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Urologic Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316320/pediatric-urology
#1
EDITORIAL
Hillary L Copp, Armando J Lorenzo, Aseem R Shukla, Anthony A Caldamone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316319/surgery-of-anomalies-of-gonadal-and-genital-development-in-the-post-truth-era
#2
REVIEW
Daniela B Gorduza, Charmian A Quigley, Anthony A Caldamone, Pierre D E Mouriquand
This article aims to examine the current issues of debate concerning the management of atypical gonadal and genital development (AGD). Understanding this complex subject begins with defining the distinct AGD conditions, the aims and nature of surgical treatments, and the perceptions of affected individuals and their families. The evolving societal and medical contexts in this field are confronting facts and opinions, leading to a significant change in attitudes and approaches.
November 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316318/prenatal-urinary-tract-dilatation
#3
REVIEW
Andrea Balthazar, C D Anthony Herndon
Urinary tract dilatation (UTD) is the most common congenital anomaly detected on prenatal ultrasonography (US), affecting 1% to 3% of all pregnancies. This article focuses on the prenatal detection of UTD and the postnatal evaluation and management based on the UTD grading system risk assessment. Prophylactic antibiotics and postnatal imaging are discussed. The recent management trend is for a more conservative approach to minimize unnecessary testing and exposures to the fetus and neonate while detecting those who may have clinically significant disorder...
November 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316317/bladder-bowel-dysfunction
#4
REVIEW
Liza M Aguiar, Israel Franco
Bladder bowel dysfunction (BBD) describes a spectrum of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with bowel complaints. The true incidence of BBD is unknown; however, BBD symptoms represent approximately 40% of pediatric urology consultations. Given the close interaction between the bladder and bowel due to their common innervation as well as associated pelvic floor muscles, patients often present with bowel complaints as well. Increasing awareness of BBD over the past 30 years has led to better diagnostic criteria and treatment methods...
November 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316316/pediatric-urology-and-global-health-why-now-and-how-to-build-a-successful-global-outreach-program
#5
REVIEW
Jason P Van Batavia, Aseem R Shukla, Rakesh S Joshi, Pramod P Reddy
Global health programs in pediatric surgical fields are needed more than ever to ease the global burden of congenital anomalies. Pediatric urology is an ideal field for global health programs because genitourinary diseases account for a large proportion of congenital diseases and access to surgical subspecialists is lacking in most low- and middle-income countries. By following several key guidelines with particular emphasis on team building, visiting and local team collaboration, long-term commitment, and surgical training, global health partnerships can lead to a sustainable model for increasing surgical capacity...
November 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316315/minimally-invasive-surgery-in-pediatric-urology-adaptations-and-new-frontiers
#6
REVIEW
Kunj R Sheth, Jason P Van Batavia, Diana K Bowen, Chester J Koh, Arun K Srinivasan
As the frontiers of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) continue to expand, the availability and implementation of new technology in pediatric urology are increasing. MIS is already an integral part of pediatric urology, but there is still much more potential change to come as both recent and upcoming advances in laparoscopic and robotic surgery are surveyed.
November 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316314/transitional-urology
#7
REVIEW
Robert C Kovell, Alexander J Skokan, Dan N Wood
The field of transitional urology has taken on an increasing importance in recent years as more individuals with congenital urologic issues are living and thriving into adulthood. This article reviews the transitional process itself including barriers to successful transition and the consequences of failing to properly transition. Also provided is a broad overview of the urologic issues faced by patients who may benefit from lifelong care and the providers who will be helping them with transition and assuming their care...
November 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316313/fertility-issues-in-pediatric-urology
#8
REVIEW
Kathleen Kieran, Margarett Shnorhavorian
Improved understanding of the pathogenesis and natural history of many urologic disorders, as well as advances in fertility preservation techniques, has increased the awareness of and options for management of fertility threats in pediatric patients. In children, fertility may be altered by oncologic conditions, by differences in sexual differentiation, by gonadotoxic drugs and other side effects of treatment for nonurologic disorders, and by urologic conditions, such as varicocele and cryptorchidism. Although fertility concerns are best addressed in a multidisciplinary setting, pediatric urologists should be aware of the underlying pathophysiology and management options to properly counsel and advocate for patients...
November 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316312/neuropathic-bladder-and-augmentation-cystoplasty
#9
REVIEW
Joshua D Roth, Mark P Cain
Surgical indications for individuals with neuropathic bladder include unsafe urinary storage pressures, progressive upper tract deterioration, and continued urinary incontinence that is recalcitrant to oral pharmacologic or intradetrusor injection therapy and intermittent catheterization. Bladder augmentation is currently the gold standard surgical procedure used to increase bladder capacity and reduce storage pressures but has significant long-term risks. The medical and surgical management of neuropathic bladder, as well as long-term consequences of bladder augmentation, are reviewed...
November 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316311/urologic-evaluation-and-management-of-pediatric-kidney-transplant-patients
#10
REVIEW
Blake Palmer, Brad Kropp
Urologic causes of end-stage renal disease are estimated between 25% and 40% of causes. The goal of renal transplantation in chronic kidney disease patients is to provide renal replacement therapy with less morbidity, better quality of life, and improved overall survival compared with dialysis. A patient's urologic history can be a significant source of problems related to infections, recurrence of disease, and surgical complications. Many of the urologic risks are modifiable. Proper evaluation and management can mitigate the potential problems after transplantation, and these patients with complex urologic problems are seen to have similar graft function outcomes...
November 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316310/anesthesia-in-the-pediatric-patient
#11
REVIEW
Megan A Brockel, David M Polaner, Vijaya M Vemulakonda
Improvements in anesthetic drugs and monitoring techniques over the past several decades have significantly reduced the anesthetic risks for pediatric patients. Neonates and infants are at increased risk for cardiovascular and pulmonary complications, and recent reports have led to concern that these young patients may be at risk for long-term detrimental neurodevelopmental effects as well. Although studies are currently under way to answer the question of anesthetic neurotoxicity in children, surgeons and anesthesiologists must work with parents to determine the best course of action for these vulnerable patients...
November 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316309/pediatric-stone-disease
#12
REVIEW
Diana K Bowen, Gregory E Tasian
Once considered rare, pediatric nephrolithiasis has become a critical field of study in the last decade due to the rapid increase in incidence. Understanding the changing epidemiology and lifelong implications of pediatric stone disease is critically important to effectively manage the individual patient as well as identify risk factors for childhood onset that could be modified. Determining the role of diagnostic imaging in children is a unique challenge as limiting radiation and imaging stewardship should be priorities...
November 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316308/continuous-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-pediatric-urology
#13
REVIEW
Douglas W Storm, Luis H Braga, Christopher S Cooper
Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) for urinary tract infection prevention in children with vesicoureteral reflux, hydronephrosis, and hydroureteronephrosis is reviewed. A more selective use of CAP is advocated based on a review of known individual risk factors in each of these conditions that subsequently helps identify the children most likely to benefit from CAP. Both short-term and potential long-term side effects of CAP are reviewed, including the impact of prophylactic antibiotics on bacterial resistance and the microbiome...
November 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031470/advances-in-urologic-imaging
#14
EDITORIAL
Samir S Taneja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031469/advances-in-urologic-imaging-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-ligand-pet-imaging
#15
REVIEW
Michael S Hofman, Amir Iravani, Tatenda Nzenza, Declan G Murphy
Radiolabeled prostate-specific membrane antigen PET (PSMA PET) is emerging as an important modality for imaging prostate cancer (PCa). Promising clinical experience has led to increasing number of studies exploring the role of PSMA PET in different aspects of PCa including primary detection, risk stratification, targeted biopsy, initial staging, restaging at biochemical recurrence, biologic characterization, treatment response assessment and prognostication. PSMA PET may prove an important disease biomarker, expand our understanding of the pathogenesis and pave the way for personalized management of PCa...
August 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031468/imaging-of-prostate-cancer-using-fluciclovine
#16
REVIEW
Bital Savir-Baruch, Lucia Zanoni, David M Schuster
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the United States. Despite high prevalence, diagnosis and surveillance is limited due to indolent biology. Functional imaging techniques improved the ability to detect disease. Amino acids are building blocks of proteins and intracellular transport is upregulated in prostate cancer. Normal biodistribution patterns of fluciclovine include uptake in the liver and pancreas with minimal to no urine excretion, a distinct advantage for prostate cancer imaging...
August 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031467/imaging-of-prostate-cancer-using-11-c-choline-pet-computed-tomography
#17
REVIEW
Paolo Castellucci, Francesco Ceci, Stefano Fanti
This article reviews the role of 11 C-choline-PET/computed tomography (CT) in patients with prostate cancer for diagnosis, staging, and restaging the disease in case of biochemical recurrence after primary treatment. The main application of this imaging procedure is restaging of the disease in case of biochemical recurrence. 11 C-Choline-PET/CT proved its value for metastases-directed salvage therapies and for monitoring therapy response in castration-resistant patients. Prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen kinetics values confirmed their correlation with 11 C-choline PET/CT sensitivity...
August 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031466/prostate-mr-imaging-for-posttreatment-evaluation-and-recurrence
#18
REVIEW
Sonia Gaur, Baris Turkbey
Prostate multiparametric MR imaging (mpMRI) plays an important role in local evaluation after treatment of prostate cancer. After radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, and focal therapy, mpMRI can be used to visualize normal post-treatment changes and to diagnose locally recurrent disease. An understanding of the various treatments and expected changes is essential for complete and accurate post-treatment mpMRI interpretation.
August 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031465/multiparametric-prostate-mr-imaging-impact-on-clinical-staging-and-decision-making
#19
REVIEW
Petar Duvnjak, Ariel A Schulman, Jamie N Holtz, Jiaoti Huang, Thomas J Polascik, Rajan T Gupta
Meaningful changes to the approach of prostate cancer staging and management have been made over the past decade with increasing demand for high-quality multiparametric MR imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate. This article focuses on the evolving paradigm of prostate cancer staging, with emphasis on the role of mpMRI on staging and its integration into clinical decision making. Current prostate cancer staging systems are defined and mpMRI's role in the detection of non-organ-confined disease and how it has an impact on the selection of appropriate next steps are discussed...
August 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031464/multiparametric-mr-imaging-of-the-prostate-interpretation-including-prostate-imaging-reporting-and-data-system-version-2
#20
REVIEW
Alessandro Furlan, Amir A Borhani, Antonio C Westphalen
mp-MRI of the prostate is a complex study that combines anatomic and functional imaging. The complexity of this technique, along with an increasing demand, has brought new challenges to imaging interpretation. The Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System provides radiologists with guidelines to standardize interpretation. This article discusses the interpretation of the pulse sequences recommended in the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 guidelines, reviews advanced quantitative imaging tools, and discusses future directions...
August 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
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