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Vision Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016642/near-complete-interocular-transfer-of-the-attentional-repulsion-effect
#1
Melisa Menceloglu, Marcia Grabowecky, Satoru Suzuki
During a brief period following attention capture by an abrupt-onset cue, a briefly presented item in the vicinity appears to be displaced away from the focus of attention. This effect, termed the attentional repulsion effect (ARE), can be induced with various ways of focusing attention (e.g., color pop-out, an auditory cue, voluntary focusing), and can be measured in various ways (e.g., as a vernier offset, shape deformation, action error). While most prior results on ARE have confirmed its close relationship with attention mechanisms, DiGiacomo and Pratt (2012) reported no interocular transfer of ARE, placing ARE's operational locus at the level of monocular processing in V1 and/or LGN...
July 14, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012353/investigating-the-perception-of-face-identity-in-adults-on-the-autism-spectrum-using-behavioural-and-electrophysiological-measures
#2
Patrick Dwyer, Buyun Xu, James W Tanaka
In the present study, we investigated face processing in individuals with self-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, n=16) and typically developing control participants (n=16) using behavioural and electrophysiological measures. As a measure of their face memory, we admistered the Cambridge Face Memory Test to participants in the ASD group. The results showed that the scores of the ASD participants were reliably below the age- and gender-matched norms of neurotypical individuals. To measure brain responses to faces, we used the fast periodic visual stimulation method, presenting photographs of a same-identity face (i...
July 13, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003892/discrimination-of-spatial-phase-the-roles-of-luminance-distribution-and-attention
#3
Endel Põder
We can easily discriminate certain phase relations in spatial patterns but not others. Phase perception has been found different in the fovea vs. periphery, and for single patterns vs. textures. Different numbers of mechanisms have been proposed to account for the regularities of phase perception. In this study, I attempt to better understand the mechanisms behind discrimination of spatial phase. In order to reveal the role of luminance cues, I use histogram matching of patterns with different phases. Possible effects of attention were studied using visual search experiments with varied stimulus set size...
July 9, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003891/korean-reading-speed-effects-of-print-size-and-retinal-eccentricity
#4
Yingchen He, Sori Baek, Gordon E Legge
Evaluating the effects of print size and retinal eccentricity on reading speed is important for identifying the constraints faced by people with central-field loss. Previous work on English reading showed that 1) reading speed increases with print size until a critical print size (CPS) is reached, and then remains constant at a maximum reading speed (MRS), and 2) as eccentricity increases, MRS decreases and CPS increases. Here we extend this work to Korean, a language with more complex orthography. We recruited 6 Korean native speakers (mean age = 22) and measured their reading speed in central vision (0°) and peripheral vision (10° in the lower field)...
July 9, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959956/a-tour-of-contemporary-color-vision-research
#5
Bevil R Conway, Rhea T Eskew, Paul R Martin, Andrew Stockman
The study of color vision encompasses many disciplines, including art, biochemistry, biophysics, brain imaging, cognitive neuroscience, color preferences, colorimetry, computer modelling, design, electrophysiology, language and cognition, molecular genetics, neuroscience, physiological optics, psychophysics and physiological optics. Coupled with the elusive nature of the subjective experience of color, this wide range of disciplines makes the study of color as challenging as it is fascinating. This overview of the special issue Color: Cone Opponency and Beyond outlines the state of the science of color, and points to some of the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field...
June 27, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958874/lag-of-accommodation-does-not-predict-changes-in-eye-growth-in-chickens
#6
Andrea Carrillo Aleman, Frank Schaeffel
Emmetropization is controlled by the defocus in the retinal image. It is a classical problem how changes in focus, introduced by accommodation, are taken into account. We have quantified accommodation errors in chickens wearing negative lenses to find out whether they can predict subsequent eye growth. Two groups of chicks, aged 10 to 13 days, wore lenses (-7D) monocularly for 4-7 days. Fellow eyes remained untreated. Vitreous chamber depth (VCD) was measured in alert hand-held chickens with high resolution, using the Lenstar LS 900 (Haag-Streit, Koeniz, Switzerland)...
June 26, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958873/a-spatial-frequency-spectral-peakedness-model-predicts-discrimination-performance-of-regularity-in-dot-patterns
#7
Emmanouil D Protonotarios, Lewis D Griffin, Alan Johnston, Michael S Landy
Subjective assessments of spatial regularity are common in everyday life and also in science, for example in developmental biology. It has recently been shown that regularity is an adaptable visual dimension. It was proposed that regularity is coded via the peakedness of the distribution of neural responses across receptive field size. Here, we test this proposal for jittered square lattices of dots. We examine whether discriminability correlates with a simple peakedness measure across different presentation conditions (dot number, size, and average spacing)...
June 26, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944849/when-the-whole-is-equal-to-the-sum-of-its-parts-a-new-approach-to-study-face-and-body-perception-and-representation
#8
Baingio Pinna, Katia Deiana
In this paper, a new approach and a novel method to study face perception has been proposed and tested using several qualitative experiments. This method is based on three main tasks: description task (subjects were asked to freely describe the target stimulus), free pictorial task (free drawing/painting of what subjects were asked); pictorial reproduction task (making a copy of what subjects perceived). These tasks were carried out with children and adults and extended to conditions related to visual arts...
June 23, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29940192/adaptation-of-reflexive-vergence-is-directionally-biased
#9
Ian M Erkelens, William R Bobier
Divergence is known to differ from convergence across a wide range of clinical parameters. We have postulated that a limited neural substrate results in reduced fusional divergence velocities and subsequently a reduced capacity to adapt tonic vergence to uncrossed disparities. We further investigated this hypothesis by characterizing the degree of plasticity in reflex vergence to repetitive end-point errors using a disparity-based double-step paradigm. 10 adults completed 4 study visits where reflexive convergence or divergence was measured (250Hz infrared oculography) to a 2° disparity step and then lengthened or shortened via a repeated double-step (2°±1...
June 22, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29940191/comparison-of-symmetrical-prism-adaptation-to-asymmetrical-prism-adaptation-in-those-with-normal-binocular-vision
#10
Elio M Santos, Chang Yaramothu, Tara L Alvarez
This study sought to determine whether symmetrical compared to asymmetrical horizontal prisms (base-out or base-in) evoked different rates of phoria adaptation. Sixteen young adults with normal binocular vision participated in a symmetrical phoria adaptation experiment using a 3Δ base-out or 3Δ base-in binocular prism flipper and an asymmetrical phoria adaptation experiment using a 6Δ base-out or 6Δ base-in monocular wedge prism. The experiments were randomized and counterbalanced to reduce the influence of the prism stimulation order...
June 22, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890174/training-peripheral-vision-to-read-reducing-crowding-through-an-adaptive-training-method
#11
Allison Jean Treleaven, Deyue Yu
Reading is slow and difficult for people with central vision loss who must rely on their peripheral vision. It has been shown that practicing on a letter-recognition task can increase peripheral reading speed, and that the training-related improvement is attributable mainly to reduced crowding. Since there is a high degree of variability in the vision conditions across people with central vision loss, a one-size-fits-all training protocol may not be adequate or appropriate for these patients. In this study, we target two aspects of training-training task and individual customization, and propose a training paradigm that focuses on reducing crowding and tailors training for each individual using an adaptive method...
June 21, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852210/faces-in-early-visual-environments-are-persistent-not-just-frequent
#12
Swapnaa Jayaraman, Linda B Smith
The regularities in very young infants' visual worlds likely have out-sized effects on the development of the visual system because they comprise the first-in experience that tunes, maintains, and specifies the neural substrate from low-level to higher-level representations and therefore constitute the starting point for all other visual learning. Recent evidence from studies using head cameras suggests that the frequency of faces available in early infant visual environments declines over the first year and a half of life...
June 20, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913248/dark-scene-elements-strongly-influence-cuttlefish-camouflage-responses-in-visually-cluttered-environments
#13
C Chubb, C-C Chiao, K Ulmer, K Buresch, M A Birk, R T Hanlon
This study investigated how cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage patterns are influenced by the proportions of different gray-scales present in visually cluttered environments. All experimental substrates comprised spatially random arrays of texture elements (texels) of five gray-scales: Black, Dark gray, Gray, Light gray, and White. The substrates in Experiment 1 were densely packed arrays of square texels that varied over 4 sizes in different conditions. Experiment 2 used substrates in which texels were disks separated on a homogeneous background that was Black, Gray or White in different conditions...
June 15, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913247/the-use-of-visual-cues-in-gravity-judgements-on-parabolic-motion
#14
Björn Jörges, Lena Slupinski, Joan López-Moliner
Evidence suggests that humans rely on an earth gravity prior for sensory-motor tasks like catching or reaching. Even under earth-discrepant conditions, this prior biases perception and action towards assuming a gravitational downwards acceleration of 9.81 m/s2 . This can be particularly detrimental in interactions with virtual environments employing earth-discrepant gravity conditions for their visual presentation. The present study thus investigates how well humans discriminate visually presented gravities and which cues they use to extract gravity from the visual scene...
June 15, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913246/parallel-consolidation-into-visual-working-memory-results-in-reduced-precision-representations
#15
Reuben Rideaux, Emma Baker, Mark Edwards
Information can be consolidated into visual working memory in parallel, i.e. two items can be consolidated in the same time required to consolidate one. However, while motion direction items consolidated in parallel are encoded at a reduced precision, no such reduction has been reported for colour. Here we examine two possible explanations for the inconsistency between the phenomena associated with consolidating these features in parallel: i) that reduced precision can only be detected when more than two colour items are consolidated in parallel, or ii) that the exposure duration used in previous studies was too long, allowing observers serially consolidate items...
June 15, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913245/spontaneous-recovery-and-time-course-of-biological-motion-adaptation
#16
Gaoxing Mei, Qi Yuan, Guoqing Liu, Yun Pan, Min Bao
Adaptation to changes of the environment is an essential function of the visual system. Recent studies have revealed that prolonged viewing of a point-light display of a human walker can produce the perception of a point-light walker facing in the opposite direction in a subsequent ambiguous test. Similar effects of biological motion adaptation have been documented for various properties of the point-light walkers. However, the time course and controlling mechanisms for biological motion adaptation have not yet been examined...
June 15, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857021/how-task-demands-influence-scanpath-similarity-in-a-sequential-number-search-task
#17
Richard Dewhurst, Tom Foulsham, Halszka Jarodzka, Roger Johansson, Kenneth Holmqvist, Marcus Nyström
More and more researchers are considering the omnibus eye movement sequence-the scanpath-in their studies of visual and cognitive processing (e.g. Hayes, Petrov, & Sederberg, 2011; Madsen, Larson, Loschky, & Rebello, 2012; Ni et al., 2011; von der Malsburg & Vasishth, 2011). However, it remains unclear how recent methods for comparing scanpaths perform in experiments producing variable scanpaths, and whether these methods supplement more traditional analyses of individual oculomotor statistics. We address this problem for MultiMatch (Jarodzka et al...
June 7, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859226/small-fruit-flies-sacrifice-temporal-acuity-to-maintain-contrast-sensitivity
#18
John P Currea, Joshua L Smith, Jamie C Theobald
Holometabolous insects, like fruit flies, grow primarily during larval development. Scarce larval feeding is common in nature and generates smaller adults. Despite the importance of vision to flies, eye size scales proportionately with body size, and smaller eyes confer poorer vision due to smaller optics. Variable larval feeding, therefore, causes within-species differences in visual processing, which have gone largely unnoticed due to ad libitum feeding in the lab that results in generally large adults. Do smaller eyes have smaller ommatidial lenses, reducing sensitivity, or broader inter-ommatidial angles, reducing acuity? And to what extent might neural processes adapt to these optical challenges with temporal and spatial summation? To understand this in the fruit fly, we generated a distribution of body lengths (1...
June 5, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763697/the-effect-of-load-on-spatial-attention-depends-on-preview-evidence-from-a-reading-study
#19
Saeideh Ghahghaei, Karina J Linnell
The spatio-temporal distribution of covert attention has usually been studied under unfamiliar tasks with static viewing. It is important to extend this work to familiar tasks such as reading where sequential eye movements are made. Our previous work with reading showed that covert spatial attention around the gaze location is affected by the fixated word frequency, or the processing load exerted by the word, as early as 40 ms into the fixation. Here, we hypothesised that this early effect of frequency is only possible when the word is previewed and thus pre-processed before being fixated...
May 29, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763695/representation-of-facial-identity-includes-expression-variability
#20
Annabelle S Redfern, Christopher P Benton
In this study, we investigate the contribution of expression variability in the formation of face representations. We trained participants to learn new identities from face images either low or high in expressiveness, and compared their performance in a recognition test. After low expressiveness training, recognition of novel test images was modulated by image expressiveness: the more expressive the image, the slower the response. This differed from recognition after high expressiveness training, which showed little evidence of expression dependence...
May 23, 2018: Vision Research
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