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M V Silpa, Thomas Naicy, T V Aravindakshan, G Radhika, Anu Boswell, M Mini
Sirtuin3 (SIRT3) is a member of the Sirtuin family of NAD+ -dependent deacetylase. They have evolved as a vital protein in preventing the activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in oocytes. A novel study on caprine SIRT3 was conducted, to characterize caprine SIRT3, to detect potential polymorphisms in SIRT3 and to analyze their association with litter size in the two indigenous goat breeds of India viz., the prolific Malabari and low prolific Attappady Black goats. A 1070 bp mRNA sequence of SIRT3 cDNA comprised of an ORF of 1002 bp encoding 333 amino acids, having 96% identity with bovine SIRT3...
September 12, 2018: Theriogenology
A Rizzo, C Gazza, A Silvestre, L Maresca, R L Sciorsci
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of scopolamine (a parasympatholytic drug) immediately after delivery, on uterine involution in dairy cows. The cows were divided into two groups: group T (treated with scopolamine butylbromide 40 mg/100 kg P.V., within 24 h of delivery) and group C (treated with 2 ml/q of saline solution). The cows were monitored at T0, within 24 h of delivery, T7, T14, T28 and T40 respectively 7th, 14th, 28th and 40th day postpartum, by measuring the levels of hydroxyproline (HYP), an important marker of uterine involution; by ultrasound examination for the measurement of the diameter of uterine horns and of blood flow in the middle uterine artery; and by evaluation of reproductive indices...
September 7, 2018: Theriogenology
C R Muthmainnah, K Eriani, I Hasri, M Irham, A S Batubara, Z A Muchlisin
The objective of this present study is to determine the optimum concentration for glutathione in the cryopreservation of seurukan fish (Osteochilus vittatus) spermatozoa. A completely randomized design (CRD) was used with 6 treatments and 3 replications. The Seurukan fish sperm was diluted in extender with a ratio of 1:20 (sperm: extender), then glutathione was added at a concentration of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50  mg L-1 . Next, the sperm thawed at 39-40 °C for 3 min and mixed with 100 eggs which were randomly selected...
September 7, 2018: Theriogenology
Esteban Mauricio Dominguez, Ayelen Moreno-Irusta, Héctor Alejandro Guidobaldi, Huberto Tribulo, Laura Cecilia Giojalas
Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have been widely used in farm animals in the last decades. Sexed cryopreserved spermatozoa, ovum pick up, in vitro embryo production and transfer constitute the ART that have revolutionized the dairy industry. However, the efficiency of some of these techniques is still low due in part to sperm quality, which influences fertilization, embryo development and implantation. The Sperm Selection Assay (SSA), based on sperm chemotaxis towards progesterone, provides a sperm subpopulation enriched with spermatozoa that are capacitated, with intact DNA and low level of oxidative stress...
August 30, 2018: Theriogenology
Nasrin Hasani, Marziyeh Ebrahimi, Babak Ghasemi-Panahi, Ali HosseinKhani
Although estrus synchronization considered valuable management tools for improving reproductive performance of ewes, their high expenses and complicated usage prevent sheep farmers to apply these techniques. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare three protocols of estrus synchronization on reproductive performance of Ghezel ewes. For this reason, 27 Ghezel ewes were assigned to three estrus synchronization treatment groups based on a completely randomized design included: progestogen sponge for 12 days + 500 IU eCG at the time of sponge withdrawal (P4eCG group, expensive synchronization), two doses of 75 μg cloprostenol with 12 days interval (CLO group, economical synchronization), and CLO +500 IU eCG at day 12 (CLOeCG group, moderately priced synchronization)...
August 29, 2018: Theriogenology
C Hernández-Avilés, R Serafini, C C Love, S R Teague, K A LaCaze, S D Lawhon, J Wu, T L Blanchard, D D Varner
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of antibiotic-containing extender of on sperm quality and control of bacterial growth. In Experiment 1, ejaculates were diluted in extender containing no antibiotics, potassium penicillin G-amikacin disulfate (PEN-AMIK), ticarcillin disodium-potassium clavulanate (TICAR-CLAV), piperacillin sodium/tazobactam sodium (PIP-TAZ), or meropenem (MERO). In freshly extended semen, only slight differences were detected among some antibiotic treatments for total sperm motility, curvilinear velocity, and viable acrosome-intact sperm (P < 0...
August 28, 2018: Theriogenology
Gilson Antonio Pessoa, Ana Paula Martini, Manoel Francisco Sá Filho, Mara Iolanda Batistella Rubin
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of estrus resynchronization (RE) after the first Timed Artificial Insemination (TAI) protocol on reproductive efficiency of suckled Bos taurus beef cows (n = 1052; Angus and Brangus) subjected to two different breeding season (BS) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In experiment 1, cows were maintained in native pasture on conventional BS (spring-summer), and in experiment 2, cows were maintained in a grazing area cultivated in an integrated crop-livestock system on modified BS (autumn -winter)...
August 24, 2018: Theriogenology
Samuel Gebremedhn, Dessie Salilew-Wondim, Michael Hoelker, Eva Held-Hoelker, Christiane Neuhoff, Ernst Tholen, Karl Schellander, Dawit Tesfaye
Confirmation of the pregnancy establishment at the very earliest day post-insemination increases the reproduction efficiency of high yielding dairy cows and farm profitability by allowing rebreeding of the non-pregnant cows. Inaccuracies in the currently available pregnancy detection tools to detect pregnancy establishment within the first 3 weeks post insemination extends the inter-calving interval and have contributed to the decline in profitability. Thus, development of non-invasive early pregnancy detection biomarkers could be proposed as alternative tools...
August 23, 2018: Theriogenology
Leying Zhang, Jie Xue, Qingkai Wang, Wan Lv, Hao Mi, Yong Liu, Ling Yang
Interferon-tau (IFNT) is the main signal for the maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminants, and exerts its effects by stimulating the expression of interferon-stimulated genes, including the expression of interferon-stimulated gene15 kDa protein (ISG15). Progesterone (P4) exerts significant immune effects on the uterus during early pregnancy in ruminants that are partly mediated by progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF). The thymus is necessary for the normal development of immunologic function...
August 22, 2018: Theriogenology
Katarzyna Ożegowska, Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Piotr Celichowski, Mariusz J Nawrocki, Artur Bryja, Maurycy Jankowski, Wiesława Kranc, Maciej Brązert, Sandra Knap, Michal Jeseta, Mariusz T Skowroński, Dorota Bukowska, Paweł Antosik, Klaus P Brüssow, Andrzej Bręborowicz, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Leszek Pawelczyk, Maciej Zabel, Bartosz Kempisty
The processes underlying maturation of mammalian oocytes are considered crucial for the oocytes ability to undergo monospermic fertilization. The same factors of influence are suggested to impact the development of sex associated characteristics, allowing sex differentiation to progress during embryonic growth. The primary aim of the study was to analyze the gene ontology groups involved in regulation of porcine oocytes' response to endogenous stimuli. The results obtained would indicate potential genes influencing sex differentiation...
August 18, 2018: Theriogenology
Halldor Felde Berg, Elisabeth Kommisrud, Godlove Bai, Eline Rustad Gaustad, Geir Klinkenberg, Fride Berg Standerholen, Lill Therese Thorkildsen, Karin Elisabeth Waterhouse, Erik Ropstad, Bjørg Heringstad, Anne Hege Alm-Kristiansen
Estrus detection and timing of AI remains a challenge in cattle breeding. Prolonging spermatozoa lifespan after AI, making sperm cells available over an extended period, could make timing of AI relative to ovulation less crucial and improve fertility. Immobilization of sperm cells by the patented SpermVital technology in an alginate gel will provide a gradual release of spermatozoa after AI. The first aim of this study was to examine fertility, measured as non-return rate after 56 days (NR56), of SpermVital (SV) processed semen with reduced sperm cell number per dose compared to earlier studies, and compare with conventionally processed semen in Biladyl, a proprietary version of the egg yolk Tris semen extender...
August 16, 2018: Theriogenology
Ursula Bechert, Jennifer Rohde, Heather Freer, Bettina Wagner
SpayVac® is an immunocontraceptive vaccine based on porcine zona pellucida (pZP) antigens and uses a patented liposome formulation (VacciMax™ or DepoVax® ). It has delivered single-dose, long-lasting (4-10 years) immunocontraception in several species. Previous studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between levels of pZP antibodies produced and contraceptive effect; however, individual mares that were consistently infertile did not necessarily have the highest antibody titers. The objective of this study was to identify potential differences in specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotype responses among mares treated with SpayVac (VacciMax formulation) to improve our understanding of vaccine efficacy and potential management applications...
August 16, 2018: Theriogenology
Yan-Kui Wang, Xiao-Xia Yu, Yun-Hua Liu, Xuan Li, Xiao-Man Liu, Pei-Chao Wang, Shuai Liu, Jia-Kun Miao, Zhi-Qiang Du, Cai-Xia Yang
Oocyte meiosis is a complex process coordinated by multiple endocrinal and molecular circuits. Recently, N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) epigenetic modification on RNA is revealed to be important for meiotic maturation. However, the molecular mechanism of how m6 A modification exerts its effect on oocyte maturation is largely unknown. Here, we showed that endogenous m6 A writers (Mettl3 and Wtap) and eraser (Fto) elevated their transcript levels during meiotic maturation of pig oocytes. From germinal vesicle (GV) to metaphase II (MII) stages, global m6 A level significantly increased, and existed mostly in ooplasm...
August 16, 2018: Theriogenology
Haney Samir, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe
The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of subluteal progesterone environment on the efficacy of the ovarian responses in goats passively immunized against endogenous inhibin. Twelve cycling female Shiba goats were synchronized using two doses of prostaglandin F2α 11 days apart. After detection of ovulation (D0, by ultrasonography), goats were randomly assigned into 2 groups: (1) Subluteal sP4 group (SLP; n = 6), treated with a previously once-used controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (ou-CIDR) intravaginal from D 6 to D 12 concurrently with a luteolytic dose of PGF2α at D6 (2) Normal Luteal P4 group (NLP; n = 6), had neither ou-CIDR nor PGF2α...
August 14, 2018: Theriogenology
Vanmathy R Kasimanickam, Chase Staker, Hallie M Williams, John P Kastelic, Ramanathan K Kasimanickam
The objective was to determine associations between behavior during head-lock restraint and reproductive performance in dairy heifers. Behavior of 817 Holstein heifers from four farms was evaluated at feeding (Days 0 and 7) while restrained in a self-locking stanchion. All heifers were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1, emaciated to 5, obese) on Day 0. Heifers were timed-inseminated on a maximum of three occasions to determine impact of behavior for first service pregnancy per AI (FS-P/AI) and cumulative P/AI (C-P/AI)...
August 14, 2018: Theriogenology
Haney Samir, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe
Kisspeptin is the protein product of Kiss1 gene. In contrast to its fundamental role as GnRH Secretagogue and puberty initiation, its functions in extrahypothalmic tissues such as the testes remain unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential local role of kisspeptin in the Leydig cell culture in goats. Five male Shiba goats were castrated to isolate Leydig cells from the testes. The isolated Leydig cells were then purified and cultured with different concentration of kisspeptin antagonist (0, 5, and 10 nmol; 0KPA, 5KPA, and 10KPA; respectively)...
August 14, 2018: Theriogenology
E Dirandeh, J Ghaffari
A total of sixteen Holstein dairy cows (35 ± 1.1 kg/d of milk yield) were randomly assigned to consider the effects of feeding omega-3 sources on endometrial endocannabinoids system (ECS) genes expression to understand the effect mechanism of omega-3 on reproductive performances during the early postpartum period to evaluate to what extent can be intervened in reproduction, e.g. via nutrition to improve fertility. Experimental diets were 1) either protected palm oil (control) or 2) extruded linseed (linseed)...
August 14, 2018: Theriogenology
Luã Barbalho de Macêdo, Muriel Magda Lustosa Pimentel, Fernanda Araujo Dos Santos, Marcelo Barbosa Bezerra, Fernando Vagner Lobo Ladd, Carlos Eduardo Bezerra de Moura
The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of eCG on vascularization and development of feline ovarian tissue xenografted to immunosuppressed mice. Feline ovarian fragments (∼1 mm3 ) were transplanted under the renal capsule of 20 adult, ovariectomized, C57BL/6 SCID female mice. At 45 d after transplantation, 10 mice (controls) were euthanized and the remainder given 10 IU of eCG (and sacrificed 48 h later). Transplants were recovered immediately after death, fixed, sectioned, and stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)...
August 14, 2018: Theriogenology
Isabel Oliveira Cosentino, Mario Felipe Alvarez Balaro, Felipe Seabra Cardoso Leal, Ana Beatriz da Silva Carvalho, Paula Renata Cortat de Souza, Eduardo Kenji Nunes Arashiro, Felipe Zandonadi Brandão
This study aims to determine the best post-breeding time for an early pregnancy diagnosis in dairy goats, when using luteal morphology and vascularization assessment by B-Mode and color Doppler ultrasonography (US) in association or not with the anechoic uterine content. A total of 131 Saanen goats (2.0 ± 0.5 years old) were used in the two studies. In the first study, pregnancy prediction was daily performed from Day 15-23 post-breeding in 51 does. This was based on a subjective assessment of luteal morphology (B-Mode US), luteal blood flow (color Doppler US), and the presence of anechoic uterine content (B-Mode US)...
August 14, 2018: Theriogenology
Jessye Wojtusik, Monica A Stoops, Terri L Roth
Semen cryopreservation for the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) relies on extenders containing egg-yolk (EY). Use of such media is not ideal as inter-batch composition varies and there is risk of pathogenic contamination. The goal of this study was to test animal protein-free extenders. Semen collected via electroejaculation from 10 rhinoceros (6 black, 4 Indian) was diluted with extender containing EY, 1% or 2% soy lecithin (1%SL; 2%SL), coconut water (CW), or coconut milk (CM), cryopreserved and evaluated for sperm motility, viability, morphology, progression, and acrosomal integrity at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 24 h post-thaw...
August 13, 2018: Theriogenology
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