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Vision Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549921/two-representations-of-a-high-dimensional-perceptual-space
#1
Jonathan D Victor, Syed M Rizvi, Mary M Conte
A perceptual space is a mental workspace of points in a sensory domain that supports similarity and difference judgments and enables further processing such as classification and naming. Perceptual spaces are present across sensory modalities; examples include colors, faces, auditory textures, and odors. Color is perhaps the best-studied perceptual space, but it is atypical in two respects. First, the dimensions of color space are directly linked to the three cone absorption spectra, but the dimensions of generic perceptual spaces are not as readily traceable to single-neuron properties...
May 23, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545983/feedback-from-higher-to-lower-visual-areas-for-visual-recognition-may-be-weaker-in-the-periphery-glimpses-from-the-perception-of-brief-dichoptic-stimuli
#2
Li Zhaoping
Eye movements bring attended visual inputs to the center of vision for further processing. Thus, central and peripheral vision should have different functional roles. Here, we use observations of visual perception under dichoptic stimuli to infer that there is a difference in the top-down feedback from higher brain centers to primary visual cortex. Visual stimuli to the two eyes were designed such that the sum and difference of the binocular input from the two eyes have the form of two different gratings. These gratings differed in their motion direction, tilt direction, or color, and duly evoked ambiguous percepts for the corresponding feature...
May 22, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545982/canonical-wnt-signaling-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#3
Qian Chen, Jian-Xing Ma
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common eye complication of diabetes, and the pathogenic mechanism of DR is still under investigation. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays fundamental roles in embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Wnt signaling regulates expression of multiple genes that control retinal development and eye organogenesis, and dysregulated Wnt signaling plays pathophysiological roles in many ocular diseases, including DR. This review highlights recent progress in studies of Wnt signaling in DR...
May 22, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545981/the-role-of-dyslipidemia-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#4
Sandra S Hammer, Julia V Busik
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects over 93 million people worldwide and is the number one cause of blindness among working age adults. These indicators coupled with the projected rise of patients diagnosed with diabetes, makes DR a serious and prevalent vision threating disease. Data from recent clinical trials demonstrate that in addition to the well accepted role of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia is an important, but often overlooked factor in the development of DR. The central aim of this review article is to showcase the critical role of dyslipidemia in DR progression as well as highlight novel therapeutic solutions that take advantage of the vital roles lipid metabolism plays in DR progression...
May 22, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539261/g-protein-coupled-receptor-91-signaling-in-diabetic-retinopathy-and-hypoxic-retinal-diseases
#5
Jianyan Hu, Tingting Li, Xinhua Du, Qiang Wu, Yun-Zheng Le
G protein-coupled receptor 91 (GPR91) is a succinate-specific receptor and activation of GPR91 could initiate a complex signal transduction cascade and upregulate inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokines. In the retina, GPR91 is predominately expressed in ganglion cells, a major cellular entity involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and other hypoxic retinal diseases. During the development of DR and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), chronic hypoxia causes an increase in the levels of local succinate...
May 21, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535994/diabetic-choroidopathy
#6
Gerard A Lutty
Early histopathological studies of diabetic choroids demonstrated loss of choriocapillaris (CC), tortuous blood vessels, microaneurysms, drusenoid deposits on Bruchs membrane, and choroidal neovascularization. The preponderance of histopathological changes were at and beyond equator. Studies from my lab suggest that diabetic choroidopathy is an inflammatory disease in that leukocyte adhesion molecules are elevated in the choroidal vasculature and polymorphonuclear neutrophils are often associated with sites of vascular loss...
May 20, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502775/on-the-functional-order-of-binocular-rivalry-and-blind-spot-filling-in
#7
Cheng S Qian, Jan W Brascamp, Taosheng Liu
Binocular rivalry is an important phenomenon for understanding the mechanisms of visual awareness. Here we assessed the functional locus of binocular rivalry relative to blind spot filling-in, which is thought to transpire in V1, thus providing a reference point for assessing the locus of rivalry. We conducted two experiments to explore the functional order of binocular rivalry and blind spot filling-in. Experiment 1 examined if the information filled-in at the blind spot can engage in rivalry with a physical stimulus at the corresponding location in the fellow eye...
May 19, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456533/paradoxical-perception-of-object-identity-in-visual-motion
#8
Aleksandra Zharikova, Sergei Gepshtein, Cees van Leeuwen
In the course of perceptual organization, incomplete optical stimulation can evoke the experience of complete objects with distinct perceptual identities. According to a well-known principle of perceptual organization, stimulus parts separated by shorter spatial distances are more likely to appear as parts of the same perceptual identity. Whereas this principle of proximity has been confirmed in many studies of perceptual grouping in static displays, we show that it does not generalize to perception of object identity in dynamic displays, where the parts are separated by spatial and temporal distances...
May 12, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427890/attentive-pointing-in-natural-scenes-correlates-with-other-measures-of-attention
#9
Daniel M Jeck, Michael Qin, Howard Egeth, Ernst Niebur
Finger pointing is a natural human behavior frequently used to draw attention to specific parts of sensory input. Since this pointing behavior is likely preceded and/or accompanied by the deployment of attention by the pointing person, we hypothesize that pointing can be used as a natural means of providing self-reports of attention and, in the case of visual input, visual salience. We here introduce a new method for assessing attentional choice by asking subjects to point to and tap the first place they look at on an image appearing on an electronic tablet screen...
May 8, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454895/sustained-attention-to-objects-motion-sharpens-position-representations-attention-to-changing-position-and-attention-to-motion-are-distinct
#10
Christina J Howard, Victoria Rollings, Amy Hardie
In tasks where people monitor moving objects, such the multiple object tracking task (MOT), observers attempt to keep track of targets as they move amongst distracters. The literature is mixed as to whether observers make use of motion information to facilitate performance. We sought to address this by two means: first by superimposing arrows on objects which varied in their informativeness about motion direction and second by asking observers to attend to motion direction. Using a position monitoring task, we calculated mean error magnitudes as a measure of the precision with which target positions are represented...
May 4, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159609/disentangling-the-mechanisms-underlying-infant-fixation-durations-in-scene-perception-a-computational-account
#11
Irati R Saez de Urabain, Antje Nuthmann, Mark H Johnson, Tim J Smith
The goal of this article is to investigate the unexplored mechanisms underlying the development of saccadic control in infancy by determining the generalizability and potential limitations of extending the CRISP theoretical framework and computational model of fixation durations (FDs) in adult scene-viewing to infants. The CRISP model was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms modulating FDs in 6-month-olds by applying the model to empirical eye-movement data gathered from groups of infants and adults during free-viewing of naturalistic and semi-naturalistic videos...
May 4, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450052/chromatic-blur-perception-in-the-presence-of-luminance-contrast
#12
Ben J Jennings, Frederick A A Kingdom
Hel-Or showed that blurring the chromatic but not the luminance layer of an image of a natural scene failed to elicit any impression of blur. Subsequent studies have suggested that this effect is due either to chromatic blur being masked by spatially contiguous luminance edges in the scene (Journal of Vision 13 (2013) 14), or to a relatively compressed transducer function for chromatic blur (Journal of Vision 15 (2015) 6). To test between the two explanations we conducted experiments using as stimuli both images of natural scenes as well as simple edges...
May 3, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438680/time-course-influences-transfer-of-visual-perceptual-learning-across-spatial-location
#13
S J Larcombe, C Kennard, H Bridge
Visual perceptual learning describes the improvement of visual perception with repeated practice. Previous research has established that the learning effects of perceptual training may be transferable to untrained stimulus attributes such as spatial location under certain circumstances. However, the mechanisms involved in transfer have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of altering training time course on the transferability of learning effects. Participants were trained on a motion direction discrimination task or a sinusoidal grating orientation discrimination task in a single visual hemifield...
May 3, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435122/global-motion-perception-is-related-to-motor-function-in-4-5-year-old-children-born-at-risk-of-abnormal-development
#14
Arijit Chakraborty, Nicola S Anstice, Robert J Jacobs, Nabin Paudel, Linda L LaGasse, Barry M Lester, Christopher J D McKinlay, Jane E Harding, Trecia A Wouldes, Benjamin Thompson
Global motion perception is often used as an index of dorsal visual stream function in neurodevelopmental studies. However, the relationship between global motion perception and visuomotor control, a primary function of the dorsal stream, is unclear. We measured global motion perception (motion coherence threshold; MCT) and performance on standardized measures of motor function in 606 4.5-year-old children born at risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. Visual acuity, stereoacuity and verbal IQ were also assessed...
April 28, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412095/the-pathology-associated-with-diabetic-retinopathy
#15
Judith Lechner, Olivia E O'Leary, Alan W Stitt
This review summarizes the pathological features of diabetic retinopathy. The lesions occurring in the diabetic retina have been described over many decades using descriptive and experimental approaches based on clinical studies on patients, human post-mortem material, animal models and various in vitro systems. We have also accumulated a wealth of knowledge about basic molecular mechanisms and key pathogenic processes that drive these abnormalities in diabetic retina. Despite these advances, there are still limited therapeutic options for diabetic retinopathy with those currently available only addressing late-stage disease...
April 28, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404521/diabetic-complications-in-the-cornea
#16
Alexander V Ljubimov
Diabetic corneal alterations, such as delayed epithelial wound healing, edema, recurrent erosions, neuropathy/loss of sensitivity, and tear film changes are frequent but underdiagnosed complications of both type 1 (insulin-dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. The disease affects corneal epithelium, corneal nerves, tear film, and to a lesser extent, endothelium, and also conjunctiva. These abnormalities may appear or become exacerbated following trauma, as well as various surgeries including retinal, cataract or refractive...
April 28, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408138/diabetic-retinopathy-is-a-neurodegenerative-disorder
#17
Stephanie K Lynch, Michael D Abràmoff
Since 1875, controversy has ensued over whether ocular diabetic complications are primarily vasculopathic or neuropathic in nature. Here, we discuss the historical context by which diabetic retinopathy (DR) came to be considered a primary vasculopathy, in contrast to more recent data suggesting the importance of diabetic retinal neurodegeneration (DRN) as the primary manifestation of ocular diabetic damage. Unsurprisingly, DRN parallels other diabetic complications related to neuropathy. In general, there are three possible relationships between microvascular DR and DRN: i) microvasculopathy causes neurodegeneration; ii) neurodegeneration causes microvasculopathy or iii) they are mutually independent...
April 27, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456532/an-ecological-framework-for-temporal-and-individual-differences-in-color-preferences
#18
Karen B Schloss, Stephen E Palmer
There are well-known and extensive differences in color preferences between individuals, but there are also within-individual differences from one time to another. Despite the seeming independence between these individual and temporal effects, we propose that they have the same underlying cause: people's ecological experiences with color-associated objects and events. Our approach is motivated by the Ecological Valence Theory (EVT; Palmer & Schloss, 2010) which states that preference for a given color is determined by the combined valence (liking/disliking) of all objects and events associated with that color...
April 26, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435124/action-recognition-is-viewpoint-dependent-in-the-visual-periphery
#19
Laura Fademrecht, Isabelle Bülthoff, Stephan de la Rosa
Recognizing actions of others across the whole visual field is required for social interactions. In a previous study, we have shown that recognition is very good even when life-size avatars who were facing the observer carried out actions (e.g. waving) and were presented very far away from the fovea (Fademrecht, Bülthoff, & de la Rosa, 2016). We explored the possibility whether this remarkable performance was owed to life-size avatars facing the observer, which - according to some social cognitive theories (e...
April 26, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433754/mir-146a-suppresses-stat3-vegf-pathways-and-reduces-apoptosis-through-il-6-signaling-in-primary-human-retinal-microvascular-endothelial-cells-in-high-glucose-conditions
#20
Eun-Ah Ye, Jena J Steinle
microRNA (miRNA) play critical roles in the pathological processes of diabetic retinopathy, including inflammatory responses, insulin signaling, and angiogenesis. In addition to their regulatory functions on gene expression, miRNA is considered as a potential therapeutic target, as well as a diagnostic marker for many diseases. Our understanding on the pathological mechanisms underlying diabetic retinopathy is still incomplete and additional investigations are required to develop novel therapeutic strategies...
April 26, 2017: Vision Research
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