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West Indian Medical Journal

K R Webster-Kerr, Cdc Christie, A Grant, D Chin, H Burrowes, K Clarke, I Wellington, K Shaw, W De La Haye
Background: Jamaica, along with the Americas, experienced major epidemics of arboviral diseases transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito in recent years. These include dengue fever in 2012, Chikungunya fever in 2014 and Zika virus infection (ZIKV) in 2016. We present the emergence of the ZIKV epidemic in Jamaica and outline the national response. Methods: The Ministry of Health's preparedness included: heightened surveillance, clinical management guidance, vector control and management, laboratory capacity strengthening, training and staffing, risk communication and public education, social mobilization, inter-sectoral collaboration, resource mobilization and international cooperation...
September 26, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
Cdc Christie, C Giaquinto
Zika virus epidemic now involves 72 countries, worldwide. Transmission is multimodal through mosquito bites and blood and body fluids. Zika virus causes Guillain Barre Syndrome syndrome and pregnancy complications including perinatal microcephaly. Diagnosis is complicated by subclinical infection in 80%, co-circulation with dengue and chikungunya fevers with similar presentations and cross-reactivity in serological tests. There is no cure, or preventive vaccine. Large population-based studies will help to elucidate ZIKV epidemiology, vertical transmission, risks to the fetus of maternal ZIKV infection and natural history of congenital and non-congenital ZIKV infection as provided by the activities in the "ZIKAction" research consortium in Latin America, Europe and the Caribbean, which was recently funded by the European Commission...
September 19, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
H Xie, M Fang, H Lin, P Li, N Sun, J Chen, Y Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
F Meng, Y Li, G Wang, Q Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
S Persaud, I Hosein, D Dan, P S Griffith
Introduction: To the modern surgeon in training, the acquisition of laparoscopic skills is essential. Laparoscopic simulators are effective but in the often resource poor setting of the Caribbean, the cost of these simulators is often prohibitive. We describe the construction of a simulator which is cheap, easy to assemble and effective. It is also relatively easy to mass produce for use in training programmes across the region. Materials and methods: The simulator is constructed using a semi-transparent plastic box...
June 13, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
M Yang, B-L Tian, Y Zhang, A-P Su, W-G Wang, P-J Yue
Cushing's syndrome caused by an ectopic tumour secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is not common. Furthermore, an ACTH-secreting panreatic neoplasm is extremely rare. We present a 27-year old female patient suffering from a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (p-NET) with extensive pelvic metastases, which could secret ACTH and cause Cushing's syndrome. The postoperative pathologic examinations of this patient prompted pancreatic poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumour with extensive metastases of bilateral ovarian, uterus and pelvic peritoneum...
May 15, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
Q Zhang, L Li, B Miao, H Niu
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether combining diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) techniques would provide a sensitive method for differentiating between 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced rhesus monkey model of Parkinson's disease (PD) and wild-type controls. Subjects and Methods: Seventeen rhesus monkeys were divided into two groups. A series of intramuscular injections of either saline (control group, n = 8) or MPTP (0...
April 18, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
L Zhao, M A Ashraf
Background: The main reason for biomaterial related refractory infections is biofilm formation caused by bacterial adhesion on the surface of materials. Silver-hydroxyapatite (Ag/HA) nanocomposite coating can inhibit the formation of biofilm, but its mechanism is not clear. Material and method: In order to clarify the mechanism, the amounts of biofilm on the Ag/HA composite coating and HA coating were determined, the release rates of silver nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) were detected by atomic absorption spectrometry, and the expression values of atlE, fbe, sap, iapB genes of Staphylococcus aureus were studied when they grew on Ag/HA composite coating and HA coating...
April 18, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
H Xia, F Xiong
Objective: To study clinical semi-permeability tolerance level in the field of dental restoration. Method: Vita 95 enamel porcelain powder was adopted and 6.0% used as the control transmissivity. Discoid porcelain plates with different transmissivity, namely increasing transmissivity (0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4% and 4.5%) and decreasing transmissivity (-0.25%, -0.5%, -1.0%, -1.5%, -2%, -2.5%, -3% and -3.5%) were made. Forty observers judged these according to six grades: same, similar, slightly different, visibly different, recognizable and significantly different, and under the observation conditions of a neutral grey background and 45(°)/0(°) lighting...
April 18, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
L Xing
Background: The study of the effect of different dialysis methods on cellular immune function of maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients should provide theoretical support for deciding on the best method of blood purification that effectively improves cellular immune function of haemodialysis patients. Subjects and Method: Sixty MHD patients were randomly divided into three groups that respectively received treatment of haemodialysis (HD), high flux haemodialysis (HFHD) and haemodiafiltration (HDF)...
April 18, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
T Khaliq, M Sarfraz, M A Ashraf
Background: Diabetes mellitus is an important human disease afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. Even though modern medicines contribute a variety of effective treatment options, they can have several unfavourable effects. The intention of this review is to organize and discuss various studies that have been previously conducted on the effectiveness of these herbal plants in diabetes. Method: By using various electronic search databases, a comprehensive English literature search was conducted...
April 18, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
M Sarfraz, Y Ashraf, S Sajid, M A Ashraf
Background: The use of chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer began at the start of the 20(th) century in an attempt to narrow the universe of chemicals that affect the disease. Metastatic testicular cancer has always been sensitive to chemotherapy. Subjects and Method: A retrospective and prospective study was performed of patients who had undergone testicular cancer from 2011-2013. The overall age of the testicular cancer patients at the time of diagnosis, their marital status, stage of disease and treatment strategies, testosterone level etc were analysed using linear regression and t-test...
April 18, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
J Luo, X Wang, Y Yang, T Lan, M A Ashraf, Q Mao
We report a case of a patient with AIDS and a brain abscess caused by aspergillus, who underwent neurosurgical excision of the lesion and received subsequent therapy with voriconazole. The patient suffered from intracranial hypertension and visual disorders.
April 18, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
X Huang, Y Wang, K Ren
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a sort of nerve degenerative disease with clinical manifestation of memory damage and cognitive dysfunction. Its typical pathological change is the abnormal deposition of amyloid-beta (Aβ). Method: In this study, a rat AD model with liquiritin (LQ) interference was established to observe the effects of LQ on the AD rats' behavioural memory and primary hippocampus cells. Results: Liquiritin had the effect of improving the rats' learning and memory ability, enhancing the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in rats' brain tissues, increasing the antioxidant ability, protecting the primary cultured hippocampal neurons and inhibiting the apoptosis induced by Aβ25-35...
April 18, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
L Aijing, Y Jin
At present, the outdated information management style cannot meet the needs of hospital management, and has become the bottleneck of hospital's management and development. In order to improve the integrated management of information, hospitals have increased their investment in integrated information management systems. On account of the lack of reasonable and scientific design, some hospital integrated information management systems have common problems, such as unfriendly interface, poor portability and maintainability, low security and efficiency, lack of interactivity and information sharing...
April 18, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
J Bao, X-J Wang, Y Yang, R-Q Dong, Z-F Mao
Background: Currently, segmentation of healthcare and daily care for the elderly living in nursing homes usually results in the elderly not getting medical treatment timely and effectively. The medical-nursing combined care, which has been put into practice in several areas in China, is developed to enhance the accessibility of healthcare for the elderly. The aim of the study is to explore the effectiveness of the new care service, based on Andersen model, regarding health service utilization, health status and service satisfaction...
April 18, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
Y Xu, L Wan, J Ning, W Guo, L Ren
A one-year old boy was admitted to hospital for lethargy and vomiting over three days. Neurological examination revealed abnormalities. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed evidence of meningitis. A purified protein derivative (PPD) test, T-SPOT.TB and radiological examination indicated tuberculous meningitis. During treatment, the child developed hypertension, sinus tachycardia, tachypnoea, dystonia and high fever. These episodes improved after administration of propranolol, artane and clonazepam. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity is a rare manifestation of tuberculous meningitis...
April 18, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
X Liu, X Zhou, X Hao, X Sang
The numerical simulation model of blood flow in bend is studied in this paper. The curvature modification is conducted for the blood flow model in bend to obtain the modified blood flow model in bend. The modified model is verified by U tube. By comparing the simulation results with the experimental results obtained by measuring the flow data in U tube, it was found that the modified blood flow model in bend can effectively improve the prediction accuracy of blood flow data affected by the curvature effect.
April 18, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
Y Sun, Z Wang, L Wang, L-Z Wang, C Zang, L-R Sun
Targeted therapy is a potentially useful approach for the treatment of T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. This study aimed to find a highly effective, low toxic anti-tumour drug and further investigate its mechanisms. Jurkat cells were used as the object and were stimulated by different concentrations of crocin. By cell count, growth curve, MTT method for the detection of cell proliferation, annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) method for the apoptosis rates, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for bcl-2 and bax gene expression, the effect and mechanisms of proliferative inhibition of crocin on Jurkat cells were further explored...
April 18, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
A Iftkhar, I J Hasan, M Sarfraz, L Jafri, M A Ashraf
Background: The present study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of the leaves of Aloe barbadensis against toxicity induced by diclofenac sodium in albino rabbits. Subjects and Method: Thirty-six healthy albino rabbits were randomly divided into six groups each with six animals. Group 1 served as the untreated control, group 2 was treated only with diclofenac sodium, group 3 with the nephroprotective drug silymarin and groups 4, 5, and 6 were treated with different doses of Aloe barbadensis,ie 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively after being treated with diclofenac sodium...
April 18, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
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