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Archives of Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110405/cyanotoxins-producing-organisms-occurrence-toxicity-mechanism-of-action-and-human-health-toxicological-risk-evaluation
#1
REVIEW
Franca M Buratti, Maura Manganelli, Susanna Vichi, Mara Stefanelli, Simona Scardala, Emanuela Testai, Enzo Funari
Cyanobacteria were present on the earth 3.5 billion years ago; since then they have colonized almost all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They produce a high number of bioactive molecules, among which some are cyanotoxins. Cyanobacterial growth at high densities, forming blooms, is increasing in extension and frequency, following anthropogenic activities and climate changes, giving rise to some concern for human health and animal life exposed to cyanotoxins. Numerous cases of lethal poisonings have been associated with cyanotoxins ingestion in wild animal and livestock...
January 21, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091709/use-of-in-silico-models-for-prioritization-of-heat-induced-food-contaminants-in-mutagenicity-and-carcinogenicity-testing
#2
Falko Frenzel, Thorsten Buhrke, Irina Wenzel, Jennifer Andrack, Jan Hielscher, Alfonso Lampen
Numerous Maillard reaction and lipid oxidation products are present in processed foods such as heated cereals, roasted meat, refined oils, coffee, and juices. Due to the lack of experimental toxicological data, risk assessment is hardly possible for most of these compounds. In the present study, an in silico approach was employed for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints mutagenicity and carcinogenicity on the basis of the structure of the respective compound, to examine (quantitative) structure-activity relationships for more than 800 compounds...
January 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070599/organophosphate-neurotoxicity-to-the-voluntary-motor-system-on-the-trail-of-environment-caused-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-the-known-the-misknown-and-the-unknown
#3
Samantha J Merwin, Teresa Obis, Yanelli Nunez, Diane B Re
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset paralytic disorder. It is characterized by progressive degeneration of the motor neurons controlling voluntary movement. The underlying mechanisms remain elusive, a fact that has precluded development of effective treatments. ALS presents as a sporadic condition 90-95% of the time, i.e., without familial history or obvious genetic mutation. This suggests that ALS has a strong environmental component. Organophosphates (OPs) are prime candidate neurotoxicants in the etiology of ALS, as exposure to OPs was linked to higher ALS incidence among farmers, soccer players, and Gulf War veterans...
January 9, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058446/hepatotoxic-effects-of-cyproconazole-and-prochloraz-in-wild-type-and-hcar-hpxr-mice
#4
Philip Marx-Stoelting, Katrin Ganzenberg, Constanze Knebel, Flavia Schmidt, Svenja Rieke, Helen Hammer, Felix Schmidt, Oliver Pötz, Michael Schwarz, Albert Braeuning
The agricultural fungicides cyproconazole and prochloraz exhibit hepatotoxicity in rodent studies and are tumorigenic following chronic exposure. Both substances are suspected to act via a CAR (constitutive androstane receptor)/PXR (pregnane-X-receptor)-dependent mechanism. Human relevance of these findings is under debate. A 28-day toxicity study was conducted in mice with humanized CAR and PXR (hCAR/hPXR) with two dose levels (50 or 500 ppm) of both substances, using the model CAR activator phenobarbital as a reference...
January 6, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054104/inhalation-of-gas-metal-arc-stainless-steel-welding-fume-promotes-lung-tumorigenesis-in-a-j-mice
#5
Lauryn M Falcone, Aaron Erdely, Terence G Meighan, Lori A Battelli, Rebecca Salmen, Walter McKinney, Samuel Stone, Amy Cumpston, Jared Cumpston, Ronnee N Andrews, Michael Kashon, James M Antonini, Patti C Zeidler-Erdely
Epidemiologic studies suggest an increased risk of lung cancer with exposure to welding fumes, but controlled animal studies are needed to support this association. Oropharyngeal aspiration of collected "aged" gas metal arc-stainless steel (GMA-SS) welding fume has been shown by our laboratory to promote lung tumor formation in vivo using a two-stage initiation-promotion model. Our objective in this study was to determine whether inhalation of freshly generated GMA-SS welding fume also acts as a lung tumor promoter in lung tumor-susceptible mice...
January 4, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042640/toxicology-of-microcystins-with-reference-to-cases-of-human-intoxications-and-epidemiological-investigations-of-exposures-to-cyanobacteria-and-cyanotoxins
#6
REVIEW
Zorica Svirčev, Damjana Drobac, Nada Tokodi, Biljana Mijović, Geoffrey A Codd, Jussi Meriluoto
Blooms of cyanobacteria have been documented throughout history, all over the world. Mass populations of these organisms typically present hazards to human health and are known for the production of a wide range of highly toxic metabolites-cyanotoxins, of which among the most common and most investigated are the microcystins. The toxicity of the family of microcystin congeners to animal and cell models has received much attention; however, less is known about their negative effects on human health, whether via acute or chronic exposure...
January 2, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032149/dtni-a-novel-toxicogenomics-data-analysis-tool-for-identifying-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-adverse-effects-of-toxic-compounds
#7
Diana M Hendrickx, Terezinha Souza, Danyel G J Jennen, Jos C S Kleinjans
Unravelling gene regulatory networks (GRNs) influenced by chemicals is a major challenge in systems toxicology. Because toxicant-induced GRNs evolve over time and dose, the analysis of global gene expression data measured at multiple time points and doses will provide insight in the adverse effects of compounds. Therefore, there is a need for mathematical methods for GRN identification from time-over-dose-dependent data. One of the current approaches for GRN inference is Time Series Network Identification (TSNI)...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032148/the-relationship-between-platinum-drug-resistance-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#8
REVIEW
Anamaria Brozovic
One of the most commonly used chemotherapeutics, platinum drugs are used to treat a wide range of cancer types. Although many cancers initially respond well to those drugs, drug resistance occurs frequently and different molecular mechanisms have been associated with it. However, predictive biomarkers of cellular response in specific tumour types still do not exist. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a malignant cancer phenotype characterized by aggressive invasion and metastasis, and resistance to apoptosis...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032147/comparative-hepatotoxicity-of-6-2-fluorotelomer-carboxylic-acid-and-6-2-fluorotelomer-sulfonic-acid-two-fluorinated-alternatives-to-long-chain-perfluoroalkyl-acids-on-adult-male-mice
#9
Nan Sheng, Xiujuan Zhou, Fei Zheng, Yitao Pan, Xuejiang Guo, Yong Guo, Yan Sun, Jiayin Dai
Due to their structural similarities, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) and 6:2 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (6:2 FTCA) are often used as alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), respectively. With limited health risk data and 6:2 FTSA detection in water and sludge, the toxicity of these chemicals is of growing concern. Here, adult male mice were exposed with 5 mg/kg/day of 6:2 FTCA or 6:2 FTSA for 28 days to investigate their hepatotoxicological effects...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032146/effects-of-31-fda-approved-small-molecule-kinase-inhibitors-on-isolated-rat-liver-mitochondria
#10
Jun Zhang, Alec Salminen, Xi Yang, Yong Luo, Qiangen Wu, Matthew White, James Greenhaw, Lijun Ren, Matthew Bryant, William Salminen, Thomas Papoian, William Mattes, Qiang Shi
The FDA has approved 31 small-molecule kinase inhibitors (KIs) for human use as of November 2016, with six having black box warnings for hepatotoxicity (BBW-H) in product labeling. The precise mechanisms and risk factors for KI-induced hepatotoxicity are poorly understood. Here, the 31 KIs were tested in isolated rat liver mitochondria, an in vitro system recently proposed to be a useful tool to predict drug-induced hepatotoxicity in humans. The KIs were incubated with mitochondria or submitochondrial particles at concentrations ranging from therapeutic maximal blood concentrations (Cmax) levels to 100-fold Cmax levels...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032145/neurodevelopmental-disorders-and-pesticide-exposure-the-northeastern-italian-experience
#11
EDITORIAL
L Roncati, T Pusiol, F Piscioli, A M Lavezzi
Endocrine disruptors are chemical substances that can interfere with the endocrine system. They include pesticides, metals, additives or contaminants in food, and personal care products. Pesticides are the only substances intentionally released into our environment to kill living things (herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides). There is scientific evidence that exposure to pesticides produces a growing number of human pathological conditions; among these, stillbirth is an emerging issue.
December 28, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032144/comments-regarding-hepatotoxicity-by-combination-treatment-of-temozolomide-artesunate-and-chinese-herbs-in-a-glioblastoma-multiforme-patient-case-report-review-of-the-literature
#12
EDITORIAL
Hai Lu, Ruya Sheng, Chunhong Zhang, Ta-Ya Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032143/an-evidence-based-review-of-the-genotoxic-and-reproductive-effects-of-sulfur-mustard
#13
REVIEW
Fazlullah Khan, Kamal Niaz, Fatima Ismail Hassan, Mohammad Abdollahi
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent which is cytotoxic in nature, and at the molecular level, SM acts as DNA alkylating agent leading to genotoxic and reproductive effects. Mostly, the exposed areas of the body are the main targets for SM; however, it also adversely affects various tissues of the body and ultimately exhibits long-term complications including genotoxic and reproductive effects, even in the next generations. The effect of SM on reproductive system is the reason behind male infertility...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032142/overlooking-relevant-confounders-in-the-assessment-of-pesticides-and-human-health-a-reply-to-mostafalou-and-abdollahi
#14
EDITORIAL
Keith Fluegge
Mostafalou and Abdollahi (Arch Toxicol, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s00204-016-1849-x ) have recently conducted a review exploring human exposure to pesticides and systematically highlighting known toxic mechanisms from these exposures. Their review is extensive and appraises the literature on pesticide toxicity in a number of domains, including neurotoxicity and developmental toxicity. However, as important as it may be to understand the toxicological potential of these chemicals in humans and other species, the role of these chemicals as proxies for other environmental exposures should not be excluded...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011991/hair-analysis-for-the-biomonitoring-of-pesticide-exposure-comparison-with-blood-and-urine-in-a-rat-model
#15
Brice M R Appenzeller, Emilie M Hardy, Nathalie Grova, Caroline Chata, François Faÿs, Olivier Briand, Henri Schroeder, Radu-Corneliu Duca
Urine and plasma have been used to date for the biomonitoring of exposure to pollutants and are still the preferred fluids for this purpose; however, these fluids mainly provide information on the short term and may present a high level of variability regarding pesticide concentrations, especially for nonpersistent compounds. Hair analysis may provide information about chronic exposure that is averaged over several months; therefore, this method has been proposed as an alternative to solely relying on these fluids...
December 23, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005143/acidic-cellular-microenvironment-modifies-carcinogen-induced-dna-damage-and-repair
#16
Q Shi, L Maas, C Veith, F J Van Schooten, R W Godschalk
Chronic inflammation creates an acidic microenvironment, which plays an important role in cancer development. To investigate how low pH changes the cellular response to the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), we incubated human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549 and BEAS-2B) with nontoxic doses of B[a]P using culturing media of various pH's (extracellular pH (pHe) of 7.8, 7.0, 6.5, 6.0 and 5.5) for 6, 24 and 48 h. In most incubations (pHe 7.0-6.5), the pH in the medium returned to the physiological pH 7.8 after 48 h, but at the lowest pH (pHe < 6...
December 22, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999878/in-vivo-imaging-of-systemic-transport-and-elimination-of-xenobiotics-and-endogenous-molecules-in-mice
#17
Raymond Reif, Ahmed Ghallab, Lynette Beattie, Georgia Günther, Lars Kuepfer, Paul M Kaye, Jan G Hengstler
We describe a two-photon microscopy-based method to evaluate the in vivo systemic transport of compounds. This method comprises imaging of the intact liver, kidney and intestine, the main organs responsible for uptake and elimination of xenobiotics and endogenous molecules. The image quality of the acquired movies was sufficient to distinguish subcellular structures like organelles and vesicles. Quantification of the movement of fluorescent dextran and fluorescent cholic acid derivatives in different organs and their sub-compartments over time revealed significant dynamic differences...
December 20, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995280/dietary-fructose-as-a-risk-factor-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#18
REVIEW
Salamah Mohammad Alwahsh, Rolf Gebhardt
Glucose is a major energy source for the entire body, while fructose metabolism occurs mainly in the liver. Fructose consumption has increased over the last decade globally and is suspected to contribute to the increased incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a manifestation of metabolic syndrome affecting about one-third of the population worldwide and has progressive pathological potential for liver cirrhosis and cancer through non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here we have reviewed the possible contribution of fructose to the pathophysiology of NAFLD...
December 19, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990564/planarian-cholinesterase-in-vitro-characterization-of-an-evolutionarily-ancient-enzyme-to-study-organophosphorus-pesticide-toxicity-and-reactivation
#19
Danielle Hagstrom, Hideto Hirokawa, Limin Zhang, Zoran Radic, Palmer Taylor, Eva-Maria S Collins
The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has recently emerged as an animal model for developmental neurotoxicology and found to be sensitive to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. While previous activity staining of D. japonica, which possess a discrete cholinergic nervous system, has shown acylthiocholine catalysis, it is unknown whether this is accomplished through an acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), or a hybrid esterase and how OP exposure affects esterase activity. Here, we show that the majority of D...
December 18, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942789/evaluation-of-the-automated-microflow-%C3%A2-and-metafer%C3%A2-platforms-for-high-throughput-micronucleus-scoring-and-dose-response-analysis-in-human-lymphoblastoid-tk6-cells
#20
Jatin R Verma, Benjamin J Rees, Eleanor C Wilde, Catherine A Thornton, Gareth J S Jenkins, Shareen H Doak, George E Johnson
The use of manual microscopy for the scoring of chromosome damage in the in vitro micronucleus assay is often associated with user subjectivity. This level of subjectivity can be reduced by using automated platforms, which have added value of faster with high-throughput and multi-endpoint capabilities. However, there is a need to assess the reproducibility and sensitivity of these automated platforms compared with the gold standard of the manual scoring. The automated flow cytometry-based MicroFlow(®) and image analysis-based Metafer™ were used for dose response analyses in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells exposed to the model clastogen, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), aneugen, carbendazim, and the weak genotoxic carcinogen, ochratoxin A (OTA)...
December 10, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
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