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Vision Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414023/effect-of-spatial-and-temporal-stimulus-parameters-on-the-maturation-of-global-motion-perception
#1
Kimberly Meier, Deborah Giaschi
There are discrepancies with respect to the age at which adult-like performance is reached on tasks assessing global motion perception. This is in part because performance in children depends on stimulus parameters. We recently showed that five-year-olds demonstrated adult-like performance over a range of speeds when the speed ratio was comprised of longer spatial and temporal displacements; but displayed immature performance when the speed ratio was comprised of shorter displacements. The goal of the current study was to assess the effect of these global motion stimulus parameters across a broader age range in order to estimate the age at which mature performance is reached...
April 25, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438680/time-course-influences-transfer-of-visual-perceptual-learning-across-spatial-location
#2
S J Larcombe, C Kennard, H Bridge
Visual perceptual learning describes the improvement of visual perception with repeated practice. Previous research has established that the learning effects of perceptual training may be transferable to untrained stimulus attributes such as spatial location under certain circumstances. However, the mechanisms involved in transfer have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of altering training time course on the transferability of learning effects. Participants were trained on a motion direction discrimination task or a sinusoidal grating orientation discrimination task in a single visual hemifield...
April 21, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438679/a-proposal-for-early-and-personalized-treatment-of-diabetic-retinopathy-based-on-clinical-pathophysiology-and-molecular-phenotyping
#3
Thomas W Gardner, Jeffrey M Sundstrom
This paper presents a new approach to the prevention and treatment of early stage diabetic retinopathy before vision is severely impaired. This approach includes two major steps. The first step is to understand the mechanisms of vision impairment and classify diabetic retinopathy on the basis of pathophysiologic adaptations, rather than on the presence of advanced pathologic lesions, as defined by current clinical practice conventions. The second step is to develop patient-specific molecular diagnoses of diabetic retinopathy so that patients can be treated based on their individual characteristics, a process analogous to the individualized diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients...
April 21, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438678/do-photoreceptor-cells-cause-the-development-of-retinal-vascular-disease
#4
Timothy S Kern
The retinal vasculature is affected in a number of clinically important retinopathies, including diabetic retinopathy. There has been a considerable amount of research into the pathogenesis of retinal microvascular diseases, but the potential contribution of the most abundant cell population in the retina, photoreceptor cells, has been largely overlooked. This review summarizes ongoing research suggesting that photoreceptor cells play a critical role in the development of retinal vascular disease in diabetic retinopathy and other retinopathies...
April 21, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435124/action-recognition-is-viewpoint-dependent-in-the-visual-periphery
#5
Laura Fademrecht, Isabelle Bülthoff, Stephan de la Rosa
Recognizing actions of others across the whole visual field is required for social interactions. In a previous study, we have shown that recognition is very good even when life size avatars who were facing the observer carried out actions (e.g. waving) were presented very far away from the fovea (Fademrecht, Bülthoff, & de la Rosa, 2016). We explored the possibility whether this remarkable performance was owed to life size avatars facing the observer, which - according to some social cognitive theories (e...
April 20, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435123/is-having-similar-eye-movement-patterns-during-face-learning-and-recognition-beneficial-for-recognition-performance-evidence-from-hidden-markov-modeling
#6
Tim Chuk, Antoni B Chan, Janet Hsiao
The hidden Markov model (HMM)-based approach for eye movement analysis is able to reflect individual differences in both spatial and temporal aspects of eye movements. Here we used this approach to understand the relationship between eye movements during face learning and recognition, and its association with recognition performance. We discovered holistic (i.e., mainly looking at the face center) and analytic (i.e., specifically looking at the two eyes in addition to the face center) patterns during both learning and recognition...
April 20, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435122/global-motion-perception-is-related-to-motor-function-in-4-5-year-old-children-born-at-risk-of-abnormal-development
#7
Arijit Chakraborty, Nicola S Anstice, Robert J Jacobs, Nabin Paudel, Linda L LaGasse, Barry M Lester, Christopher J D McKinlay, Jane E Harding, Trecia A Wouldes, Benjamin Thompson
Global motion perception is often used as an index of dorsal visual stream function in neurodevelopmental studies. However, the relationship between global motion perception and visuomotor control, a primary function of the dorsal stream, is unclear. We measured global motion perception (motion coherence threshold; MCT) and performance on standardized measures of motor function in 606 4.5-year-old children born at risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. Visual acuity, stereoacuity and verbal IQ were also assessed...
April 20, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433754/mir-146a-suppresses-stat3-vegf-pathways-and-reduces-apoptosis-through-il-6-signaling-in-primary-human-retinal-microvascular-endothelial-cells-in-high-glucose-conditions
#8
Eun-Ah Ye, Jena J Steinle
microRNA (miRNA) play critical roles in the pathological processes of diabetic retinopathy, including inflammatory responses, insulin signaling, and angiogenesis. In addition to their regulatory functions on gene expression, miRNA is considered as a potential therapeutic target, as well as a diagnostic marker for many diseases. Our understanding on the pathological mechanisms underlying diabetic retinopathy is still incomplete and additional investigations are required to develop novel therapeutic strategies...
April 19, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433753/computational-image-analysis-for-prognosis-determination-in-dme
#9
Bianca S Gerendas, Hrvoje Bogunovic, Amir Sadeghipour, Thomas Schlegl, Georg Langs, Sebastian M Waldstein, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth
In this pilot study, we evaluated the potential of computational image analysis of optical coherence tomography (OCT) data to determine the prognosis of patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Spectral-domain OCT scans with fully automated retinal layer segmentation and segmentation of intraretinal cystoid fluid (IRC) and subretinal fluid of 629 patients receiving anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for DME in a randomized prospective clinical trial were analyzed. The results were used to define 312 potentially predictive features at three timepoints (baseline, weeks 12 and 24) for best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at baseline and after one year used in a random forest prediction path...
April 19, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431867/whole-exome-sequencing-identification-of-novel-candidate-genes-in-patients-with-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#10
Cindy Ung, Angie V Sanchez, Lishuang Shen, Samaneh Davoudi, Tina Ahmadi, Daniel Navarro-Gomez, Ching J Chen, Heather Hancock, Alan Penman, Suzanne Hoadley, Mark Consugar, Carlos Restrepo, Vinay A Shah, Joseph F Arboleda-Velasquez, Lucia Sobrin, Xiaowu Gai, Leo A Kim
Rare or novel gene variants in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy may contribute to disease development. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on patients at the phenotypic extremes of diabetic retinal complications: 57 patients diagnosed with proliferativediabetic retinopathy (PDR) as cases and 13 patients with no diabetic retinopathy despite at least 10 years of type 2 diabetes as controls. Thirty-one out of the 57 cases and all 13 controls were from the African American Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Study (AA)...
April 18, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404522/observations-on-the-relationship-between-anisometropia-amblyopia-and-strabismus
#11
Earl L Smith, Li-Fang Hung, Baskar Arumugam, Janice M Wensveen, Yuzo M Chino, Ronald S Harwerth
We investigated the potential causal relationships between anisometropia, amblyopia and strabismus, specifically to determine whether either amblyopia or strabismus interfered with emmetropization. We analyzed data from non-human primates that were relevant to the co-existence of anisometropia, amblyopia and strabismus in children. We relied on interocular comparisons of spatial vision and refractive development in animals reared with 1) monocular form deprivation; 2) anisometropia optically imposed by either contact lenses or spectacle lenses; 3) organic amblyopia produced by laser ablation of the fovea; and 4) strabismus that was either optically imposed with prisms or produced by either surgical or pharmacological manipulation of the extraocular muscles...
April 18, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427892/contour-adaptation-reduces-the-spreading-of-edge-induced-colors
#12
Andrew J Coia, Michael A Crognale
Brief exposure to flickering achromatic outlines of an area causes a reduction in the brightness contrast of the surface inside the area. This contour adaptation to achromatic contours does not reduce surface contrast when the surface is chromatic (the saturation or colorimetric purity of the surface is maintained). In addition to reducing the brightness of physical luminance contrast, contour adaptation also reduces (or even reverses) the illusory brightness contrast seen in the Craik-O'Brien-Cornsweet illusion, in which two physically identical grey areas appear different brightness because of a sharp luminance edge separating them...
April 17, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427891/local-global-processing-bias-is-not-a-unitary-individual-difference-in-visual-processing
#13
Rebecca Chamberlain, Ruth Van der Hallen, Hanne Huygelier, Sander Van de Cruys, Johan Wagemans
A large body of research reports individual differences in local and global visual processing in relation to expertise, culture and psychopathology. However, recent research has suggested that various different measures of local-global processing are not strongly associated with one another, calling its construct validity into question. The current study sought to further explore the validity of local-global processing biases in perception by developing three tasks based on two existing paradigms: the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) and the Navon hierarchical letters task...
April 17, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427890/attentive-pointing-in-natural-scenes-correlates-with-other-measures-of-attention
#14
Daniel M Jeck, Michael Qin, Howard Egeth, Ernst Niebur
Finger pointing is a natural human behavior frequently used to draw attention to specific parts of sensory input. Since this pointing behavior is likely preceded and/or accompanied by the deployment of attention by the pointing person, we hypothesize that pointing can be used as a natural means of providing self-reports of attention and, in the case of visual input, visual salience. We here introduce a new method for assessing attentional choice by asking subjects to point to and tap the first place they look at on an image appearing on an electronic tablet screen...
April 17, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412095/the-pathology-associated-with-diabetic-retinopathy
#15
Judith Lechner, Olivia E O'Leary, Alan W Stitt
This review summarizes the pathological features of diabetic retinopathy. The lesions occurring in the diabetic retina have been described over many decades using descriptive and experimental approaches based on clinical studies on patients, human post-mortem material, animal models and various in vitro systems. We have also accumulated a wealth of knowledge about basic molecular mechanisms and key pathogenic processes that drive these abnormalities in diabetic retina. Despite these advances, there are still limited therapeutic options for diabetic retinopathy with those currently available only addressing late-stage disease...
April 12, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404520/nothing-more-than-a-pair-of-curvatures-a-common-mechanism-for-the-detection-of-both-radial-and-non-radial-frequency-patterns
#16
Gunnar Schmidtmann, Frederick A A Kingdom
Radial frequency (RF) patterns, which are sinusoidal modulations of a radius in polar coordinates, are commonly used to study shape perception. Previous studies have argued that the detection of RF patterns is either achieved globally by a specialized global shape mechanism, or locally using as cue the maximum tangent orientation difference between the RF pattern and the circle. Here we challenge both ideas and suggest instead a model that accounts not only for the detection of RF patterns but also for line frequency patterns (LF), i...
April 12, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373058/individual-differences-in-human-eye-movements-an-oculomotor-signature
#17
Gary Bargary, Jenny M Bosten, Patrick T Goodbourn, Adam J Lawrance-Owen, Ruth E Hogg, J D Mollon
Human eye movements are stereotyped and repeatable, but how specific to a normal individual are the quantitative properties of his or her eye movements? We recorded saccades, anti-saccades and smooth-pursuit eye movements in a sample of over 1000 healthy young adults. A randomly selected subsample (10%) of participants were re-tested on a second occasion after a median interval of 18.8days, allowing us to estimate reliabilities. Each of several derived measures, including latencies, accuracies, velocities, and left-right asymmetries, proved to be very reliable...
April 12, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408138/diabetic-retinopathy-is-a-neurodegenerative-disorder
#18
Stephanie K Lynch, Michael D Abràmoff
Since 1875, controversy has ensued over whether ocular diabetic complications are primarily vasculopathic or neuropathic in nature. Here, we discuss the historical context by which diabetic retinopathy (DR) came to be considered a primary vasculopathy, in contrast to more recent data suggesting the importance of diabetic retinal neurodegeneration (DRN) as the primary manifestation of ocular diabetic damage. Unsurprisingly, DRN parallels other diabetic complications related to neuropathy. In general, there are three possible relationships between microvascular DR and DRN: i) microvasculopathy causes neurodegeneration; ii) neurodegeneration causes microvasculopathy or iii) they are mutually independent...
April 10, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404521/diabetic-complications-in-the-cornea
#19
Alexander V Ljubimov
Diabetic corneal alterations, such as delayed epithelial wound healing, edema, recurrent erosions, neuropathy/loss of sensitivity, and tear film changes are frequent but underdiagnosed complications of both type 1 (insulin-dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. The disease affects corneal epithelium, corneal nerves, tear film, and to a lesser extent, endothelium, and also conjunctiva. These abnormalities may appear or become exacerbated following trauma, as well as various surgeries including retinal, cataract or refractive...
April 9, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365376/in-search-of-oculomotor-capture-during-film-viewing-implications-for-the-balance-of-top-down-and-bottom-up-control-in-the-saccadic-system
#20
Stephen J Hinde, Tim J Smith, Iain D Gilchrist
In the laboratory, the abrupt onset of a visual distractor can generate an involuntary orienting response: this robust oculomotor capture effect has been reported in a large number of studies (e.g. Ludwig & Gilchrist, 2002; Theeuwes, Kramer, Hahn, & Irwin, 1998) suggesting it may be a ubiquitous part of more natural visual behaviour. However the visual stimuli used in these experiments have tended to be static and had none of the complexity, and dynamism of more natural visual environments. In addition, the primary task in the laboratory (typically visual search) can be tedious for the participants with participant's losing interest and becoming stimulus driven and more easily distracted...
April 6, 2017: Vision Research
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