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Nel Otting, Marit K H van der Wiel, Nanine de Groot, Annemiek J M de Vos-Rouweler, Natasja G de Groot, Gaby G M Doxiadis, Roger W Wiseman, David H O'Connor, Ronald E Bontrop
The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region encodes three types of class II molecules designated HLA-DR, -DQ, and -DP. Both the HLA-DQ and -DP gene region comprise a duplicated tandem of A and B genes, whereas in macaques, only one set of genes is present per region. A substantial sequencing project on the DQ and DP genes in various macaque populations resulted in the detection of previously 304 unreported full-length alleles. Phylogenetic studies showed that humans and macaques share trans-species lineages for the DQA1 and DQB1 genes, whereas the DPA1 and DPB1 lineages in macaques appear to be species-specific...
October 22, 2016: Immunogenetics
Shandiya Balasubramaniam, Raoul A Mulder, Paul Sunnucks, Alexandra Pavlova, Jane Melville
The high levels of polymorphism and allelic diversity which characterise genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are thought to be generated and maintained through the combined effects of different evolutionary processes. Here, we characterised exon 2 of the MHC class II β genes in two congeneric passerine species, the spotted (Pardalotus punctatus) and striated pardalote (Pardalotus striatus). We estimated the levels of allelic diversity and tested for signatures of recombination, gene conversion and balancing selection to determine if these processes have influenced MHC variation in the two species...
October 8, 2016: Immunogenetics
Yoshiki Yasukochi, Jun Ohashi
A previous study reported that some of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and haplotypes in present-day humans were acquired by admixture with archaic humans; specifically, an exceptionally diverged HLA-B*73 allele was proposed to be transmitted from Denisovans, although the DNA sequence of HLA-B*73 has not been detected in the Denisovan genome. Here, we argue against the hypothesis that HLA-B*73 introgressed from Denisovans into early modern humans. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HLA-B*73:01 formed a monophyletic group with a chimpanzee MHC-B allele, strongly suggesting that the HLA-B*73 allelic lineage has been maintained in humans as well as in chimpanzees since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees...
September 30, 2016: Immunogenetics
Eri Kikkawa, Masafumi Tanaka, Taeko K Naruse, Tomi T Tsuda, Michio Tsuda, Koichi Murata, Akinori Kimura
The major histocompatibility complex locus (MHC) is a gene region related to immune response and exhibits a remarkably great diversity. We deduced that polymorphisms in MHC genes would help to solve several issues on penguins, including classification, phylogenetic relationship, and conservation. This study aimed to elucidate the structure and diversity of the so far unknown MHC class I gene in a penguin species. The structure of an MHC class I gene from the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) was determined by using an inverse PCR method...
September 21, 2016: Immunogenetics
Suliman Y Alomar, Afrah Alkhuriji, Paul Trayhyrn, Abdulkarim Alhetheel, Abdullah Al-Jurayyan, Lamjed Mansour
Breast cancer (BC) progression and metastases have been linked to antitumor immunity inefficiency and particularly to natural killer (NK) cells. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are the most polymorphic receptors of NK cells. Through their interactions with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C ligands, they modulate NK and T cell actions against target cells. Therefore, we studied the combinatorial effect of KIR genes and their HLA-C ligands on the susceptibility to development of BC in Saudi women...
September 15, 2016: Immunogenetics
Wenjun Mou, Jianxin He, Xi Chen, Hui Zhang, Xiaoya Ren, Xunyao Wu, Xin Ni, Baoping Xu, Jingang Gui
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the most serious disorder among primary immunodeficiency diseases threatening children's life. Atypical SCID variant, presenting with mild reduced T cells subsets, is often associated with infection susceptibility but poor clinical diagnosis. The atypical X-SCID patient in the present study showed a mild clinical presentation with a T(low)NK(+)B(+) immunophenotype. The patient has reduced T- cell subpopulations with a subdued thymic output measured by sjTRECs. Further analysis showed that T cells maintained a normal proliferation and a broad Vβ repertoire...
August 26, 2016: Immunogenetics
Juzer A Kakal, Feras M Ghazawi, Elliott M Faller, Scott M Sugden, Parmvir Parmar, Paul A MacPherson
Interleukin-7 is essential for the development and maintenance of T cells, and the expression of the IL-7 receptor is tightly regulated at every stage of the T cell's lifespan. In mature CD8 T cells, IL-7 plays important roles in cell survival, peripheral homeostasis, and cytolytic function. The IL-7 receptor alpha-chain (CD127) is expressed at high levels on naïve and memory cells, but it is rapidly downregulated upon IL-7 stimulation. In this study, we illustrate the dynamicity of the CD127 promoter and show that it possesses positive as well as negative regulatory sites involved in upregulating and downregulating CD127 expression, respectively...
August 19, 2016: Immunogenetics
Sarah K Pearson, C Michael Bull, Michael G Gardner
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play an important role in vertebrate disease resistance, kin recognition and mate choice. Mammalian MHC is the most widely characterised of all vertebrates, and attention is often given to the peptide binding regions of the MHC because they are presumed to be under stronger selection than non-peptide binding regions. For vertebrates where the MHC is less well understood, researchers commonly use the amino acid positions of the peptide binding regions of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) to infer the peptide binding regions within the MHC sequences of their taxon of interest...
August 12, 2016: Immunogenetics
Ulrike Gimsa, Chak-Sum Ho, Sabine E Hammer
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are responsible for the antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. High recombination rates in the MHC genes, as observed in humans, are believed to serve the evolutionary goal to achieve a high genetic diversity, allowing for a broad and efficient immune response. In a cohort of 155 pedigreed German Landrace pigs (65 founders and 90 piglets), we found that MHC genes occur in particular class I and class II haplotype combinations. This phenomenon has not been described before, probably because most of the earlier MHC studies in pigs were not pedigree-based...
August 2, 2016: Immunogenetics
Bridget S Penman, Ashley Moffett, Olympe Chazara, Sunetra Gupta, Peter Parham
Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are encoded by one of the most polymorphic families in the human genome. KIRs are expressed on natural killer (NK) cells, which have dual roles: (1) in fighting infection and (2) in reproduction, regulating hemochorial placentation. Uniquely among primates, human KIR genes are arranged into two haplotypic combinations: KIR A and KIR B. It has been proposed that KIR A is specialized to fight infection, whilst KIR B evolved to help ensure successful reproduction...
November 2016: Immunogenetics
Deepali Vasoya, Andy Law, Paolo Motta, Mingyan Yu, Adrian Muwonge, Elizabeth Cook, Xiaoying Li, Karen Bryson, Amanda MacCallam, Tatjana Sitt, Philip Toye, Barend Bronsvoort, Mick Watson, W Ivan Morrison, Timothy Connelley
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region contains many genes that are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity including the polymorphic MHCI and MHCII genes. Consequently, the characterisation of the repertoire of MHC genes is critical to understanding the variation that determines the nature of immune responses. Our current knowledge of the bovine MHCI repertoire is limited with only the Holstein-Friesian breed having been studied in any depth. Traditional methods of MHCI genotyping are of low resolution and laborious and this has been a major impediment to a more comprehensive analysis of the MHCI repertoire of other cattle breeds...
November 2016: Immunogenetics
Julia Schad, Christian C Voigt
Recently, bats have gained attention as potential reservoir hosts for emerging zoonotic single-stranded (ssRNA) viruses that may prove fatal for humans and other mammals. It has been hypothesized that some features of their innate immune system may enable bats to trigger an efficient early immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent a first line defense within the innate immune system and lie directly at the host-pathogen interface in targeting specific microbe-molecular patterns. However, the direction and strength of selection acting on TLRs are largely unknown for bats...
November 2016: Immunogenetics
Ken Wolfe, Colm Ó'hUigín
In this minireview, we highlight the contributions of the late Austin L. Hughes to two areas of molecular evolution: the role of positive (Darwinian) selection, and the impact of gene duplications during genome evolution.
November 2016: Immunogenetics
M R López-Álvarez, W Jiang, D C Jones, J Jayaraman, C Johnson, W O Cookson, M F Moffatt, J Trowsdale, J A Traherne
Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR) are expressed mostly on myelomonocytic cells where they are mediators of immunological tolerance. Two LILR genes, LILRA3 and LILRA6, exhibit marked copy number variation. We assessed the contribution of these genes to atopic dermatitis (AD) by analysing transmission in 378 AD families. The data indicated that copies of LILRA6 were over-transmitted to affected patients. They are consistent with a contribution of LILR genes to AD. They could affect the equilibrium between activating and inhibitory signals in the immune response...
October 2016: Immunogenetics
Kirsi Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela, Tero Vahlberg, Jorma Ilonen, Jussi Mertsola, Qiushui He
Individual variation in immune responses is always encountered after vaccination. This phenomenon is also seen after acellular pertussis vaccination. The aim of this present study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-10 gene promoter region (rs1800890, rs1800896, rs1800871), IL-12B (rs2546890), IL-12RB1 (rs372889), IL-17A (rs2275913), and IL-23R (rs11209026) affect the immune responses after acellular pertussis vaccination. The T cell proliferative response was evaluated in 38 Finnish young adults who received a second booster dose of a vaccine combination of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis, 10 years after the previous booster...
October 2016: Immunogenetics
Alexandra Livernois, Kristine Hardy, Renae Domaschenz, Alexie Papanicolaou, Arthur Georges, Stephen D Sarre, Sudha Rao, Tariq Ezaz, Janine E Deakin
Interleukins are a group of cytokines with complex immunomodulatory functions that are important for regulating immunity in vertebrate species. Reptiles and mammals last shared a common ancestor more than 350 million years ago, so it is not surprising that low sequence identity has prevented divergent interleukin genes from being identified in the central bearded dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps, in its genome assembly. To determine the complete nucleotide sequences of key interleukin genes, we constructed full-length transcripts, using the Trinity platform, from short paired-end read RNA sequences from stimulated spleen cells...
October 2016: Immunogenetics
Daniela Garrido-Rodríguez, Santiago Ávila-Ríos, Claudia García-Morales, Humberto Valenzuela-Ponce, Christopher Ormsby, Helena Reyes-Gopar, Juan Carlos Fernandez-Lopez, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) represent the most polymorphic genes responsible for natural killer cell function, while human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules define and restrict cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. Specific KIR, HLA, or KIR-HLA combinations have been implicated in the outcome of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. The remarkable polymorphism of KIR and HLA genes warrants descriptive gene frequency studies in different populations, as well as their impact on HIV disease progression in different immunogenetic contexts...
October 2016: Immunogenetics
Masanori Tohno, Hiroki Shinkai, Daisuke Toki, Naohiko Okumura, Kiyoshi Tajima, Hirohide Uenishi
The nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin-domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome comprises the major components caspase-1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), and NLRP3. NLRP3 plays important roles in maintaining immune homeostasis mediated by intestinal microorganisms and in the immunostimulatory properties of vaccine adjuvants used to induce an immune response. In the present study, we first cloned a complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding porcine ASC because its genomic sequence was not completely determined...
October 2016: Immunogenetics
Shouxiong Huang, D Branch Moody
The CD1 and MHC systems are specialized for lipid and peptide display, respectively. Here, we review evidence showing how cellular CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, and CD1d proteins capture and display many cellular lipids to T cell receptors (TCRs). Increasing evidence shows that CD1-reactive T cells operate outside two classical immunogenetic concepts derived from the MHC paradigm. First, because CD1 proteins are non-polymorphic in human populations, T cell responses are not restricted to the donor's genetic background...
August 2016: Immunogenetics
Dirk M Zajonc, Martin F Flajnik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Immunogenetics
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