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Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology

Mohamed F Abdel Rahman, Ingy M Hashad, Khaled Abou-Aisha, Sahar M Abdel Maksoud, Mohamed Z Gad
Aim of the current study was to assess link between EDN K198N SNP, ET-1 serum concentration and AMI in Egyptians. Study cohort consisted of 84 patients at AMI onset and 84 age-matched healthy controls. Endothelin genotypes and concentrations were determined by sequencing and ELISA, respectively. Genotype distribution was not significantly different between AMI patients and controls (p=0.8341). The mean serum ET-1 concentration of patients (13.83±0.7pg/ml) was significantly higher than controls (7.26±0.2pg/ml) (p<0...
October 19, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Shu-Jian Wei, Lin Cheng, Er-Shun Liang, Qi Wang, Sheng-Nan Zhou, Hao Xu, Long-Hua Hui, Zhi-Ming Ge, Ming-Xiang Zhang
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) plays an important role in endothelial dysfunction, leading to atherogenesis and vascular-related diseases. However, whether PARP regulates nitric oxide (NO), a key regulator of endothelial function, is unclear so far. We investigated whether inhibition of PARP-1, the most abundant PARP isoform, prevents atherogenesis by regulating NO production and tried to elucidate the possible mechanisms involved in this phenomenon. In apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-) ) mice fed a high-cholesterol diet for 12 weeks, PARP-1 inhibition via treatment with 3,4-dihydro-54-(1-piperindinyl) butoxy-1(2H)-isoquinoline (DPQ) or PARP-1 gene knockoutreduced aortic atherosclerotic plaque areas (49% and 46%, respectively)...
October 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Dilek Özbeyli, Ayşe Cansu Berberoglu, Anıl Özen, Oktay Erkan, Yunus Başar, Tunahan Şen, Akakın Dilek, Yüksel Meral, Kasımay Çakır Özgür
The role of second hand smoke [SHS] exposure on ulcerative colitis is not known. Our aim was to examine the effects of α-lipoic acid (ALA), chronic aerobic [AE] or resistance exercise [RE] on SHS exposed rats with colitis. Sprague-Dawley male rats [150-200g, n=54] were occupied for colitis induction. Among the colitis groups, one group was exposed to SHS [6 days/week, 4 cigarettes/day] and the other was not. SHS group was divided into subgroups as sedentary, AE [swimming; 3 days/week] and RE [climbing with weight; 3 days/week]...
October 8, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Hideki Inoue, Akio Niimi, Hisako Matsumoto, Isao Ito, Tsuyoshi Oguma, Kojiro Otsuka, Tomoshi Takeda, Hitoshi Nakaji, Tomoko Tajiri, Toshiyuki Iwata, Tadao Nagasaki, Michiaki Mishima
Patch formulation of tulobuterol has been used in asthma treatment as a long-acting β2 -agonist (LABA) through sustained skin absorption. Its treatment efficacy, especially in small airways, remains poorly understood. The study aim was to investigate LABA add-on effects of tulobuterol patch (TP) and salmeterol inhaler (SA) on pulmonary function, asthma control, and health status. Patients who had adult-onset under-controlled asthma, despite taking inhaled corticosteroids, were enrolled in a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, proof-of-concept study of 12-week add-on treatment with TP (n = 16) or SA (n = 17)...
October 8, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Hesham Fathy Hassan Hassan, Ahmed Mohamed Mansour, Amira Morad Hussein Abo-Youssef, Bakheet E M Elsadek, Basim Anwar Shehata Messiha
Currently, the outcomes of conventional chemotherapeutic approaches are unsatisfactory. Clinical application of nanoparticles seems promising. We aim to evaluate the possible antitumor activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) as a chemotherapeutic approach in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. An in vitro study was performed on three different cell lines, namely human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), human prostate cancer (PC3), and none-small cell lung cancer (A549) cell lines. An in vivo study using diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced HCC in adult male Wistar rats was conducted to investigate the potential antitumor activity of ZnONPs in HCC and the possible underlying mechanisms...
October 8, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Tobias Hilbert, Kathrin Dornbusch, Georg Baumgarten, Andreas Hoeft, Stilla Frede, Sven Klaschik
Increased pulmonary vascular resistance is a critical complication in sepsis. Toll-like receptor (TLR) as well as angiopoietin (ANG) signaling both contribute to the emergence of pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that TLR stimulation by bacterial ligands directly affects expression and secretion of ligands and receptors of the angiopoietin/TIE axis. Microvascular endothelial (HPMEC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) of pulmonary origin were incubated with thrombin and with ligands for TLR2, -4, -5, and -9...
October 6, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
William K Karlsson, Caspar G Sørensen, Christina Kruuse
Endothelial dysfunction (ED), in particular cerebral ED, may be an essential biomarker for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. However, there is no consensus on methods to best estimate cerebral ED. In this systematic review, we evaluate the use of L-arginine and N(G) -monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) for assessment of cerebral ED. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was done. We included studies investigating cerebrovascular response to L-arginine or L-NMMA in human subjects with vascular risk factors or ischemic cerebrovascular disease...
October 5, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Majid Gharghani, Shima Dokoohaki, Amir Ghanbari, Naser Farhadi, Kazem Zibara, Saeid Khodadoust, Mohammad Parishani, Mehdi Ghavami Zadeh, Heibatollah Sadeghi
Melatonin has a beneficial role in adult rat models of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg/d) was investigated in young age (5-6 weeks old) Lewis rat model of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) followed by assessing serum levels of lactate and melatonin. Results showed that clinical outcomes were exacerbated in melatonin- (neurological score=6) versus PBS-treated EAE rats (score=5). Melatonin caused a significant increase in serum IFN-γ, in comparison to PBS-treated EAE rats whereas no considerable change in IL-4 levels were found, although they were significantly lower than those of controls...
October 3, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
SangMin Choe, Byung-Moon Choi, Yong-Hun Lee, Soo-Han Lee, Eun-Kyung Lee, Ki-Seong Kim, Gyu-Jeong Noh
This study describes the pharmacodynamic interaction between propofol and remifentanil. Sixty patients who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia (30 males/30 females) were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated to receive one of 15 combinations of drug levels. Baseline electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded for 5 min prior to administering the drugs. Patients received a target-controlled infusion at one of four predefined doses of propofol (high: 3 μg·ml(-1) , medium: 1.5 μg·ml(-1) , low: 0...
October 1, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
A F Dulhunty, L Wei-LaPierre, M G Casarotto, N A Beard
The core skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) calcium release complex extends through three compartments of the muscle fibre, linking the extracellular environment through the cytoplasmic junctional gap to the lumen of the internal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium store. The protein complex is essential for skeletal excitation-contraction (EC-) coupling and skeletal muscle function. Its importance is highlighted by perinatal death if any one of the EC-coupling components are missing and by myopathies associated with mutation of any of the proteins...
October 1, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Ruliang Wang, Zefei Jiang, Shaohua Zhang, Jizheng Tian, Tao Wang, Santai Song
To investigate the changes in bone metabolism markers after second-line treatment with loading-dose intravenous (I.V.) ibandronate in patients with bone metastases (BM) from breast cancer, 80 patients were enrolled in this study during January 2010 to April 2014. All the patients were treated with a second-line loading dose ibandronate for advanced breast cancer with BM and moderate-to-severe bone pain. Ibandronate was (6 mg) intravenously administered on 3 consecutive days followed by maintenance treatment every 3-4 weeks...
September 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Madina Naimi, Filip Vlavcheski, Brennan Murphy, Tomas Hudlicky, Evangelia Tsiani
Compounds that increase the activity of the energy sensor AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) have the potential to regulate blood glucose levels. Although rosemary extract (RE) has been reported to activate AMPK and reduce blood glucose levels in vivo, the chemical components responsible for these effects are not known. In the present study, we measured the levels of the polyphenol carnosic acid (CA) in RE and examined the effects and the mechanism of action of CA on glucose transport system in muscle cells. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure the levels of CA in RE...
September 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Jing Wang, Jian-Xin Cheng
In clinical practice, human ovarian cancer shows considerable resistance to chemotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the role of c-Met in the chemoresistance of ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and OVCAR-3 were pretreated with c-Met inhibitor INCB28060, and then treated with paclitaxel. Cell survival, cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by MTT assay, flow cytometry analysis and TUNEL assay, respectively. The activation of c-Met signaling was detected by Western blot analysis.INCB28060 inhibited the survival of SKOV3 and OVCAR-3 cells and enhanced the chemosensitivity of SKOV3 and OVCAR-3 cells to paclitaxel...
September 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Rajagopalan Geetha, Chandrasekaran Sathiya Priya, Carani Venkatraman Anuradha
Mitochondrial abnormality is thought to play a key role in cardiac disease originating from the metabolic syndrome (MS). We evaluated the effect of troxerutin (TX), a semi-synthetic derivative of the natural bioflavanoid rutin, on the respiratory chain complex activity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in heart of high fat, high fructose diet (HFFD) -induced mouse model of MS. Adult male Mus musculus mice of body weight 25-30 g were fed either control diet or HFFD for 60 days. Mice from each dietary regimen were divided into two groups on the 16(th) day and were treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/Kg bw, p...
September 14, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Amir Barzegar Behrooz, Fatemeh Nabavizadeh, Jamal Adiban, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Rouhollah Vahabpour, Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi, Hamid Sohanaky
Chemotherapy, a conventional method assessed in recent oncology studies, poses numerous problems in the clinical environment. To overcome the problems inherent in chemotherapy, an intelligent drug delivery system has come to the forefront of cancer therapeutics. In this study, we designed a dendrimer-based pharmaceutical system together with a single-stranded AS1411 aptamer (APT(AS) (1411) ) as a therapeutic strategy. The PAMAM (polyamidoamine)-PEG (polyethylene glycol) complex was then conjugated with the AS1411 aptamer and confirmed by AFM (Atomic-force microscopy) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) ...
September 14, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Kafa Walweel, Ye Win Oo, Derek R Laver
Cardiac output and rhythm depend on the release and the take-up of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Excessive diastolic calcium leak from the SR due to dysfunctional calcium release channels (RyR2) contributes to the formation of delayed after-depolarisations, which underlie the fatal arrhythmias that occur in heart failure and inherited syndromes. Calmodulin (CaM) is a calcium-binding protein that regulates target proteins and acts as a calcium sensor. CaM is comprised of two calcium binding EF-hand domains and a flexible linker...
September 14, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Alice E Kane, Susan E Howlett
The incidence of cardiovascular disease is rising as the population ages. This has led to an increase in the need to perform cardiac surgery in older patients. However, aged hearts are particularly susceptible to reperfusion injury following periods of myocardial ischemia that occur during cardiac surgery. Indeed, older adults experience myocardial dysfunction and reduced survival post-surgery compared to younger people and certain groups, including older women and frail older adults, are at particular risk...
September 14, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
José Luiz de Brito Alves, Jéssica Maricelly Deodato de Oliveira, Dioginis José Soares Ferreira, Monique Assis V de Barros, Viviane Oliveira Nogueira, Débora Santos Alves, Hubert Vidal, Carol Gois Leandro, Cláudia Jacques Lagranha, Luciano Pirola, João Henrique da Costa-Silva
Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation predisposes the adult offspring to sympathetic overactivity and arterial hypertension. Although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, dysregulation of the oxidative balance has been proposed as a putative trigger of neural-induced hypertension. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between the oxidative status at transcriptional and functional levels in the medulla oblongata and maternal protein restriction induced-hypertension...
September 9, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Galina S Baturina, Liubov E Katkova, Sotirios G Zarogiannis, Evgeniy I Solenov
Vasopressin (AVP) regulates body salt-water balance. Brattleboro rats carry an AVP gene mutation resulting in a recessive form of central diabetes insipidus, being ideal for AVP deficiency studies. Herein, we studied the water permeability of the apical and basolateral sides of outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD) principal cells in response to dDAVP (a V2 receptor agonist) administration in Wistar and Brattleboro rats. Biophysical measurements of the water permeability (Pf ) of isolated OMCD principal cells were performed with the calcein quenching method with/without dDAVP (10(-8) M)...
September 4, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
J Banach, W Gilewski, A Słomka, K Buszko, J Błażejewski, D Karasek, D Rogowicz, E Żekanowska, W Sinkiewicz
Derangement of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling was observed in cardiovascular disorders. The present study assesses the diagnostic and prognostic value of BMP6 plasma concentration in chronic heart failure (CHF). 130 CHF patients and 32 controls participated in the study. BMP6 plasma level was measured at baseline. During 12-month follow-up death and hospitalisation with CHF exacerbation were recorded. BMP6 was significantly increased in CHF patients with highest concentration in most advanced CHF...
September 4, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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