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Seminars in Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935904/pd-1-immunobiology-in-autoimmune-hepatitis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
REVIEW
Colleen S Curran, Elad Sharon
Disruption of liver immune tolerance allows for the development of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). AIH rarely progresses to HCC but the diseases similarly induce the production of IL-18 and matrix metalloproteinases. These molecules have distinct effects on the immune response, including the programmed cell-death 1 (PD-1) axis. In this review, differences in PD-1 function and possible cell signals in AIH and HCC are highlighted.
December 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935903/efficacy-and-treatment-related-adverse-events-of-gemcitabine-plus-nab-paclitaxel-for-treatment-of-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer-in-a-korean-population-a-single-center-cohort-study
#2
In Rae Cho, Huapyong Kang, Jung Hyun Jo, Hee Seung Lee, Moon Jae Chung, Jeong Youp Park, Seung Woo Park, Si Young Song, Jae Bock Chung, Chansik An, Mi-Suk Park, So Young Jung, Seungmin Bang
Pancreatic cancer has poor prognosis because of its rapid progression and treatment resistance. Based on the results of the Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Clinical Trial (MPACT), a combination regimen of gemcitabine with nab-paclitaxel is currently used as standard therapy for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer. However, because studies in Asian populations are lacking, we investigated the treatment efficacy and safety of this combination therapy in Korean population. Patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer (n=81) treated with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel (1,000 and 125 mg/m2 , respectively) as the first-line chemotherapy from January 2016 were identified using the Severance Hospital Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Registry...
December 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935902/an-evidence-based-review-on-the-value-of-interim-fdg-pet-in-assessing-response-to-therapy-in-lymphoma
#3
REVIEW
Hugo J A Adams, Thomas C Kwee
Assessing response to therapy in lymphoma is important for determining patients' prognosis, guiding subsequent treatment, and may be used as an outcome measure of prognostic and therapeutic trials. Traditionally, computed tomography was the mainstay for response assessment and was predominantly performed at the end of treatment, whereas the most recent guidelines propose 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for this purpose. However, the value of FDG-PET performed during treatment (interim FDG-PET) is still a topic of debate...
December 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935901/cdk4-6-inhibition-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-in-breast-cancer-palbociclib-ribociclib-and-abemaciclib
#4
Bahar Laderian, Tito Fojo
With 40,920 American women expected to die from breast cancer in 2018 and global health estimates that more than 508,000 women died in 2011 from this disease, the identification of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of breast cancer cannot be ignored. A breakthrough class of cancer drugs that has emerged in recent years and has had an impact in the treatment of breast cancer are the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors, with palbociclib the first in class to have received regulatory approval for breast cancer...
December 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935900/mechanisms-of-therapeutic-cdk4-6-inhibition-in-breast-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Susan Combs Scott, Sarah S Lee, Jame Abraham
Cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors have advanced the treatment of metastatic breast cancer by targeting the cell cycle machinery, interrupting intracellular and mitogenic hormone signals that stimulate proliferation of malignant cells. Preclinical evidence demonstrated that derangements of cyclin D1, CDK4/6, and retinoblastoma expression are common in breast cancer, and suggested a therapeutic benefit from interrupting this axis required for cell cycle progression. Studies of cell lines and animal models of breast cancer have demonstrated the complex interplay between the cell cycle and estrogen receptor and human epidermal growth receptor 2 signaling, which informs our understanding of synergistic use of CDK4/6 inhibitors with endocrine therapy, as well as mechanisms of resistance to endocrine therapy...
December 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935899/proteasome-inhibitor-based-therapy-for-treatment-of-newly-diagnosed-multiple-myeloma
#6
REVIEW
Andrae Vandross
Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignancy that is unable to be cured and has significant impact throughout the world. Front line treatment has shifted but ultimately has landed on a bortezomib-based combination therapy. Carfilzomib is a next-generation proteasome inhibitor shown to improve both progression-free and overall survival in relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRd). Given the favorable response rates seen in phase II trials treating newly diagnosed myeloma, this combination is listed as a viable option for upfront treatment...
December 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935898/proteasome-inhibitors-structure-and-function
#7
Ana T Nunes, Christina M Annunziata
Since 2003, the US Food and Drug Administration approval of bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, has changed the management of hematologic malignancies and dramatically improved outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. Since that time, two additional proteasome inhibitors (carfilzomib and ixazomib) have been approved, with other agents and combinations currently under investigation. Proteasomes degrade ubiquitinated proteins or substrates through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, a pathway that is utilized in multiple myeloma because of the high protein turnover with immunoglobulin production...
December 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580439/response-to-letter-to-the-editor-on-mind-the-gap
#8
LETTER
Scott Metcalfe, Jackie Evans, R Matthew Strother, George Laking, Tony Wang, Steffan Crausaz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580438/-mind-the-gap-revisited
#9
John R Zalcberg, Michael Wonder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580437/second-line-therapy-in-patients-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-with-progression-after-or-under-docetaxel-a-systematic-review-of-nine-randomized-controlled-trials
#10
REVIEW
Michiel H F Poorthuis, Robin W M Vernooij, R Jeroen A van Moorselaar, Theo M de Reijke
Treatment decisions are challenging in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with progression after or under docetaxel. The current review systematically searched the published literature on all treatment options, and assessed the risk of bias and quality of evidence. It found the best available evidence for effective prolongation of overall survival and progression-free survival for abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus placebo plus prednisone and enzalutamide versus placebo. Other treatment modalities could be beneficial for individual patients by taking into consideration the: selection criteria of the randomized clinical trials, risk of bias, subgroup analyses, and quality of life and adverse events...
October 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580436/the-surgical-management-of-prostate-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Elisabeth M Sebesta, Christopher B Anderson
Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variable natural history. Therefore, optimal management remains challenging. While many men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer may be candidates for active surveillance, there are others who will benefit from aggressive local therapy. Radical prostatectomy is associated with improvements in cancer-specific mortality, metastasis-free survival, and need for palliative treatments when compared with observation in several randomized controlled trials. Additionally, radical prostatectomy may have some oncologic benefit over radiation therapy...
October 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580435/cell-free-dna-as-a-post-treatment-surveillance-strategy-current-status
#12
REVIEW
Justin M Burgener, Ariana Rostami, Daniel D De Carvalho, Scott V Bratman
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) consists of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragments that are released from tumor cells into the bloodstream. ctDNA harbors cancer-specific genetic and epigenetic alterations that allow its detection and quantification using a variety of emerging techniques. The promise of convenient non-invasive access to the complex and dynamic molecular features of cancer through peripheral blood has galvanized translational researchers around this topic with compelling routes to clinical implementation, particularly in the post-treatment surveillance setting...
October 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580434/surveillance-imaging-following-treatment-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Xiao Zhao, Shyam Rao
Post-treatment surveillance is an important component in the treatment of head and neck cancers, especially as the proportion of human papilloma virus-positive cancers increases. Early detection of recurrences or second malignancies can increase success and minimize the toxicity of salvage treatment. Unfortunately, there are no consensus guidelines on the frequency and modality of post-treatment imaging. Computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) all have unique advantages and disadvantages when used as surveillance imaging...
October 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580433/post-treatment-surveillance-imaging-in-lymphoma
#14
REVIEW
Susan M Hiniker, Richard T Hoppe
Appropriate post-treatment management of patients with lymphoma has been controversial, with imaging frequently performed as post-treatment surveillance. The goal of post-treatment imaging is to identify relapse prior to clinical symptoms, when the burden of disease is lower and the possibility of effective salvage therapy and cure are greater. However, little data exist to support the performance of surveillance imaging after completion of treatment, with the vast majority of studies suggesting there is no clinical benefit to surveillance imaging in asymptomatic patients...
October 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580432/surveillance-imaging-following-definitive-radiotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-what-is-the-clinical-impact
#15
REVIEW
Brandon A Dyer, Megan E Daly
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Recurrence rates at all stages are high, but evidence-based post-treatment surveillance imaging strategies to detect recurrence are poorly defined, and salvage options are frequently limited. A number of national and international oncology guidelines address post-treatment imaging, but are largely based on low-level, retrospective evidence because of a paucity of high-quality data, particularly in regard to cost-effectiveness and quality-of-life endpoints...
October 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526259/leveraging-comparative-oncology-in-the-hopes-of-improving-therapies-for-breast-cancer
#16
Chand Khanna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526258/comparative-aspects-of-canine-and-human-inflammatory-breast-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Teresa P Raposo, Hugo Arias-Pulido, Nabila Chaher, Steven N Fiering, David J Argyle, Justina Prada, Isabel Pires, Felisbina LuĂ­sa Queiroga
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) in humans is the most aggressive form of mammary gland cancer and shares clinical, pathologic, and molecular patterns of disease with canine inflammatory mammary carcinoma (CIMC). Despite the use of multimodal therapeutic approaches, including targeted therapies, the prognosis for IBC/CIMC remains poor. The aim of this review is to critically analyze IBC and CIMC in terms of biology and clinical features. While rodent cancer models have formed the basis of our understanding of cancer biology, the translation of this knowledge into improved outcomes has been limited...
August 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526257/bevacizumab-in-breast-cancer-a-targeted-therapy-still-in-search-of-a-target-population
#18
EDITORIAL
Douglas K Marks, Kevin Kalinsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526256/revisiting-the-role-of-bevacizumab-in-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Leticia Varella, Jame Abraham, Megan Kruse
Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that interferes with VEGF binding to its receptor on vascular endothelium. Bevacizumab has been approved for the treatment of various malignant tumors, and has been studied in combination with several cytotoxic agents in the treatment of breast cancer. In 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval for the use of bevacizumab in combination with weekly paclitaxel for first-line treatment of HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer...
August 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526255/male-breast-cancer-epidemiology-and-risk-factors
#20
REVIEW
Ali Jad Abdelwahab Yousef
Male breast cancer is a rare malignancy that accounts for less than 1% of all cancers in men and less than 1% of all breast cancers. But the incidence is rising and in some patient groups reaching 15% over the course of their lives. The major risk factors for the development of male breast cancer include advancing age, hormonal imbalance, radiation exposure, and a family history of breast cancer. Regarding the latter, incidence can be linked to mutations in high- or low-penetrance genes. The most relevant risk factor for the development of male breast cancer is a mutation in the BRCA2 gene...
August 2017: Seminars in Oncology
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