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Vision Research

Rodrigo Montefusco-Siegmund, Mauricio Toro, Pedro E Maldonado, María de la L Aylwin
Through same-different judgements, we can discriminate an immense variety of stimuli and consequently, they are critical in our everyday interaction with the environment. The quality of the judgements depends on familiarity with stimuli. A way to improve the discrimination is through learning, but to this day, we lack direct evidence of how learning shapes the same-different judgments with complex stimuli. We studied unsupervised visual discrimination learning in 42 participants, as they performed same-different judgments with two types of unfamiliar complex stimuli in the absence of labeling or individuation...
May 15, 2018: Vision Research
Saeideh Ghahghaei, Karina J Linnell
The spatio-temporal distribution of covert attention has usually been studied under unfamiliar tasks with static viewing. It is important to extend this work to familiar tasks such as reading where sequential eye movements are made. Our previous work with reading showed that covert spatial attention around the gaze location is affected by the fixated word frequency, or the processing load exerted by the word, as early as 40 ms into the fixation. Here, we hypothesised that this early effect of frequency is only possible when the word is previewed and thus pre-processed before being fixated...
May 12, 2018: Vision Research
Dan Huang, Linyan Xue, Meijian Wang, Qiyi Hu, Xiangdong Bu, Yao Chen
Specific visual features can be attended to and processed with a higher priority by our brain, termed feature-based attention (FBA). Two potential mechanisms for FBA have been suggested: goal-driven attentional mediating and stimulus-driven feature priming. Some researchers argued that several reported top-down FBA effects might also involve the influence of feature priming. To clarify this confusion, we used an orientation discrimination task in which the target was tilted randomly from the horizontal or vertical axis and presented at one of four iso-eccentric positions...
May 12, 2018: Vision Research
Annabelle S Redfern, Christopher P Benton
In this study, we investigate the contribution of expression variability in the formation of face representations. We trained participants to learn new identities from face images either low or high in expressiveness, and compared their performance in a recognition test. After low expressiveness training, recognition of novel test images was modulated by image expressiveness: the more expressive the image, the slower the response. This differed from recognition after high expressiveness training, which showed little evidence of expression dependence...
May 12, 2018: Vision Research
Sofia Lavrenteva, Ikuya Murakami
In the retinal image of the natural world, edges and shapes can be defined by first-order attributes, such as luminance, and second-order attributes, such as contrast and texture. Previous studies have suggested that, in the human visual system, these attributes are initially detected separately and integrated later. Thus, comparing the strength of different geometrical optical illusions in stimuli, in which different elements are defined by the same or different attributes, is helpful to investigate at which stage the underlying mechanism of the illusion is located...
May 11, 2018: Vision Research
Ivet Rafegas, Maria Vanrell
Convolutional Neural Networks have been proposed as suitable frameworks to model biological vision. Some of these artificial networks showed representational properties that rival primate performances in object recognition. In this paper we explore how color is encoded in a trained artificial network. It is performed by estimating a color selectivity index for each neuron, which allows us to describe the neuron activity to a color input stimuli. The index allows us to classify whether they are color selective or not and if they are of a single or double color...
May 11, 2018: Vision Research
Christina Gambacorta, Mor Nahum, Indu Vedamurthy, Jessica Bayliss, Josh Jordan, Daphne Bavelier, Dennis M Levi
The gold-standard treatment for childhood amblyopia remains patching or penalizing the fellow eye, resulting in an average of about a one line (0.1 logMAR) improvement in visual acuity following ≈ 120 hours of patching (Stewart, Moseley, Stephens, & Fielder, 2004; Stewart, Stephens, Fielder, Moseley, & Cooperative, 2007) in children 3 to 8 years old. However, compliance with patching and other treatment options is often poor. In contrast, fast-paced action video games can be highly engaging, and have been shown to yield broad-based improvements in vision and attention in adult amblyopia...
April 27, 2018: Vision Research
Pi-Chun Huang, Yu-Ming Dai
In the context of natural scenes, we applied the pattern-masking paradigm to investigate how image structure and phase alignment affect contrast-gain control in binocular vision. We measured the discrimination thresholds of bandpass-filtered natural-scene images (targets) under various types of pedestals. our first experiment had four pedestal types: bandpass-filtered pedestals, unfiltered pedestals, notch-filtered pedestals (which enabled removal of the spatial frequency), and misaligned pedestals (which involved rotation of unfiltered pedestals)...
April 25, 2018: Vision Research
Olivia Jon, Jennifer A Walsh, Miriam F F Benarroch, Trevor Wade, Corey Lipman, Emma Greenberg, M D Rutherford
In five experiments, we used a visual aftereffects paradigm to probe whether emotion- and gender-relevant information presented in the auditory domain would affect the formation of visual aftereffects or would instead create a priming effect. In experiment 1, participants fixated on surprise facial expressions while listening to a story that described the surprise as either happy or sad, and then were asked to classify the expression of a briefly presented neutral face. Subsequently, the identity of the model (experiment 2) and the timing of the auditory presentation (experiment 3) were manipulated...
April 20, 2018: Vision Research
Alexander Leube
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Vision Research
Dominique Lamy, Alon Zivony
Visual search is faster when the target and distractors features repeat than when they switch on successive trials, a phenomenon known as priming of pop-out (PoP). In previous work, we suggested that two mechanisms, each indexed by a repetition benefit and a switch cost underlie PoP: target activation and distractor inhibition. Consistent with this account, we reported strong correlations between the benefit and cost indexing each mechanism and concluded that there are stable individual differences on target-activation and distractor-inhibition processes...
April 17, 2018: Vision Research
Reo Zukoshi, Ilaria Savelli, Iñigo Novales Flamarique
Many vertebrates have cone photoreceptors that are most sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light termed UV cones. The ecological functions that these cones contribute to are seldom known though they are suspected of improving foraging and communication in a variety of fishes. In this study, we used several spectral backgrounds to assess the contribution of UV and violet cones, or long wavelength (L) cones, in the foraging performance of juvenile Cumaná guppy, Poecilia reticulata, or marine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus...
April 17, 2018: Vision Research
Matthew V Pachai, Patrick J Bennett, Allison B Sekuler
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that selective processing of structure conveyed by horizontally oriented spatial frequency components is associated with upright face discrimination accuracy and the magnitude of the face inversion effect. In this study, we examined whether the increase in discrimination accuracy for inverted faces that is known to result from practice would coincide with more selective processing of horizontal structure in inverted faces. To assess this hypothesis, our observers practiced discrimination of inverted faces for three training sessions and we measured accuracy, efficiency relative to an ideal observer, and horizontal selectivity before and after training...
April 17, 2018: Vision Research
Joseph W Houpt, Jennifer L Bittner
Ideal observer analysis is a fundamental tool used widely in vision science for analyzing the efficiency with which a cognitive or perceptual system uses available information. The performance of an ideal observer provides a formal measure of the amount of information in a given experiment. The ratio of human to ideal performance is then used to compute efficiency, a construct that can be directly compared across experimental conditions while controlling for the differences due to the stimuli and/or task specific demands...
April 17, 2018: Vision Research
Luyan Ji, Gilles Pourtois
We examined the processing capacity and the role of emotion variance in ensemble representation for multiple facial expressions shown concurrently. A standard set size manipulation was used, whereby the sets consisted of 4, 8, or 16 morphed faces each uniquely varying along a happy-angry continuum (Experiment 1) or a neutral-happy/angry continuum (Experiments 2 & 3). Across the three experiments, we reduced the amount of emotion variance in the sets to explore the boundaries of this process. Participants judged the perceived average emotion from each set on a continuous scale...
April 13, 2018: Vision Research
Alexander H Ward, Thomas T Norton, Carrie E Huisingh, Timothy J Gawne
During postnatal refractive development, an emmetropization mechanism uses refractive error to modulate the growth rate of the eye. Hyperopia (image focused behind the retina) produces what has been described as "GO" signaling that increases growth. Myopia (image focused in front of the retina) produces "STOP" signaling that slows growth. The interaction between GO and STOP conditions is non-linear; brief daily exposure to STOP counteracts long periods of GO. In young tree shrews, long-wavelength (red) light, presented 14 h per day, also appears to produce STOP signals...
April 12, 2018: Vision Research
Zhe Wang, Paul C Quinn, Haiyang Jin, Yu-Hao P Sun, James W Tanaka, Olivier Pascalis, Kang Lee
Using a composite-face paradigm, we examined the holistic processing induced by Asian faces, Caucasian faces, and monkey faces with human Asian participants in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the upper halves of two faces successively presented were the same or different. A composite-face effect was found for Asian faces and Caucasian faces, but not for monkey faces. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to judge whether the lower halves of the two faces successively presented were the same or different...
April 10, 2018: Vision Research
Christoph Witzel, Karl R Gegenfurtner
This study investigated categorical perception for unique hues in order to establish a relationship between color appearance, color discrimination, and low-level (second-stage) mechanisms. We tested whether pure red, yellow, green, and blue (unique hues) coincide with troughs, and their transitions (binary hues) with peaks of sensitivity in DKL-space. Results partially confirmed this idea: JNDs demarcated perceptual categories at the binary hues around green, blue and less clearly around yellow, when colors were isoluminant with the background and when accounting for the overall variation of sensitivity by fitting an ellipse...
April 10, 2018: Vision Research
Xuyan Yun, Simon J Hazenberg, Rob van Lier
We studied the influence of knowledge in the interpretation of partly occluded objects. In the past decades, amodal completion has often been studied by using abstract, meaningless outlines of rather stylistic, geometric shapes. It has been recognized that smooth continuation of partly occluded contours behind an occluding surface is a strong completion tendency. In the current study we contrast this structurally driven completion tendency with knowledge driven tendencies. We used a set of partly occluded well-known objects for which structure-based completions and knowledge-based completions resulted in either the same or different interpretations...
April 2, 2018: Vision Research
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