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Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925511/morphine-hyposensitivity-in-stz-diabetic-rats-reversal-by-dietary-l-arginine-treatment
#1
Shahrdad Lotfipour, Maree T Smith
Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a long-term complication of diabetes. Defining symptoms include mechanical allodynia (pain due to light pressure or touch) and morphine hyposensitivity. In our previous work using the streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat model of PDN, morphine hyposensitivity developed in a temporal manner with efficacy abolished at 3-months post-STZ and maintained for 6-months post-STZ. As this time course mimicked that for the temporal development of hyposensitivity to the pain-relieving effects of the furoxan nitric oxide (NO) donor, PRG150 (3-methylfuroxan-4-carbaldehyde) in STZ-diabetic rats, we hypothesized that progressive depletion of endogenous NO bioactivity may underpin the temporal loss of morphine sensitivity in STZ-diabetic rats...
September 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925510/mir-30a-5p-ameliorates-spinal-cord-injury-induced-inflammatory-responses-and-oxidative-stress-by-targeting-neurod-1-through-mapk-erk-signaling
#2
Xiaodong Fu, Yi Shen, Weili Wang, Xiaomiao Li
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major disability requiring more effective treatment than is currently available. MicroRNAs have been shown to effectively regulate gene expression at the translational level. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential role of miR-30-5p and possible mechanism in SCI. We found that miR-30-5p was notably down-regulated, while Neurod 1 expression was highly elevated in microglia from the mouse model of SCI. Additionally, overexpression of miR-30a-5p significantly suppressed inflammatory responses as reflected by an decrease in the secretion of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 triggered by SCI...
September 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925507/-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-and-ezh2-inhibitor-gsk343-have-similar-inhibitory-effects-and-mechanisms-of-action-on-colorectal-cancer-cells
#3
Le Ying, Feng Yan, Bryan R G Williams, Ping Xu, Xin Li, Yueling Zhao, Yiqun Hu, Yuefei Wang, Dakang Xu, Jing Dai
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a type of catechin. It exhibits excellent antioxidant effects and anti-tumor activities for cancer chemoprevention. The mechanism of anti-tumor effects of EGCG on different cancers has been studied for the past few decades, but remains controversial. To investigate the potential role that EGCG may play in the epigenetic regulation of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line, we integrated bioinformatics analysis with experimental validation. We found that levels of the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) were significantly higher in CRC tissues compared to normal adjacent tissues, based on the Genomic Data Commons (GDC) data portal...
September 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921626/relationship-between-urinary-sodium-to-potassium-ratio-and-ambulatory-blood-pressure-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Renata Libianto, John Moran, Christopher O'Callaghan, Sara Baqar, Angela X Chen, Scott T Baker, Michelle Clarke, Richard J Macisaac, George Jerums, Elif I Ekinci
Previous studies investigating the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure have mostly relied on dietary recall and clinic blood pressure measurement. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion, and their ratio, with 24h ambulatory blood pressure parameters including nocturnal blood pressure dipping in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes. We report that in 116 patients with diabetes, systolic blood pressure was significantly predicted by the time of day, age, the interaction between dipping status with time, and 24h urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio (R(2) =0...
September 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921598/association-of-serum-osteocalcin-levels-with-major-adverse-cardiovascular-events-a-4-4-year-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Xueli Zhang, Yun Shen, Yiting Xu, Qin Xiong, Zhigang Lu, Xiaojing Ma, Yuqian Bao, Weiping Jia
We investigated whether the serum osteocalcin levels at baseline were associated with the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in a population-based retrospective cohort study of Chinese subjects. Coronary angiography was used to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD). Survival curves were analyzed by performing log-rank tests with Kaplan-Meier figures. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to identify the association of serum osteocalcin levels with the incidence of MACE...
September 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902432/c1q-tnf-related-protein-9-improves-the-anti-contractile-effects-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-via-the-ampk-enos-pathway-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#6
Fang Han, Yang Zhang, Mingxia Shao, Qingjie Mu, Xiaotong Jiao, Ningning Hou, Xiaodong Sun
The anti-contractile property of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is abolished through an endothelium-dependent pathway in obesity. C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein (CTRP)9 improved endothelial function by promoting endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. The aims of this study were to investigate whether CTRP9 improves the anti-contractile effect of PVAT and protects against PVAT dysfunction in obese mice. The mice were treated with a high-fat diet with or without CTRP9 treatment. Thoracic aortas with or without PVAT (PVAT+ or PVAT-) were prepared, and concentration-dependent responses to phenylephrine were measured...
September 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892557/the-basis-of-differences-in-thermodynamic-efficiency-among-skeletal-muscles
#7
C J Barclay
Muscles convert chemical free energy into mechanical work. The energy conversion occurs in two steps. First, free energy obtained from oxidation of metabolic substrates (ΔGS ) is transferred to ATP and, second, free energy from ATP hydrolysis (ΔGATP ) is converted into work by myosin cross-bridges. The fraction of ΔGS transferred to ATP is called mitochondrial efficiency (ηM ) and the fraction of ΔGATP converted into work is called cross-bridge efficiency (ηCB ). Overall cross-bridge efficiency varies among muscles from ~20% and 35% and the analysis presented in the current studies shows that this variation is largely due to differences in ηCB whereas ηM is similar (~80%) in all the muscles assessed...
September 11, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853207/curcumin-ameliorates-severe-influenza-pneumonia-via-attenuating-lung-injury-and-regulating-macrophage-cytokines-production
#8
Shuguang Han, Jing Xu, Xiangjun Guo, Mao Huang
Curcumin, an active phenolic agent extract from the Curcuma longa, exhibits excellent anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, and neuroprotective effects. We aimed to investigate the anti-influenza role of Curcumin in vitro and in vivo. The effect of Curcumin on replication of influenza A virus (IAV) was examined in human lung cancer cell line A549, as well as in a mouse model. Curcumin could inhibit IAV in vitro and alleviate the severity of the disease in the mouse after infection with IAV. The results also indicated that Curcumin could trigger expression of Heme oxygenase-1 in vivo and attenuate IAV-induced injury to the lung tissue...
August 29, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853174/blockade-of-5-ht3-receptors-with-granisetron-does-not-affect-trigeminothalamic-nociceptive-transmission-in-rats-implication-for-migraine
#9
Alexey Y Sokolov, Ivan B Sivachenko, Sergey S Panteleev, Olga A Lyubashina
A perspective way to expand the existing range of anti-migraine drugs seems to be the search for pharmacological agents with anti-cephalalgic properties among medicines approved for clinical indications other than migraine. Numerous experimental and clinical data imply that selective serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists can be considered as potential anti-migraine agents. Therefore, the objective of our work was to examine the impact of selective 5-HT3 receptor blockade with granisetron on migraine-related nociceptive transmission within the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) and the ventroposteromedial nucleus of the thalamus (VPM)...
August 29, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815679/-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-and-atorvastatin-treatment-down-regulates-liver-fibrosis-related-genes-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Le Ying, Feng Yan, Yueling Zhao, Hugh Gao, Bryan Rg Williams, Yiqun Hu, Xiaofang Li, Run Tian, Ping Xu, Yuefei Wang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated advanced liver diseases have become prevalent conditions in many countries and are associated with increased mortality. Gene expression profiles in NAFLD have been examined recently but changes in expression elicited by chemical compound treatments have not been investigated. Since (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and atorvastatin (ATST) exhibit similar efficacy in NAFLD models, we reasoned that some common key genes might alter after treatment of EGCG and ATST...
August 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815665/pharmacological-modulation-of-c-x-c-motif-chemokine-receptor-4-influences-development-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-after-lung-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Sean P Nassoiy, Favin S Babu, Heather M LaPorte, Matthias Majetschak
Activation of CXC motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been reported to result in lung protective effects in various experimental models. The effects of pharmacological CXCR4 modulation on the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after lung injury, however, are unknown. Thus, we studied whether blockade and activation of CXCR4 influences development of ARDS in a unilateral lung ischemia-reperfusion injury rat model. Anesthetized, mechanically ventilated animals underwent right lung ischemia (series 1: 30 min; series 2: 60 min) followed by reperfusion for 300 min...
August 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815657/celecoxib-inhibits-osteoblast-differentiation-independent-of-cyclooxygenase-activity
#12
Atsushi Matsuyama, Sen Higashi, Saori Tanizaki, Takahiko Morotomi, Ayako Washio, Tomoko Ohsumi, Chiaki Kitamura, Hiroshi Takeuchi
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exert their effects primarily by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), thus suppressing prostaglandin synthesis. Some NSAIDs are known to perform functions other than pain control, such as suppressing tumour cell growth, independent of their COX-inhibiting activity. To identify NSAIDs with COX-independent activity, we examined various NSAIDs for their ability to inhibit osteoblastic differentiation using the mouse pre-osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. Only celecoxib and valdecoxib strongly inhibited osteoblastic differentiation, and this effect was not correlated with COX-inhibiting activity...
August 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802061/eulogy-john-ludbrook-surgeon-physiologist-and-biostatistician
#13
EDITORIAL
Roger G Evans, Colin I Johnston
On the morning of Friday June 9, Professor John Ludbrook died peacefully in his sleep at the age of 87. John will be deeply missed by his family, friends and colleagues. John Ludbrook had a long and distinguished career as a teacher, educator, surgeon, physiologist and lastly as a statistician. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 12, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795785/micro-computed-tomographic-analysis-of-the-radial-geometry-of-intrarenal-artery-vein-pairs-in-rats-and-rabbits-comparison-with-light-microscopy
#14
Jennifer P Ngo, Bianca Le, Zohaib Khan, Michelle M Kett, Bruce S Gardiner, David W Smith, Mayer M Melhem, Anton Maksimenko, James T Pearson, Roger G Evans
We assessed the utility of synchrotron-radiation micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for quantification of the radial geometry of the renal cortical vasculature. The kidneys of nine rats and six rabbits were perfusion fixed and the renal circulation filled with Microfil(®) . In order to assess shrinkage of Microfil(®) , rat kidneys were imaged at the Australian Synchrotron immediately upon tissue preparation and then post fixed in paraformaldehyde and reimaged 24 hours later. The Microfil(®) shrank only 2-5% over the 24 hour period...
August 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771848/5-ht-modulates-the-rat-mesenteric-vasopressor-outflow-by-5-ht1d-sympatholytic-receptors
#15
José-Ángel García-Pedraza, Mónica García-Domingo, Miriam Gómez-Roso, Alicia Rodríguez-Barbero, María-Luisa Martín, Asunción Morán
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modulates noradrenergic activity in different cardiovascular territories, but its effect on the mesenteric vasopressor outflow has not yet been clarified. This study investigated the in vivo serotonergic influence, characterizing 5-HT receptors implicated, in sympathetic innervation of mesenteric vasculature. Wistar rats were anaesthetised and prepared for the in situ autoperfused rat mesentery, monitoring systemic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and mesenteric perfusion pressure (MPP)...
August 3, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762515/elr-chemokine-mediated-neutrophil-recruitment-is-involved-in-2-4-6-trinitrochlorobenzene-induced-contact-hypersensitivity
#16
Hiroyasu Sakai, Saori Yabe, Ken Sato, Yuki Kai, Fumiaki Sato, Tetsuro Yumoto, Yuka Inoue, Minoru Narita, Kenjiro Matsumoto, Shinichi Kato, Yoshihiko Chiba
Contact dermatitis is a form of delayed-type hypersensitivity characterized by localized thickening, papules, redness and vesicles of the skin. A model of contact dermatitis involving repeated challenge of a hapten is adapted to assess dermatitis as characterized by skin thickening. Recently, it was reported that neutrophils have crucial roles in contact hypersensitivity. We thus examined the involvement of CXC chemokines bearing the glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR) motif ("ELR(+) chemokines") and neutrophils in the ear swelling induced by 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) challenges in the present study...
August 1, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762513/differential-expression-of-two-genes-oct-4-and-muc5ac-associates-with-poor-outcome-in-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#17
Milad Javanbakht, Jamal Akhavanmoghadam, Amir Jouya Talaei, Maryam Aghyani, Mohamad Mozafari, Leila Khedmat, Mahdi Mohebbi
Gastric cancer (GC) is the most frequent leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide that is linked to poor prognosis due to the lack of appropriate biomarkers. Our aim was to evaluate the MUC5AC and Oct-4 expression levels in GC and to assess their association with clinical factors.. Immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) and qRT-PCR were performed in GC patients to examine the MUC5AC and Oct-4 expression levels. The mRNA level of MUC5AC was significantly decreased in tumor tissues compared with non-cancerous tissues (1...
August 1, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755509/the-changes-in-and-relationship-between-plasma-nitric-oxide-and-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#18
Yun-Rong Lu, Yan Zhang, Ying-Bo Rao, Xi Chen, Han-Fen Lou, Yu Zhang, Hai-Yan Xie, Ping Fang, Li-Wei Hu
Because there is strong evidence of roles of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and nitric oxide (NO) synthase-NO system in depression, but the relationship between them is unknown, the aim of this study was to elucidate whether there is any correlation between NO and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. In 16 outpatients with MDD and 18 healthy controls, the plasma amino acids citrulline (Cit) and arginine (Arg) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and CRH levels was measured by radioimmunoassay...
July 29, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755503/spectrum-evaluation-assisted-eicosanoid-metabolomics-for-global-eicosanoid-profiling-in-human-vascular-endothelial-cells
#19
Qiankun Bao, Yajin Liu, Hao Song, Nan Yang, Ding Ai, Yi Zhu, Xu Zhang
Eicosanoids are hundreds of metabolites derived from poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which regulate biological processes from multiple angles via a complex metabolic network. Targeted eicosanoid metabolomics is used to study the eicosanoid profile in biological samples but only for eicosanoids with available standards. To expand the coverage of eicosanoids detected, we identified the eicosanoids without available standards by estimation of the retention time and comparison of the MS/MS spectra with the reference ones which was collected in a database from literature...
July 29, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744946/the-effect-of-tocopheryl-phosphates-tpm-on-the-development-of-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#20
R Libinaki, A Vinh, S Tesanovic-Klajic, R E Widdop, T A Gaspari
α-Tocopheryl phosphate (TP) is a naturally occurring form of Vitamin E found in the body. In the present study we compared the ability of an α-TP mixture (TPM) against a standard Vitamin E supplement, α-tocopherol acetate (TA) on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-deficient mice. Mice were maintained on either a normal chow diet for 24 weeks (Normal Diet), versus a group in which the final 8 weeks of the 24 week period mice were placed on a high fat (21%), high cholesterol (0.15%) challenge diet (HFHC), to exacerbate atherosclerotic lesion development...
July 26, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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