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Vision Research

David H Peterzell, Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza, Michael Widdall, Jenny C A Read
Threshold functions for sinusoidal depth corrugations typically reach their minimum (highest sensitivity) at spatial frequencies of 0.2-0.4 cycles/degree (cpd), with lower thresholds for horizontal than vertical corrugations at low spatial frequencies. To elucidate spatial frequency and orientation tuning of stereoscopic mechanisms, we measured the disparity sensitivity functions, and used factor analytic techniques to estimate the existence of independent underlying stereo channels. The data set (N=30 individuals) was for horizontal and vertical corrugations of spatial frequencies ranging from 0...
November 15, 2017: Vision Research
Anna Sterkin, Yuval Levy, Russell Pokroy, Maria Lev, Liora Levian, Ravid Doron, Oren Yehezkel, Moshe Fried, Yael Frenkel-Nir, Barak Gordon, Uri Polat
Israeli Air Force (IAF) pilots continue flying combat missions after the symptoms of natural near-vision deterioration, termed presbyopia, begin to be noticeable. Because modern pilots rely on the displays of the aircraft control and performance instruments, near visual acuity (VA) is essential in the cockpit. We aimed to apply a method previously shown to improve visual performance of presbyopes, and test whether presbyopic IAF pilots can overcome the limitation imposed by presbyopia. Participants were selected by the IAF aeromedical unit as having at least initial presbyopia and trained using a structured personalized perceptual learning method (GlassesOff application), based on detecting briefly presented low-contrast Gabor stimuli, under the conditions of spatial and temporal constraints, from a distance of 40 cm...
November 14, 2017: Vision Research
J Patrick Weller, Gregory D Horwitz
Measuring the color tuning of visual neurons is important for understanding the neural basis of vision, but it is challenging because of the inherently three-dimensional nature of color. Color tuning cannot be represented by a one-dimensional curve, and measuring three-dimensional tuning curves is difficult. One approach to addressing this challenge is to analyze neuronal color tuning data through the lens of mathematical models that make assumptions about the shapes of tuning curves. In this paper, we discuss the linear-nonlinear cascade model as a platform for measuring neuronal color tuning...
November 10, 2017: Vision Research
C D Eiber, A N J Pietersen, N Zeater, S G Solomon, P R Martin
The "blue-on" and "blue-off" receptive fields in retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of diurnal primates combine signals from short-wavelength sensitive (S) cone photoreceptors with signals from medium/long wavelength sensitive (ML) photoreceptors. Three questions about this combination remain unresolved. Firstly, is the combination of S and ML signals in these cells linear or non-linear? Secondly, how does the timing of S and ML inputs to these cells influence their responses? Thirdly, is there spatial antagonism within S and ML subunits of the receptive field of these cells? We measured contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency tuning for four types of drifting sine gratings: S cone isolating, ML cone isolating, achromatic (S + ML), and counterphase chromatic (S - ML), in extracellular recordings from LGN of marmoset monkeys...
November 9, 2017: Vision Research
John D Mollon, Jenny M Bosten, David H Peterzell, Michael A Webster
We all pass out our lives in private perceptual worlds. The differences in our sensory and perceptual experiences often go unnoticed until there emerges a variation (such as 'The Dress') that is large enough to generate different descriptions in the coarse coinage of our shared language. In this essay, we illustrate how individual differences contribute to a richer understanding of visual perception, but we also indicate some potential pitfalls that face the investigator who ventures into the field.
November 9, 2017: Vision Research
David E Irwin, Maria M Robinson
When a visual stimulus is displaced during a saccade the displacement is often not noticed unless it is large compared to the amplitude of the eye movement. Displacement detection is improved, however, if a blank intervenes between saccade target offset and the presentation of the displaced post-saccadic stimulus. This has been interpreted as evidence that precise information about eye position and accurate memory for the position of the pre-saccadic target are available immediately after saccade offset, but are overridden by the presence of the post-saccadic stimulus if it is present when the eyes land...
November 9, 2017: Vision Research
Louisa Miller, Hannah C Agnew, Karin S Pilz
The perception of human motion is a vital ability in our daily lives. Human movement recognition is often studied using point-light stimuli in which dots represent the joints of a moving person. Depending on task and stimulus, the local motion of the single dots, and the global form of the stimulus can be used to discriminate point-light stimuli. Previous studies often measured motion coherence for global motion perception and contrasted it with performance in biological motion perception to assess whether difficulties in biological motion processing are related to more general difficulties with motion processing...
November 8, 2017: Vision Research
Thomas J McDougall, Bao N Nguyen, Allison M McKendrick, David R Badcock
Previous studies have found evidence for reduced cortical inhibition in aging visual cortex. Reduced inhibition could plausibly increase the spatial area of excitation in receptive fields of older observers, as weaker inhibitory processes would allow the excitatory receptive field to dominate and be psychophysically measureable over larger areas. Here, we investigated aging effects on spatial summation of motion direction using the Battenberg summation method, which aims to control the influence of locally generated internal noise changes by holding overall display size constant...
November 8, 2017: Vision Research
Jan Skerswetat, Monika A Formankiewicz, Sarah J Waugh
Luminance-modulated noise (LM) and contrast-modulated noise (CM) gratings were presented with interocularly correlated, uncorrelated and anti-correlated binary noise to investigate their contributions to mixed percepts, specifically piecemeal and superimposition, during binocular rivalry. Stimuli were sine-wave gratings of 2c/deg presented within 2 deg circular apertures. The LM stimulus contrast was 0.1 and the CM stimulus modulation depth was 1.0, equating to approximately 5 and 7 times detection threshold, respectively...
November 1, 2017: Vision Research
Anna-Maria Felßberg, Isabel Dombrowe
It is commonly assumed that saccades in the dark are slower than saccades in a lit room. Early studies that investigated this issue using electrooculography (EOG) often compared memory guided saccades in darkness to visually guided saccades in an illuminated room. However, later studies showed that memory guided saccades are generally slower than visually guided saccades. Research on this topic is further complicated by the fact that the different existing eyetracking methods do not necessarily lead to consistent measurements...
October 27, 2017: Vision Research
Scott H Gabree, Timothy G Shepard, Rhea T Eskew
Physiological, anatomical, and psychophysical evidence points to important differences between visual processing of short-wave cone increments and decrement (S+ and S-) stimuli. The present study uses the pedestal discrimination paradigm to investigate potential differences, using S+ and S- tests presented on (L)ong-wave, (M)edium-wave, S, L+M, L-M, and achromatic pedestals, of both contrast polarities. Results show that high contrast 'purplish' (S+ or -(L+M)) pedestals produce substantially more masking of both S+ and S- tests than 'yellowish' (S- or +(L+M)) pedestals do...
October 26, 2017: Vision Research
Brónagh McCoy, Jan Theeuwes
Recent research on the impact of location-based reward on attentional orienting has indicated that reward factors play an influential role in spatial priority maps. The current study investigated whether and how reward associations based on spatial location translate from overt eye movements to covert attention. If reward associations can be tied to locations in space, and if overt and covert attention rely on similar overlapping neuronal populations, then both overt and covert attentional measures should display similar spatial-based reward learning...
October 26, 2017: Vision Research
Andrey Chetverikov, Gianluca Campana, Árni Kristjánsson
Recent evidence suggests that observers can grasp patterns of feature variations in the environment with surprising efficiency. During visual search tasks where all distractors are randomly drawn from a certain distribution rather than all being homogeneous, observers are capable of learning highly complex statistical properties of distractor sets. After only a few trials (learning phase), the statistical properties of distributions - mean, variance and crucially, shape - can be learned, and these representations affect search during a subsequent test phase (Chetverikov, Campana, & Kristjánsson, 2016)...
October 16, 2017: Vision Research
Ashay D Bhatwadekar, Yaqian Duan, Maria Korahw, Jeffrey S Thinschmidt, Ping Hu, Sameer P Leley, Sergio Caballero, Lynn Shaw, Julia Busik, Maria B Grant
The widespread nature of diabetes affects all organ systems of an individual including the bone marrow. Long-term damage to the cellular and extracellular components of the bone marrow leads to a rapid decline in the bone marrow-hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HS/PCs) compartment. This review will highlight the importance of bone marrow microenvironment in maintaining bone marrow HS/PC populations and the contribution of these key populations in microvascular repair during the natural history of diabetes...
October 14, 2017: Vision Research
Alistair J Barber, Basma Baccouche
The complex pathology of diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects both vascular and neural tissue. The characteristics of neurodegeneration are well-described in animal models but have more recently been confirmed in the clinical setting, mostly by using non-invasive imaging approaches such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The most frequent observations report loss of tissue in the nerve fiber layer and inner plexiform layer, confirming earlier findings from animal models. In several cases the reduction in inner retinal layers is reported in patients with little evidence of vascular lesions or macular edema, suggesting that degenerative loss of neural tissue in the inner retina can occur after relatively short durations of diabetes...
October 14, 2017: Vision Research
Thomas Schenk, Kathrin S Utz, Constanze Hesse
The violation of Weber's law in grasping has been presented as evidence for the claim that grasping is guided by visual information which is distinct from the information used in perceptual tasks. Previously, we contested this claim and argued that biomechanical constraints of the hand might explain why Weber's law cannot be reliably uncovered in grasping movements. In a recent article Manzone and colleagues (2017) show that pantomime grasping follows Weber's law even with objects whose width is close to the hand's biomechanical limit...
October 7, 2017: Vision Research
Elizabeth A Urias, George A Urias, Finny Monickaraj, Paul McGuire, Arup Das
The leading cause of major vision loss in diabetic persons is diabetic macular edema (DME). The hallmark feature of diabetic retinopathy is the alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Inflammation plays a crucial role in DME with involvement of several chemokines and cytokines including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is a potent cytokine and vaso-permeability factor that has been targeted in multiple, large clinical trials. Multiple anti-VEGF drugs are widely used in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) as the first line of treatment, and have been shown to be effective in vision improvement and prevention of vision loss...
October 6, 2017: Vision Research
Liwei Sun, Sebastian M Frank, Kevin C Hartstein, Wassim Hassan, Peter U Tse
Among physical events, it is impossible that an event could alter its own past for the simple reason that past events precede future events, and not vice versa. Moreover, to do so would invoke impossible self-causation. However, mental events are constructed by physical neuronal processes that take a finite duration to execute. Given this fact, it is conceivable that later brain events could alter the ongoing interpretation of previous brain events if they arrive within this finite duration of interpretive processing, before a commitment is made to what happened...
September 27, 2017: Vision Research
L Becker, D T Smith, T Schenk
The familiarity effect (FE) refers to the phenomenon that it is easier to find an unfamiliar element on a background of familiar elements than vice versa. In this study, we examined the FE in texture segmentation while recording event-related brain potentials with the aim to find out which processing stages were influenced by familiarity. In two experiments, with different levels of texture homogeneity, the N1, the N2p, and the P3 components were investigated. It was found that the FE in texture segmentation is associated with a modulation of the early N1 and of the intermediate N2p component for homogeneous textures...
September 21, 2017: Vision Research
Chloe Callahan-Flintoft, Brad Wyble
The visual system is able to detect targets according to a variety of criteria, such as by categorical (letter vs digit) or featural attributes (color). These criteria are often used interchangeably in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) studies but little is known about how rapidly they are processed. The aim of this work was to compare the time course of attentional selection and memory encoding for different types of target criteria. We conducted two experiments where participants reported one or two targets (T1, T2) presented in lateral RSVP streams...
September 16, 2017: Vision Research
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