 IgAN patients who were graded III/IV according to the grading system of Lee et al were compared to the urine proteomes of 4 healthy volunteers and the glomeruli proteomes of adjacent normal tissue from 4 patients with renal tumors, respectively. Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence assay were applied to verify the results of the proteomic analysis...
January 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107571/increased-pd-l1-expression-in-breast-and-colon-cancer-stem-cells
#8
Yanheng Wu, Mingshui Chen, Peihong Wu, Chen Chen, Zhi Ping Xu, Wenyi Gu
Here we report the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1/2 (PD-L1/L2) in breast and colon cancer stem cells (CSCs). The stemness of these cells was confirmed by their surface markers. Using flow cytometry analysis we demonstrated that PD-L1 expression was higher in CSCs of both cancers compared to non-stem like cancer cells. Consistent with this, detection of cellular PD-L1 proteins by Western blot assay also showed increased PD-L1 protein in CSCs. In contrast, only trance amounts of PD-L2 were detected in CSCs of both cancers...
January 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093793/the-sex-dependent-effects-of-letrozole-on-anxiety-in-middle-aged-rats
#9
Veronika Borbélyová, Emese Domonkos, Melinda Csongová, Mária Kačmárová, Daniela Ostatníková, Peter Celec, Július Hodosy
Aromatase catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to estradiol and is involved in physiological effects of sex hormones on brain functions. Animal experiments have shown that the aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, can induce anxiety in young ovariectomized females that are used as a model of aging. Whether or not these effects would be similar in intact middle-aged animals is unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the effects of letrozole on anxiety in middle-aged rats of both sexes. Fifteen months old male and female rats were treated daily with either letrozole or vehicle for 2 weeks...
January 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079268/renoprotective-effect-of-hypericum-perforatum-against-diabetic-nephropathy-in-rats-insights-in-the-underlying-mechanisms
#10
Dalia M Abd El Motteleb, Dalia I Abd El Aleem
Oxidative stress and inflammation play a key role in the initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of hypericum perforatum (HP) against DN. Rats were allocated into six groups; control: received normal saline, diabetic untreated (DM): received single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) after injection of nicotinamide (NA), gliclazide: received STZ,NA+ gliclazide (10mg/kg), DM+HP50, DM+HP100, DM+HP200:received STZ,NA and HP 50, 100, 200 mg/kg respectively...
January 12, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079261/effect-of-parthanatos-on-ropivacaine-induced-damage-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#11
Ting Zheng, Chun-Ying Zheng, Xiao-Chun Zheng, Ruo-Guang Zhao, Yan-Qing Chen
Ropivacaine is one of the most common but toxic local anesthetics, and the mechanisms underlying its neurotoxicity are still largely unknown. This study was conducted to prepare a ropivacaine-induced neuronal injury model and research the effects of ropivacaine on PARP-1 activation and NAD(+) depletion. The cell death and apoptosis of ropivacaine-induced SH-SY5Y cells were detected with flow cytometry. The lactate dehydrogenase cycling reaction measured the NAD(+) level, and Western blots were used to analyze the expression levels of PARP-1 and AIF after ropivacaine treatments with different concentrations and durations...
January 12, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074479/gdf8-inhibits-bone-formation-and-promotes-bone-resorption-in-mice
#12
Yu-Si Chen, Qi Guo, Li-Juan Guo, Ting Liu, Xian-Ping Wu, Zhang-Yuan Lin, Hong-Bo He, Tie-Jian Jiang
Growth Differentiation Factor 8 (GDF8), also called myostatin, is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β super-family. As a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, GDF8 is also associated with bone metabolism. However, the function of GDF8 in bone metabolism is not fully understood. Our study aimed to investigate the role of GDF8 in bone metabolism, both in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that GDF8 had a negative regulatory effect on primary mouse osteoblasts, and promoted receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro...
January 11, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063172/prognostic-value-of-the-microrna-29-family-in-multiple-human-cancers-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#13
Yan Qi, Yalan Huang, Lijuan Pang, Wenyi Gu, Ning Wang, Jianming Hu, Xiaobin Cui, Jun Zhang, Jin Zhao, Chunxia Liu, Wenjie Zhang, Hong Zou, Feng Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer development have attracted much attention in recent years. miR-29 is known to critically affect cancer progression by functioning as a tumor suppressor. However, it may also act as an oncogene under certain situations. The prognostic value of miR-29 family in cancer progression is still under debate and reported results are inconsistent. Therefore, we reported here a meta-analysis and systematic review to analyze the prognostic role of miR-29 family in cancer. We screened 20 published studies and calculated pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival/recurrence-free survival (DFS/RFS)...
January 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063156/effect-of-a-selective-sglt2-inhibitor-luseogliflozin-on-circadian-rhythm-of-sympathetic-nervous-function-and-locomotor-activities-in-metabolic-syndrome-rats
#14
Asadur Rahman, Yoshihide Fujisawa, Daisuke Nakano, Hirofumi Hitomi, Akira Nishiyama
Metabolic syndrome is often associated with disruption of circadian rhythm of systemic hemodynamics and cardiovascular disease. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of luseogliflozin, a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, on circadian rhythm of sympathetic nervous function and locomotor activity (LA) in metabolic syndrome rats. The difference in the low frequency component of systolic blood pressure between the dark and light period significantly increased in the luseogliflozin-treated SHRcp. LA also increased in the dark period compared with the light period following luseogliflozin treatment...
January 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063155/effects-of-electrical-lesion-of-basolateral-amygdala-nucleus-on-rat-anxiety-like-behavior-under-acute-sub-chronic-and-chronic-stresses
#15
Hoda Ranjbar, Maryam Radahmadi, Parham Reisi, Hojjatallah Alaei
Stress contributes, as a risk factor, to such psychological disorders as anxiety. The effects of electrical lesions in the basolateral amygdala nucleus (BLA) were investigated on the locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior in different stress durations. For this purpose, rats were randomly allocated to control, sham, and experimental groups, the latter including groups with and without BLA nucleus subjected to acute, sub-chronic, and chronic stress conditions for 1, 7, and 21 days, respectively, applied 6 hours/day...
January 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058743/the-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-dapoxetine-inhibits-voltage-dependent-k-channels-in-rabbit-coronary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells
#16
Han Sol Kim, Hongliang Li, Hye Won Kim, Sung Eun Shin, Won-Kyo Jung, Kwon-Soo Ha, Eun-Taek Han, Seok-Ho Hong, Amy L Firth, Il-Whan Choi, Won Sun Park
We investigated the inhibitory effect of dapoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) channels using native smooth muscle cells from rabbit coronary arteries. Dapoxetine inhibited Kv channel currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 2.68 ± 0.94 μM and a slope value (Hill coefficient) of 0.63 ± 0.11. Application of 10 μM dapoxetine accelerated the rate of inactivation of Kv currents. Although dapoxetine did not modify current activation kinetics, it caused a significant negative shift in the inactivation curves...
January 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058732/bromocriptine-treatment-at-the-end-of-lactation-prevents-hyperphagia-higher-visceral-fat-and-liver-triglycerides-in-early-weaned-rats-at-adulthood
#17
Nayara Peixoto-Silva, Egberto G Moura, Janaine C Carvalho, Jéssica L Nobre, Fernanda T Quitete, Cintia R Pinheiro, Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Elaine de Oliveira, Patricia C Lisboa
Non-pharmacological early weaning (NPEW) leads offspring to obesity, higher liver oxidative stress and microsteatosis in adulthood. Pharmacological EW (PEW) by maternal treatment with bromocriptine (BRO) causes obesity in the adult progeny but precludes hepatic injury. To test the hypothesis that BRO prevents the deleterious changes of NPEW, we injected BRO into the pups from the NPEW model on late lactation. Lactating rats were divided into 2 groups: dams with an adhesive bandage around the body to prevent breastfeeding on the last 3 days of lactation and dams whose pups had free suckling (C)...
January 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042884/pharmacokinetics-of-the-antimicrobial-drug-sulfanilamide-is-altered-in-a-preclinical-model-of-vascular-calcification
#18
Anabel Brandoni, Adriana Mónica Torres
In vascular smooth muscle, calcium overload is linked to advancing age. The pharmacokinetics of sulfanilamide (SA), a compound with antibacterial properties, was evaluated in a preclinical model of vascular calcification. SA was used since it is useful to study possible modifications in the renal and hepatic management of drugs. Vascular calcification was induced by administration of a single high dose of vitamin D3 to rats (treated group) 10 days before the experiments. A parallel control group was processed...
January 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024120/ion-channels-long-qt-syndrome-and-arrhythmogenesis-in-ageing
#19
Kamalan Jeevaratnam, Karan R Chadda, Samantha C Salvage, Haseeb Valli, Shiraz Ahmad, Andrew A Grace, Christopher L-H Huang
Ageing is associated with increased prevalences of both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, reflecting disruption of the normal sequence of ion channel activation and inactivation generating the propagated cardiac action potential. Experimental models with specific ion channel genetic modifications have helped clarify the interacting functional roles of ion channels and how their dysregulation contributes to arrhythmogenic processes at the cellular and systems level. They have also investigated interactions between these ion channel abnormalities and age-related processes in producing arrhythmic tendency...
December 26, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008646/acute-cardiac-support-with-intravenous-milrinone-promotes-recovery-from-early-brain-injury-in-a-murine-model-of-severe-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#20
Tomoko Mutoh, Tatsushi Mutoh, Kazuhiro Nakamura, Yukiko Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Tsuru, Hirokazu Tsubone, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Yasuyuki Taki
Early brain injury/ischemia (EBI) is a serious complication early after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that contributes to development of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). This study aimed to determine the role of inotropic cardiac support using milrinone (MIL) on restoring acute cerebral hypoperfusion attributable to EBI and improving outcomes after experimental SAH. Forty-three male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to either sham surgery (SAH-sham), SAH induced by endovascular perforation plus postconditioning with 2% isoflurane (Control), or SAH plus isoflurane combined with MIL with and without hypoxia-inducible factor inhibitor (HIF-I) pretreatment...
December 23, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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