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Urologic Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650145/current-management-of-invasive-bladder-and-upper-tract-urothelial-cancer
#1
EDITORIAL
Jeffrey M Holzbeierlein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650144/erratum
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650143/perioperative-immunotherapy-in-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-and-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#3
REVIEW
Min Yuen Teo, Jonathan E Rosenberg
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, a significant proportion of patients are ineligible for cisplatin owing to renal impairment or other medical comorbidities. The introduction of anti-programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1(PD1/PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors has redefined the therapeutic landscape for platinum-resistant urothelial cancers; their clinical efficacy and favorable toxicity render these agents attractive therapeutic options either as monotherapy or in combination with other agents in earlier disease states, including muscle-invasive disease...
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650142/endoscopic-approaches-to-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#4
REVIEW
Firas G Petros, Roger Li, Surena F Matin
A select group of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) may meet indications for endoscopic management. Strategies for disease management are provided, based on a comprehensive review of the data using PubMed and Medline databases and marrying this with our experience with endoscopic management of UTUC. Endoscopic management of UTUC via retrograde or antegrade approaches is a viable treatment option for appropriately selected patients with low-risk UTUC, including those with low-grade, low-volume, and solitary tumors...
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650141/adjuvant-therapy-in-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-and-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Tala Achkar, Rahul A Parikh
This article summarizes the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in muscle-invasive and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and upper urinary tract.
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650140/quality-of-life-after-radical-cystectomy
#6
REVIEW
Mark D Tyson, Daniel A Barocas
Approximately 1 in 5 new cases of clinically localized bladder cancer is muscle invasive and requires the patient to choose from 1 of 2 prevailing options for treatment: radical cystectomy or radiation to the bladder. However, these treatments are associated with detrimental effects on patient well-being and quality of life, particularly with respect to functional independence, urinary and sexual function, social and emotional health, body image, and psychosocial stress. Compared with the literature on other malignancies like breast or prostate cancer, high-quality studies evaluating the effects of bladder cancer treatment on quality of life are lacking...
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650139/follow-up-management-of-cystectomy-patients
#7
REVIEW
Madhumitha Reddy, Karim Kader
Bladder cancer is the sixth leading cancer in the United States. Radical cystectomy is a lifesaving procedure for bladder cancer with or without muscle invasion. Radical cystectomy is performed on 39% of these patients, and 35% will have a life-threatening recurrence. Distant metastases are the most common; local, upper tract, and urethral recurrence can also occur. Surveillance after cystectomy is critical to diagnosing recurrence early. Functional complications after urinary diversion include bowel dysfunction, vitamin B12 deficiency, acidosis, electrolyte abnormalities, osteopenia, nephrolithiasis, urinary tract infections, renal functional decline, and urinary obstruction, which can be reversed when diagnosed early...
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650138/enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-pathways-role-and-outcomes-in-the-management-of-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Daniel Zainfeld, Ankeet Shah, Siamak Daneshmand
Radical cystectomy remains the gold standard therapy for the treatment of muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma, yet is accompanied by significant rates of perioperative complications and readmission. Enhanced recovery protocols aim to apply evidence-based principles of care to ameliorate the morbidity of this procedure by enabling better tolerance of and recovery from radical cystectomy. Multiple patient series have demonstrated the capacity for enhanced-recovery-after-surgery (ERAS) principles to improve outcomes among patients undergoing radical cystectomy through decreased incidence of gastrointestinal complications and decreased length of hospitalization without increased readmissions or overall morbidity...
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650137/lymphadenectomy-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-and-upper-tract-urothelial-cell-carcinoma
#9
REVIEW
Niranjan J Sathianathen, Michael C Risk, Badrinath R Konety
There are currently no reported randomized trials that characterize the staging or therapeutic benefit of performing a lymph node dissection in either bladder cancer or upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Several unanswered questions remain in this domain focused on the indications and patient selection for pelvic lymph node dissection, extent of dissection, its impact on outcome, and potential risks. However, the results of observational studies suggest that the burden of metastasis is high in both diseases when muscle invasive and performing a lymphadenectomy can provide prognostic information and yield therapeutic benefit...
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650136/role-and-indications-of-organ-sparing-radical-cystectomy-the-importance-of-careful-patient-selection-and-counseling
#10
REVIEW
Svetlana Avulova, Sam S Chang
Organ-sparing cystectomy remains an operation for a highly selected patient population that can offer similar oncologic outcomes but improved sexual function in men and women. Occult prostate cancer in men may occur even with screening but the majority is of clinical insignificance. Paramount to patient selection are oncologic concerns, but preoperative sexual function, age, performance status, and postoperative expectations must also be evaluated during patient selection. Improved diagnostic and surveillance tools may facilitate and improve patient selection in the future...
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650135/robotic-nephroureterectomy
#11
REVIEW
Benjamin L Taylor, Douglas S Scherr
Upper tract urothelial carcinoma is a rare malignancy that has an abundance of surgical treatment options, including open, laparoscopic, robotic, and endoscopic approaches. As advances in technology allow for shorter, less morbid operations, the variation in care of this uncommon disease has raised concerns about compromising oncologic principles. Many institutions have described their experience with promising results; however, there is a paucity of high-quality data that supports the use of robotic surgery as a new gold standard...
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650134/robotic-cystectomy
#12
REVIEW
Danica May, Jessie Gills, Scott E Delacroix
Retrospective observational studies support the utility of robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that RARC with extracorporeal urinary diversion may lead to decreased estimated blood loss, decreased rate of transfusion, similar oncologic outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and variable increased operative times. Although RCTs comparing RARC with open radical cystectomy are currently ongoing, it may be several years before the utility of RARC is known. The discussion on the role of cystectomy, indications, outcomes, care pathways, access to high-volume care centers, and efforts to decrease complications may prove as important as the technique itself...
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650133/contemporary-preoperative-and-intraoperative-management-of-the-radical-cystectomy-patient
#13
REVIEW
Jack Griffin Campbell, Woodson Wade Smelser, Eugene K Lee
Radical cystectomy is a morbid procedure performed on an aging and often frail population. Nonetheless, advances in preoperative and intraoperative management have significantly improved patient outcomes. Preoperative optimization includes a focus on patient education, risk factor reduction, risk stratification, nutritional optimization, and bowel motility enhancement. Intraoperative optimization focuses on maintaining normothermia, restrictive fluid administration, minimization of blood transfusions, and nonopioid pain management...
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650132/optimal-timing-of-chemotherapy-and-surgery-in-patients-with-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-and-upper-urinary-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#14
REVIEW
William Tabayoyong, Roger Li, Jianjun Gao, Ashish Kamat
Radical cystectomy with bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection is the standard of care for patients with clinically localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Survival after radical cystectomy is associated with final pathologic staging. Survival decreases with increasing pT stage because of the presence of occult micrometastases, indicating the need for systemic chemotherapy. Systemic chemotherapy is delivered as either neoadjuvant therapy preoperatively, or as adjuvant therapy postoperatively. This article reviews the evidence for neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder and upper tract urothelial cancer and offers recommendations based on these data and recently updated clinical guidelines...
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650131/current-staging-strategies-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-and-upper-tract-urothelial-cell-carcinoma
#15
REVIEW
Matthew Mossanen, Steven L Chang, Simon Kimm, Guru P Sonpavde, Adam S Kibel
Please note, the synopsis was used from your supplied original manuscript, and not the accompanying abstract, per journal style: This article discusses current staging strategies in muscle-invasive bladder cancer and upper tract urothelial cell carcinoma. Current staging methods can help identify patients with localized or metastatic disease but are subject to limitations which must be considered.
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169456/urinary-diversion-nutritional-evolution-and-surgical-revolution
#16
EDITORIAL
Michael S Cookson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169455/re-creating-the-urinary-tract-an-art-derived-from-science
#17
EDITORIAL
Samir S Taneja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169454/secondary-tumors-after-urinary-diversion
#18
REVIEW
Roger Li, Janet E Baack Kukreja, Ashish M Kamat
It has been known that urinary diversions juxtaposing the urinary and intestinal tracts lead to increased incidence of secondary malignancies. Although tumorigenesis in ureterosigmoidostomies follows the typical course from adenomas to adenocarcinomas, secondary malignancies arising from isolated intestinal diversions are much more heterogeneous. Research over the last half century has unveiled patterns of incidence and progression, while also uncovering possible mechanisms driving the neoplastic changes. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of these unique tumors, with the hope that the knowledge gained may shed light on the etiologies of other cancers arising from the urinary and intestinal tracts...
February 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169453/surgical-complications-of-urinary-diversion
#19
REVIEW
Christopher B Anderson, James M McKiernan
Urinary diversion (UD) with an intestinal segment has significant risks of short- and long-term complications. With modern reporting criteria, understanding of the true prevalence and spectrum of these complications has improved. Methods to minimize early postoperative complications include enhanced recovery pathways, restricted intraoperative fluid protocols, and referral to high-volume centers. With long-term follow-up after UD, the risk of complications steadily rises. Late surgical complications include ureterointestinal anastomotic strictures, urolithiasis, and stomal issues...
February 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169452/robotic-cystectomy-with-intracorporeal-urinary-diversion-review-of-current-techniques-and-outcomes
#20
REVIEW
Tyler M Thress, Michael S Cookson, Sanjay Patel
This article reviews the current techniques and outcomes of robot-assisted radical cystectomy with totally intracorporeal urinary diversion. Discussion includes techniques for port placement and methods for urinary diversion for neobladder, ileal conduit, and one case of continent cutaneous diversion. The outcomes analyzed include operative time, estimated blood loss, transfusion rate, conversion to open surgery, and early or late postoperative complications.
February 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
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