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Vision Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209526/robust-size-illusion-produced-by-expanding-and-contracting-flow-fields
#1
Xue Dong, Jianying Bai, Min Bao
A new illusion is described. Randomly positioned dots moved radially within an imaginary annular window. The dots' motion periodically changed the direction, leading to an alternating percept of expanding and contracting motion. Strikingly, the apparent size of the enclosed circular region shrank during the dots' expanding phases and dilated during the contracting phases. We quantitatively measured the illusion, and found that the presence of energy at the local kinetic edge could not account for the illusion...
February 13, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202398/peripheral-target-identification-performance-modulates-eye-movements
#2
Min-Suk Kang, Sori Kim, Kyoung-Min Lee
We often shift our eyes to an interesting stimulus, but it is important to inhibit that eye movement in some environments (e.g., a no-look pass in basketball). Here, we investigated participants' ability to inhibit eye movements when they had to process a peripheral target with a requirement to maintain strict fixation. An array of eight letters composed of four characters was briefly presented and a directional cue was centrally presented to indicate the target location. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the cue and the stimulus array was chosen from six values, consisting of pre-cue conditions (-400 and -200 ms), a simultaneous cue condition (0 ms), and post-cue conditions (200, 400, and 800 ms)...
February 12, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202397/top-down-preparation-modulates-visual-categorization-but-not-subjective-awareness-of-objects-presented-in-natural-backgrounds
#3
Mika Koivisto, Ella Kahila
Top-down processes are widely assumed to be essential in visual awareness, subjective experience of seeing. However, previous studies have not tried to separate directly the roles of different types of top-down influences in visual awareness. We studied the effects of top-down preparation and object substitution masking (OSM) on visual awareness during categorization of objects presented in natural scene backgrounds. The results showed that preparation facilitated categorization but did not influence visual awareness...
February 12, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202396/do-low-spatial-frequencies-explain-the-extremely-fast-saccades-towards-human-faces
#4
Nathalie Guyader, Alan Chauvin, Muriel Boucart, Carole Peyrin
The visual perception of human faces by man is fast and efficient compared to that of other categories of objects. Using a saccadic choice task, recent studies showed that participants were able to initiate fast reliable saccades in just 100 to 110 ms toward an image of a human face, when this was presented alongside another image without a face. This extremely fast saccadic reaction time is barely predicted using classical models of visual perception. Thus, the present research investigates whether this result might be explained by the low spatial frequency content of images...
February 12, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192092/peripheral-oculomotor-training-in-individuals-with-healthy-visual-systems-effects-of-training-and-training-transfer
#5
Dylan Rose, Peter Bex
Individuals with pathological or simulated central visual field loss can be trained to use a preferred retinal locus (PRL) as a substitute for their non-functioning fovea. The functional benefits of a stable PRL are well documented, but little is known about oculomotor adaptations during PRL acquisition or transfer of training to another location in response to real or simulated disease progression. In this study, eight normally-sighted observers were trained to use a pseudo-PRL (pPRL) at one of two locations by guiding an eccentrically placed, gaze-contingent ring over a fixation target...
February 9, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192091/the-influence-of-age-onadaptation-of-disparity-vergence-and-phoria
#6
Tara L Alvarez, Eun H Kim, Chang Yaramothu, Bérangère Granger-Donetti
A paucity of research exists to investigate whether the normal aging process influences the ability to adapt disparity vergence and phoria. Vergence eye movements and dissociated phoria were recorded from 49 healthy subjects (ages 20-70 years) using an objective eye movement tracking system. Four-degree vergence responses were modified using a double-step protocol. Dynamics of vergence were quantified via peak velocity. The phoria adaptation experiment measured the magnitude (net change in phoria level) and rate (magnitude divided by the time constant) of phoria adaption during 5 minutes of sustained fixation on a binocular target (40cm/8...
February 9, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185858/extending-levelt-s-propositions-to-perceptual-multistability-involving-interocular-grouping
#7
Alain Jacot-Guillarmod, Yunjiao Wang, Claudia Pedroza, Haluk Ogmen, Zachary Kilpatrick, Krešimir Josić
Levelt's Propositions are central to understanding a wide range of multistable perceptual phenomena, but it is unclear whether they extend to perceptual multistability involving interocular grouping. We presented split-grating stimuli with complementary halves of the same color (either red or green) to human subjects. The subjects reported four percepts in alternation: the two stimuli presented to each eye (half red and half green), as well as the two single color (all red or all green), interocularly grouped percepts...
February 6, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167115/association-between-autistic-traits-and-emotion-adaptation-to-partially-occluded-faces
#8
Chengwen Luo, Edwin Burns, Hong Xu
Prolonged exposure to an emotional face (e.g., a happy face) leads to a repulsive bias in the emotion perception of subsequently presented faces (e.g., they are perceived as sadder). These shifts in perception are known as facial emotion aftereffects (FEA). People with autism spectrum disorders and their relatives have diminished holistic perception of complex objects. Levels of autism can be measured continuously in the general population in the form of autistic traits. Prior work has failed to find any association between levels of autism and FEA in adults, possibly due to non-holistic processing strategies employed by those at the higher end of the spectrum...
February 3, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163059/revising-the-link-between-microsaccades-and-the-spatial-cueing-of-voluntary-attention
#9
Susann Meyberg, Petra Sinn, Ralf Engbert, Werner Sommer
Microsaccades - i.e., small fixational saccades generated in the superior colliculus (SC) - have been linked to spatial attention. While maintaining fixation, voluntary shifts of covert attention toward peripheral targets result in a sequence of attention-aligned and attention-opposing microsaccades. In most previous studies the direction of the voluntary shift is signaled by a spatial cue (e.g., a leftwards pointing arrow) that presents the most informative part of the cue (e.g., the arrowhead) in the to-be attended visual field...
February 2, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159609/disentangling-the-mechanisms-underlying-infant-fixation-durations-in-scene-perception-a-computational-account
#10
Irati R Saez de Urabain, Antje Nuthmann, Mark H Johnson, Tim J Smith
The goal of this article is to investigate the unexplored mechanisms underlying the development of saccadic control in infancy by determining the generalizability and potential limitations of extending the CRISP theoretical framework and computational model of fixation durations (FDs) in adult scene-viewing to infants. The CRISP model was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms modulating FDs in 6-month-olds by applying the model to empirical eye-movement data gathered from groups of infants and adults during free-viewing of naturalistic and semi-naturalistic videos...
January 31, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153494/individual-differences-in-the-dynamics-of-collinear-facilitation
#11
Stephen Jachim, Emma Gowen, Paul A Warren
Collinear facilitation refers to the increase in sensitivity found for a target when aligned between nearby, brighter flankers, and is thought to underpin the ability to integrate fragmented contours to form higher order global shapes. Many studies have explored the spatial and temporal aspects of this arrangement, and there is a consensus that two mechanisms could be responsible for this phenomenon; lateral excitation within V1 and extra-striate feedback to V1. There is some debate as to whether facilitation can still occur if the target is presented before the flankers, a manipulation known as backward masking, which could rely on feedback to V1...
January 30, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088347/disparity-configuration-influences-depth-discrimination-in-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-but-not-in-children
#12
Laurie M Wilcox, Brittney Hartle, Aliya Solski, Kevin J Mackenzie, Deborah Giaschi
We report a series of experiments in which we assess depth discrimination performance in adults and children using a disparity-balanced target configuration to avoid the effects of anticipatory vergence eye movements. In our first study we found that children outperformed adults by a substantial margin, and the adults were consistently near chance. This was surprising given that we initially tested naïve adults to provide a benchmark for the children's data, and all observers met the criterion for stereoacuity...
January 25, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087445/distinct-subcomponents-of-mouse-retinal-ganglion-cell-receptive-fields-are-differentially-altered-by-light-adaptation
#13
Cameron S Cowan, Jasdeep Sabharwal, Robert L Seilheimer, Samuel M Wu
The remarkable dynamic range of vision is facilitated by adaptation of retinal sensitivity to ambient lighting conditions. An important mechanism of sensitivity adaptation is control of the spatial and temporal window over which light is integrated. The retina accomplishes this by switching between parallel synaptic pathways with differing kinetics and degrees of synaptic convergence. However, the relative shifts in spatial and temporal integration are not well understood - particularly in the context of the antagonistic spatial surround...
January 24, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062154/phototransduction-early-steps-model-based-on-beer-lambert-optical-law
#14
Ezequiel M Salido, Leonardo N Servalli, Juan Carlos Gomez, Claudio Verrastro
The amount of available rhodopsin on the photoreceptor outer segment and its change over time is not considered in classic models of phototransduction. Thus, those models do not take into account the absorptance variation of the outer segment under different brightness conditions. The relationship between the light absorbed by a medium and its absorptance is well described by the Beer-Lambert law. This newly proposed model implements the absorptance variation phenomenon in a set of equations that admit photons per second as input and results in active rhodopsins per second as output...
January 13, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025053/lightness-perception-for-matte-and-glossy-complex-shapes
#15
Matteo Toscani, Matteo Valsecchi, Karl R Gegenfurtner
Humans are able to estimate the reflective properties of the surface (albedo) of an object despite the large variability in the reflected light due to shading, illumination and specular reflection. Here we first used a physically based rendering simulation to study how different statistics (i.e. percentiles) based on the luminance distributions of matte and glossy objects predict the overall surface albedo. We found that the brightest parts of matte surfaces are good predictors of the surface albedo. As expected, the brightest parts led to poor performance in glossy surfaces...
January 13, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057580/monocular-and-binocular-smooth-pursuit-in-central-field-loss
#16
Natela Shanidze, Stephen Heinen, Preeti Verghese
Macular degeneration results in heterogeneous central field loss (CFL) and often has asymmetrical effects in the two eyes. As such, it is not clear to what degree the movements of the two eyes are coordinated. To address this issue, we examined smooth pursuit quantitatively in CFL participants during binocular viewing and compared it to the monocular viewing case. We also examined coordination of the two eyes during smooth pursuit and how this coordination was affected by interocular ratios of acuity and contrast, as well as CFL-specific interocular differences, such as scotoma sizes and degree of binocular overlap...
January 9, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057578/the-effect-of-beat-frequency-on-eye-movements-during-free-viewing
#17
Emese Maróti, Balázs Knakker, Zoltán Vidnyánszky, Béla Weiss
External periodic stimuli entrain brain oscillations and affect perception and attention. It has been shown that background music can change oculomotor behavior and facilitate detection of visual objects occurring on the musical beat. However, whether musical beats in different tempi modulate information sampling differently during natural viewing remains to be explored. Here we addressed this question by investigating how listening to naturalistic drum grooves in two different tempi affects eye movements of participants viewing natural scenes on a computer screen...
January 9, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077292/general-and-specific-factors-in-the-processing-of-faces
#18
Roeland J Verhallen, Jenny M Bosten, Patrick T Goodbourn, Adam J Lawrance-Owen, Gary Bargary, J D Mollon
The ability to recognize faces varies considerably between individuals, but does performance co-vary for tests of different aspects of face processing? For 397 participants (of whom the majority were university students) we obtained scores on the Mooney Face Test, Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT), Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and Composite Face Test. Overall performance was significantly correlated for each pair of tests, and we suggest the term f for the factor underlying this pattern of positive correlations...
January 7, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042057/variations-in-normal-color-vision-vii-relationships-between-color-naming-and-hue-scaling
#19
Kara J Emery, Vicki J Volbrecht, David H Peterzell, Michael A Webster
A longstanding and unresolved question is how observers construct a discrete set of color categories to partition and label the continuous variations in light spectra, and how these categories might reflect the neural representation of color. We explored the properties of color naming and its relationship to color appearance by analyzing individual differences in color-naming and hue-scaling patterns, using factor analysis of individual differences to identify separate and shared processes underlying hue naming (labeling) and hue scaling (color appearance)...
January 5, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063978/attitudes-about-race-predict-individual-differences-in-face-adaptation-aftereffects
#20
Sarah L Elliott, Kelly Chu, Jill Coleman
This study examined whether category boundaries between Black and White faces relate to individual attitudes about race. Fifty-seven (20 Black, 37 White) participants completed measures of explicit racism, implicit racism, collective self-esteem (CSE), and racial centrality. Category boundaries between Black and White faces were measured in three separate conditions: following adaptation to (1) a neutral gray background, a sequence of (2) Black or (3) White faces. Two additional conditions measured category boundaries for facial distortion to investigate whether attitudes relate to mechanisms of racial identity alone, or to more global mechanisms of face perception...
January 4, 2017: Vision Research
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