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Radiation and Environmental Biophysics

Parisa Akhlaghi, Atiyeh Ebrahimi-Khankook, Alireza Vejdani-Noghreiyan
In head computed tomography, radiation upon the eye lens (as an organ with high radiosensitivity) may cause lenticular opacity and cataracts. Therefore, quantitative dose assessment due to exposure of the eye lens and surrounding tissue is a matter of concern. For this purpose, an accurate eye model with realistic geometry and shape, in which different eye substructures are considered, is needed. To calculate the absorbed radiation dose of visual organs during head computed tomography scans, in this study, an existing sophisticated eye model was inserted at the related location in the head of the reference adult male phantom recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)...
March 10, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Mikhail I Balonov, Volodymyr Berkovskyy, André Bouville, Lynn R Anspaugh, Herwig G Paretzke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Gianfranco Giorgi, Chiara Pirazzini, Maria Giulia Bacalini, Cristina Giuliani, Paolo Garagnani, Miriam Capri, Ferdinando Bersani, Brunella Del Re
Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) have been classified as "possibly carcinogenic", but their genotoxic effects are still unclear. Recent findings indicate that epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the genome dysfunction and it is well known that they are affected by environmental factors. To our knowledge, to date the question of whether exposure to ELF-MF can influence epigenetic modifications has been poorly addressed. In this paper, we investigated whether exposure to ELF-MF alone and in combination with oxidative stress (OS) can affect DNA methylation, which is one of the most often studied epigenetic modification...
March 3, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Michaela Čadová, Renata Havránková, Jiří Havránek, Friedo Zölzer
(137)Cs is one of the most important radionuclides released in the course of atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and during accidents in nuclear power plants such as that in Chernobyl, Ukraine, or Fukushima, Japan. The aim of this study was to compare (137)Cs and (40)K concentrations in particular species of mushrooms from selected locations in the Bohemian Forest (Czech: Šumava), Czech Republic, where a considerable contamination from the Chernobyl accident had been measured in 1986. Samples were collected between June and October 2014...
March 3, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Valeriy Stepanenko, Tolebay Rakhypbekov, Keiko Otani, Satoru Endo, Kenichi Satoh, Noriyuki Kawano, Kazuko Shichijo, Masahiro Nakashima, Toshihiro Takatsuji, Aya Sakaguchi, Hiroaki Kato, Yuichi Onda, Nariaki Fujimoto, Shin Toyoda, Hitoshi Sato, Altay Dyussupov, Nailya Chaizhunusova, Nurlan Sayakenov, Darkhan Uzbekov, Aisulu Saimova, Dariya Shabdarbaeva, Mazhin Skakov, Alexandr Vurim, Vyacheslav Gnyrya, Almas Azimkhanov, Alexander Kolbayenkov, Kasym Zhumadilov, Yankar Kairikhanova, Andrey Kaprin, Vsevolod Galkin, Sergey Ivanov, Timofey Kolyzhenkov, Aleksey Petukhov, Elena Yaskova, Irina Belukha, Artem Khailov, Valeriy Skvortsov, Alexander Ivannikov, Umukusum Akhmedova, Viktoria Bogacheva, Masaharu Hoshi
There were two sources of ionizing irradiation after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: (1) initial gamma-neutron irradiation at the moment of detonation and (2) residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity consisted of two components: radioactive fallout containing fission products, including radioactive fissile materials from nuclear device, and neutron-activated radioisotopes from materials on the ground. The dosimetry systems DS86 and DS02 were mainly devoted to the assessment of initial radiation exposure to neutrons and gamma rays, while only brief considerations were given for the estimation of doses caused by residual radiation exposure...
February 10, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Wei Liu, Zhenyu Tan, Liming Zhang, Christophe Champion
In this work, direct DNA damage induced by low-energy electrons (sub-keV) is simulated using a Monte Carlo method. The characteristics of the present simulation are to consider the new mechanism of DNA damage due to dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and to allow determining damage to specific bases (i.e., adenine, thymine, guanine, or cytosine). The electron track structure in liquid water is generated, based on the dielectric response model for describing electron inelastic scattering and on a free-parameter theoretical model and the NIST database for calculating electron elastic scattering...
February 9, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
T E Schmid, C Greubel, G Dollinger, E Schmid
The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) based on the induction of dicentrics in any cell type is principally an important information for the increasing application of high-LET radiation in cancer therapy. Since the standard system of human lymphocytes for measuring dicentrics are not compatible with our microbeam irradiation setup where attaching cells are essential, we used human-hamster hybrid AL cells which do attach on foils and fulfil the special experimental requirement for microbeam irradiations...
January 31, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Yuu Ishimori, Hiroshi Tanaka, Akihiro Sakoda, Takahiro Kataoka, Kiyonori Yamaoka, Fumihiro Mitsunobu
The purpose of this study is to investigate the biokinetics of inhaled radon, radon activity concentrations in mouse tissues and organs were determined after mice had been exposed to about 1 MBq/m(3) of radon in air. Radon activity concentrations in mouse blood and in other tissues and organs were measured with a liquid scintillation counter and with a well-type HP Ge detector, respectively. Radon activity concentration in mouse blood was 0.410 ± 0.016 Bq/g when saturated with 1 MBq/m(3) of radon activity concentration in air...
January 25, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Evgenia I Tolstykh, Lyudmila M Peremyslova, Marina O Degteva, Bruce A Napier
The East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) was formed after a chemical explosion in the radioactive waste-storage facility of the Mayak Production Association in 1957 (Southern Urals, Russia) and resulted in an activity dispersion of 7.4 × 10(16) Bq into the atmosphere. Internal exposure due to ingestion of radionuclides with local foodstuffs was the main factor of public exposure at the EURT. The EURT cohort, combining residents of most contaminated settlements, was formed for epidemiological study at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Russia (URCRM)...
January 19, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Xi Gong, F Benjamin Zhan, Yan Lin
Health effects of close residential proximity to nuclear facilities have been a concern for both the general public and health professionals. Here, a study is reported examining the association between maternal residential proximity to nuclear facilities and low birth weight (LBW) in offspring using data from 1996 through 2008 in Texas, USA. A case-control study design was used together with a proximity-based model for exposure assessment. First, the LBW case/control births were categorized into multiple proximity groups based on distances between their maternal residences and nuclear facilities...
December 29, 2016: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Zhengzhe An, Jae-Ran Yu, Woo-Yoon Park
Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the main treatment modalities for cervical cancer. Rosiglitazone (ROSI) has been reported to have antiproliferative effects against various types of cancer cells and also to induce antioxidant enzymes that can scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby modify radiosensitivity. Here, we explored the effect of ROSI on radiosensitivity and the underlying mechanisms in cervical cancer cells. Three cervical cancer cell lines (ME-180, HeLa, and SiHa) were used. The cells were pretreated with ROSI and then irradiated...
March 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Kazuko Shichijo, Nariaki Fujimoto, Darkhan Uzbekov, Ynkar Kairkhanova, Aisulu Saimova, Nailya Chaizhunusova, Nurlan Sayakenov, Dariya Shabdarbaeva, Nurlan Aukenov, Almas Azimkhanov, Alexander Kolbayenkov, Zhanna Mussazhanova, Daisuke Niino, Masahiro Nakashima, Kassym Zhumadilov, Valeriy Stepanenko, Masao Tomonaga, Tolebay Rakhypbekov, Masaharu Hoshi
To fully understand the radiation effects of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki among the survivors, radiation from neutron-induced radioisotopes in soil and other materials should be considered in addition to the initial radiation directly received from the bombs. This might be important for evaluating the radiation risks to the people who moved to these cities soon after the detonations and probably inhaled activated radioactive "dust." Manganese-56 is known to be one of the dominant radioisotopes produced in soil by neutrons...
March 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
K Brudecki, A Kowalska, P Zagrodzki, A Szczodry, T Mroz, P Janowski, J W Mietelski
This paper presents results of (131)I thyroid activity measurements in 30 members of the nuclear medicine personnel of the Department of Endocrinology and Nuclear Medicine Holy Cross Cancer Centre in Kielce, Poland. A whole-body spectrometer equipped with two semiconductor gamma radiation detectors served as the basic research instrument. In ten out of 30 examined staff members, the determined (131)I activity was found to be above the detection limit (DL = 5 Bq of (131)I in the thyroid). The measured activities ranged from (5 ± 2) Bq to (217 ± 56) Bq...
March 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
K Brudecki, K Szufa, J W Mietelski
A general method for calculating doses absorbed from isotopes released in nuclear accidents is presented. As an example, this method was used to calculate doses for inhabitants of Southern Poland due to inhalation of (131)I released due to the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. (131)I activity measurements in the air of that region provided the basis for the study. The proposed model is based on a complex biokinetic model for iodine merging the Leggett model developed in 2010 with the human respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)...
March 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Song Gao, Zhiying Zhao, Rong Wu, Yuecan Zeng, Zhenyong Zhang, Jianing Miao, Zhengwei Yuan
Radiotherapy is an effective form of therapy for most thoracic malignant tumors. However, myocardial injury resulting from the high doses of radiation is a severe complication. Here we aimed to study the possibility of reducing radiation-induced myocardial injury with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation. We used MSCs extracted from bone marrow (BMSCs) to transplant via the tail vein into a radiation-induced heart injury (RIHI) rat model. The rats were divided into six groups: a Sham group, an IRR (irradiation) group, and four IRR + BMSCs transplantation groups obtained at different time points...
December 26, 2016: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Vera Höllriegl, Wei Bo Li, Bernhard Michalke
Tracer kinetics in healthy human volunteers was studied applying stable isotopes of cerium citrate to obtain biokinetic human data for the urinary excretion of cerium. These data were then used to compare and validate the biokinetic model for lanthanides (cerium) proposed by Taylor and Leggett (Radiat Prot Dosim 105:193-198, 2003), which is substantially improved and more realistic than the biokinetic model currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 67, 1993); both models are primarily based on animal data...
December 20, 2016: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Paul J Black, Adam S Miller, Jeffrey J Hayes
As humans, we are constantly exposed to ionizing radiation from natural, man-made and cosmic sources which can damage DNA, leading to deleterious effects including cancer incidence. In this work, we introduce a method to monitor strand breaks resulting from damage due to the direct effect of ionizing radiation and provide evidence for sequence-dependent effects leading to strand breaks. To analyze only DNA strand breaks caused by radiation damage due to the direct effect of ionizing radiation, we combined an established technique to generate dehydrated DNA samples with a technique to analyze single-strand breaks on short oligonucleotide sequences via denaturing gel electrophoresis...
November 2016: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Mikhail Sokolnikov, Dale Preston, Daniel O Stram
Exposure to ionizing radiation has well-documented long-term effects on cancer rates and other health outcomes in humans. While in vitro experimental studies had demonstrated that the nature of some radiation effects depend on both total dose of the radiation and the dose rate (i.e., the pattern of dose distribution over time), the question of whether or not the carcinogenic effect of radiation exposure depends on the dose rate remains unanswered. Another issue of interest concerns whether or not concomitant exposure to external gamma rays and inhaled plutonium aerosols has any effect on the external exposure effects...
September 30, 2016: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Atefeh Rostami, Mohammad Thaghi Bahreyni Toossi, Ameneh Sazgarnia, Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard
Due to biocompatibility and relative non-toxic nature, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been studied widely to be employed in radiotherapy as radio-sensitizer. On the other hand, they may enhance radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), which causes radiation adverse effects in non-irradiated normal cells. The present study was planned to investigate the possibility of augmenting the RIBE consequence of applying glucose-coated gold nanoparticles (Glu-GNPs) to target cells. Glu-GNPs were synthesized and utilized to treat MCF7 and QUDB cells...
September 9, 2016: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
E A Shishkina, A Yu Volchkova, Y S Timofeev, P Fattibene, A Wieser, D V Ivanov, V A Krivoschapov, V I Zalyapin, S Della Monaca, V De Coste, M O Degteva, L R Anspaugh
This study summarizes the 20-year efforts for dose reconstruction in tooth enamel of the Techa riverside residents exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of radionuclide releases into the river in 1949-1956. It represents the first combined analysis of all the data available on EPR dosimetry with teeth of permanent residents of the Techa riverside territory. Results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of 302 teeth donated by 173 individuals living permanently in Techa riverside settlements over the period of 1950-1952 were analyzed...
September 6, 2016: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
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