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Cell and Tissue Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918504/autism-spectrum-disorders-and-disease-modeling-using-stem-cells
#1
REVIEW
Anita Brito, Fabiele Baldino Russo, Alysson Renato Muotri, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a variety of disorders characterized as complex lifelong neurodevelopment disabilities, which may affect the ability of communication and socialization, including typical comportments like repetitive and stereotyped behavior. Other comorbidities are usually present, such as echolalia, hypotonia, intellectual disability and difficulties in processing figured speech. Furthermore, some ASD individuals may present certain abilities, such as eidetic memory, outstanding musical or painting talents and special mathematical skills, among others...
September 16, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887711/in-vitro-remodeling-and-structural-characterization-of-degradable-polymer-scaffold-based-tissue-engineered-vascular-grafts-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#2
Wanwen Chen, Junqing Yang, Wenjun Liao, Jiahui Zhou, Jianyi Zheng, Yueheng Wu, Dongfeng Li, Zhanyi Lin
Non-destructive imaging strategies to monitor long-term cultures is essential for vascular engineering. The goal of this study is to investigate whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be a suitable approach to monitor the long-term remodeling process of biodegradable polymeric scaffold-based tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVG) after pulsatile stimulation and to observe polymeric scaffold degradation during bioreactor cultivation. In the present study, a perfusion system driven by a ventricular assist device was provided for a three-dimensional culture system as a pulsatile force...
September 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887696/lessons-from-single-cell-transcriptome-analysis-of-oxygen-sensing-cells
#3
REVIEW
Ting Zhou, Hiroaki Matsunami
The advent of single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology has enabled transcriptome profiling of individual cells. Comprehensive gene expression analysis at the single-cell level has proven to be effective in characterizing the most fundamental aspects of cellular function and identity. This unbiased approach is revolutionary for small and/or heterogeneous tissues like oxygen-sensing cells in identifying key molecules. Here, we review the major methods of current single-cell RNA-Seq technology. We discuss how this technology has advanced the understanding of oxygen-sensing glomus cells in the carotid body and helped uncover novel oxygen-sensing cells and mechanisms in the mice olfactory system...
September 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864831/ultrastructural-features-of-aberrant-glial-cells-isolated-from-the-spinal-cord-of-paralytic-rats-expressing-the-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-linked-sod1g93a-mutation
#4
Marcie Jiménez-Riani, Pablo Díaz-Amarilla, Eugenia Isasi, Gabriela Casanova, Luis Barbeito, Silvia Olivera-Bravo
In the rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis expressing the G93A superoxide dismutase-1 mutation, motor neuron death and rapid paralysis progression are associated with the emergence of a population of aberrant glial cells (AbAs) that proliferate in the degenerating spinal cord. Targeting of AbAs with anti-neoplasic drugs reduced paralysis progression, suggesting a pathogenic potential contribution of these cells accelerating paralysis progression. In the present study, analyze the cellular and ultrastructural features of AbAs following their isolation and establishment in culture during several passages...
September 2, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856468/gaskell-revisited-new-insights-into-spinal-autonomics-necessitate-a-revised-motor-neuron-nomenclature
#5
REVIEW
Bernd Fritzsch, Karen L Elliott, Joel C Glover
Several concepts developed in the nineteenth century have formed the basis of much of our neuroanatomical teaching today. Not all of these were based on solid evidence nor have withstood the test of time. Recent evidence on the evolution and development of the autonomic nervous system, combined with molecular insights into the development and diversification of motor neurons, challenges some of the ideas held for over 100 years about the organization of autonomic motor outflow. This review provides an overview of the original ideas and quality of supporting data and contrasts this with a more accurate and in depth insight provided by studies using modern techniques...
August 31, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856432/kruppel-like-factor-4-regulates-matrix-metalloproteinase-and-aggrecanase-gene-expression-in-chondrocytes
#6
Junji Fujikawa, Yuto Takeuchi, Satoshi Kanazawa, Ahmed G Nomir, Akiyoshi Kito, Eman Elkhashab, Amr M Ghaleb, Vincent W Yang, Shigehisa Akiyama, Ichijiro Morisaki, Takashi Yamashiro, Satoshi Wakisaka, Makoto Abe
Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc finger transcription factor that plays crucial roles during the development and maintenance of multiple organs. We and others have previously shown that KLF4 is involved in bone modeling and remodeling but roles played by KLF4 during skeletogenesis are still not fully understood. Here, we show that KLF4 is expressed in the epiphyseal growth plate and articular chondrocytes. Most articular chondrocytes expressed KLF4 in embryos but it localized only in a subset of superficial zone cells in postnatal mice...
August 31, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852936/down-regulation-of-pax2-promotes-in-vitro-differentiation-of-podocytes-from-human-cd34-cells
#7
Manne Mudhu Sunitha, Lokanathan Srikanth, Pasupuleti Santhosh Kumar, Chodimella Chandrasekhar, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna Sarma
Podocytes are major kidney cells that help in glomerular filtration and any damage or loss is a major event in the progression of kidney diseases. Understanding podocytes development will help in designing therapeutic strategies against these renal diseases. Therefore, in vitro generation of podocytes from adult hematopoietic CD34(+) stem cells is explored in the present study. Apheretically, isolated human HSCs from peripheral blood showed the presence of CD34 surface glycoprotein through immunocytochemistry (ICC) and flowcytometry...
August 29, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836072/postmortem-studies-of-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
Gaddum Duemani Reddy, Andres M Lozano
Deep brain stimulation (DBS), arguably the greatest therapeutic advancement in the treatment of Parkinson's disease since dopamine replacement therapy, is now routinely used. While the exact mechanisms by which DBS works still remain unknown, over the past three decades since it was first described, we have gained significant insight into several of the processes involved. Though often overlooked in this regard, increasing numbers of postmortem and autopsy studies are contributing significantly to our understanding...
August 23, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831605/neural-stem-cells-and-epilepsy-functional-roles-and-disease-in-a-dish-models
#9
REVIEW
Drew M Thodeson, Rebecca Brulet, Jenny Hsieh
Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures. Although current therapies exist to control the number and severity of clinical seizures, there are no pharmacological cures or disease-modifying treatments available. Use of transgenic mouse models has allowed an understanding of neural stem cells in their relation to epileptogenesis in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Further, with the significant discovery of factors necessary to reprogram adult somatic cell types into pluripotent stem cells, it has become possible to study monogenic epilepsy-in-a-dish using patient-derived neurons...
August 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831567/horse-spermatogonial-stem-cell-cryopreservation-feasible-protocols-and-potential-biotechnological-applications
#10
Guilherme M J Costa, Gleide F Avelar, Samyra M S N Lacerda, André F A Figueiredo, Amanda O Tavares, José V Rezende-Neto, Felipe G P Martins, Luiz R França
The establishment of proper conditions for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) cryopreservation and storage represents an important biotechnological approach for the preservation of the genetic stock of valuable animals. This study demonstrates the effects of different cryopreservation protocols on the survival rates and phenotypic expression of SSCs in horses. The cells were enzymatically isolated from testes of eight adult horses. After enrichment and characterization of germ cells in the suspension, the feasibility of several cryopreservation protocols were evaluated...
August 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828636/critical-periods-regulating-the-circuit-integration-of-adult-born-hippocampal-neurons
#11
REVIEW
Hannah Maria Jahn, Matteo Bergami
The dentate gyrus (DG) in the adult brain maintains the capability to generate new granule neurons throughout life. Neural stem cell-derived new-born neurons emerge to play key functions in the way information is processed in the DG and then conveyed to the CA3 hippocampal area, yet accumulating evidence indicates that both the maturation process and the connectivity pattern of new granule neurons are not prefigured but can be modulated by the activity of local microcircuits and, on a network level, by experience...
August 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815294/diallyl-trisulfide-inhibits-proliferation-invasion-and-angiogenesis-of-glioma-cells-by-inactivating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#12
Qingxia Tao, Cuiying Wu, Ruxiang Xu, Lijun Niu, Jiazhen Qin, Ning Liu, Peng Zhang, Chong Wang
Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling leads to increased cell proliferation and survival and promotes the development of various human tumors, including glioma, one of the most common primary brain tumors. The treatment efficacy of many anticancer drugs remains limited or unsatisfactory and it is urgently necessary to develop effective and low-toxicity anticancer drugs or strategies, especially for glioma. Here, we report that diallyl trisulfide suppresses survival, migration, invasion and angiogenesis in glioma cells...
August 17, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812143/serotonin-in-psychiatry-in-vitro-disease-modeling-using-patient-derived-neurons
#13
REVIEW
Krishna C Vadodaria, Shani Stern, Maria C Marchetto, Fred H Gage
Several lines of evidence implicate serotonin in the etiology of multiple psychiatric disorders, especially mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Much of our current understanding of biological mechanisms underlying serotonergic alterations in mood disorders comes from animal studies. Innovation in induced pluripotent stem cell and transdifferentiation technologies for deriving neurons from adult humans has enabled the study of disease-relevant cellular phenotypes in vitro...
August 15, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803422/salidroside-improved-cerebrovascular-vasodilation-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-through-restoring-the-function-of-bkca-channel-in-smooth-muscle-cells
#14
Yu-Guang Ma, Jun-Wei Wang, Yin-Bin Zhang, Bao-Feng Wang, Zhi-Jun Dai, Man-Jiang Xie, Hua-Feng Kang
Vessel disease is a kind of severe complication in diabetic patients. However, few pharmacologic agents can directly recover diabetic vascular function. Salidroside (SAL), a major ingredient from Rhodiola rosea, has been found to have an obvious hypoglycemic effect and a beneficial protection on vascular function in diabetes. However, whether SAL is a suitable treatment for diabetes has not so far been evaluated and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present work aims to (1) investigate the potential effects of SAL on cerebrovascular relaxation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats or when exposed to acute hyperglycemia condition and (2) examine whether function of the BKCa channel is involved in SAL treatment for diabetic vascular relaxation...
August 12, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801771/morphology-and-ultrastructure-of-the-tarsal-adhesive-organs-of-the-madagascar-hissing-cockroach-gromphadorhina-portentosa
#15
Christian Schmitt, Oliver Betz
The present transmission and scanning electron microscopic study of the ultramorphology of the pliable attachment pads (arolium, euplantulae) of the Madagascar hissing cockroach Gromphadorhina portentosa reveals structural evidence for their function in producing, storing, and secreting an adhesion-mediating secretion and releasing it to the exterior. The exocrine epidermal tissue of both the arolium and the euplantula is significantly enlarged by numerous invaginations stretching into the hemolymph cavity...
August 12, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799057/expression-patterns-of-key-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-components-in-the-developing-and-adult-mouse-midbrain-and-in-the-mn9d-cell-line
#16
Melanie Feuerstein, Enaam Chleilat, Shokoufeh Khakipoor, Konstantinos Michailidis, Christian Ophoven, Eleni Roussa
The temporal dynamic expression of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and signaling during early midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neuron development is one of the key players in establishing mDA progenitor diversity. However, whether SHH signaling is also required during later developmental stages and in mature mDA neurons is less understood. We study the expression of SHH receptors Ptch1 and Gas1 (growth arrest-specific 1) and of the transcription factors Gli1, Gli2 and Gli3 in mouse midbrain during embryonic development [embryonic day (E) 12...
August 11, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779347/micrornas-in-sertoli-cells-implications-for-spermatogenesis-and-fertility
#17
REVIEW
Marcela S Procópio, Gleide F de Avelar, Guilherme M J Costa, Samyra M S N Lacerda, Rodrigo R Resende, Luiz R de França
In recent decades, infertility has been considered a major widespread public health issue of very high concern. Currently, almost 50% of infertility cases are due to male factors, including semen disorders, obstructions, cryptorchidism, varicocele and testicular failures, which can occur due to malfunctions in both somatic and germ cells. In this context, besides other approaches, different miRNAs have been used as biomarkers for the diagnosis of male infertility, with different pathologic conditions such as Sertoli cell-only syndrome, mixed atrophy, and germ cell arrest...
August 4, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776188/alterations-of-relaxin-and-its-receptor-system-components-in-experimental-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-rats
#18
Xiaohui Zhang, Liya Pan, Kelaier Yang, Yu Fu, Yue Liu, Wenjia Chen, Xiao Ma, Xinhua Yin
High glucose induces apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and fibrosis of cardiac fibroblasts, contributing to diabetic cardiomyopathy. In this work, we explore the production of relaxin alterations and the significance of their receptor system components in the hearts of experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy rats. We measured rat relaxin-1 (equivalent to human relaxin-2), relaxin-3, RXFP1 and RXFP3 mRNA expression in the hearts of experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy rats. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) and cardiac fibroblasts were treated with 5...
August 3, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776187/alzheimer-s-disease-related-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-peptide-induces-the-loss-of-human-sperm-function
#19
R S Tavares, S Martins, T Almeida-Santos, A P Sousa, J Ramalho-Santos, O A da Cruz E Silva
Characteristically identified as the main component of senile plaques present in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, Aβ has been detected in human testis and reproductive fluids, but its effect on spermatozoa has not been addressed. The present study evaluated whether the most toxic and aggregant amyloid precursor protein (APP)-proteolytic product, amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42), was capable of affecting sperm functionality. Normozoospermic samples were either exposed to different Aβ1-42 doses or to the untreated and scrambled controls for a maximum of 48 h at 37 °C and 5%CO2, and motility, viability and mitochondrial status were evaluated...
August 3, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776186/home-sweet-home-the-neural-stem-cell-niche-throughout-development-and-after-injury
#20
REVIEW
Rebecca M Ruddy, Cindi M Morshead
Neural stem cells and their progeny reside in two distinct neurogenic niches within the mammalian brain: the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus. The interplay between the neural stem cells and the niche in which they reside can have significant effects on cell kinetics and neurogenesis. A comprehensive understanding of the changes to the niche that occur through postnatal development and aging, as well as following injury, is relevant for developing therapeutics and interventions to promote neural repair...
August 3, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
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