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Xiao-Dong Lian, Xi-He Zhang, Zheng-Xi Dai, Yong-Tang Zheng
The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been considered as an independent species from the pig-tailed macaque group. We have previously reported that this species macaque has the potential to be a useful animal model in HIV/AIDS pathogenesis and vaccine studies due to its susceptibility to HIV-1. To develop this animal into a potential HIV/AIDS model, we have studied the classical MHC genes of this animal. In this study, the non-classical MHC genes Malo-DM and Malo-DO alleles were first characterized by sequencing and cloning in 12 unrelated northern pig-tailed macaques...
October 13, 2017: Immunogenetics
Cecily Q Bernales, Mary Encarnacion, Maria G Criscuoli, Irene M Yee, Anthony L Traboulsee, A Dessa Sadovnick, Carles Vilariño-Güell
The implementation of exome sequencing technologies has started to unravel the genetic etiology of familial multiple sclerosis (MS). A homozygote p.G587S mutation in NLRP1 has been suggested as potentially causative for the onset of MS in an affected sibling pair, who later developed malignant melanoma. To validate the proposed role of recessive NLRP1 mutations in the pathological mechanisms of MS, we examined exome sequencing data from 326 MS patients from Canada for the identification of NLRP1 missense and nonsense variants...
October 7, 2017: Immunogenetics
Olusola Ojurongbe, Roland I Funwei, Tara J Snyder, Iman Farid, Najihah Aziz, Yi Li, Catherine O Falade, Bolaji N Thomas
Susceptibility to malaria infection has been associated with host genetic polymorphisms that differs between groups. We hypothesize that Toll-interacting proteins (TOLLIP), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) genes are significant contributors to susceptibility and disease severity in Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection. Our aim is to explore the genomic diversity and haplotype frequency of these genes, as well as extrapolate possible association with markers of severity, between malaria-infected and healthy controls...
September 30, 2017: Immunogenetics
Jiro Miyamae, Shingo Suzuki, Fumihiko Katakura, Sae Uno, Mizuki Tanaka, Masaharu Okano, Taro Matsumoto, Jerzy K Kulski, Tadaaki Moritomo, Takashi Shiina
The current information on the polymorphism variation and haplotype structure of the domestic dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) genes is limited in comparison to other experimental animals. In this paper, to better elucidate the degree and types of polymorphisms and genetic differences for DLA-88, DLA-12 and DLA-64, we genotyped four families of 38 beagles and another 404 unrelated dogs representing 49 breeds by RT-PCR based Sanger sequencing. We also sequenced and analyzed the genomic organization of the DLA-88 and DLA-12 gene segments to better define these two-gene DLA haplotypes more precisely...
September 27, 2017: Immunogenetics
Janardan P Pandey, Aryan M Namboodiri, Paul J Nietert, Reiji Yoshimura, Hikaru Hori
Exposure to neurotropic viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 and human cytomegalovirus, has been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. These viruses have evolved highly sophisticated strategies for decreasing the efficacy of the host immune response and interfering with viral clearance. Particular immunoglobulin GM (γ marker) genotypes modulate these viral immunoevasion strategies, influence antibody responsiveness to viral proteins, and are also associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia, providing an excellent rationale for determining their possible involvement in the cognitive functions in this highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder...
September 22, 2017: Immunogenetics
Jolyon Martin, Hannes Ponstingl, Marie-Paule Lefranc, Joy Archer, David Sargan, Allan Bradley
Dogs are an excellent model for human disease. For example, the treatment of canine lymphoma has been predictive of the human response to that treatment. However, an incomplete picture of canine (Canis lupus familiaris) immunoglobulin (IG) and T cell receptor (TR)-or antigen receptor (AR)-gene loci has restricted their utility. This work advances the annotation of the canine AR loci and looks into breed-specific features of the loci. Bioinformatic analysis of unbiased RNA sequence data was used to complete the annotation of the canine AR genes...
September 19, 2017: Immunogenetics
Keith T Ballingall, Isabelle Lantier, Helen Todd, Frederic Lantier, Mara Rocchi
In sheep, the A and B loci encoding the α and β chains of the classical class II MHC molecules are DRA and DRB and DQA and DQB. Previous analyses described the duplication of the DQA and DQB genes. The majority of haplotypes include DQA1 and DQA2 loci, however, in a number of haplotypes, DQA1 appears absent and these haplotypes have been described as DQA1 null. In these haplotypes, the DQA2 locus is found in combination with a second locus which appeared more closely related to DQA2 than DQA1, hence the description of this locus as DQA2-like...
September 9, 2017: Immunogenetics
Susana David, Vanessa Correia, Liliana Antunes, Ricardo Faria, José Ferrão, Paula Faustino, Baltazar Nunes, Fernando Maltez, João Lavinha, Helena Rebelo de Andrade
Influenza epidemics are a serious global public health and economic problem. The IFITM3 allele (rs12252-C) was suggested as a population-based genetic risk factor for severe influenza virus infection by A(H1N1)pdm09. We analyzed the population genetics of IFITM3 variants in the Portuguese general population (n = 200) and Central Africans (largely Angolan) (n = 148) as well as its association to influenza severity in Portuguese patients (n = 41). Seven SNPs, within the 352 bp IFITM3 amplicon around rs12252, were identified...
August 25, 2017: Immunogenetics
Ronald Bontrop, Anneke Brand, Frans Claas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2017: Immunogenetics
Zhanna Shubin, Yutaka Tagaya, Bhawna Poonia
Rhesus macaque is an important animal model for studies testing interventions like antibody therapeutics; as such knowledge of inter-individual variations in function of genes affecting antibody recycling is important for optimal experimental design. Neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), a heterodimer composed of FCGRT and β2-m chains, plays critical role in extending catabolic half-life of IgG. We studied genomic polymorphisms in rhesus macaque FcRn and asked if they are functional by assessing correlations with serum IgG or β2-m levels...
August 7, 2017: Immunogenetics
Stefanie Memmer, Sandra Weil, Joachim Koch
The activating natural cytotoxicity receptors on natural killer (NK) cells play a fundamental role in immunosurveillance of infections and cancer. Phylogenetic analyses showed that NKp30 is highly conserved in almost all jawed vertebrates and thus, represents one of the most ancient NK cell receptors. However, in contrast to other higher vertebrates, NKp30 is only a pseudogene in mouse, which contains two premature stop codons. To decipher the evolutionary role and biological function of NKp30 in mouse, we removed these premature stop codons and expressed the putative mouse NKp30 (mNKp30) protein as soluble Fc fusion construct and as full-length receptor on A5-GFP reporter cells...
August 7, 2017: Immunogenetics
Nicolas De Neuter, Wout Bittremieux, Charlie Beirnaert, Bart Cuypers, Aida Mrzic, Pieter Moris, Arvid Suls, Viggo Van Tendeloo, Benson Ogunjimi, Kris Laukens, Pieter Meysman
Current T cell epitope prediction tools are a valuable resource in designing targeted immunogenicity experiments. They typically focus on, and are able to, accurately predict peptide binding and presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. However, recognition of the peptide-MHC complex by a T cell receptor (TCR) is often not included in these tools. We developed a classification approach based on random forest classifiers to predict recognition of a peptide by a T cell receptor and discover patterns that contribute to recognition...
August 4, 2017: Immunogenetics
Piotr Minias, Zachary W Bateson, Linda A Whittingham, Jeff A Johnson, Sara Oyler-McCance, Peter O Dunn
Gene polymorphisms shared between recently diverged species are thought to be widespread and most commonly reflect introgression from hybridization or retention of ancestral polymorphism through incomplete lineage sorting. Shared genetic diversity resulting from incomplete lineage sorting is usually maintained for a relatively short period of time, but under strong balancing selection it may persist for millions of years beyond species divergence (balanced trans-species polymorphism), as in the case of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes...
August 2, 2017: Immunogenetics
M Scott Killian, Fernando Teque, Ramu Sudhagoni
CD8(+) T lymphocytes can reduce the production of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) by CD4(+) T cells by cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic mechanisms. To investigate the involvement of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I compatibility in anti-HIV responses, we co-cultured primary CD8(+) T cells, isolated from the peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected individuals, with panels of autologous and heterologous acutely HIV-1-infected primary CD4(+) T cells. Altogether, CD8(+) T cell anti-HIV activity was evaluated in more than 200 co-cultures...
July 22, 2017: Immunogenetics
Lloyd D'Orsogna, Heleen van den Heuvel, Cees van Kooten, Sebastiaan Heidt, Frans H J Claas
Transplant recipients can be sensitized against allo-HLA antigens by previous transplantation, blood transfusion, or pregnancy. While there is growing awareness that multiple components of the immune system can act as effectors of the alloresponse, the role of infectious pathogen exposure in triggering sensitization and allograft rejection has remained a matter of much debate. Here, we describe that exposure to pathogens may enhance the immune response to allogeneic HLA antigens via different pathways. The potential role of allo-HLA cross-reactivity of virus-specific memory T cells, activation of innate immunity leading to a more efficient induction of the adaptive alloimmune response by antigen-presenting cells, and bystander activation of existing memory B cell activation will be discussed in this review...
August 2017: Immunogenetics
Gry Persson, Wenna Nascimento Melsted, Line Lynge Nilsson, Thomas Vauvert F Hviid
The HLA class Ib genes, HLA-E, HLA-F, and HLA-G, were discovered long after the classical HLA class Ia genes. The elucidation of their functions had a modest beginning. However, their basic functions and involvement in pathophysiology and a range of diseases are now emerging. Although results from a range of studies support the functional roles for the HLA class Ib molecules in adult life, especially HLA-G and HLA-F have most intensively been, and were also primarily, studied in relation to reproduction and pregnancy...
August 2017: Immunogenetics
Karl-Johan Malmberg, Ebba Sohlberg, Jodie P Goodridge, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren
The ability of NK cells to specifically recognize cells lacking expression of self-MHC class I molecules was discovered over 30 years ago. It provided the foundation for the "missing self" hypothesis. Research in the two past decades has contributed to a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms that determine the specificity and strength of NK cell-mediated "missing self" responses to tumor cells. However, in light of the recent remarkable breakthroughs in clinical cancer immunotherapy, the cytolytic potential of NK cells still remains largely untapped in clinical settings...
August 2017: Immunogenetics
Alison Caldwell, Hannah V Siddle
The Tasmanian devil, a marsupial species endemic to the island of Tasmania, harbours two contagious cancers, Devil Facial Tumour 1 (DFT1) and Devil Facial Tumour 2 (DFT2). These cancers pass between individuals in the population via the direct transfer of tumour cells, resulting in the growth of large tumours around the face and neck of affected animals. While these cancers are rare, a contagious cancer also exists in dogs and five contagious cancers circulate in bivalves. The ability of tumour cells to emerge and transmit in mammals is surprising as these cells are an allograft and should be rejected due to incompatibility between Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes...
August 2017: Immunogenetics
Arieke S B Kampstra, René E M Toes
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic auto-immune disease primarily targeting the joints. Approximately 1% of the population is affected by RA, and despite the improvements in therapeutic interventions, elucidation of the disease pathogenesis is still in its infancy. RA patients can be subdivided on basis of the presence of autoantibodies, especially anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). ACPA(+) and ACPA(-) disease most likely differ in aetiology, as different genetic and environmental risk factors are associated with these two disease entities...
August 2017: Immunogenetics
Hugo G Hilton, Peter Parham
Natural killer (NK) cells are fast-acting and versatile lymphocytes that are critical effectors of innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and placental development. Controlling NK cell function are the interactions between killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C ligands. Due to the extensive polymorphism of both KIR and HLA class I, these interactions are highly diversified and specific combinations correlate with protection or susceptibility to a range of infectious, autoimmune, and reproductive disorders...
August 2017: Immunogenetics
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