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Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology

Karthigesh Sree Raman, Gaetano Nucifora, Joseph B Selvanayagam
Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMR) permits accurate phenotyping of many cardiac diseases. CMR's inherent advantages are its non-invasive nature, lack of ionizing radiation and high accuracy and reproducibility. Furthermore, it is able to assess many aspects of cardiac anatomy, structure and function. Specifically, it can characterize myocardial tissue, myocardial function, myocardial mass, myocardial blood flow/perfusion, irreversible and reversible injury, all with a high degree of accuracy and reproducibility...
January 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Erkan Kilinc, Yasar Dagistan, Aysel Kukner, Bayram Yilmaz, Sami Agus, Gizem Soyler, Fatma Tore
The exact mechanism of migraine pathophysiology still remains unclear due to the complex nature of migraine pain. Salmon calcitonin (SC) exhibits antinociceptive effects in the treatment of various pain conditions. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying the analgesic effect of salmon calcitonin on migrane pain using glyceryltrinitrate(GTN)-induced model of migraine and ex-vivo meningeal preparations in rats. Rats were administered intraperitoneally saline, GTN(10mg/kg), vehicle, saline+GTN, SC(50μg/kg)+GTN, and SC alone...
January 18, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Jeong-Seok Kim, Seon-Hwa Jeong, Sin-Hee Han, Ho-Keun Yi
Gomisin A from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis has many pharmacological properties, including hepato-protective, anti-diabetic, and anti-oxidative stress. However, the potential benefit of gomisin A is still not well understood, especially in aging progression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify whether the promotion of mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy of gomisin A affects anti-aging progression, and its mechanism. Intermediate (PD32) Human diploid fibroblast (HDF) cells were brought to stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) using hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )...
January 10, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Yali Zhu, Miaomiao Du, Lisha Yi, Zhihong Liu, Guifang Gong, Xiang Tang
Endometrial polyps (EPs) are localized benign overgrowths at the endometrium, with currently unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Although symptoms of EP can be alleviated or resolved by hysteroscopic polypectomy, a significant fraction of individuals develop recurrent EPs after initial EP removal. And in rare cases, EPs may undergo malignant transformation. In depth understanding of the mechanisms that are involved in EP development is urgently needed. Recent works indicate that dysregulations in the immune system participate in the development of a variety of symptoms, such as aging, obesity and hypertension, many of which are EP risk factors...
January 2, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Hua Liu, Qing Liu, Xian-Ping Wu, Hong-Bo He, Lei Fu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in bone metabolism and aging. Here we show that miR-96 was markedly up-regulated in serum of elderly patients with osteoporosis by miRNA microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. Moreover miR-96 was also up-regulated in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) of aged humans and mice. Our results show that the over-expression of miR-96 reduced osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, whereas the inhibition of miR-96 increased osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. At the molecular level, miR-96 regulated osteogenesis by targeting osterix...
December 30, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Bao-Xia He, Bin Qiao, Alfred King-Yin Lam, Xiu-Li Zhao, Wen-Zhou Zhang, Hui Liu
This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the association between the UGT2B7 tagSNPs (rs12233719, rs4356975, rs7435335 and rs7441774) and breast cancer in Chinese females. Blood samples were collected from 672 patients with breast cancer and 670 healthy controls for DNA extraction. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to analyze UGT2B7 polymorphisms. Dual-luciferase reporter assays were further performed to investigate the regulatory function of UGT2B7 tagSNPs...
December 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Mohsen Rastegar-Pouyani, Ali Mostafaie, Kamran Mansouri, Shahabeddin Mortazavi-Jahromi, Hamid-Reza Mohammadi-Motlagh, Abbas Mirshafiey
Angiogenesis is a process through which new capillaries are formed from preexisting ones, which contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, such as cancer and chronic inflammatory disorders. The β-D-mannuronic acid (M2000) is a novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with immunosuppressive effects and is a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor. This research aimed to study the anti-angiogenesis effects of M2000 under in vitro and in vivo models. The cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects of M2000 were examined using the trypan blue method and the MTT assay, respectively...
December 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Byoung Geol Choi, Dae Jin Kim, Man Jong Baek, Yang Gi Ryu, Suhng Wook Kim, Min Woo Lee, Ji Young Park, Yung-Kyun Noh, Se Yeon Choi, Jae Kyeong Byun, Min Suk Shim, Ahmed Mashaly, Hu Li, Yoonjee Park, Won Young Jang, Woohyeun Kim, Jun Hyuk Kang, Jah Yeon Choi, Eun Jin Park, Sung-Hun Park, Sunki Lee, Jin Oh Na, Cheol Ung Choi, Eung Ju Kim, Chang Gyu Park, Hong Seog Seo, Dong Joo Oh, Seung-Woon Rha
Recently, meta-analysis studies reported that hyperuricemia is associated with higher incidence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), however, there are limited data on Asians population. The aim of this observational study is to estimate the long-term impact of hyperuricemia on the new-onset T2DM and cardiovascular events. This study is based on a single-center, all-comers, and large retrospective cohort. Subjects visited from January 2004 to February 2014 were enrolled using the electronic database of Korea University Guro Hospital...
December 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Abeer Elkhoely, Rehab Kamel
Despite being a potent anticancer drug, nephrotoxicity is an adverse effect which renders the clinical use of cisplatin (Cis) limited. The protective role of diallyl sulfide (DAS); a naturally occurring organo-sulfide, present in garlic, in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity has been reported earlier. However, the mechanism through which DAS exerts its nephroprotective activity remains elusive. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying the reno-protective effect of DAS in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats...
December 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Jennifer K Trittmann, Markus Velten, Kathryn M Heyob, Hanadi Almazroue, Yi Jin, Leif D Nelin, Lynette K Rogers
The L-arginine/NO pathway is an important regulator of pulmonary hypertension, the leading cause of mortality in patients with the chronic lung disease of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia. L-arginine can be metabolized by NO synthase (NOS) to form L-citrulline and NO, a potent vasodilator. Alternatively, L-arginine can be metabolized by arginase to form urea and L-ornithine, a precursor to collagen and proline formation important in vascular remodeling. In the current study, we hypothesized that C3H/HeN mice exposed to prolonged hyperoxia would have increased arginase expression and pulmonary vascular wall cell proliferation...
December 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Hygor N Araujo, Jamaira A Victório, Carmem P Valgas da Silva, Amanda C S Sponton, Jean F Vettorazzi, Camila de Moraes, Ana P Davel, Angelina Zanesco, Maria A Delbin
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training on perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) function in thoracic aorta from rats fed a high-fat diet. Aortic vascular reactivity was performed in sedentary (SD), trained (TR), sedentary high-fat diet (SD-HF), and trained high-fat diet (TR-HF) male Wistar rats in the absence (PVAT-) or in the presence (PVAT+) of thoracic PVAT. We also measured circulatory concentrations of leptin and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), as well as the protein expressions of TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on PVAT...
December 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Weiping Hou, Khai G Leong, Elyce Ozols, Greg H Tesch, David J Nikolic-Paterson, Frank Y Ma
Cyclophilin D (CypD) is an important component in mitochondrial-dependent tubular cell death in acute kidney injury. However, it is not known whether CypD contributes to tubular cell damage in chronic interstitial fibrosis. We investigated this question in the unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) model of renal interstitial fibrosis. Groups of CypD-/- and wild type (WT) mice were killed 7 or 12 days after UUO surgery. The significant tubular cell apoptosis seen in WT UUO was significantly reduced in CypD-/- UUO based on TUNEL and cleaved caspase 3 staining...
December 12, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Xian Wu Cheng, Megumi Narisawa, Enze Jin, Chenglin Yu, Wenhu Xu, Limei Piao
Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including vascular aging and regeneration. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) exerts many physiological and pharmacological functions by regulating its extremely abundant substrates [e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), stromal cell-derived factor-1α/ C-X-C chemokine receptor type-4, etc.]. Over the past decade, emerging data revealed unexpected roles for DPP-4 and GLP-1 in intracellular signaling, oxidative stress production, lipid metabolism, cell apoptosis, immune activation, insulin resistance, and inflammation...
December 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Sorayya Kheirouri, Mohammad Alizadeh, Vahid Maleki
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are destructive compounds with pathogenic importance in age-related chronic diseases. Zinc has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic potential. This study was aimed to summarize effects of zinc on AGEs formation and AGEs induced damaging agents. Pubmed, Google scholar, Web of Sciences, and Scopus databases were searched. There was no limitation for publication date. English language original articles (in vitro, experimental and human studies) which examined the effect of external zinc on AGEs formation, AGEs- induced apoptosis, or oxidative stress in mammals were included...
December 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Hui Jiang, Yunfan Ti, Yicun Wang, Jun Wang, Menghan Chang, Jianning Zhao, Guojing Sun
Bone fracture healing is a multistage regenerative process that requires the collaboration of various cell types, with approximately 5% - 10% of fractures not healing properly. Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulations in the immune system are associated with defective healing. In a cohort of 30 bone fracture patients between 50 and 62 years of age, 8 patients displayed delayed healing. Compared to the 22 normal healing patients, these 8 delayed healing patients presented significantly lower frequencies of CD4+ CD25hi Foxp3+ canonical regulatory T cells immediately following bone fracture and early on during the healing process...
December 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Liang Chen, Yanhua Yang, Yiting Wang, Lipeng Qiu, Hengchuan Xia, Aiai Wang, Hailong Liu, Hongfei Shi, Keping Chen
Moderate exercise helps improve competition results, providing a balanced muscle tone and biochemical activity, whereas excessive training disrupts the balance between training and recovery, causes harm to the organism, and leads to overtraining syndrome (OTS). To explore the mechanisms of different protein expressions during training and acquisition of immunity, we used proteomic analyses to investigate the differences of liver-protein expressions between two swimming modes. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (CT), fatigue training (FT), and exhaustive training (ET) groups, and liver tissues from each group were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE)...
December 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Zora Susilovic-Grabovac, Ante Obad, Darko Duplančić, Ivana Banić, Denise Brusoni, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Ivica Vuković, Zeljko Dujic, Darija Bakovic
The presence of circulating gas bubbles and their influence on pulmonary and right heart hemodynamics was reported after uncomplicated self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) dive(s). Improvements in cardiac imaging have recently focused great attention on the right ventricle (RV). The aim of our study was to evaluate possible effects of a single air SCUBA dive on RV function using 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in healthy divers after single open sea dive to 18 meters of seawater, followed by bottom stay of 47 minutes with a direct ascent to the surface...
December 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Sarah Allegra, Davide Massano, Silvia De Francia, Filomena Longo, Francesca Piccione, Elisa Pirro, Jessica Cusato, Antonio D'Avolio, Antonio Piga
We evaluated the role of deferasirox therapeutic drug monitoring in order to avoid toxicity or treatment failure. Plasma concentrations, measured between two consecutive liver iron determinations, were determined at the end of dosing interval. Fifty-four β-thalassemic adult patients were enrolled: 50% were males; median age was 32.3 years (IQR 19.1-41.7 years) and median body mass index was 22.25 kg/m2 (IQR 20.24-23.75 kg/m2 ). The mean deferasirox dose was 28.6 ± 6.3 mg/kg/d and mean plasma concentration was 17...
December 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Yan-Qiong Cheng, Bing-Yi Tan, Xu-Hong Yu, Wen-Zhe Dong, Ding-Feng Su, De-Qiu Zhu, Ai-Jun Liu
This study was designed to investigate the possible synergism of amlodipine and candesartan on the reduction of blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive rats. The end organ protection was also observed. In acute experiment, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with intragastric administration of amlodipine (0.5, 1, 2, 3 mg/kg), candesartan (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 mg/kg), and 14 different combinations to find the possible ratio of synergistic interaction. In two kidneys, one-clip (2K1C) rats, the effects of amlodipine (1 mg/kg), canderastan (2 mg/kg) and their combination on BP reduction were also observed...
November 29, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Mohamad Kourghi, Jinxin V Pei, Michael L De Ieso, Saeed Nourmohammadi, Pak Hin Chow, Andrea J Yool
Aquaporin (AQP) channels in the Major Intrinsic Protein (MIP) family are known to facilitate transmembrane water fluxes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Some classes of AQPs also conduct ions, glycerol, urea, CO2 , nitric oxide, and other small solutes. Ion channel activity has been demonstrated for mammalian AQPs 0, 1, 6, Drosophila big brain (BIB), soybean nodulin 26, and rockcress AtPIP2;1. More classes are likely to be discovered. Newly identified blockers are providing essential tools for establishing physiological roles of some of the AQP dual water and ion channels...
November 29, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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