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Vision Research

Takemasa Yokoyama, Ryosuke Kato, Kazuya Inoue, Yuji Takeda
The gaze of another modulates and shifts an observer's spatial attention toward this gaze direction. This phenomenon is termed joint attention. Although previous studies found joint attention was induced during a spatial working memory task, it remains an open question whether spatial working memory interferes with joint attention. To address this question, we conducted a dual task paradigm consisting of gaze cuing and spatial working memory tasks. The gaze cuing task requires that participants respond to the location of an abrupt onset of a target while ignoring the gaze of a facial image located at the center of the display...
November 8, 2018: Vision Research
David Berga, Xose R Fdez-Vidal, Xavier Otazu, Victor Leboran, Xose M Pardo
In this study we provide the analysis of eye movement behavior elicited by low-level feature distinctiveness with a dataset of synthetically-generated image patterns. Design of visual stimuli was inspired by the ones used in previous psychophysical experiments, namely in free-viewing and visual searching tasks, to provide a total of 15 types of stimuli, divided according to the task and feature to be analyzed. Our interest is to analyze the influences of low-level feature contrast between a salient region and the rest of distractors, providing fixation localization characteristics and reaction time of landing inside the salient region...
November 5, 2018: Vision Research
Andrea Albonico, Amanda Furubacke, Jason J S Barton, Ipek Oruc
Face and visual word recognition are two key forms of expert visual processing. In the domain of object recognition, it has been suggested that expert processing is characterized by the use of different mechanisms from the ones involved in general object recognition. It has been suggested that one traditional marker of expert processing is the inversion effect. To investigate whether face and word recognition differ from general object recognition, we compared the effect of inversion on the perceptual efficiency of face and visual word recognition as well as on the recognition of a third, non-expert object category, houses...
November 5, 2018: Vision Research
Susana T L Chung, Jean-Baptiste Bernard
Patients with central vision loss are often advised by low vision rehabilitation professionals to read bolder print to ameliorate their reading difficulties. Is boldface print really effective in improving reading performance for people with central vision loss? In this study, we evaluated how reading speed depends on the stroke-width of text in people with central vision loss. Ten participants with long-standing central vision loss read aloud single, short sentences presented on a computer monitor, one word at a time, using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP)...
November 5, 2018: Vision Research
Wladimir Kirsch, Bastian Heitling, Wilfried Kunde
Previous research has shown that the allocation of spatial attention at a small region of space increases the apparent size of the adjacent spatial area. In four experiments reported here, we systematically induced either small or large foci of attention and examined how this affects the perceived object's size. We observed that an increase in the size of the attentional focus consistently decreased the apparent object's size. This outcome provides new insights into how attention alters appearance.
November 2, 2018: Vision Research
Michael Slugocki, Allison B Sekuler, Patrick J Bennett
Sensitivity to changes in the shape of a closed-contour figure is affected by surrounding figures (Vision Research 44 (2004) 2815-2823). We examined how between-contour masking depends on radial frequency. Experiment 1 replicated previous studies that found that masking between adjacent radial frequency (RF) patterns was greatest when the two shapes were phase aligned, and that the magnitude of masking declined approximately linearly with increasing phase offsets. In addition, we found that the effect of phase offset on masking was very similar for RFs ranging from 3 to 8, a result that suggests that sensitivity to phase decreases with increasing radial frequency...
October 31, 2018: Vision Research
Yukai Zhao, Luis Lesmes, Zhong-Lin Lu
Perceptual sensitivity is usually estimated over trials and time intervals, which results in imprecise and biased estimates when it changes rapidly over time. We develop a novel procedure, the quick Change-Detection (qCD) method, to accurately, precisely, and efficiently assess the time course of perceptual sensitivity change. Based on Bayesian adaptive testing, qCD selects the optimal stimulus, and updates, trial by trial, a joint probability distribution of the parameters that quantify perceptual sensitivity change over time...
October 30, 2018: Vision Research
Rajkumar Nallour Raveendran, William Bobier, Benjamin Thompson
Amblyopia is associated with impaired visual acuity (VA) and reduced fixation stability (FS). To assess whether impaired VA may cause reduced FS, the effects of retinal-defocus-induced visual acuity reductions on FS were measured in observers with amblyopia and controls. Fixational eye movements were measured in 8 patients with amblyopia and 12 controls. Monocular near VA of a subset of controls (n=5) was then varied from 20/20 to 20/100 using convex lenses. The amblyopia group completed three monocular conditions; 1) amblyopic eye fixating, 2) fellow eye fixating and 3) fellow eye fixating with VA reduced to match the amblyopic eye...
October 30, 2018: Vision Research
Saki Takao, Colin W G Clifford, Katsumi Watanabe
A stimulus surrounded by smaller/larger stimuli appears larger/smaller (Ebbinghaus illusion). We examined whether the Ebbinghaus illusion would depend on the retinal or perceived size of the surrounding stimuli. The flash-lag effect, where a flashed stimulus perceptually lags moving stimuli, was used to dissociate the retinal from perceived size of the surrounding stimuli. Two sets of four surrounding disks changed their size smoothly: one with larger disks shrinking, the other with smaller disks expanding...
October 30, 2018: Vision Research
Daan R van Renswoude, Linda van den Berg, Maartje E J Raijmakers, Ingmar Visser
This study examines how salience and a center bias drive infants' first fixation while looking at complex scenes. Adults are known to have a strong center bias, their first point of gaze is nearly always in the center of the scene. The center bias is likely to be a strategic bias, as looking towards the center minimizes the distance to other parts of the scene and important objects are often located at the center. In an experimental design varying salience regions of scenes and start positions we examined infants' (N = 48, Age = 5 - 20-month-olds) first fixation after scene onset...
October 29, 2018: Vision Research
Emma E M Stewart, Alexander C Schütz
Saccadic eye movements alter the visual processing of objects of interest by bringing them from the periphery, where there is only low-resolution vision, to the high-resolution fovea. Evidence suggests that people are able to achieve trans-saccadic integration in a near-optimal manner; however the mechanisms underlying integration are still unclear. Visual working memory (VWM) is sustained across a saccade, and it has been suggested that this memory resource is used to store and compare the pre- and post- saccadic percepts...
October 24, 2018: Vision Research
Manuela Bossi, Lisa M Hamm, Annegret Dahlmann-Noor, Steven C Dakin
Clinicians rely heavily on stereoacuity to measure binocular visual function, but stereo-vision represents only one aspect of binocularity. Lab-based tests of sensory eye dominance (SED) are commonplace, but have not been translated to wider clinical practice. Here we compare several methods of quantifying SED in a format suitable for clinical use. We tested 30 participants with ostensibly normal vision on eight tests. Seven tests (#1-7) were designed to quantify SED in the form of an interocular balance-point (BP)...
October 22, 2018: Vision Research
Yang Xing, Zili Liu
The current study examined whether the 'slow and smooth' hypothesis (Hildreth, 1984; Yuille & Grzywacz, 1989; Weiss, Simoncelli, & Adelson, 2002) could be extended to explaining a three-dimensional (3D) stereokinetic percept by specifying the smoothness term as a preference for minimal deformation. Stereokinetic stimuli are two-dimensional (2D) configurations that lead to 3D percepts when rotated in the image plane. In particular, a rotating ellipse with an eccentric dot gives rise to the percept of a cone with a defined height...
October 21, 2018: Vision Research
Nicole A Sugden, Margaret C Moulson
Faces are a frequent part of young infants' visual environments. Three-month-old infants spend approximately 25% of their time exposed to faces (Sugden, Mohamed-Ali, & Moulson, 2014; Jayaraman, Fausey, & Smith, 2015). These faces belong primarily to familiar people, like their caregivers, and are heavily weighted towards female, adult-aged, and own-race faces. To date, descriptions of infants' exposure to faces have focused on frequency-both overall frequency and relative frequency of different face types (e...
October 20, 2018: Vision Research
Keziah Latham
The Reading Accessibility Index (ACC) has been proposed as a single-value reading parameter that can capture information on both reading speed and print sizes that can be read. It is defined as the average reading speed across a relevant range of print sizes (1.3-0.4logMAR), normalised by typical young-adult reading speed of 200 wpm, and with values typically in the range of 0-1. This study determines the impact of low vision aids (LVAs) on reading by evaluating ACC values for visually impaired observers reading both without and with an optical LVA...
October 17, 2018: Vision Research
William McIlhagga
Edge detection is widely believed to be an important early stage in human visual processing. However, there have been relatively few attempts to map human edge detection filters. In this study, observers had to locate a randomly placed step edge in brown noise (the integral of white noise) with a 1/f2 power spectrum. Their responses were modelled by assuming the probability the observer chose an edge location depended on the response of their own edge detection filter to that location. The observer's edge detection filter was then estimated by maximum likelihood methods...
October 10, 2018: Vision Research
Steven William Savage, Douglas D Potter, Benjamin W Tatler
Many aspects of our everyday behaviour require that we search for objects. However, in real situations search is often conducted while internal and external factors compete for our attention resources. Cognitive distraction interferes with our ability to search for targets, increasing search times. Here we consider whether effects of cognitive distraction interfere differentially with three distinct phases of search: initiating search, overtly scanning through items in the display, and verifying that the object is indeed the target of search once it has been fixated...
October 10, 2018: Vision Research
Francesco Masulli, Martina Galluccio, Christophe-Loïc Gerard, Hugo Peyre, Stefano Rovetta, Maria Pia Bucci
The aim of the present study was to explore the possible change in eye movement performance in a group of dyslexic and non-dyslexic children reading four lines of a text with different font sizes and spaces between the words. Fifteen dyslexic children from 7 to 12 years old and two groups of fifteen non-dyslexic children, respectively reading and chronological age-matched group, participated in this study. Horizontal eye movements from both eyes were recorded by a video-system (EyeBrain T2®) while the children were reading a text...
October 8, 2018: Vision Research
Leili Soo, Ramakrishna Chakravarthi, Søren K Andersen
Visual object recognition is essential for adaptive interactions with the environment. It is fundamentally limited by crowding, a breakdown of object recognition in clutter. The spatial extent over which crowding occurs is proportional to the eccentricity of the target object, but nevertheless varies substantially depending on various stimulus factors (e.g. viewing time, contrast). However, a lack of studies jointly manipulating such factors precludes predictions of crowding in more heterogeneous scenes, such as the majority of real life situations...
October 3, 2018: Vision Research
Krupa Philip, Padmaja R Sankaridurg, Jit B Ale, Thomas J Naduvilath, Paul Mitchell
Peripheral higher order aberrations (HOA) of 646 children at 30° temporal, nasal and inferior visual field were measured under cycloplegia (5 mm pupil diameter) using a commercially available Shack-Hartmann aberrometer in the Sydney Myopia Study [age, 12.7 ± 0.4 years (mean ± standard deviation)] and five years later in the Sydney Adolescent Vascular and Eye Study. At baseline, 176 eyes were emmetropic, 95 were myopic and 375 were hyperopic. Coma, 3rd order and RMS of coma increased with eccentricity for all eyes and no difference was observed for 4th order and RMS of C(4,0) among refractive error groups...
September 28, 2018: Vision Research
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