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Cell and Tissue Research

Wai Hoe Ng, Mimi Zulaikha Umar Fuaad, Siti Maisura Azmi, Yin Yee Leong, Yoke Keong Yong, Angela Min Hwei Ng, Jun Jie Tan
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to secrete cardioprotective paracrine factors that can potentially activate endogenous cardiac c-kit cells (CCs). This study aims to optimise MSC growth conditions and medium formulation for generating the conditioned medium (CdM) to facilitate CC growth and expansion in vitro. The quality of MSC-CdM after optimisation of seeding density during MSC stabilisation and medium formulation used during MSC stimulation including glucose, ascorbic acid, serum and oxygen levels and the effects of treatment concentration and repeated CdM harvesting were assessed based on CC viability in vitro under growth factor- and serum-deprived condition...
September 19, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Geetika Verma, Chandra Sekhar Mukhopadhyay, Ramneek Verma, Baljit Singh, R S Sethi
Ethion, an organophosphorus pesticide, is used worldwide and has potential for toxicity and inflammation. There are very limited data on the pulmonary and genotoxic effects of ethion especially when the exposure is combined with lipopolysaccharide. Therefore, we used a mouse model to test the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to ethion alone or in conjunction with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) will cause lung inflammation and genotoxicity in a mouse model. Swiss albino (n = 30) were divided into a control (n = 10) and two treatment groups (n = 10; each group)...
September 17, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Melissa Shizue de A Yamashita, Eduardo O Melo
Transgenic livestock have been studied with a well-known interest in improving quantitative and qualitative traits. In order to direct heterologous gene expression, it is indispensable to identify and characterize a promoter suitable for directing the expression of the gene of interest (GOI) in a tissue-specific way. The gastrointestinal tract is a desirable target for gene expression in several mammalian models. Throughout the surface of the intestinal epithelium, there is an intricate polymer network, formed by gel-forming mucins (especially MUC2 and MUC5AC, of which MUC2 is the major one), which plays a protective role due to the formation of a physical, chemical and immunological barrier between the organism and the environment...
September 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Dalia A Mohamed, Shaimaa A Abdelrahman
Exposure to nicotine in smoking contributes to most unexplained male infertility but the mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element in normal growth, development and reproduction. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are well-known antioxidants. Therefore, this work was designed to investigate the potential ability of ZnONPs to protect testis and epididymis in nicotine-treated rats. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into control group and two experimental groups (treated and supplemented rats)...
September 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
H Körber, S Goericke-Pesch
Prostaglandins (PGs) and prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PTGS) are considered to be relevant for spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. PTGS2, prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS) and PGF receptor (PTGFR) are investigated in the adult male dog using the model of the GnRH-agonist implant downregulated canine testis and its subsequent restart of spermatogenesis following abolition of treatment (3, 6, 9, 12 weeks after implant removal). On the mRNA level (ratio), PTGS2, PGFS and PTGFR expression did not differ between downregulation, different stages of recovery of spermatogenesis and untreated adult controls (CG)...
September 10, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Ai Liu, Dianxia Fan, Yanping Wang
Ovarian cancer (OC) is a common malignant tumor with a high probability of metastasis. Thus, it is urgently necessary to develop new drugs that inhibit tumor metastasis. Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) inhibitors targeting bromodomain-containing proteins are currently recognized as novel anticancer agents. Herein, we explored the effects of i-BET151, a BET bromodomain inhibitor, on OC metastasis and on antitumor immunity. Our experiments showed that i-BET151 decreased the viability and induced apoptosis, senescence, and cell cycle arrest of cancer cells...
September 4, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Florian Schilling, Carol E Geppert, Johanna Strehl, Arndt Hartmann, Stefanie Kuerten, Axel Brehmer, Samir Jabari
Based on a recently introduced immunohistochemical panel (Bachmann et al. 2015) for aganglionic megacolon (AM), also known as Hirschsprung disease, histopathological diagnosis, we evaluated whether the use of digital pathology and 'machine learning' could help to obtain a reliable diagnosis. Slides were obtained from 31 specimens of 27 patients immunohistochemically stained for MAP2, calretinin, S100β and GLUT1. Slides were digitized by whole slide scanning. We used a Definiens Developer Tissue Studios as software for analysis...
September 3, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Navid Koleini, Barbara E Nickel, Andrea L Edel, Robert R Fandrich, Amir Ravandi, Elissavet Kardami
Doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiotoxicity, a limiting factor in the use of Dox to treat cancer, can be mitigated by the mitogenic factor FGF2 in vitro, via a heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1)-dependent pathway. HO-1 upregulation was reported to require protein kinase CK2 activity. We show that a mutant non-mitogenic FGF2 (S117A-FGF2), which does not activate CK2, is cardioprotective against acute cardiac ischemic injury. We now investigate the potential of S117A-FGF2 to protect cardiomyocytes against acute Dox injury and decrease Dox-induced upregulation of oxidized phospholipids...
August 29, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Susan Richter, Vanessa D'Antongiovanni, Serena Martinelli, Nicole Bechmann, Maria Riverso, David M Poitz, Karel Pacak, Graeme Eisenhofer, Massimo Mannelli, Elena Rapizzi
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PGLs) due to mutations of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) B, a subunit of the SDH complex with a role in the Krebs cycle and the respiratory chain, tend to be larger at diagnosis and more prone to metastatic disease than other tumors. This presentation contrasts with the behavior of some cell line models of SDHB impairment, which show reduced growth compared to wild type. We hypothesize that reduced growth of SDHB-impaired monolayer culture models might reflect lack of support from sources within the tumor microenvironment...
August 29, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Teppei Nakamura, Osamu Ichii, Takao Irie, Hirokazu Kouguchi, Kozue Sotozaki, Masataka Chihara, Yuji Sunden, Ken-Ichi Nagasaki, Osamu Tatsumi, Yaser Hosny Ali Elewa, Yasuhiro Kon
Obesity induces metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases and has become a global health concern. Recent studies imply that fat accumulation in nonadipose tissue correlates with metabolic disorders. However, there are no suitable animal models to evaluate this phenomenon. This study investigated the characteristics of metabolic disorders found in cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Blood biochemical examinations revealed that cotton rats, predominantly males, developed hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia when fed a normal diet...
August 28, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
K Futrega, E Mosaad, K Chambers, W B Lott, J Clements, M R Doran
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSC) may facilitate bone repair through secretion of factors that stimulate endogenous repair processes or through direct contribution to new bone through differentiation into osteoblast-like cells. BMSC microtissue culture and differentiation has been widely explored recently, with high-throughput platforms making large-scale manufacture of microtissues increasingly feasible. Bone-like BMSC microtissues could offer an elegant method to enhance bone repair, especially in small-volume non-union defects, where small diameter microtissues could be delivered orthoscopically...
August 22, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Ernest Adeghate, Zulqarnain Saeed, Crystal D'Souza, Saeed Tariq, Huba Kalász, Kornélia Tekes, Ernest A Adeghate
Nociceptin (NC), also known as Orphanin FQ, is a brain peptide involved in the regulation of pain, but its role in the endocrine pancreas is poorly understood. The present study examines the pattern of distribution of NC and its effect on insulin and glucagon secretion after the onset of diabetes mellitus (DM). Male Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g were made diabetic with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). Four weeks after the induction of DM, pancreatic tissues were retrieved and processed for immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy, and insulin and glucagon secretion...
August 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Thomas Grund, Inga D Neumann
Neuropeptide S (NPS) has attracted the attention of the scientific community due to its potent anxiolytic-like and fear-attenuating effects studied in rodents. Therefore, NPS might represent a treatment option for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorders, even more so as single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human NPS receptor gene have been associated with increased anxiety traits that contribute to the pathogenesis of fear- and anxiety-related disorders. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying the behavioral effects of NPS and the interaction with other brain neuropeptides are still rather unknown...
August 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Jatin Nagpal, Ulrich Herget, Min K Choi, Soojin Ryu
The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus harbors diverse neurosecretory cells with critical physiological roles for the homeostasis. Decades of research in rodents have provided a large amount of information on the anatomy, development, and function of this important hypothalamic nucleus. However, since the hypothalamus lies deep within the brain in mammals and is difficult to access, many questions regarding development and plasticity of this nucleus still remain. In particular, how different environmental conditions, including stress exposure, shape the development of this important nucleus has been difficult to address in animals that develop in utero...
August 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Leilei Wang, Yunlong Wang, Mingyuan Du, Zhijian Liu, Zhengguo Cao, Yunru Hao, Hong He
Autophagy is a self-digestive process that eliminates impaired or aged proteins and potentially toxic intracellular components to maintain homeostasis. We previously demonstrated that TNF-α played a critical role in cementoblast differentiation, mineralization and apoptosis; however, the effect of TNF-α on cementoblast autophagy has remained unclear. In this study, an elevated immunofluorescence signal of LC3B and autophagic vacuoles, autophagosomes and autolysosomes were detected under TNF-α stimulation in OCCM-30 cells...
August 10, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
D S Lee, Song Yi Roh, Joo-Cheol Park
Enamel makes up the outermost layer of the crown and its hardness protects other dental tissues from various stimuli. Enamel cannot be regenerated once damaged because ameloblasts are lost during the tooth eruption. Since the ameloblast differentiation mechanism is still unknown, further research is essential for developing treatments for defective or damaged enamel. Previously, we have reported that osteoblast differentiation and bone formation were regulated through the runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2)-nuclear factor 1-C (Nfic)-osterix (Osx) pathway where Nfic directly controls Osx expression...
August 9, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Francis A M Manno, Condon Lau
The pineal gland structure and ultrastructure in the Northern (Blarina brevicauda) and Southern short-tailed shrew (Blarina carolinensis) are described by light and electron microscopy. Results observed were similar to other mammals of Insectivora described previously, specifically, the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and the Old World mole (Talpa europea). Two different types of pinealocytes were noticed by electron microscopy, in addition to relatively few glial cells. Granular vesicles were not noticed in abundance...
August 7, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Suleiman Alhaji Muhammad, Norshariza Nordin, Muhammad Zulfadli Mehat, Sharida Fakurazi
Articular cartilage defect remains the most challenging joint disease due to limited intrinsic healing capacity of the cartilage that most often progresses to osteoarthritis. In recent years, stem cell therapy has evolved as therapeutic strategies for articular cartilage regeneration. However, a number of studies have shown that therapeutic efficacy of stem cell transplantation is attributed to multiple secreted factors that modulate the surrounding milieu to evoke reparative processes. This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to evaluate and compare the therapeutic efficacy of stem cell and secretome in articular cartilage regeneration in animal models...
August 6, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Alice Farinetti, Marilena Marraudino, Giovanna Ponti, GianCarlo Panzica, Stefano Gotti
Tributyltin (TBT), an antifouling agent found in boat paints, is a common contaminant of marine and freshwater ecosystems. It is rapidly absorbed by organic materials and accumulated in many aquatic animals. Human exposure may depend on ingestion of contaminated food or by indirect exposure from household items containing organotin compounds. TBT is defined as an endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) because it binds to androgen receptors. Moreover, it is also included on the list of metabolic disruptors. The brain is a known target of TBT and this compound interferes with the orexigenic system, inducing a strong decrease in NPY expression in the hypothalamus...
August 4, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Daniel J Spergel
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from GnRH neurons and its modulation by neuropeptides are essential for mammalian reproduction. Here, I review the neuropeptides that have been shown to act directly and that may also act indirectly, on GnRH neurons, the reproduction-related processes with which the neuropeptides may be associated or the physiological information they may convey, as well as their cognate receptors, signaling pathways and roles in the modulation of GnRH neuronal firing, [Ca2+ ]i , GnRH secretion and reproduction...
August 4, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
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