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Cell and Tissue Research

Hans-Gert Bernstein, Henrik Dobrowolny, Bernhard Bogerts, Gerburg Keilhoff, Johann Steiner
The past decades have witnessed an explosion of knowledge on brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia and depression. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we try to show how postmortem brain microscopy has contributed to our understanding of mental disease-related pathologic alterations of this brain region. Gross anatomical abnormalities (volume changes of the third ventricle, the hypothalamus, and its nuclei) and alterations at the cellular level (loss of neurons, increased or decreased expression of hypothalamic peptides such as oxytocin, vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and other regulatory factors as well as of enzymes involved in neurotransmitter and neuropeptide metabolism) have been reported in schizophrenia and/or depression...
May 16, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Wenqin Xu, Zhicha Hu, Yang Lv, Guorui Dou, Zifeng Zhang, Haiyan Wang, Yusheng Wang
The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) animal model established in C57 mice and SD rats has been widely used in retinal neovascular disease studies, while Balb/c mice have not been used because Balb/c OIR mice lack neovascular tufts. One study found a substantial difference in the density of retinal microglia between C57 and Balb/c mice; however, no direct evidence could clarify whether the density of retinal microglia in Balb/c mice led to this difference. In our study, intraperitoneal injection of minocycline was used to inhibit the activation of microglia and intravitreal injection of clodronate liposomes was used to decrease the density of microglia in Balb/c OIR model mice...
May 16, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Mohamed A A Mahdy
Skeletal muscle regenerates efficiently following injuries and diseases. However, muscle regeneration is compromised in several conditions by adipocyte infiltration and excessive collagen deposition. Adipocyte infiltration is a characteristic feature of sarcopenia, diabetes, cachexia, muscular dystrophies and advanced cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), while excessive collagen deposition is a hallmark of muscular dystrophies and severe muscle injuries, such as lacerations, contusions and strains. Muscle adipogenesis and fibrosis are major causes of muscle weakness that impairs muscle function...
May 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Merita Hashani, Hagen Roland Witzel, Lena Maria Pawella, Judith Lehmann-Koch, Jens Schumacher, Gunhild Mechtersheimer, Martina Schnölzer, Peter Schirmacher, Wilfried Roth, Beate Katharina Straub
Diseases associated with the accumulation of lipid droplets are increasing in western countries. Lipid droplet biogenesis, structure and degradation are regulated by proteins of the perilipin family. Perilipin 5 has been shown to regulate basal lipolysis in oxidative tissues. We examine perilipin 5 in normal human tissues and in diseases using protein biochemical and microscopic techniques. Perilipin 5 was constitutively located at small lipid droplets in skeletal myocytes, cardiomyocytes and brown adipocytes...
May 11, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Joss von Hadeln, Vanessa Althaus, Linda Häger, Uwe Homberg
The desert locust Schistocerca gregaria is a major agricultural pest in North Africa and the Middle East. As such, it has been intensely studied, in particular with respect to population dynamics, sensory processing, feeding behavior flight and locomotor control, migratory behavior, and its neuroendocrine system. Being a long-range migratory species, neural mechanisms underlying sky compass orientation have been studied in detail. To further understand neuronal interactions in the brain of the locust, a deeper understanding of brain organization in this insect has become essential...
May 9, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Gianfranco Giorgi, Marco Virgili, Barbara Monti, Brunella Del Re
Long INterspersed Element-1 (L1) is a transposable element that can insert copies of itself in new genomic locations causing genomic instability. In somatic cells, L1 retrotransposition activity is usually repressed but somatic L1 retrotransposition has recently been observed during neuronal differentiation. In this study, we evaluate whether L1 elements are differentially active in rat tissues during postnatal development. To this purpose, we quantified L1 in genomic DNA extracted from the olfactory bulb (OB), cerebellum (CE), cortex (CO) and heart (H)...
May 3, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Bram Piersma, Olaf Y Wouters, Ruud A Bank
Mechanosensing of fibroblasts plays a key role in the development of fibrosis. So far, no effective treatments are available to treat this devastating disorder. Spectrins regulate cell morphology and are potential mechanosensors in a variety of non-erythroid cells, but little is known about the role of spectrins in fibroblasts. We investigate whether αII- and βII-spectrin are required for the phenotypic properties of adult human dermal (myo)fibroblasts. Knockdown of αII- or βII-spectrin in fibroblasts did not affect cell adhesion, cell size and YAP nuclear/cytosolic localization...
May 3, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Ahmad Oryan, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Amir Kamali, Samaneh Hosseini, Ali Moshiri, Hossein Baharvand
Long bone defects comprise one of the most prevalent clinical problems worldwide and the current bone grafting materials have major limitations to repair them. Although tremendous efforts have been made to repair critical-sized long bone defects in animal models, designing an optimal bone tissue-engineered substitute remains one of the main challenges. Hence, this study aims to closely mimic a natural bone healing process by a tissue-engineered construct including osteoinductive materials pre-seeded with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)...
May 1, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Daniela Filipa Cardoso, Hans-Joachim Appell Coriolano, José Alberto Duarte
Knowing the therapeutic effects of regular physical exercise on kidney toxicity induced by a single dose of doxorubicin (DOX) in animal models, the aim of this study is to verify the effectiveness of regular voluntary running on kidney histology after a prolonged DOX administration, mimicking a chemotherapy protocol. Thirty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two clusters: DOX (n = 17) and SSS (sterile saline solution, n = 17), receiving a weekly intraperitoneal injection of DOX (2 mg/kg) or vehicle for 7 weeks, respectively...
April 30, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Jie Pan, Meimei Liu, Ting Chen, Yongxu Cheng, Xugan Wu
17beta-estradiol (E2 ) is important for crustacean ovarian development. This study aims to investigate the distribution and change pattern of E2 in the ovary, hepatopancreas, thoracic ganglion and brain ganglion as well as Vg-mRNA expression level during ovarian development of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Results showed that strongly positive signals of E2 were mainly distributed in follicle cells of ovaries for all developmental stages as well as oocyte cytoplasm of stages III to V ovaries. In hepatopancreas, the E2 -positive signal was mainly detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of fibrillar cells and the nucleus of resorptive cells, while the maximum fluorescence intensity was observed in stage III hepatopancreas...
April 30, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
W Peelaerts, L Bousset, V Baekelandt, R Melki
Several age-related neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the deposition of aberrantly folded endogenous proteins. These proteins have prion-like propagation and amplification properties but so far appear nontransmissible between individuals. Because of the features they share with the prion protein, PrP, the characteristics of pathogenic protein aggregates in several progressive brain disorders, including different types of Lewy body diseases (LBDs), such as Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), have been actively investigated...
April 27, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Areechun Sotthibundhu, Wilasinee Promjuntuek, Min Liu, Sanbing Shen, Parinya Noisa
Autophagy is crucial for the removal of dysfunctional organelles and protein aggregates and for maintaining stem cell homeostasis, which includes self-renewal, cell differentiation and somatic reprogramming. Loss of self-renewal capacity and pluripotency is a major obstacle to stem cell-based therapies. It has been reported that autophagy regulates stem cells under biological stimuli, starvation, hypoxia, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular senescence. On the one hand, autophagy is shown to play roles in self-renewal by co-function with the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to promote pluripotency-associated proteins (NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2) in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)...
April 25, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Yoshio Takei, Noriko Nemoto, Toru Kameya, Hideaki Tamaki, Osamu Katsumata, Susumu Hyodo, Makoto Kusakabe
Atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) are cardiac hormones important for cardiovascular and body fluid regulation. In some teleost species, an additional member of the natriuretic peptide family, ventricular NP (VNP), has been identified. In this study, we examine tissue distribution of these three NPs in the eel heart. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that anp is almost exclusively expressed in atria, bnp equally in atria and ventricles and vnp three-fold more in ventricles than in atria. The amount of bnp transcript overall in the heart was 1/10 those of anp and vnp...
April 25, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Shaimaa A Abdelrahman, Mai A Samak, Sally M Shalaby
Being one of the most debilitating complications among diabetic patients, diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is a paramount point of continuous research. Stem cell therapies have shown promising results. However, limited cell survival and paracrine activities hinder its transfer from bench to bedside. We designed this study to evaluate fluoxetine-pretreatment technique of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an approach to enhance their paracrine and immunomodulatory properties in DPN. Effects of fluoxetine treatment of MSCs were tested in vitro...
April 23, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
P Riederer, K A Jellinger, P Kolber, G Hipp, J Sian-Hülsmann, R Krüger
Asymmetry of dopaminergic neurodegeneration and subsequent lateralisation of motor symptoms are distinctive features of Parkinson's disease compared to other forms of neurodegenerative or symptomatic parkinsonism. Even 200 years after the first description of the disease, the underlying causes for this striking clinicopathological feature are not yet fully understood. There is increasing evidence that lateralisation of disease is due to a complex interplay of hereditary and environmental factors that are reflected not only in the concept of dominant hemispheres and handedness but also in specific susceptibilities of neuronal subpopulations within the substantia nigra...
April 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Farzana Islam, Md Sakirul Islam Khan, Hiroaki Nabeka, Shouichiro Saito, Xuan Li, Tetsuya Shimokawa, Kimiko Yamamiya, Naoto Kobayashi, Seiji Matsuda
Salivary glands produce various neurotrophins that are thought to regulate salivary function during normal and pathological conditions. Prosaposin (PSAP) is a potent neurotrophin found in several tissues and various biological fluids and may play roles in the regulation of salivary function. However, little is known about PSAP in salivary glands. As the functions of salivary glands are diverse based on age and sex, this study examines whether PSAP and its receptors, G protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37) and GPR37L1, are expressed in the salivary glands of rats and whether sex and aging affect their expression...
April 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Xinxuan Wang, Zhihui Feng, Qimeng Li, Baicheng Yi, Qiong Xu
Dental pulp inflammation is a bacterially driven inflammation process characterized by the local accumulation of cytokines/chemokines that participate in destructive processes in the pulp. Multiple mechanisms are involved in dental pulp inflammation, including epigenetic events, such as DNA methylation/demethylation. Ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2) is a recently discovered DNA methylcytosine dioxygenase that plays important roles in inflammatory disease. However, its role in the inflammatory response of dental pulp is unknown...
April 13, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Roberto Henzi, Montserrat Guerra, Karin Vío, César González, Cristian Herrera, Pat McAllister, Conrad Johanson, Esteban M Rodríguez
Fetal onset hydrocephalus and abnormal neurogenesis are two inseparable phenomena turned on by a cell junction pathology first affecting neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and later the multiciliated ependyma. The neurological impairment of children born with hydrocephalus is not reverted by derivative surgery. NSPCs and neurosphere (NE) grafting into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of hydrocephalic fetuses thus appears as a promising therapeutic procedure. There is little information about the cell lineages actually forming the NE as they grow throughout their days in vitro (DIV)...
April 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Ruijie Zeng, Chuangqiang Lin, Zehuo Lin, Hong Chen, Weiye Lu, Changmin Lin, Haihong Li
The skin provides essential functions, such as thermoregulation, hydration, excretion and synthesis of vitamin D. Major disruptions of the skin cause impairment of critical functions, resulting in high morbidity and death, or leave one with life-changing cosmetic damage. Due to the complexity of the skin, diverse approaches are needed, including both traditional and advanced, to improve cutaneous wound healing. Cutaneous wounds undergo four phases of healing. Traditional management, including skin grafts and wound dressings, is still commonly used in current practice but in combination with newer technology, such as using engineered skin substitutes in skin grafts or combining traditional cotton gauze with anti-bacterial nanoparticles...
April 10, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Guanghui Xiu, Jie Sun, Xiuling Li, Hua Jin, Yichao Zhu, Xia Zhou, Ping Liu, Xinghua Pan, Jian Li, Bin Ling
The effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in treatment for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remains unknown and the mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, the goal of this study is to investigate the effects of intracellular high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) on BMSCs treating for MODS. The rats were given 15% blood loss plus 1 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via lower extremity superficial venous, then randomly allocated into four groups: sham group, MODS group, MODS plus BMSC group, MODS plus ethyl pyruvate (EP) group, MODS plus BMSCs plus EP group...
April 10, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
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