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Cell and Tissue Research

Mohamed A A Mahdy
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential component of skeletal muscle. It provides a framework structure that holds myofibers and blood capillaries and nerves supplying the muscle. In addition, it has a principal role in force transmission, maintenance and repair of muscle fibers. Excessive accumulation of ECM components, especially collagens, either due to excessive ECM production, alteration in ECM-degrading activities, or a combination of both is defined as fibrosis. Skeletal muscle fibrosis impairs muscle function, negatively affects muscle regeneration after injury and increases muscle susceptibility to re-injury, therefore, it is considered a major cause of muscle weakness...
November 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Paula J Brunton
During pregnancy, the regulation of several neuroendocrine systems is altered to support the pregnancy and facilitate the transition to motherhood. These adaptations are organised by the mother's brain and include those that serve to optimise foetal growth, protect the foetus(es) from adverse prenatal programming by maternal stress, facilitate timely parturition and ensure the offspring are nourished and cared for after birth. Although pregnancy hormones are important in inducing and maintaining many of these adaptations, their effects are often mediated via interactions with neuropeptide systems in the brain...
November 10, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Valery Grinevich, Gustav F Jirikowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Yixuan Chen, Zhengsen Wang, YiPing Chen, Yanding Zhang
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling plays a crucial role in the development of craniofacial organs. Mutations in numerous members of the BMP signaling pathway lead to several severe human syndromes, including Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) caused by heterozygous loss of BMP2. In this study, we generate mice carrying Bmp2-specific deletion in cranial neural crest cells using floxed Bmp2 and Wnt1-Cre alleles to mimic PRS in humans. Mutant mice exhibit severe PRS with a significantly reduced size of craniofacial bones, cleft palate, malformed tongue and micrognathia...
November 9, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Emily A Tarr, Brian M Fidler, Kyrstin E Gee, Carly M Anderson, Anna K Jager, Neil M Gallagher, Kaelyn P Carroll, Ruth Fabian-Fine
FMRFamide-related proteins have been described in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems and have been suggested to play important roles in a variety of physiological processes. One proposed function is the modulation of signal transduction in mechanosensory neurons and their associated behavioral pathways in the Central American wandering spider Cupiennius salei; however, little is known about the distribution and abundance of FMRFamide-related proteins (FaRPs) within this invertebrate system. We employ immunohistochemistry, Hoechst nuclear stain and confocal microscopy of serial sections to detect, characterize and quantify FMRFamide-like immunoreactive neurons throughout all ganglia of the spider brain and along leg muscle...
November 8, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Lise J Harbom, Taylor L Rudisill, Nadine Michel, Karen A Litwa, Mark P Beenhakker, Michael J McConnell
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons permit the study of neurogenesis and neurological disease in a human setting. However, the electrophysiological properties of iPSC-derived neurons are consistent with those observed in immature cortical neurons, including a high membrane resistance depolarized resting membrane potential and immature firing properties, limiting their use in modeling neuronal activity in adult cells. Based on the proven association between inhibiting rho kinase (ROCK) and increased neurite complexity, we seek to determine if short-term ROCK inhibition during the first 1-2 weeks of differentiation would increase morphological complexity and electrophysiological maturity after several weeks of differentiation...
November 8, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Md Mahamodul Hasan Sohel, Ahmed Amin, Sigit Prastowo, Luis Linares-Otoya, Michael Hoelker, Karl Schellander, Dawit Tesfaye
There is an error in the Original Publication of this paper. Figures 1-6 were unupdated.
November 6, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Hongtao Yan, Hui Tang, Weiming Qiu, Ranjing Tan, Wei Zhang, Guihong Yang, Jinjin Wu
Cultured skin has been used extensively for testing therapeutic drugs because it replicates the physical and biochemical properties of whole skin. However, traditional static culture cannot fully maintain cell viability and skin morphology because of the limitations involved with nutrient transmission. Here, we develop a new dynamic perfusion platform for skin culture and compare it with a static culture device. Rat skins were cultured in either static or dynamic condition for 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. H&E, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and picrosirius red (PSR) staining were used for skin morphology detection, immunostaining against cytokeratin 10 (CK10) for differentiation detection, immunostaining against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for cell proliferation detection and TUNEL staining for apoptosis detection...
November 3, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
John P Adelman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Fumiya Ojima, Yuka Saito, Yukiko Tsuchiya, Maho Ogoshi, Hiroshi Fukamachi, Kenichi Inagaki, Fumio Otsuka, Sakae Takeuchi, Sumio Takahashi
We previously demonstrated that female Runx3 knockout (Runx3-/- ) mice were anovulatory and their uteri were atrophic and that Runx3 mRNA was expressed in granulosa cells. To clarify how Runx3 regulates folliculogenesis and ovulation, we examine the effects of Runx3 knockout on the gene expression of growth factors associated with folliculogenesis and enzymes associated with steroidogenesis. In Runx3-/- mouse ovaries, the numbers of primary and antral follicles were lower than those in wild-type (wt) mice at 3 weeks of age, indicating that the loss of Runx3 affects folliculogenesis...
October 30, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Richard Carr, Stephan Frings
Peptides released from trigeminal fibers fulfill well-understood functions in neuroinflammatory processes and in the modulation of nociceptive signal processing. In particular, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), released from afferent nerve terminals, exert paracrine effects on the surrounding tissue and this has been recently highlighted by the prominent parcrine role of CGRP in the development of headache and migraine. Some recent communications suggest that these sensory neuropeptides may also modulate the workings of sensory organs and influence afferent signals from nose, tongue, eyes and ears...
October 30, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Svenja Memmert, Anna Damanaki, Andressa V B Nogueira, Marjan Nokhbehsaim, Werner Götz, Joni A Cirelli, Birgit Rath-Deschner, Andreas Jäger, James Deschner
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines and has been connected to aggravated progression of periodontal disease under chronic stress. Obesity is known to increase the risk of periodontitis and adipokines have been suggested to be a pathomechanistic link. This study examines if obesity-associated stimuli have regulatory effects on TH levels in periodontal cells and tissues. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured in the presence of leptin or visfatin for up to 2 days...
October 25, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Yury E Herbeck, Rimma G Gulevich
Animal domestication was an important stage in the human history, which coincided with or probably even promoted the advent of a turning point at which part of the humankind switched from hunting and gathering to husbandry. The leading factor in evolutionary changes at the dawn of domestication was probably selection for behavior towards humans: first natural (as the animals were habituating to a new ecological niche close to humans), then nonconscious, artificial. Selection was supposed to work on the systems that regulate behavior by reducing stress response and aggression and by inducing an emotionally positive response to humans...
October 24, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
J Prittinen, J Ylärinne, J Piltti, S S Karhula, L Rieppo, S P Ojanen, R K Korhonen, S Saarakkala, M J Lammi, C Qu
A lot has been invested into understanding how to assemble cartilage tissue in vitro and various designs have been developed to manufacture cartilage tissue with native-like biological properties. So far, no satisfactory design has been presented. Bovine primary chondrocytes are used to self-assemble scaffold-free constructs to investigate whether mechanical loading by centrifugal force would be useful in manufacturing cartilage tissue in vitro. Six million chondrocytes were laid on top of defatted bone disks placed inside an agarose well in 50-ml culture tubes...
October 23, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
James B Nardi, Lou Ann Miller, Charles Mark Bee
The inordinately long midgut of hemipterans is devoid of peritrophic membranes described for many other insects. These membranes separate apical microvilli of midgut cells from contents of the lumen. In hemipterans, by contrast, contents of the lumen are separated from apical surfaces of midgut epithelia by secretion of additional plasma membranes (perimicrovillar membranes) containing digestive enzymes. In the lace bug Corythucha ciliata, precursors for these perimicrovillar membranes arise in smooth endoplasmic reticula (SER) as stacked, coiled membranes and are continually expelled into the lumen along the entire length of the midgut as stacked, tubular membranes; these membranes undergo changes in form as they pass from the SER to the midgut lumen...
October 23, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Arshan Nazempour, Chrystal R Quisenberry, Nehal I Abu-Lail, Bernard J Van Wie
Due to an oversight, Fig. 1(a, b) and Fig. 2 in Nazempour et al. (2017) Cell Tissue Res 370:179-193 DOI should have a copyright acknowledgement added as follows: Schematics in Fig. 1(a, b) modified from Nazempour et al. (2016) (Copyright American Scientific Publishers).
October 22, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Ayelén Toro, Teresa Vilariño-Garcia, Pilar Guadix, Julieta Maymó, José Luis Dueñas, Cecilia Varone, Víctor Sánchez-Margalet
Development of the human placenta is critical for a successful pregnancy. The placenta allows the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide and is crucial to manage acid-base balance within a narrow pH. It is known that low pH levels are a risk of apoptosis in several tissues. However, there has been little discussion about the effect of acidic stress in the placenta. Leptin is produced by the placenta with a trophic autocrine effect. Previous results of our group have demonstrated that leptin prevents apoptosis of trophoblast cells under different stress conditions such as serum deprivation and hyperthermia...
October 18, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Yoichi Ueta
Rats have been widely used as one of the most common laboratory animals for biological research, because their physiology, pathology, and behavioral characteristics are highly similar to humans. Recent developments in rat genetic modification techniques have now led to further their utility for a broad range of research questions, including the ability to specifically label individual neurones, and even manipulate neuronal function in rats. We have succeeded in generating several transgenic rat lines that enable visualization of specific neurones due to their expression of fluorescently-tagged oxytocin, vasopressin, and c-fos protein...
October 18, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Will W Minuth
In healthy newborn babies, nephrogenesis proceeds unnoticed until birth. With start of the perinatal period, morphogenetic activity in the renal outer cortex consisting of an inner maturation zone and an outer nephrogenic zone is downregulated by unknown signals. One of the results is that the entire nephrogenic zone as well as the contained progenitor cells and niches disintegrate. In contrast, a too early inactivation of the nephrogenic zone takes place in the kidneys of preterm and low birth weight babies...
October 18, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Mohamad Javad Mirzaei-Parsa, Hossein Ghanbari, Behnam Alipoor, Amirhossein Tavakoli, Mohammad Reza H Najafabadi, Reza Faridi-Majidi
Full-thickness skin defect is one of the main clinical problems, which cannot be repaired spontaneously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of combining nanofibers with ADM as a bilayer scaffold for treatment of full-thickness skin wounds in a single-step procedure. The nanofibrous polycaprolactone/fibrinogen scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning. Subsequently, mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from rat adipose tissues and characterized by flow cytometry. Cell adhesion, proliferation, and the epidermal differentiation potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on nanofibrous scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), alamarBlue, and real-time PCR, respectively...
October 18, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
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