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Cell and Tissue Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220294/chromogranin-a-regulates-vesicle-storage-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-to-influence-insulin-secretion
#1
Joshua Wollam, Sumana Mahata, Matthew Riopel, Angelina Hernandez-Carretero, Angshuman Biswas, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Nai-Wen Chi, Lee E Eiden, Nitish R Mahapatra, Angelo Corti, Nicholas J G Webster, Sushil K Mahata
Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and a granulogenic factor that regulates secretory pathways in neuroendocrine tissues. In β-cells of the endocrine pancreas, CgA is a major cargo in insulin secretory vesicles. The impact of CgA deficiency on the formation and exocytosis of insulin vesicles is yet to be investigated. In addition, no literature exists on the impact of CgA on mitochondrial function in β-cells. Using three different antibodies, we demonstrate that CgA is processed to vasostatin- and catestatin-containing fragments in pancreatic islet cells...
February 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220293/effects-of-bisphosphonates-on-osteogenesis-and-osteoclastogenesis-signaling-during-the-endochondral-ossification-of-growing-rats
#2
Eloiza Rezende, Vivian Bradaschia-Correa, Fabio Siviero, Lucas M B Ambrosio, Victor E Arana-Chavez
Osteoclasts and chondroclasts are necessary, during endochondral ossification, for the resorption of primary bone and calcified cartilage septa, respectively. The bisphosphonates inhibit mineralized tissue resorption by various mechanisms according to the different types of this drug, which can affect bone remodeling during skeletal growth. The objective of the present study is to analyze the way that alendronate (ALN) and etidronate (ETN) can affect osteoclastogenesis and bone formation during endochondral ossification of the long bones of growing rats...
February 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197779/colonic-mesenchyme-differentiates-into-smooth-muscle-before-its-colonization-by-vagal-enteric-neural-crest-derived-cells-in-the-chick-embryo
#3
Annick Bourret, Norbert Chauvet, Pascal de Santa Barbara, Sandrine Faure
During development, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract arises from a primary tube composed of mesoderm and endoderm. The mesoderm gives rise to the digestive mesenchyme, which in turn differentiates into multiple tissues, namely the submucosa, the interstitial cells of Cajal and the smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Concomitant with these early patterning events, the primitive GI tract is colonized by vagal enteric neural crest-derived cells (vENCDCs), a population of cells that gives rise to the enteric nervous system, the intrinsic innervation of the GI tract...
February 15, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197778/evaluating-effects-of-l-carnitine-on-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Koichi Fujisawa, Taro Takami, Yumi Fukui, Luiz Fernando Quintanilha, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Naoki Yamamoto, Isao Sakaida
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells showing potential for use in regenerative medicine. Culture techniques that are more stable and methods for the more efficient production of MSCs with therapeutic efficacy are needed. We evaluate the effects of growing bone marrow (Bm)-derived MSCs in the presence of L-carnitine, which is believed to promote lipid metabolism and to suppress apoptosis. The presence of L-carnitine decreased the degree of drug-induced apoptosis and suppressed adipogenic differentiation...
February 14, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191598/diacylglycerol-kinase-%C3%AE%C2%B5-localizes-to-subsurface-cisterns-of-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#5
Yasukazu Hozumi, Hiroki Fujiwara, Kenya Kaneko, Satoshi Fujii, Matthew K Topham, Masahiko Watanabe, Kaoru Goto
Following activation of Gq protein-coupled receptors, phospholipase C yields a pair of second messengers: diacylglycerol (DG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates DG to produce phosphatidic acid, another second messenger. Of the DGK family, DGKε is the only DGK isoform that exhibits substrate specificity for DG with an arachidonoyl acyl chain at the sn-2 position. Recently, we demonstrated that hydrophobic residues in the N-terminus of DGKε play an important role in targeting the endoplasmic reticulum in transfected cells...
February 13, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191597/obituary-andreas-oksche
#6
Horst-Werner Korf, Klaus Unsicker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190088/in-situ-proximity-of-cx3cr1-positive-mononuclear-phagocytes-and-vip-ergic-nerve-fibers-suggests-vip-ergic-immunomodulation-in-the-mouse-ileum
#7
Roeland Buckinx, Katrien Alpaerts, Isabel Pintelon, Nathalie Cools, Luc Van Nassauw, Dirk Adriaensen, Jean-Pierre Timmermans
Being continuously exposed to a plethora of antigens ranging from food antigens to potential pathogenic organisms, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors the largest collection of immune cells in the mammalian body. This immune system has to maintain a delicate balance between mounting an active immune response and maintaining tolerance. The GI tract is also home to an elaborate intrinsic nervous system, the enteric nervous system (ENS). Various in vitro studies of neuro-immune communication have suggested that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), an important GI neurotransmitter, modulates mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs), i...
February 11, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190087/airway-remodeling-in-asthma-what-really-matters
#8
REVIEW
Heinz Fehrenbach, Christina Wagner, Michael Wegmann
Airway remodeling is generally quite broadly defined as any change in composition, distribution, thickness, mass or volume and/or number of structural components observed in the airway wall of patients relative to healthy individuals. However, two types of airway remodeling should be distinguished more clearly: (1) physiological airway remodeling, which encompasses structural changes that occur regularly during normal lung development and growth leading to a normal mature airway wall or as an acute and transient response to injury and/or inflammation, which ultimately results in restoration of a normal airway structures; and (2) pathological airway remodeling, which comprises those structural alterations that occur as a result of either disturbed lung development or as a response to chronic injury and/or inflammation leading to persistently altered airway wall structures and function...
February 11, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190086/mcl-1-is-modulated-in-crohn-s-disease-fibrosis-by-mir-29b-via-il-6-and-il-8
#9
Anke Nijhuis, Renata Curciarello, Shameer Mehta, Roger Feakins, Cleo L Bishop, James O Lindsay, Andrew Silver
The miR-29 family is involved in fibrosis in multiple organs, including the intestine where miR-29b facilitates TGF-β-mediated up-regulation of collagen in mucosal fibroblasts from Crohn's disease (CD) patients. Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1), a member of the B-cell CLL/Lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) apoptosis family, is involved in liver fibrosis and is targeted by miR-29b via its 3'-UTR in cultured cell lines. We investigate the role of MCL-1 and miR-29b in primary intestinal fibroblasts and tissue from stricturing CD patients...
February 11, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180992/comprehensive-functional-analysis-of-rab-gtpases-in-drosophila-nephrocytes
#10
Yulong Fu, Jun-Yi Zhu, Fujian Zhang, Adam Richman, Zhanzheng Zhao, Zhe Han
The Drosophila nephrocyte is a critical component of the fly renal system and bears structural and functional homology to podocytes and proximal tubule cells of the mammalian kidney. Investigations of nephrocyte cell biological processes are fundamental to understanding the insect renal system. Nephrocytes are highly active in endocytosis and vesicle trafficking. Rab GTPases regulate endocytosis and trafficking but specific functions of nephrocyte Rabs remain undefined. We analyzed Rab GTPase expression and function in Drosophila nephrocytes and found that 11 out of 27 Drosophila Rabs were required for normal activity...
February 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168324/pulmonary-innate-inflammatory-responses-to-agricultural-occupational-contaminants
#11
REVIEW
Ram S Sethi, David Schneberger, Chandrashekhar Charavaryamath, Baljit Singh
Agricultural workers are exposed to many contaminants and suffer from respiratory and other symptoms. Dusts, gases, microbial products and pesticide residues from farms have been linked to effects on the health of agricultural workers. Growing sets of data from in vitro and in vivo models demonstrate the role of the innate immune system, especially Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR9, in lung inflammation induced following exposure to contaminants in agricultural environments. Interestingly, inflammation and lung function changes appear to be discordant indicating the complexity of inflammatory responses to exposures...
February 6, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168323/unravelling-the-networks-dictating-host-resistance-versus-tolerance-during-pulmonary-infections
#12
REVIEW
Isabelle Meunier, Eva Kaufmann, Jeffrey Downey, Maziar Divangahi
The appearance of single cell microorganisms on earth dates back to more than 3.5 billion years ago, ultimately leading to the development of multicellular organisms approximately 3 billion years later. The evolutionary burst of species diversity and the "struggle for existence", as proposed by Darwin, generated a complex host defense system. Host survival during infection in vital organs, such as the lung, requires a delicate balance between host defense, which is essential for the detection and elimination of pathogens and host tolerance, which is critical for minimizing collateral tissue damage...
February 6, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164246/immune-mediated-inflammation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-emphysema-insights-from-mouse-models
#13
REVIEW
John M Craig, Alan L Scott, Wayne Mitzner
The cellular mechanisms that result in the initiation and progression of emphysema are clearly complex. A growing body of human data combined with discoveries from mouse models utilizing cigarette smoke exposure or protease administration have improved our understanding of emphysema development by implicating specific cell types that may be important for the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The most important aspects of emphysematous damage appear to be oxidative or protease stress and sustained macrophage activation and infiltration of other immune cells leading to epithelial damage and cell death...
February 6, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154936/cultured-bovine-granulosa-cells-rapidly-lose-important-features-of-their-identity-and-functionality-but-partially-recover-under-long-term-culture-conditions
#14
Vengala Rao Yenuganti, Jens Vanselow
Cell culture models are essential for the detailed study of molecular processes. We analyze the dynamics of changes in a culture model of bovine granulosa cells. The cells were cultured for up to 8 days and analyzed for steroid production and gene expression. According to the expression of the marker genes CDH1, CDH2 and VIM, the cells maintained their mesenchymal character throughout the time of culture. In contrast, the levels of functionally important transcripts and of estradiol and progesterone production were rapidly down-regulated but showed a substantial up-regulation from day 4...
February 2, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150067/regeneration-of-axotomized-olfactory-neurons-in-young-and-adult-locusts-quantified-by-fasciclin-i-immunofluorescence
#15
Hannah Wasser, Alexandra Biller, Georgios Antonopoulos, Heiko Meyer, Gerd Bicker, Michael Stern
The olfactory pathway of the locust Locusta migratoria is characterized by a multiglomerular innervation of the antennal lobe (AL) by olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). After crushing the antenna and thereby severing ORN axons, changes in the AL were monitored. First, volume changes were measured at different times post-crush with scanning laser optical tomography in 5th instar nymphs. AL volume decreased significantly to a minimum volume at 4 days post-crush, followed by an increase. Second, anterograde labeling was used to visualize details in the AL and antennal nerve (AN) during de- and regeneration...
February 1, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144785/afferent-neural-pathways-from-the-photoperiodic-receptor-in-the-bean-bug-riptortus-pedestris
#16
Jili Xi, Ikuyo Toyoda, Sakiko Shiga
Adult diapause in the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, is controlled by the photoperiod, which is received by retinal cells in the central region of the compound eyes. To resolve the afferent neural pathways involved in the photoperiodic response, we examine fibre projections from the photoperiodic receptors to the brain and investigate the roles of the posterior optic tract (POT) in the photoperiodic response. Reduced-silver impregnation and synapsin immunolabelling revealed that the medulla was divided into nine strata: the outer layer comprises 4 strata, the inner layer comprises 4 strata and a serpentine layer separates the inner and outer layers...
February 1, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144784/bag3-is-involved-in-neuronal-differentiation-and-migration
#17
Antonietta Santoro, Vanessa Nicolin, Fulvio Florenzano, Alessandra Rosati, Mario Capunzo, Stefania L Nori
Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) protein belongs to the family of co-chaperones interacting with several heat shock proteins. It plays a key role in protein quality control and mediates the clearance of misfolded proteins. Little is known about the expression and cellular localization of BAG3 during nervous system development and differentiation. Therefore, we analyze the subcellular distribution and expression of BAG3 in nerve-growth-factor-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and in developing and adult cortex of mouse brain...
February 1, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144783/development-of-the-lung
#18
REVIEW
Johannes C Schittny
To fulfill the task of gas exchange, the lung possesses a huge inner surface and a tree-like system of conducting airways ventilating the gas exchange area. During lung development, the conducting airways are formed first, followed by the formation and enlargement of the gas exchange area. The latter (alveolarization) continues until young adulthood. During organogenesis, the left and right lungs have their own anlage, an outpouching of the foregut. Each lung bud starts a repetitive process of outgrowth and branching (branching morphogenesis) that forms all of the future airways mainly during the pseudoglandular stage...
January 31, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138798/the-digestive-system-of-the-stony-coral-stylophora-pistillata
#19
M Raz-Bahat, J Douek, E Moiseeva, E C Peters, B Rinkevich
Because hermatypic species use symbiotic algal photosynthesis, most of the literature in this field focuses on this autotrophic mode and very little research has studied the morphology of the coral's digestive system or the digestion process of particulate food. Using histology and histochemestry, our research reveals that Stylophora pistillata's digestive system is concentrated at the corals' peristome, actinopharynx and mesenterial filaments (MF). We used in-situ hybridization (ISH) of the RNA transcript of the gene that codes for the S...
January 30, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120110/identification-of-m2-macrophages-in-anterior-pituitary-glands-of-normal-rats-and-rats-with-estrogen-induced-prolactinoma
#20
Ken Fujiwara, Megumi Yatabe, Alimuddin Tofrizal, Depicha Jindatip, Takashi Yashiro, Ryozo Nagai
Macrophages are present throughout the anterior pituitary gland. However, the features and function of macrophages in the gland are poorly understood. Recent studies have indicated that there are two main macrophage classes: M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). In this study, we examine whether both M1 and M2 macrophages are present in the anterior pituitary gland of rats. Our findings indicate that macrophages that are positive for CD68 (a pan-macrophage marker) were localized near capillaries in rat anterior pituitary gland...
January 24, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
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