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Vision Research

Nicolas Davidenko, Alexander Ambard
Many image-level factors affect reading speed and comprehension, including the in-plane orientation of text. As words' angular deviation from upright increases, so do response times. Here we investigated whether these orientation effects in reading are based purely on an egocentric (retinal) reference frame, or whether there is also a contribution of the environmental reference frame. Participants completed a lexical decision task with six-letter, two-syllable words and nonwords presented at a wide range of angles, in increments of 22...
September 18, 2018: Vision Research
Leili Soo, Ramakrishna Chakravarthi, Søren K Andersen
Visual object recognition is essential for adaptive interactions with the environment. It is fundamentally limited by crowding, a breakdown of object recognition in clutter. The spatial extent over which crowding occurs is proportional to the eccentricity of the target object, but nevertheless varies substantially depending on various stimulus factors (e.g. viewing time, contrast). However, a lack of studies jointly manipulating such factors precludes predictions of crowding in more heterogeneous scenes, such as the majority of real life situations...
September 18, 2018: Vision Research
Nicolas Rothen, Anil K Seth, Jamie Ward
Empirical evidence suggests that synesthesia is associated with enhanced sensory processing. A separate body of empirical literature suggests that synesthesia is linked to a specific profile of enhanced episodic and working memory performance. However, whether sensory (iconic) memory performance is also affected by synesthesia remains unknown. Therefore, we tested 22 grapheme-color synesthetes and compared their performance in a partial-report paradigm with 22 individually matched non-synesthete controls. Participants were briefly presented with a circular-letter array and required to report the identity of the letter at a probed target location after various delays...
September 18, 2018: Vision Research
N Dupuis-Roy, S Faghel-Soubeyrand, F Gosselin
The most useful facial features for sex categorization are the eyes, the eyebrows, and the mouth. Dupuis-Roy et al. reported a large positive correlation between the use of the mouth region and rapid correct answers [Journal of Vision 9 (2009) 1-8]. Given the chromatic information in this region, they hypothesized that the extraction of chromatic and achromatic cues may have different time courses. Here, we tested this hypothesis directly: 110 participants categorized the sex of 300 face images whose chromatic and achromatic content was partially revealed through time (200 ms) and space using randomly located spatio-temporal Gaussian apertures (i...
September 17, 2018: Vision Research
Edwin J Burns, Jeremy Tree, Alice H D Chan, Hong Xu
It has recently been suggested that the other race effect (ORE), whereby own race faces are recognised better than those of other races, can be abolished by bilingualism.Bilingualism, however, is not a categorical variable but can vary dramatically in proficiency across the two languages. We therefore hypothesised that increasing bilingual proficiency should be associated with a diminishing ORE. To test this, we asked a group of bilingual Singaporean Chinese individuals to complete the Asian and Caucasian Cambridge Face Memory Tests...
September 8, 2018: Vision Research
Krupa Philip, Padmaja R Sankaridurg, Jit B Ale, Thomas J Naduvilath, Paul Mitchell
Peripheral higher order aberrations (HOA) of 646 children at 30° temporal, nasal and inferior visual field were measured under cycloplegia (5 mm pupil diameter) using a commercially available Shack-Hartmann aberrometer in the Sydney Myopia Study [age, 12.7 ± 0.4 years (mean ± standard deviation)] and five years later in the Sydney Adolescent Vascular and Eye Study. At baseline, 176 eyes were emmetropic, 95 were myopic and 375 were hyperopic. Coma, 3rd order and RMS of coma increased with eccentricity for all eyes and no difference was observed for 4th order and RMS of C(4,0) among refractive error groups...
September 7, 2018: Vision Research
Chloé Stoll, Richard Palluel-Germain, François-Xavier Gueriot, Christophe Chiquet, Olivier Pascalis, Florent Aptel
Studies have observed that deaf signers have a larger Visual Field (VF) than hearing non-signers with a particular large extension in the lower part of the VF. This increment could stem from early deafness or from the extensive use of sign language, since the lower VF is critical to perceive and understand linguistics gestures in sign language communication. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential impact of sign language experience without deafness on the VF sensitivity within its lower part...
August 30, 2018: Vision Research
Jun-Lei Zhao, Fei Xiao, Hao-Xin Zhao, Yun Dai, Yu-Dong Zhang
To investigate the effect of intraocular scatter on stereopsis, we measured stereoacuity with scatter either remaining at the natural eye-induced level or further enhanced by a set of three different scatter filters. Stereo thresholds at different viewing durations were obtained using a psychophysical method of constant stimuli. The results indicate that stereoacuity was degraded with a binocular increase in scatter levels for all the subjects. Measurements were also performed in the presence of interocular differences in scatter levels...
August 30, 2018: Vision Research
Bevil R Conway, Rhea T Eskew, Paul R Martin, Andrew Stockman
The study of color vision encompasses many disciplines, including art, biochemistry, biophysics, brain imaging, cognitive neuroscience, color preferences, colorimetry, computer modelling, design, electrophysiology, language and cognition, molecular genetics, neuroscience, physiological optics, psychophysics and physiological optics. Coupled with the elusive nature of the subjective experience of color, this wide range of disciplines makes the study of color as challenging as it is fascinating. This overview of the special issue Color: Cone Opponency and Beyond outlines the state of the science of color, and points to some of the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field...
August 7, 2018: Vision Research
Sarah E Creighton, Patrick J Bennett, Allison B Sekuler
Face perception is impaired in older adults, but the cause of this decline is not well understood. We examined this issue by measuring Classification Images (CIs) in a face discrimination task in younger and older adults. Faces were presented in static, white visual noise, and face contrast was varied with a staircase to maintain an accuracy rate of ≈71%. The noise fields were used to construct a CI using the method described by Nagai et al. (2013) and each observer's CI was cross-correlated with the visual template of a linear ideal discriminator to obtain an estimate of the absolute efficiency of visual processing...
August 1, 2018: Vision Research
Patrick Dwyer, Buyun Xu, James W Tanaka
In the present study, we investigated face processing in individuals with self-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, n = 16) and typically developing control participants (n = 16) using behavioural and electrophysiological measures. As a measure of their face memory, we administered the Cambridge Face Memory Test to participants in the ASD group. The results showed that the scores of the ASD participants were reliably below the age- and gender-matched norms of neurotypical individuals. To measure brain responses to faces, we used the fast periodic visual stimulation method, presenting photographs of a same-identity face (i...
July 25, 2018: Vision Research
Baingio Pinna, Katia Deiana
In this paper, a new approach and a novel method to study face perception is proposed and tested using several qualitative experiments. This method is based on three main tasks: a description task (subjects were asked to freely describe the target stimulus), a free pictorial task (free drawing/painting of what subjects were asked), and a pictorial reproduction task (making a copy of what subjects perceived). These tasks were carried out with children and adults and extended to conditions related to visual arts...
July 19, 2018: Vision Research
L Bowns
When humans (or robots) move through a scene, the scene can be represented as an optic flow (optical flow) field that contains vectors representing all of the movement within the scene projected onto a two-dimensional sensor. A simultaneous sample of these resulting vectors contain a good deal of information. A general model of motion estimation of local vectors would therefore be valuable. This paper addresses the estimation of motion vectors with uniform motion over a fixed time period. Previous reported attempts at computing motion estimation have been dominated by the machine vision community; however, these attempts are not specifically concerned with biological plausibility...
September 2018: Vision Research
Luca Battaglini, Marcello Maniglia, Mahiko Konishi, Giulio Contemori, Ambra Coccaro, Clara Casco
Human sensitivity to speed differences is very high, and relatively high when one has to compare the speed of an object that disappears behind an occluder with a standard. Nevertheless, different speed illusions (by contrast, adaptation, dynamic visual noise) affect proper speed judgment for both visible and occluded moving objects. In the present study, we asked whether an illusion due to non-directional motion noise (random dynamic visual noise, rDVN) intervenes at the level of speed encoding, thus affecting speed discrimination, or at the level of speed decoding by non-sensory decision-making mechanisms, indexed by speed overestimation of visible and invisible motion...
September 2018: Vision Research
Deyue Yu, Andrea Chai, Susana T L Chung
Previous research showed that we use different regions of a face to categorize different facial expressions, e.g. mouth region for identifying happy faces; eyebrows, eyes and upper part of nose for identifying angry faces. These findings imply that the spatial information along or close to the horizontal orientation might be more useful than others for facial expression recognition. In this study, we examined how the performance for recognizing facial expression depends on the spatial information along different orientations, and whether the pixel-level differences in the face images could account for subjects' performance...
September 2018: Vision Research
Alon Mann, Ilana Naveh, Ehud Zohary
Organisms exploit spatiotemporal regularities in the environment to optimize goal attainment. For example, in experimental conditions, repetition of a stimulus at the same position speeds up response time. A recent study reported that this spatial priming occurs even when the eyes move between trials, indicating that the target is encoded in spatiotopic coordinates (Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 78, (2016) 114-132). However, in that study, the relevant position of the repeated stimulus eliciting spatiotopic priming, was always at the screen center...
September 2018: Vision Research
Melisa Menceloglu, Marcia Grabowecky, Satoru Suzuki
During a brief period following attention capture by an abrupt-onset cue, a briefly presented item in the vicinity appears to be displaced away from the focus of attention. This effect, termed the attentional repulsion effect (ARE), can be induced with various ways of focusing attention (e.g., color pop-out, an auditory cue, voluntary focusing), and can be measured in various ways (e.g., as a vernier offset, shape deformation, action error). While most prior results on ARE have confirmed its close relationship with attention mechanisms, DiGiacomo and Pratt Vision Research 64 (2012) 35-41 reported no interocular transfer of ARE, placing ARE's operational locus at the level of monocular processing in V1 and/or LGN...
September 2018: Vision Research
Endel Põder
We can easily discriminate certain phase relations in spatial patterns but not others. Phase perception has been found different in the fovea vs. periphery, and for single patterns vs. textures. Different numbers of mechanisms have been proposed to account for the regularities of phase perception. In this study, I attempt to better understand the mechanisms behind discrimination of spatial phase. In order to reveal the role of luminance cues, I use histogram matching of patterns with different phases. Possible effects of attention were studied using visual search experiments with varied stimulus set size...
September 2018: Vision Research
Yingchen He, Sori Baek, Gordon E Legge
Evaluating the effects of print size and retinal eccentricity on reading speed is important for identifying the constraints faced by people with central-field loss. Previous work on English reading showed that 1) reading speed increases with print size until a critical print size (CPS) is reached, and then remains constant at a maximum reading speed (MRS), and 2) as eccentricity increases, MRS decreases and CPS increases. Here we extend this work to Korean, a language with more complex orthography. We recruited 6 Korean native speakers (mean age = 22) and measured their reading speed in central vision (0°) and peripheral vision (10° in the lower field)...
September 2018: Vision Research
Andrea Aleman, Frank Schaeffel
Emmetropization is controlled by the defocus in the retinal image. It is a classical problem how changes in focus, introduced by accommodation, are taken into account. We have quantified accommodation errors in chickens wearing negative lenses to find out whether they can predict subsequent eye growth. Two groups of chicks, aged 10 to 13 days, wore lenses (-7D) monocularly for 4-7 days. Fellow eyes remained untreated. Vitreous chamber depth (VCD) was measured in alert hand-held chickens with high resolution, using the Lenstar LS 900 (Haag-Streit, Koeniz, Switzerland)...
August 2018: Vision Research
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