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Alsagher O A Ali, Abigail Stear, Karen Fairlie-Clarke, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni, N Mahiza Md Isa, M Shahrom Bin Salisi, Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska, David Groth, Johannes Buitkamp, Michael J Stear
Understanding the structure of the major histocompatibility complex, especially the number and frequency of alleles, loci and haplotypes, is crucial for efficient investigation of the way in which the MHC influences susceptibility to disease. Nematode infection is one of the most important diseases suffered by sheep, and the class II region has been repeatedly associated with differences in susceptibility and resistance to infection. Texel sheep are widely used in many different countries and are relatively resistant to infection...
December 5, 2016: Immunogenetics
Chisato Sakuma, Daisuke Toki, Hiroki Shinkai, Takato Takenouchi, Mitsuru Sato, Hiroshi Kitani, Hirohide Uenishi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Immunogenetics
Donald Miller, Rebecca L Tallmadge, Matthew Binns, Baoli Zhu, Yasmin Ali Mohamoud, Ayeda Ahmed, Samantha A Brooks, Douglas F Antczak
The polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQ and DR genes in five common equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) haplotypes was determined through sequencing of mRNA transcripts isolated from lymphocytes of eight ELA homozygous horses. Ten expressed MHC class II genes were detected in horses of the ELA-A3 haplotype carried by the donor horses of the equine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and the reference genome sequence: four DR genes and six DQ genes. The other four ELA haplotypes contained at least eight expressed polymorphic MHC class II loci...
November 26, 2016: Immunogenetics
Jennifer Antonides, Robert Ricklefs, J Andrew DeWoody
Avian genomics, especially of non-model species, is in its infancy relative to mammalian genomics. Here, we describe the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of a new avian genome, that of the bananaquit Coereba flaveola (Passeriformes: Thraupidae). We produced ∼30-fold coverage of the genome with an assembly size of ca. 1.2 Gb, including approximately 16,500 annotated genes. Passerine birds, such as the bananaquit, are commonly infected by avian malarial parasites (Haemosporida), which presumably drive adaptive evolution of immunogenetic loci within the host genome...
November 25, 2016: Immunogenetics
Elizabeth A Jones, Yuanyuan Cheng, Denis O'Meally, Katherine Belov
Defensins comprise a family of cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides with important roles in innate and adaptive immune defense in vertebrates. We characterized alpha and beta defensin genes in three Australian marsupials: the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) and identified 48, 34, and 39 defensins, respectively. One hundred and twelve have the classical antimicrobial peptides characteristics required for pathogen membrane targeting, including cationic charge (between 1+ and 15+) and a high proportion of hydrophobic residues (>30%)...
November 12, 2016: Immunogenetics
Wei Xia, Jian Wu, Fei-Yan Deng, Long-Fei Wu, Yong-Hong Zhang, Yu-Fan Guo, Shu-Feng Lei
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease. So far, it is unclear whether there exist common RA-related genes shared in different tissues/cells. In this study, we conducted an integrative analysis on multiple datasets to identify potential shared genes that are significant in multiple tissues/cells for RA. Seven microarray gene expression datasets representing various RA-related tissues/cells were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Statistical analyses, testing both marginal and joint effects, were conducted to identify significant genes shared in various samples...
November 3, 2016: Immunogenetics
Chisato Sakuma, Daisuke Toki, Hiroki Shinkai, Takato Takenouchi, Mitsuru Sato, Hiroshi Kitani, Hirohide Uenishi
The NLRC4 inflammasome, which recognizes flagellin and components of the type III secretion system, plays an important role in the clearance of intracellular bacteria. Here, we examined the genomic sequences carrying two genes encoding key components of the NLRC4 inflammasome-NLR family, CARD-containing 4 (NLRC4), and NLR apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP)-in pigs. Pigs have a single locus encoding NLRC4 and NAIP. Comparison of the sequences thus obtained with the corresponding regions in humans revealed the deletion of intermediate exons in both pig genes...
October 29, 2016: Immunogenetics
Bixuan Lin, Ashley E Ciecko, Erin MacKinney, David V Serreze, Yi-Guang Chen
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse develops spontaneous T1D and has been used extensively to study the genetic control of this disease. T1D is suppressed in NOD mice congenic for the C57BL/10 (B10)-derived Idd9 resistance region on chromosome 4. Previous studies conducted by other investigators have identified four subregions (Idd9.1, Idd9.2, Idd9.3, and Idd9.4) where B10-derived genes suppress T1D development in NOD mice...
October 28, 2016: Immunogenetics
Nel Otting, Marit K H van der Wiel, Nanine de Groot, Annemiek J M de Vos-Rouweler, Natasja G de Groot, Gaby G M Doxiadis, Roger W Wiseman, David H O'Connor, Ronald E Bontrop
The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region encodes three types of class II molecules designated HLA-DR, -DQ, and -DP. Both the HLA-DQ and -DP gene region comprise a duplicated tandem of A and B genes, whereas in macaques, only one set of genes is present per region. A substantial sequencing project on the DQ and DP genes in various macaque populations resulted in the detection of previously 304 unreported full-length alleles. Phylogenetic studies showed that humans and macaques share trans-species lineages for the DQA1 and DQB1 genes, whereas the DPA1 and DPB1 lineages in macaques appear to be species-specific...
October 22, 2016: Immunogenetics
Shandiya Balasubramaniam, Raoul A Mulder, Paul Sunnucks, Alexandra Pavlova, Jane Melville
The high levels of polymorphism and allelic diversity which characterise genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are thought to be generated and maintained through the combined effects of different evolutionary processes. Here, we characterised exon 2 of the MHC class II β genes in two congeneric passerine species, the spotted (Pardalotus punctatus) and striated pardalote (Pardalotus striatus). We estimated the levels of allelic diversity and tested for signatures of recombination, gene conversion and balancing selection to determine if these processes have influenced MHC variation in the two species...
October 8, 2016: Immunogenetics
Yoshiki Yasukochi, Jun Ohashi
A previous study reported that some of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and haplotypes in present-day humans were acquired by admixture with archaic humans; specifically, an exceptionally diverged HLA-B*73 allele was proposed to be transmitted from Denisovans, although the DNA sequence of HLA-B*73 has not been detected in the Denisovan genome. Here, we argue against the hypothesis that HLA-B*73 introgressed from Denisovans into early modern humans. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HLA-B*73:01 formed a monophyletic group with a chimpanzee MHC-B allele, strongly suggesting that the HLA-B*73 allelic lineage has been maintained in humans as well as in chimpanzees since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees...
September 30, 2016: Immunogenetics
Eri Kikkawa, Masafumi Tanaka, Taeko K Naruse, Tomi T Tsuda, Michio Tsuda, Koichi Murata, Akinori Kimura
The major histocompatibility complex locus (MHC) is a gene region related to immune response and exhibits a remarkably great diversity. We deduced that polymorphisms in MHC genes would help to solve several issues on penguins, including classification, phylogenetic relationship, and conservation. This study aimed to elucidate the structure and diversity of the so far unknown MHC class I gene in a penguin species. The structure of an MHC class I gene from the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) was determined by using an inverse PCR method...
September 21, 2016: Immunogenetics
Suliman Y Alomar, Afrah Alkhuriji, Paul Trayhyrn, Abdulkarim Alhetheel, Abdullah Al-Jurayyan, Lamjed Mansour
Breast cancer (BC) progression and metastases have been linked to antitumor immunity inefficiency and particularly to natural killer (NK) cells. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are the most polymorphic receptors of NK cells. Through their interactions with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C ligands, they modulate NK and T cell actions against target cells. Therefore, we studied the combinatorial effect of KIR genes and their HLA-C ligands on the susceptibility to development of BC in Saudi women...
September 15, 2016: Immunogenetics
Bridget S Penman, Ashley Moffett, Olympe Chazara, Sunetra Gupta, Peter Parham
Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are encoded by one of the most polymorphic families in the human genome. KIRs are expressed on natural killer (NK) cells, which have dual roles: (1) in fighting infection and (2) in reproduction, regulating hemochorial placentation. Uniquely among primates, human KIR genes are arranged into two haplotypic combinations: KIR A and KIR B. It has been proposed that KIR A is specialized to fight infection, whilst KIR B evolved to help ensure successful reproduction...
November 2016: Immunogenetics
Deepali Vasoya, Andy Law, Paolo Motta, Mingyan Yu, Adrian Muwonge, Elizabeth Cook, Xiaoying Li, Karen Bryson, Amanda MacCallam, Tatjana Sitt, Philip Toye, Barend Bronsvoort, Mick Watson, W Ivan Morrison, Timothy Connelley
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region contains many genes that are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity including the polymorphic MHCI and MHCII genes. Consequently, the characterisation of the repertoire of MHC genes is critical to understanding the variation that determines the nature of immune responses. Our current knowledge of the bovine MHCI repertoire is limited with only the Holstein-Friesian breed having been studied in any depth. Traditional methods of MHCI genotyping are of low resolution and laborious and this has been a major impediment to a more comprehensive analysis of the MHCI repertoire of other cattle breeds...
November 2016: Immunogenetics
Julia Schad, Christian C Voigt
Recently, bats have gained attention as potential reservoir hosts for emerging zoonotic single-stranded (ssRNA) viruses that may prove fatal for humans and other mammals. It has been hypothesized that some features of their innate immune system may enable bats to trigger an efficient early immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent a first line defense within the innate immune system and lie directly at the host-pathogen interface in targeting specific microbe-molecular patterns. However, the direction and strength of selection acting on TLRs are largely unknown for bats...
November 2016: Immunogenetics
Ken Wolfe, Colm Ó'hUigín
In this minireview, we highlight the contributions of the late Austin L. Hughes to two areas of molecular evolution: the role of positive (Darwinian) selection, and the impact of gene duplications during genome evolution.
November 2016: Immunogenetics
M R López-Álvarez, W Jiang, D C Jones, J Jayaraman, C Johnson, W O Cookson, M F Moffatt, J Trowsdale, J A Traherne
Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR) are expressed mostly on myelomonocytic cells where they are mediators of immunological tolerance. Two LILR genes, LILRA3 and LILRA6, exhibit marked copy number variation. We assessed the contribution of these genes to atopic dermatitis (AD) by analysing transmission in 378 AD families. The data indicated that copies of LILRA6 were over-transmitted to affected patients. They are consistent with a contribution of LILR genes to AD. They could affect the equilibrium between activating and inhibitory signals in the immune response...
October 2016: Immunogenetics
Kirsi Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela, Tero Vahlberg, Jorma Ilonen, Jussi Mertsola, Qiushui He
Individual variation in immune responses is always encountered after vaccination. This phenomenon is also seen after acellular pertussis vaccination. The aim of this present study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-10 gene promoter region (rs1800890, rs1800896, rs1800871), IL-12B (rs2546890), IL-12RB1 (rs372889), IL-17A (rs2275913), and IL-23R (rs11209026) affect the immune responses after acellular pertussis vaccination. The T cell proliferative response was evaluated in 38 Finnish young adults who received a second booster dose of a vaccine combination of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis, 10 years after the previous booster...
October 2016: Immunogenetics
Alexandra Livernois, Kristine Hardy, Renae Domaschenz, Alexie Papanicolaou, Arthur Georges, Stephen D Sarre, Sudha Rao, Tariq Ezaz, Janine E Deakin
Interleukins are a group of cytokines with complex immunomodulatory functions that are important for regulating immunity in vertebrate species. Reptiles and mammals last shared a common ancestor more than 350 million years ago, so it is not surprising that low sequence identity has prevented divergent interleukin genes from being identified in the central bearded dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps, in its genome assembly. To determine the complete nucleotide sequences of key interleukin genes, we constructed full-length transcripts, using the Trinity platform, from short paired-end read RNA sequences from stimulated spleen cells...
October 2016: Immunogenetics
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