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Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230571/omega-3-fatty-acids-in-coronary-heart-disease-recent-updates-and-future-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan Ajith, Thankamani Gopinathan Jayakumar
Incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) increases worldwide with varying etiological factors. In addition to the control of risk factors, dietary modification has been recommended to reduce the prevalence. Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), of fish oil are beneficial for the prevention of CHD. The effect can be ascribed to anti-inflammatory, vasodilating, antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive activities and lowering of triacyl glycerol level. The American Heart Association advises two fish meals per week in subjects without CHD or supplementation of 1 g of EPA plus DHA per day in subjects with CHD...
September 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229988/dual-excitatory-and-smooth-muscle-relaxant-effect-of-%C3%AE-phenylethylamine-on-gastric-fundus-strips-in-rats
#2
Francisco José Batista Lima, Felipe Macário Dos Santos Rodrigues, Kalinne Kelly Lima Gadelha, Daniel Maia Nogueira de Oliveira, Emanuella Feitosa de Carvalho, Tatyanne Linhares Oliveira, Fernanda Carlos Nóbrega, Teresinha Silva de Brito, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães
β-Phenylethylamine (β-PEA) is a trace amine with chemical proximity to biogenic amines and amphetamines. It is an endogenous agonist of trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) that acts as a neuromodulator of classic neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. At high concentrations, β-PEA contracts smooth muscle, and a role for TAARs in these responses has been postulated. The high dietary intake of trace amines has been associated with such symptoms as hypertension and migraine, especially after the intake of foods containing such compounds...
September 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225902/peripheral-apelin-mediates-stress-induced-alterations-in-gastrointestinal-motor-functions-depending-on-the-nutritional-status
#3
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen, V Nimet İzgüt-Uysal, Gökhan Akkoyunlu, Saffet Öztürk, Fatma Uysal
Exposure to stress induces gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility. In rodents, acute restraint stress (ARS) inhibits gastric emptying (GE) and intestinal transit (IT) via central and peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated pathways. Peripherally-administered apelin-13 was shown to inhibit GI motor functions, moreover, stress-induced upregulation of gastric apelin content was demonstrated in rats suggesting that peripheral apelin may mediate stress-induced alterations in GI motility. We investigated the role of endogenous peripheral apelin in stress-induced GI dysfunction...
September 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221384/egfr-inhibitor-ag1478-inhibits-inflammatory-infiltration-and-angiogenesis-in-mice-with-diabetic-retinopathy
#4
Xin Ju, Xi Yang, Tao Yan, Huaicheng Chen, Zongming Song, Zongduan Zhang, Wencan Wu, Yi Wang
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most frequently occurring microvascular complications of diabetes. Recent evidence indicates that epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) are critical pathogenic players in non-neoplastic diseases, including diabetic cardiomyopathy and DR. However, the precise pathogenic mechanism of EGFR in DR has yet to be fully understood. In this study, we developed a type 1 diabetic early-stage retinopathy mouse model using injections of streptozotocin and an oxygen-induced end-stage diabetic retinopathy (OIR) model characterized by hypoxia-induced revascularization...
September 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203559/inflammatory-cytokines-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-and-interleukin-8-enhance-airway-smooth-muscle-contraction-by-increasing-l-type-ca-2-channel-expression
#5
Shengang Ding, Jie Zhang, Sheng Yin, Jingsen Lu, Min Hu, Juan Du, Junhao Huang, Bing Shen
Inflammation elevates intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+ ]i ) in airway smooth muscle (ASM). The L-type Ca2+ channel (L-VDCC) plays an important role in regulating Ca2+ influx in ASM. However, the role of L-VDCC in the inflammatory cytokine-induced pathology of ASM remains unclear. In the present study, we used calcium imaging and isometric tension measurements to assess the role of L-VDCC in agonist-induced [Ca2+ ]i rise and the associated contractions in mouse ASM, and we used immunoblotting to identify L-VDCC protein expression levels in mouse ASM after exposure to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin-8 (IL-8)...
September 10, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30161295/the-roles-of-pd-1-pd-l1-and-its-signalling-pathway-in-gastrointestinal-tract-cancers
#6
REVIEW
Chunguo Cui, Bo Yu, Qi Jiang, Xingfang Li, Kaiyao Shi, Zecheng Yang
Cancer immunotherapy has been increasingly applied in the treatment of advanced malignancies. Consequently, immune checkpoints have become a major concern. As PD-1 is an important immunomodulatory protein, the blockade of PD-1 and its ligand PD-L1 is a promising tumour immunotherapy for human carcinoma. In this review, we first discussed the role of the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction in gastrointestinal tract cancers. Targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 in immune cells and tumour cells may show remarkable efficiency in gastrointestinal tract cancers...
August 30, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30152875/silencing-of-c3g-increases-cardiomyocyte-survival-inhibition-and-apoptosis-via-regulation-of-p-erk1-2-and-bax
#7
Dongyan Yang, Lei Zhang, Zhisheng Zhang, Sulei Hu, Yanbo Fu, Jari A Laukkanen, Gang Li
Experimental studies have shown that overexpression of Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (C3G) plays pro-survival and anti-apoptotic roles through molecule phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in cardiomyocytes. However, it is still unclear if silencing of C3G may increase cell survival inhibition and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, and whether C3G silence induced injuries are reduced by the overexpression of C3G through regulation of p-ERK1/2 and pro-apoptotic molecule Bax...
August 28, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144316/challenges-of-heterotopic-ossification-molecular-background-and-current-treatment-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Paweł Łęgosz, Katarzyna Drela, Łukasz Pulik, Sylwia Sarzyńska, Paweł Małdyk
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is an abnormal formation of mature lamellar bone within extraskeletal soft tissues, such as muscles, tendons, and ligaments. This process is thought to be induced by inflammation associated with tissue injuries. HO is classified using two subtypes: resulting from injury or genetically inherited. HO formation is associated with polytrauma patients with traumatic brain injuries and spinal cord injuries. Moreover, HO is also considered to be a post-operative risk factor in some orthopedic procedures...
August 25, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144315/pectic-polysaccharides-extracted-from-rauvolfia-verticillata-lour-baill-var-hainanensis-tsiang-ameliorate-ulcerative-colitis-via-regulating-the-mapks-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-in-dendritic-cells
#9
Xin-Pu Miao, Xiao-Ning Sun, Qiong-Si Li, Lu-Jia Cui, Xuan-Yu Wang, Gui-Feng Zhuang, Tao-Zhi Deng
This study is to investigate the effects and mechanisms of pectic polysaccharides (PP) extracted from Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. var. hainanensis Tsiang on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC). Eighty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: Control, DSS, DSS + salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP), and DSS+ PP. The disease activity index (DAI), overall physical activity, and blood stool were monitored daily to evaluate severity of UC. Histological scores colon was observed...
August 25, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137654/dexamethasone-exacerbates-cisplatin-induced-muscle-atrophy
#10
Hiroyasu Sakai, Minami Kimura, Yuka Tsukimura, Saori Yabe, Yosuke Isa, Yuki Kai, Fumiaki Sato, Risako Kon, Nobutomo Ikarashi, Minoru Narita, Yoshihiko Chiba, Junzo Kamei
Dexamethasone for antiemetic therapy is typically administered with anticancer drugs such as cisplatin. We previously reported that cisplatin upregulates the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase genes, namely, muscle ring-finger protein 1 (MuRF1) and atrophy gene-1 (atrogin-1), and promotes muscle atrophy in mice. It is well known that dexamethasone causes upregulation of MuRF1 and Atrogin-1 expression in skeletal muscles. Although it is speculated that a combination of dexamethasone and cisplatin worsens muscle atrophy, there are no reports based on research...
August 23, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118542/lipoxin-a4-ameliorates-renal-ischaemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-rats
#11
Zhaohui Liu, Min Qu, Qiang Yang, Yulin Chang
Lipoxin A4 (LA4), a bioactive product of arachidonic acid, has been shown to exert strong anti-inflammatory activity. By contrast, the anti-inflammatory action of LA4 in a renal ischaemia-reperfusion (RIR)-mediated acute lung inflammation (ALI) model and the potential pathogenesis of the condition is still unclear. The aim of the current research was to investigate the effect of LA4 on RIR-induced ALI. The rat ALI model was induced by RIR. LA4 was injected via the tail vein immediately after RIR. The results indicate that LA4 markedly inhibits inflammatory cells infiltration, attenuates myeloperoxidase activity, and reduces the concentration of inflammatory mediators and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in RIR-induced ALI...
August 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099761/upregulation-of-c-ebp%C3%AE-and-tsc2-by-an-hdac-inhibitor-cg200745-protects-heart-from-doca-induced-hypertrophy
#12
Eunjo Lee, Hae-Ahm Lee, Mina Kim, Ga Young Do, Hyun-Min Cho, Gun Jik Kim, Hanna Jung, Jung Hup Song, Joong Myung Cho, Inkyeom Kim
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a vast family divided into four major classes: class I (1, 2, 3, and 8), class II (4, 5, 6, 7, 9 and 10), class III (sirtuin family) and class IV (HDAC11). HDAC inhibition attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through suppression of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex1 (mTORC1) signaling. HDAC inhibitors upregulate the expression of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), an mTORC1 inhibitor. However, the molecular mechanism underlying HDAC inhibitor-mediated upregulation of TSC2 is unclear...
August 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075047/clinical-observation-of-recombinant-human-endostatin-in-treating-relapsed-refractory-multiple-myeloma
#13
Hao Huang, Yang Liu, Quan-de Lin, Yu-Zhang Liu, Li-Na Liu, Qing-Lan Zhang, Feng-Kuan Yu, Yong-Ping Song, Bai-Jun Fang
Recombinant human endostatin (rhES) can inhibit multiple myeloma, while its clinical efficacy in treating relapsed refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) has not been assessed. One hundred eleven RRMM patients were treated with four different regimens: combination of VD (velcade+dexamethasone) and rhES (n=25), Thalidomide (Tha) and VD (VTD, n=22) combination, rhES and conventional chemotherapy combination (n=32), and combination of conventional chemotherapy and Tha (n=32). Significant differences were found in progression-free survival (PFS) between rhES combination groups and conventional chemotherapy combination groups...
August 3, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071135/associations-between-interleukin-gene-polymorphisms-and-the-risk-of-gastric-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#14
Yunxia Liu, Yefeng Xu, Yiqing Wang, Yongwei Yao, Jiewen Yang
Recently, the roles of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6 and IL-8 gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer (GC) have been extensively studied, with conflicting results. Therefore, we conducted the present meta-analyses to better elucidate the roles of interleukin gene polymorphisms in GC. Eligible articles were searched in PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science and CNKI. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to detect any potential association between interleukin gene polymorphisms and the risk of GC...
August 2, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30066400/key-mechanisms-underlying-netrin-1-prevention-of-impaired-spatial-and-object-memory-in-a%C3%AE-1-42-ca1-injected-rats
#15
Elham Zamani, Mohsen Parviz, Mehrdad Roghani, Parvaneh Mohseni-Moghaddam
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with an incompletely defined aetiology that is associated with memory and cognitive impairment. Currently available therapeutics only provide temporary assistance with symptoms. In spite of plentiful research in the field and the generation of thousands of studies, much is still to be clarified on precise mechanisms of pathobiology, prevention modalities, disease course and cure. Netrin-1, a laminin family protein, is said to have anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects and has a key role in neurogenesis and morphogenesis of neural structures...
August 1, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058175/function-of-at1-and-at2-receptors-in-atrial-contractions-from-spontaneous-hypertensive-and-diabetic-induced-streptozotocin-rats
#16
Diego Castro Musial, Regiane Miranda-Ferreira, Juan Fernando Padin, Juan Alberto Arranz-Tagarro, Alberto J Parra-Vitela, Aron Jurkiewicz, Antonio Garcia Garcia, Neide Hyppolito Jurkiewicz
Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are diseases that are strongly correlated. A major factor in this correlation is the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), with the peptide angiotensin II being a key component. This study analyzed the impact of Angiotensin Type 1 receptor (AT1R) and Angiotension Type 2 receptor (AT2R) in atrial function. MAIN METHODS: To perform the experiments, Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), diabetic streptozotocin-induced WKY rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were used, and stimulation of cardiovascular function was done by means of the following drugs: angiotensin II, novokinin and the antagonists losartan and PD123177...
July 30, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051924/physiological-and-pathophysiological-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-reactive-nitrogen-species-in-the-kidney
#17
REVIEW
Yu Ishimoto, Tetsuhiro Tanaka, Yoko Yoshida, Reiko Inagi
End-stage renal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of the disease and the number of patients who receive renal replacement therapy are expected to increase in the next decade. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic hypoxia in the tubulointerstitium represents the final common pathway to end-stage renal failure, and that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are the key players in kidney injury. However, ROS and RNS that exceed the physiological levels associated with the pathophysiology of most kidney diseases...
July 27, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044005/resveratrol-inhibits-vegf-induced-angiogenesis-in-human-endothelial-cells-associated-with-suppression-of-aerobic-glycolysis-via-modulation-of-pkm2-nuclear-translocation
#18
Hongyan Wu, Liwei He, JingJing Shi, Xianbang Hou, Hongjiang Zhang, Xiaoping Zhang, Qing An, Fangtian Fan
Endothelial cells (ECs) mainly depend on aerobic glycolysis to generate angiogenesis. Deregulation of glycolysis is often observed in human endothelial cells during angiogenesis. In the present study, we first report that resveratrol (RST), which has been intensively studied in glucose metabolism of various cancer cells, has a profound inhibitory effect on tube formation and migration via suppression of glycolysis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
July 25, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028903/inhibition-of-the-voltage-dependent-k-current-by-the-class-ic-antiarrhythmic-drug-flecainide-in-rabbit-coronary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells
#19
Jin Ryeol An, Hye Won Kim, Hongliang Li, Mi Seon Seo, Won-Kyo Jung, Kwon-Soo Ha, Eun-Taek Han, Seok-Ho Hong, Amy L Firth, Il-Whan Choi, Won Sun Park
This study examined the inhibitory effect of flecainide, a class 1c antiarrhythmic agent (Na+ channel blocker), on voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels in smooth muscle cells isolated from coronary arteries. Flecainide decreased the vascular Kv channel current in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 5.90 ± 0.87 μmol/L and a Hill coefficient of 0.77 ± 0.06. Although the steady-state activation curve was not affected by flecainide, it shifted the steady-state inactivation curves toward a more negative potential...
July 20, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025173/evaluation-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-function-in-rat-cardiomyocytes-under-different-glucose-conditions-using-an-extracellular-flux-analysis-method
#20
Hirokazu Tsubone, Tatsushi Mutoh
We studied the effect of glucose supply on mitochondrial respiratory function (MRF) of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, using a novel extracellular flux analysis. Fundamental respiratory parameters regarding oxygen consumption rate in mitochondria showed glucose concentration-dependent changes, where a significant increase or decrease in these parameters was observed to be associated with glucose concentrations ranging between 10% and 1,000% of the concentration used in standard medium (3,151 mg/L), respectively...
July 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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