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Cell and Tissue Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330675/recognizing-conserved-non-canonical-localization-patterns-of-toll-like-receptors-in-tissues-and-across-species
#1
REVIEW
Glenn Hamonic, J Alex Pasternak, Heather L Wilson
Toll-like receptors (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 were originally characterized as exclusively expressed on the cell surface and TLR 3, 7, 8 and 9 were said to be localized to the endosomes. However, continued research in this area shows that TLR localization may be altered across cell-types, and in response to stimulation, age or disease. Mucosal surfaces must remain tolerant to the commensal flora and thus intracellular or basal lateral localization of TLRs at mucosal surfaces may be necessary to prevent induction of an inflammatory response to commensal flora while still allowing the possibility for the receptors to prime an immune response when a pathogen has crossed the epithelial barrier...
January 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327082/evaluation-of-committed-and-primitive-cord-blood-progenitors-after-expansion-on-adipose-stromal-cells
#2
E R Andreeva, I V Andrianova, A N Gornostaeva, B Sh Gogiya, L B Buravkova
Umbilical cord blood mononuclear fraction is a valuable source of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (CB HSPCs). The rarity of this population is a serious limitation of its application in cell therapy. Ex vivo expansion enables to significantly amplify the number of hematopoietic precursors of different commitment. Here, we expand CB MNCs in co-culture with human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) to enrich HSPCs and describe phenotypic features of newly formed hematopoietic populations. The CD34+-HSPCs demonstrated 6-fold enrichment with 9000 CFUs per 50 × 103 HSPCs on average...
January 11, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327081/neutrophils-in-viral-infection
#3
REVIEW
Victor Naumenko, Madison Turk, Craig N Jenne, Seok-Joo Kim
Neutrophils are the first wave of recruited immune cells to sites of injury or infection and are crucial players in controlling bacterial and fungal infections. Although the role of neutrophils during bacterial or fungal infections is well understood, their impact on antiviral immunity is much less studied. Furthermore, neutrophil function in tumor pathogenesis and cancer treatment has recently received much attention, particularly within the context of oncolytic virus infection where neutrophils produce antitumor cytokines and enhance oncolysis...
January 11, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322249/mir-375-inhibits-the-hepatocyte-growth-factor-elicited-migration-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-downregulating-akt-signaling
#4
Lihong He, Xianyao Wang, Naixin Kang, Jianwei Xu, Nan Dai, Xiaojing Xu, Huanxiang Zhang
The migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is critical for their use in cell-based therapies. Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNAs are important regulators of MSC migration. Here, we report that the expression of miR-375 was downregulated in MSCs treated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which strongly stimulates the migration of these cells. Overexpression of miR-375 decreased the transfilter migration and the migration velocity of MSCs triggered by HGF. In our efforts to determine the mechanism by which miR-375 affects MSC migration, we found that miR-375 significantly inhibited the activation of Akt by downregulating its phosphorylation at T308 and S473, but had no effect on the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases...
January 10, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318389/myogenic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-isolated-from-porcine-adipose-tissue
#5
Derek J Milner, Massimo Bionaz, Elisa Monaco, Jo Ann Cameron, Matthew B Wheeler
Advances in stem cell biology and materials science have provided a basis for developing tissue engineering methods to repair muscle injury. Among stem cell populations with potential to aid muscle repair, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) hold great promise. To evaluate the possibility of using porcine ASC for muscle regeneration studies, we co-cultured porcine ASC with murine C2C12 myoblasts. These experiments demonstrated that porcine ASC display significant myogenic potential. Co-culture of ASC expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) with C2C12 cells resulted in GFP+ myotube formation, indicating fusion of ASC with myoblasts to form myotubes...
January 9, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308544/the-lrrk2-signalling-system
#6
REVIEW
Alice Price, Claudia Manzoni, Mark R Cookson, Patrick A Lewis
The LRRK2 gene is a major contributor to genetic risk for Parkinson's disease and understanding the biology of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2, the protein product of this gene) is an important goal in Parkinson's research. LRRK2 is a multi-domain, multi-activity enzyme and has been implicated in a wide range of signalling events within the cell. Because of the complexities of the signal transduction pathways in which LRRK2 is involved, it has been challenging to generate a clear idea as to how mutations and disease associated variants in this gene are altered in disease...
January 8, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305654/spontaneous-regression-of-neuroblastoma
#7
REVIEW
Garrett M Brodeur
Neuroblastomas are characterized by heterogeneous clinical behavior, from spontaneous regression or differentiation into a benign ganglioneuroma, to relentless progression despite aggressive, multimodality therapy. Indeed, neuroblastoma is unique among human cancers in terms of its propensity to undergo spontaneous regression. The strongest evidence for this comes from the mass screening studies conducted in Japan, North America and Europe and it is most evident in infants with stage 4S disease. This propensity is associated with a pattern of genomic change characterized by whole chromosome gains rather than segmental chromosome changes but the mechanism(s) underlying spontaneous regression are currently a matter of speculation...
January 5, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294205/developmental-stage-specific-expression-of-genes-for-sphingomyelin-synthase-in-rat-brain
#8
Ivan B Filippenkov, Timur A Kolomin, Svetlana A Limborska, Lyudmila V Dergunova
Sphingomyelin synthase genes (Sgms1 and Sgms2) encode the vital enzymes that participate in the processes of membrane transport, cell proliferation and apoptosis. We previously determined the exon-intron structure of Sgms1 and some features of its expression in human and rodent tissues. The circular RNAs (circRNAs) emerging from exons of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of Sgms1 were determined. These circRNAs are represented at a high level in the adult brain. Here, we demonstrate that, in contrast to Sgms1, Sgms2 does not contain the multi-exon 5'-UTR but encodes circRNAs, which are composed of the coding region of the gene and are expressed at a low level...
January 2, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274061/tgf%C3%AE-signaling-reinforces-pericyte-properties-of-the-non-endocrine-mouse-pituitary-cell-line-ttt-gf
#9
Takehiro Tsukada, Saishu Yoshida, Keiji Kito, Ken Fujiwara, Hideji Yako, Kotaro Horiguchi, Yukinobu Isowa, Takashi Yashiro, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
The non-endocrine TtT/GF mouse pituitary cell line was derived from radiothyroidectomy-induced pituitary adenoma. In addition to morphological characteristics, because the cells are S100β-positive, they have been accepted as a model of folliculostellate cells. However, our recent microarray analysis indicated that, in contrast to folliculostellate cells, TtT/GF cells might not be terminally differentiated, as they share some properties with stem/progenitor cells, vascular endothelial cells and pericytes. The present study investigates whether transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) can elicit further differentiation of these cells...
December 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29264643/mechanosensitive-ion-channel-piezo1-is-expressed-in-antral-g-cells-of-murine-stomach
#10
Kerstin Lang, Heinz Breer, Claudia Frick
G cells in the antrum region of the murine stomach produce gastrin, the central hormone for controlling gastric activities. Secretion of gastrin is induced mainly by protein breakdown products but also by distensions of the stomach wall. Although G cells respond to protein fragments via distinct chemosensory receptor types, the mechanism underlying G cell activation upon distention is entirely ambiguous. Mechanosensitive ion channels are considered as potential candidates for such a task. Therefore, we explore the possibility of whether Piezo1, a polymodal sensor for diverse mechanical forces, is expressed in antral G cells...
December 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250748/age-is-the-work-of-art-impact-of-neutrophil-and-organism-age-on-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation
#11
REVIEW
Weronika Ortmann, Elzbieta Kolaczkowska
Neutrophil extracellular traps or NETs are released by highly activated neutrophils in response to infectious agents, sterile inflammation, autoimmune stimuli and cancer. In the cells, the nuclear envelop disintegrates and decondensation of chromatin occurs that depends on peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and neutrophil elastase (NE). Subsequently, proteins from neutrophil granules (e.g., NE, lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase) and the nucleus (histones) bind to decondensed DNA and the whole structure is ejected from the cell...
December 18, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250747/septo-hippocampal-interaction
#12
REVIEW
Christina Müller, Stefan Remy
The septo-hippocampal pathway adjusts CA1 network excitability to different behavioral states and is crucially involved in theta rhythmogenesis. In the medial septum, cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons form a highly interconnected local network. Neurons of these three classes project to glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and different subsets of GABAergic neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. From there, GABAergic neurons project back to the medial septum and form a feedback loop between the two remote brain areas...
December 18, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250746/neutrophils-in-the-lung-the-first-responders
#13
REVIEW
Gurpreet Kaur Aulakh
Neutrophils, constituting the first line of defense, perform vital functions during immune surveillance. A key feature that assists in their prompt response to an inflammatory signal is rapid migration to the affected site. They are normally short-lived but can be activated to live longer under the influence of an inflammatory stimulus. They can, thereby, release their toxic granule contents that are differentially housed inside the cytoplasm. Although these events are well characterized in the peripheral circulation, we are still far from fully understanding their recruitment in lungs...
December 18, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247325/tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-inhibits-canonical-bmp-signaling-pathway-during-palate-development
#14
Guohua Yuan, Yunyan Zhan, Xiaohui Gou, Yiping Chen, Guobin Yang
During early palate development, gene expression and regulation exhibit heterogeneity along the anterior-posterior axis. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways play essential roles in secondary palatal formation but the exact relationship between the TGF-β and BMP pathways in palate development remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that, during early secondary palate development, phospho-(p)Smad1/5/8 is highly expressed in the anterior palate but relatively lowly expressed in the posterior palate...
December 16, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247324/neutrophils-in-critical-illness
#15
REVIEW
Braedon McDonald
During critical illness, dramatic alterations in neutrophil biology are observed including abnormalities of granulopoeisis and lifespan, cell trafficking and antimicrobial effector functions. As a result, neutrophils transition from powerful antimicrobial protectors into dangerous mediators of tissue injury and organ dysfunction. In this article, the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of critical illness (sepsis, trauma, burns and others) will be explored, including pathological changes to neutrophil function during critical illness and the utility of monitoring aspects of the neutrophil phenotype as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognostication...
December 15, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234887/ips-cells-in-the-study-of-pd-molecular-pathogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Melanie M Cobb, Abinaya Ravisankar, Gaia Skibinski, Steven Finkbeiner
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease and its pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. The majority of PD cases are sporadic but a number of genes are associated with familial PD. Sporadic and familial PD have many molecular and cellular features in common, suggesting some shared pathogenic mechanisms. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been derived from patients harboring a range of different mutations of PD-associated genes. PD patient-derived iPSCs have been differentiated into relevant cell types, in particular dopaminergic neurons and used as a model to study PD...
December 12, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222693/neuroblastoma-pathogenesis-deregulation-of-embryonic-neural-crest-development
#17
REVIEW
Julie A Tomolonis, Saurabh Agarwal, Jason M Shohet
Neuroblastoma (NB) is an aggressive pediatric cancer that originates from neural crest tissues of the sympathetic nervous system. NB is highly heterogeneous both from a clinical and a molecular perspective. Clinically, this cancer represents a wide range of phenotypes ranging from spontaneous regression of 4S disease to unremitting treatment-refractory progression and death of high-risk metastatic disease. At a cellular level, the heterogeneous behavior of NB likely arises from an arrest and deregulation of normal neural crest development...
December 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222692/advances-in-understanding-hilar-mossy-cells-of-the-dentate-gyrus
#18
REVIEW
Helen E Scharfman
Hilar mossy cells (MCs) of the dentate gyrus (DG) distinguish the DG from other hippocampal subfields (CA1-3) because there are two glutamatergic cell types in the DG rather than one. Thus, in the DG, the main cell types include glutamatergic granule cells (GCs) and MCs, whereas in CA1-3, the only glutamatergic cell type is the pyramidal cell. In contrast to GCs, MCs are different in morphology, intrinsic electrophysiological properties, afferent input and axonal projections, so their function is likely to be very different from GCs...
December 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218403/the-storage-and-recall-of-memories-in-the-hippocampo-cortical-system
#19
REVIEW
Edmund T Rolls
A quantitative computational theory of the operation of the hippocampus as an episodic memory system is described. The CA3 system operates as a single attractor or autoassociation network (1) to enable rapid one-trial associations between any spatial location (place in rodents or spatial view in primates) and an object or reward and (2) to provide for completion of the whole memory during recall from any part. The theory is extended to associations between time and object or reward to implement temporal order memory, which is also important in episodic memory...
December 7, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209813/fsp1-specific-smad2-knockout-in-renal-tubular-endothelial-and-interstitial-cells-reduces-fibrosis-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-murine-stz-induced-diabetic-nephropathy
#20
Ivonne Loeffler, Marita Liebisch, Stefanie Allert, Elke Kunisch, Raimund W Kinne, Gunter Wolf
Extracellular matrix deposition during tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF), a central pathological process in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN), is driven by locally activated, disease-relevant myofibroblasts. Myofibroblasts can arise from various cellular sources, e.g., tubular epithelial cells via a process named epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and its downstream Smad signaling play a critical role in both TIF and EMT. Whereas Smad3 is one central mediator, the role of the other prominently expressed variant, Smad2, is not completely understood...
December 6, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
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