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Acta Biotheoretica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177713/a-model-of-isotope-separation-in-plants
#1
A V Melkikh, A O Bokunyaeva
A model representing isotope separation during water evaporation in plants was constructed. The model accounts for substance diffusion, convective transfer and evaporation from the surface of the leaves. The dependence of the system's separation and enrichment coefficients on various parameters (liquid velocity, diffusion coefficient, and potential barriers for molecules and their thermal velocities) was determined. A comparison was made between the enrichment coefficients calculated from experimental data from different plants and those based on the model...
November 24, 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791536/on-scott-phillips-general-account-of-communication
#2
Ronald J Planer
The purpose of this paper is to critically engage with a recent attempt by Thom Scott-Phillips to offer a general account of communication. As a general account, it is intended to apply equally well to both non-human and human interactions which are prima facie communicative in character. However, so far, Scott-Phillips has provided little detail regarding how his account is supposed to apply to the latter set of cases. After presenting what I take to be the most plausible way of filling in those details, I argue that his account would appear to be too narrow: it (minimally) fails to capture a range of human interactions which strike us as instances of communication...
August 8, 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695410/microscale-gaseous-slip-flow-in-the-insect-trachea-and-tracheoles
#3
S M Simelane, S Abelman, F D Duncan
An analytical investigation into compressible gas flow with slight rarefactions through the insect trachea and tracheoles during the closed spiracle phase is undertaken, and a complete set of asymptotic analytical solutions is presented. We first obtain estimates of the Reynolds and Mach numbers at the channel terminal ends where the tracheoles directly deliver respiratory gases to the cells, by comparing the magnitude of the different forces in the compressible gas flow. The 2D Navier-Stokes equations with a slip boundary condition are used to investigate compressibility and rarefied effects in the trachea and tracheoles...
July 11, 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342137/skewed-exposure-to-environmental-antigens-complements-hygiene-hypothesis-in-explaining-the-rise-of-allergy
#4
Wilfried Allaerts, Tse Wen Chang
The Hygiene Hypothesis has been recognized as an important cornerstone to explain the sudden increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in modernized culture. The recent epidemic of allergic diseases is in contrast with the gradual implementation of Homo sapiens sapiens to the present-day forms of civilization. This civilization forms a gradual process with cumulative effects on the human immune system, which co-developed with parasitic and commensal Helminths. The clinical manifestation of this epidemic, however, became only visible in the second half of the twentieth century...
June 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324189/stability-of-a-stochastic-model-of-an-sir-epidemic-with-vaccination
#5
P J Witbooi
We prove almost sure exponential stability for the disease-free equilibrium of a stochastic differential equations model of an SIR epidemic with vaccination. The model allows for vertical transmission. The stochastic perturbation is associated with the force of infection and is such that the total population size remains constant in time. We prove almost sure positivity of solutions. The main result concerns especially the smaller values of the diffusion parameter, and describes the stability in terms of an analogue [Formula: see text] of the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] of the underlying deterministic model, with [Formula: see text]...
June 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315023/external-noise-and-external-signal-induced-transition-of-gene-switch-and-coherence-resonance-in-the-genetic-regulatory-system
#6
Jian-Cheng Shi, Min Luo, Tao Dong, Chu-Sheng Huang
The transition of gene switch induced by external noises (multiplicative external noise and additive external noise) and external signals is investigated in the genetic regulatory system. Results show that the state-to-state transition of gene switch as well as resonant behaviors, such as the explicit coherence resonance (ECR), implicit coherence resonance (ICR) and control parameter coherence biresonance (CPCBR), can appear when noises are injected into the genetic regulatory system. The ECR is increased with the increase of the control parameter value when starting from the supercritical Hopf bifurcation parameter point, and there exists a critical control parameter value for the occurrence of ECR...
June 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197858/mapping-biological-transmission-an-empirical-dynamical-and-evolutionary-approach
#7
Francesca Merlin, Livio Riboli-Sasco
The current debate over extending inheritance and its evolutionary impact has focused on adding new categories of non-genetic factors to the classical transmission of DNA, and on trying to redefine inheritance. Transmitted factors have been mainly characterized by their directions of transmission (vertical, horizontal, or both) and the way they store variations. In this paper, we leave aside the issue of defining inheritance. We rather try to build an evolutionary conceptual framework that allows for tracing most, if not all forms of transmission and makes sense of their different tempos and modes...
June 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501896/what-do-biologists-make-of-the-species-problem
#8
Bruno Pušić, Pavel Gregorić, Damjan Franjević
The concept of species is one of the core concepts in biology and one of the cornerstones of evolutionary biology, yet it is rife with conceptual problems. Philosophers of biology have been discussing the concept of species for decades, and in doing so they sometimes appeal to the views of biologists. However, their statements as to what biologists think are seldom supported by empirical data. In order to investigate what biologists actually think about the key issues related to the problem of species, we have conducted a survey on the sample of 193 biologists from the population of biologists from over 150 biology departments at universities in the US and the EU...
May 13, 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493088/establishing-a-framework-for-a-natural-area-taxonomy
#9
Malte C Ebach, Bernard Michaux
The identification of areas of endemism is essential in building an area classification, but plays little role in how natural areas are discovered. Rather area monophyly, derived from cladistics, is essential in the discovery of natural area classifications or area taxonomy. We propose Area Taxonomy to be a new sub-discipline of historical biogeography, one that can be revised and debated, and which has its own area nomenclature. Separately to area taxonomy, we outline how natural areas may be discovered by transcribing the concepts of homology and monophyly from biological systematics to historical biogeography, in the form of area homologues, area homologies and area monophyly...
May 10, 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474106/asymptotic-behavior-of-a-chemostat-model-with-constant-recycle-sludge-concentration
#10
Mohamed Amine Hamra, Karim Yadi
In this work, we study a several species aerobic chemostat model with constant recycle sludge concentration in continuous culture. We reduce the number of parameters by considering a dimensionless model. First, the existence of a global positive uniform attractor for the model with different removal rates is proved using the theory of dissipative dynamical systems. Hence, we investigate the asymptotic behavior of the model under small perturbations using methods of singular perturbation theory and we prove that, in the case of two species in competition, the unique equilibrium which is positive is globally asymptotically stable...
May 4, 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044218/dual-causality-and-the-autonomy-of-biology
#11
Walter J Bock
Ernst Mayr's concept of dual causality in biology with the two forms of causes (proximate and ultimate) continues to provide an essential foundation for the philosophy of biology. They are equivalent to functional (=proximate) and evolutionary (=ultimate) causes with both required for full biological explanations. The natural sciences can be classified into nomological, historical nomological and historical dual causality, the last including only biology. Because evolutionary causality is unique to biology and must be included for all complete biological explanations, biology is autonomous from the physical sciences...
March 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990591/on-the-role-of-imitation-on-adolescence-methamphetamine-abuse-dynamics
#12
J Mushanyu, F Nyabadza, G Muchatibaya, A G R Stewart
Adolescence methamphetamine use is an issue of considerable concern due to its correlation with later delinquency, divorce, unemployment and health problems. Understanding how adolescents initiate methamphetamine abuse is important in developing effective prevention programs. We formulate a mathematical model for the spread of methamphetamine abuse using nonlinear ordinary differential equations. It is assumed that susceptibles are recruited into methamphetamine use through imitation. An epidemic threshold value, [Formula: see text], termed the abuse reproduction number, is proposed and defined herein in the drug-using context...
March 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535677/smt-and-toft-integrable-after-all-a-reply-to-bizzarri-and-cucina
#13
Baptiste Bedessem, Stphanie Ruphy
In a previous paper recently published in this journal, we argue that the two main theories of carcinogenesis (SMT and TOFT) should be considered as compatible, at the metaphysical, epistemological and biological levels. In a reply to our contribution, Bizzarri and Cucina claim we are wrong since SMT and TOFT are opposite and incompatible paradigms. Here, we show that their arguments are not satisfactory. Indeed, the authors go through the same mistakes that we already addressed. In particular, they confuse reductionism, as an ontological frame, and genetic determinism, as a causal pathway...
March 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515276/the-role-of-hyalomma-truncatum-on-the-dynamics-of-rift-valley-fever-insights-from-a-mathematical-epidemic-model
#14
Sansao A Pedro, Shirley Abelman, Henri E Z Tonnang
To date, our knowledge of Rift Valley fever (RVF) disease spread and maintenance is still limited, as flooding, humid weather and presence of biting insects such as mosquitoes, have not completely explained RVF outbreaks. We propose a model that includes livestock, mosquitoes and ticks compartments structured according to their questing and feeding behaviour in order to study the possible role of ticks on the dynamics of RVF. To quantify disease transmission at the initial stage of the epidemic, we derive an explicit formula of the basic reproductive number, [Formula: see text]...
March 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853896/discrete-mesh-approach-in-morphogenesis-modelling-the-example-of-gastrulation
#15
J Demongeot, A Lontos, E Promayon
Morphogenesis is a general concept in biology including all the processes which generate tissue shapes and cellular organizations in a living organism. Many hybrid formalizations (i.e., with both discrete and continuous parts) have been proposed for modelling morphogenesis in embryonic or adult animals, like gastrulation. We propose first to study the ventral furrow invagination as the initial step of gastrulation, early stage of embryogenesis. We focus on the study of the connection between the apical constriction of the ventral cells and the initiation of the invagination...
December 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837289/wound-healing-and-scale-modelling-in-zebrafish
#16
F Caraguel, N Bessonov, J Demongeot, D Dhouailly, V Volpert
We propose to study the wound healing in Zebrafish by using firstly a differential approach for modelling morphogens diffusion and cell chemotactic motion, and secondly a hybrid model of tissue regeneration, where cells are considered as individual objects and molecular concentrations are described by partial differential equations.
December 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785584/interactions-between-the-cross-shore-structure-of-small-pelagic-fish-population-offshore-industrial-fisheries-and-near-shore-artisanal-fisheries-a-mathematical-approach
#17
Rachid Mchich, Timothée Brochier, Pierre Auger, Patrice Brehmer
This work presents a mathematical model describing the interactions between the cross-shore structure of small pelagic fish population an their exploitation by coastal and offshore fisheries. The complete model is a system of seven ODE's governing three stocks of small pelagic fish population moving and growing between three zones. Two types of fishing fleets are inter-acting with the fish population, industrial boats, constrained to offshore area, and artisanal boats, operating from the shore. Two time scales were considered and we use aggregation methods that allow us to reduce the dimension of the model and to obtain an aggregated model, which is a four dimension one...
December 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770318/preface
#18
EDITORIAL
Hermine Biermé, Jean-Pierre Françoise, Rémy Guillevin, Alain Miranville
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770317/basin-of-attraction-of-solutions-with-pattern-formation-in-slow-fast-reaction-diffusion-systems
#19
B Ambrosio, M A Aziz-Alaoui
This article is devoted to the characterization of the basin of attraction of pattern solutions for some slow-fast reaction-diffusion systems with a symmetric property and an underlying oscillatory reaction part. We characterize some subsets of initial conditions that prevent the dynamical system to evolve asymptotically toward solutions which are homogeneous in space. We also perform numerical simulations that illustrate theoretical results and give rise to symmetric and non-symmetric pattern solutions. We obtain these last solutions by choosing particular random initial conditions...
December 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770316/can-fishing-pressure-invert-the-outcome-of-interspecific-competition-the-case-of-the-thiof-and-of-the-octopus-along-the-senegalese-coast
#20
Thuy Nguyen-Phuong, Doanh Nguyen-Ngoc, Pierre Auger, Sidy Ly, Didier Jouffre
We present a mathematical model of two competing marine species that are harvested. We consider three models according to different levels of complexity, without and with species refuge and density-independent and density-dependent species movement between fishing area and refuge. We particularly study the effects of the fishing pressure on the outcome of the competition. We focus on conditions that allow an inferior competitor to invade as a result of fishing pressure. The model is discussed in relationship to the case of the thiof and the octopus along the Atlantic West African coast...
December 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
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