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Vision Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736224/dichoptic-training-in-adults-with-amblyopia-additional-stereoacuity-gains-over-monocular-training
#1
Xiang-Yun Liu, Jun-Yun Zhang
Dichoptic training is a recent focus of research on perceptual learning in adults with amblyopia, but whether and how dichoptic training is superior to traditional monocular training is unclear. Here we investigated whether dichoptic training could further boost visual acuity and stereoacuity in monocularly well-trained adult amblyopic participants. During dichoptic training the participants used the amblyopic eye to practice a contrast discrimination task, while a band-filtered noise masker was simultaneously presented in the non-amblyopic eye...
July 20, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709920/visual-discomfort-and-flicker
#2
Sanae Yoshimoto, Jesel Garcia, Fang Jiang, Arnold J Wilkins, Tatsuto Takeuchi, Michael A Webster
Flickering lights can be uncomfortable to look at and can induce seizures in observers with photosensitive epilepsy. However, the temporal characteristics contributing to these effects are not fully known. In the spatial domain, one identified source of visual discomfort is when images have Fourier amplitude spectra that deviate from the natural (∼1/frequency, 1/f) statistical characteristics of natural scenes, especially if they contain excess energy at the medium frequencies at which the visual system is most sensitive...
July 20, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687325/velocity-perception-in-a-moving-observer
#3
Hinze Hogendoorn, David Alais, Hamish MacDougall, Frans A J Verstraten
Previous research has shown that when a moving stimulus is presented to a moving observer, the perceived speed of the stimulus is affected by vestibular self-motion signals (Hogendoorn, Verstraten, MacDougall, & Alais, 2017. Vision Research 130, 22-30.). This interaction was interpreted as a weighted sum of visual and vestibular motion signals. This interpretation also predicts effects of vestibular self-motion signals on perceived speed. Here, we test this prediction in two experiments. In Experiment 1, moving observers carried out a visual speed discrimination task in order to establish points of subjective equality (PSE) between stimuli presented in the same or opposite direction of self-motion...
July 20, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734871/the-role-of-temporal-contrast-and-blue-light-in-emmetropization
#4
Frances Rucker, Mark Henriksen, Tiffany Yanase, Christopher Taylor
A previous experiment showed that blue light (as a component of white light) protected against low temporal frequency dependent eye growth. This experiment investigated the role of temporal contrast. White leghorn chicks were exposed to white (with blue) or yellow (without blue) LED lighting modulated at either low (0.2 Hz) or high (10 Hz) temporal frequencies. Four cone contrast conditions were used: low (16%), medium (32%), medium-high (60%) and very-high (80%). Chicks were exposed to the lighting condition for 3 days (mean 680 lux)...
July 19, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709924/training-peripheral-vision-to-read-boosting-the-speed-of-letter-processing
#5
Deyue Yu, Gordon E Legge, Gunther Wagoner, Susana T L Chung
Central-field loss necessitates the use of peripheral vision which makes reading slow and difficult. Slower temporal processing of letter recognition has been shown to be a limiting factor in peripheral letter recognition and reading. Previous studies showed that perceptual learning can increase the number of letters recognized on each fixation and is accompanied by an increase in reading speed. We hypothesized that improvement in temporal processing speed underlies the observed training effects. Here, we proposed an adaptive training procedure to focus on boosting the speed of letter recognition, and investigated whether peripheral reading would be enhanced by this training method...
July 19, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709923/the-spatial-structure-of-cone-opponent-receptive-fields-in-macaque-retina
#6
Barry B Lee, Bonnie Cooper, Dingcai Cao
The receptive field structure of long (L) to middle (M) wavelength (L/M) cone-opponent ganglion cells of the parafoveal macaque retina was investigated using drifting gratings. Gratings were luminance, chromatic or selective for the L- or M-cones. Based on these spatial tuning curves, receptive field profiles for the individual cones were derived. Receptive field profiles were coarse compared to single cones, and often could not be described by a simple Gaussian, having shallower flanks. There was a continuum of spatial properties, which blurred any systematic distinction between Type I and Type II receptive fields...
July 19, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705690/color-weight-photometry
#7
Jan Koenderink, Andrea van Doorn, Karl Gegenfurtner
We study the "color weight" for a number of rather different paradigms. In well researched heterochromatic photometry methods we find that the "weights" determined by settings of naive observers are closely determined by the CIE luminance functional. This is very different for tasks that involve mid- and high-level aspects of perception. In several cases we find equipollence for the display red, green and blue channels. Moreover, in such cases the very nonlinear maximum-rule fits the data rather better than a linear functional...
July 19, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688905/long-term-motor-learning-effects-of-varied-and-specific-practice
#8
Chéla R Willey, Zili Liu
According to the schema theory, variability during practice allows for a larger repertoire of movements to help form a generalized motor program for similar motor skills. Varied training is thought to enhance long-term retention of the motor program due to the heightened difficulty presented. In a highly cited study on this topic, Kerr and Booth (Perceptual and Motor Skills 46 (1978), 395-401) trained two groups of children for 10weeks to throw a beanbag towards either one central target (specific group) or two targets that were ±1 foot away from the central target (varied group)...
July 19, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733049/the-time-course-of-attention-modulation-elicited-by-spatial-uncertainty
#9
Dan Huang, Huilou Liang, Linyan Xue, Meijian Wang, Qiyi Hu, Yao Chen
Uncertainty regarding the target location is an influential factor for spatial attention. Modulation in spatial uncertainty can lead to adjustments in attention scope and variations in attention effects. Hence, investigating spatial uncertainty modulation is important for understanding the underlying mechanism of spatial attention. However, the temporal dynamics of this modulation remains unclear. To evaluate the time course of spatial uncertainty modulation, we adopted a Posner-like attention orienting paradigm with central or peripheral cues...
July 18, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709922/pre-and-post-saccadic-stimulus-timing-in-saccadic-suppression-of-displacement-a-computational-model
#10
Arnold Ziesche, Julia Bergelt, Heiner Deubel, Fred H Hamker
When the target of a saccadic eye movement is displaced while the eyes move this displacement is often not noticed (saccadic suppression of displacement, SSD). We present a neurobiologically motivated, computational model of SSD and compare its simulation results to experimental data. The model offers a simple explanation of the effects of pre- and post-saccadic stimulus blanking on SSD in terms of peri-saccadic network dynamics. Under normal peri-saccadic conditions pre-and post-saccadic stimulus traces are recurrently integrated with reference to present and future eye position, whereas blanking diminishes the pre-saccadic stimulus trace and thus leads to an uninfluenced integration of the post-saccadic stimulus trace...
July 18, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438679/a-proposal-for-early-and-personalized-treatment-of-diabetic-retinopathy-based-on-clinical-pathophysiology-and-molecular-phenotyping
#11
Thomas W Gardner, Jeffrey M Sundstrom
This paper presents a new approach to the prevention and treatment of early stage diabetic retinopathy before vision is severely impaired. This approach includes two major steps. The first step is to understand the mechanisms of vision impairment and classify diabetic retinopathy on the basis of pathophysiologic adaptations, rather than on the presence of advanced pathologic lesions, as defined by current clinical practice conventions. The second step is to develop patient-specific molecular diagnoses of diabetic retinopathy so that patients can be treated based on their individual characteristics, a process analogous to the individualized diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients...
July 17, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716520/modeling-color-preference-using-color-space-metrics
#12
Karen B Schloss, Laurent Lessard, Chris Racey, Anya C Hurlbert
Studying color preferences provides a means to discover how perceptual experiences map onto cognitive and affective judgments. A challenge is finding a parsimonious way to describe and predict patterns of color preferences, which are complex with rich individual differences. One approach has been to model color preferences using factors from metric color spaces to establish direct correspondences between dimensions of color and preference. Prior work established that substantial, but not all, variance in color preferences could be captured by weights on color space dimensions using multiple linear regression...
July 14, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688907/face-identity-recognition-in-simulated-prosthetic-vision-is-poorer-than-previously-reported-and-can-be-improved-by-caricaturing
#13
Jessica L Irons, Tamara Gradden, Angel Zhang, Xuming He, Nick Barnes, Adele F Scott, Elinor McKone
The visual prosthesis (or "bionic eye") has become a reality but provides a low resolution view of the world. Simulating prosthetic vision in normal-vision observers, previous studies report good face recognition ability using tasks that allow recognition to be achieved on the basis of information that survives low resolution well, including basic category (sex, age) and extra-face information (hairstyle, glasses). Here, we test within-category individuation for face-only information (e.g., distinguishing between multiple Caucasian young men with hair covered)...
July 14, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687327/masking-of-random-walk-motion-by-flicker-and-its-role-in-the-allocation-of-motion-in-the-on-line-jitter-illusion
#14
Adela S Y Park, Phillip A Bedggood, Andrew B Metha, Andrew J Anderson
Typically, perceptual stabilization mechanisms make us unaware of the retinal image motion produced by the small, involuntary eye movements our eyes constantly make during fixation. The breakdown of perceptual stability is demonstrated by the on-line jitter illusion, in which a circular static pattern appears to jitter coherently when surrounded by a flickering annular pattern. Although both regions of the stimulus are subject to retinal motion from eye movements, the visual system attributes this motion to the central static region in the form of visual jitter, while the surrounding flickering region remains perceptually stable...
July 13, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687326/cellular-origin-of-intrinsic-optical-signals-in-the-rabbit-retina
#15
A Naderian, L Bussières, S Thomas, F Lesage, C Casanova
Optical imaging of retinal intrinsic signals is a relatively new method that provides spatiotemporal patterns of retinal activity through activity-dependent changes in light reflectance of the retina. The exact physiological mechanisms at the origin of retinal intrinsic signals are poorly understood and there are significant inter-species differences in their characteristics and cellular origins. In this study, we re-examined this issue through pharmacological dissection of retinal intrinsic signals in the rabbit with simultaneous ERG recordings...
July 13, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688904/contributions-of-individual-face-features-to-face-discrimination
#16
Andrew J Logan, Gael E Gordon, Gunter Loffler
Faces are highly complex stimuli that contain a host of information. Such complexity poses the following questions: (a) do observers exhibit preferences for specific information? (b) how does sensitivity to individual face parts compare? These questions were addressed by quantifying sensitivity to different face features. Discrimination thresholds were determined for synthetic faces under the following conditions: (i) 'full face': all face features visible; (ii) 'isolated feature': single feature presented in isolation; (iii) 'embedded feature': all features visible, but only one feature modified...
July 12, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709921/effects-of-pattern-masks-on-the-formation-of-perceptual-grouping
#17
Daniel D Kurylo, Farhan Bukhari
Mechanisms underlying perceptual grouping serve to bind stimulus components that are contained within grouped patterns. In order to examine the time course of grouping development, grids of spatially isolated dots were followed by pattern masks across a range of SOA. Subjects indicated the predominant perceived grouping of the dot patterns. Masks either spatially superimposed target elements (element mask), or superimposed elements as well as paths among elements (connection mask). Element masks thereby disrupted processing of target elements, while connection masks additionally disrupted representations in regions among elements...
July 11, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688906/effects-of-photopic-and-cirtopic-illumination-on-steady-state-pupil-sizes
#18
Feng Rao, A H S Chan, Xi-Fang Zhu
The conventional view was that cones are responsible for pupil constriction in photopic lighting conditions. With the discovery of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC), it was found that signals from ipRGCs along with cones mediated the pupil light reflex in photopic lighting conditions. Although both signals contributed, it was unclear how these signals were summed. In the work reported here, steady-state pupil size was measured with an infrared camera under LED lighting conditions with different color temperatures and luminance...
July 11, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549921/two-representations-of-a-high-dimensional-perceptual-space
#19
Jonathan D Victor, Syed M Rizvi, Mary M Conte
A perceptual space is a mental workspace of points in a sensory domain that supports similarity and difference judgments and enables further processing such as classification and naming. Perceptual spaces are present across sensory modalities; examples include colors, faces, auditory textures, and odors. Color is perhaps the best-studied perceptual space, but it is atypical in two respects. First, the dimensions of color space are directly linked to the three cone absorption spectra, but the dimensions of generic perceptual spaces are not as readily traceable to single-neuron properties...
July 11, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700951/diabetic-retinopathy-metabolic-memory-and-epigenetic-modifications
#20
Renu A Kowluru
Retinopathy, a sight-threatening disease, remains one of the most feared complications of diabetes. Although hyperglycemia is the main initiator progression of diabetic retinopathy continues even after re-institution of normal glycemic control in diabetic patients, and the deleterious effects of prior hyperglycemic insult depend on the duration and the severity of this insult, suggesting a 'metabolic memory' phenomenon. Metabolic memory phenomenon is successfully duplicated in the experimental models of diabetic retinopathy...
July 9, 2017: Vision Research
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