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Radiation and Environmental Biophysics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666924/ft-ir-investigations-on-effect-of-high-doses-of-gamma-radiation-induced-damage-to-polystyrene-and-mechanism-of-formation-of-radiolysis-products
#1
P Vivek Vardhan, Lata Israni Shukla
The present article focuses on the influence of gamma irradiation and post-irradiation storage conditions on FT-IR spectra of 1 mm thick polystyrene irradiated with 51, 77 and 129 kGy. The increase in amplitude corresponding to 3600, 3400 and 2100 cm- 1 stretching frequencies clearly showing the formation of O-H and C=O bonds (~ 25%). On prolonged storage (2160 h) in the dark, there is an increase in O-H group (~ 28%). The electron cloud facilitates the formation of hydroxyl group in irradiated polystyrene...
April 17, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626227/effect-of-internal-contamination-with-tritiated-water-on-the-neoplastic-colonies-in-the-lungs-innate-anti-tumour-reactions-cytokine-profile-and-haematopoietic-system-in-radioresistant-and-radiosensitive-mice
#2
Ewa M Nowosielska, Aneta Cheda, Robert Zdanowski, Sławomir Lewicki, Bobby R Scott, Marek K Janiak
Tritium is a potentially significant source of internal radiation exposure which, at high levels, can be carcinogenic. We evaluated whether single intraperitoneal injection of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with tritiated water (HTO) leading to exposure to low (0.01 or 0.1 Gy) and intermediate (1.0 Gy) cumulative whole-body doses of β radiation is immunosuppressive, as judged by enhancement of artificial tumour metastases, functioning of NK lymphocytes and macrophages, circulating cytokine's levels, and numbers of bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood cells...
April 6, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550923/doses-of-ukrainian-female-clean-up-workers-with-diagnosed-breast-cancer
#3
Vadim V Chumak, Sergiy V Klymenko, Horst Zitzelsberger, Christina Wilke, Lyudmila A Rybchenko, Elena V Bakhanova
The Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986 has caused significant exposure to ionizing radiation of the Ukrainian population, in particular clean-up workers and evacuees from the exclusion zones. A study aiming at the discovery of radiation markers of the breast cancer was conducted from 2008 to 2015 within a collaborative project by HZM, LMU, and NRCRM. In this study, post-Chernobyl breast cancer cases both in radiation-exposed female patients diagnosed at age less than 60 from 1992 to 2014 and in non-exposed controls matched for residency, tumor type, age at diagnosis, TNM classification as well as tumor grading were investigated for molecular changes with special emphasis to copy number alterations and miRNA profiles...
March 17, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546458/a-cautionary-comment-on-the-generation-of-berkson-error-in-epidemiological-studies
#4
Sabine Hoffmann, Chantal Guihenneuc, Sophie Ancelet
Exposure measurement error can be seen as one of the most important sources of uncertainty in studies in epidemiology. When the aim is to assess the effects of measurement error on statistical inference or to compare the performance of several methods for measurement error correction, it is indispensable to be able to generate different types of measurement error. This paper compares two approaches for the generation of Berkson error, which have recently been applied in radiation epidemiology, in their ability to generate exposure data that satisfy the properties of the Berkson model...
March 15, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525896/radiation-dose-rates-of-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-patients-after-131-i-therapy
#5
Pingyan Jin, Huijuan Feng, Wei Ouyang, Juqing Wu, Pan Chen, Jing Wang, Yungang Sun, Jialang Xian, Liuhua Huang
Postoperative131 I treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) can create a radiation hazard for nearby persons. The present prospective study aimed to investigate radiation dose rates in131 I-treated DTC patients to provide references for radiation protection. A total of 141131 I-treated DTC patients were enrolled, and grouped into a singular treatment (ST) group and a repeated treatment (RT) group. The radiation dose rate of131 I-treated patients was measured. The rate of achieving discharge compliance and restricted contact time were analyzed based on Chinese regulations...
March 10, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476254/evaporation-process-in-histological-tissue-sections-for-neutron-autoradiography
#6
Natalia M Espector, Agustina Portu, Gustavo A Santa Cruz, Gisela Saint Martin
The analysis of the distribution and density of nuclear tracks forming an autoradiography in a nuclear track detector (NTD) allows the determination of10 B atoms concentration and location in tissue samples from Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) protocols. This knowledge is of great importance for BNCT dosimetry and treatment planning. Tissue sections studied with this technique are obtained by cryosectioning frozen tissue specimens. After the slicing procedure, the tissue section is put on the NTD and the sample starts drying...
February 23, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470638/long-term-effects-of-low-dose-mouse-liver-irradiation-involve-ultrastructural-and-biochemical-changes-in-hepatocytes-that-depend-on-lipid-metabolism
#7
Malgorzata Lysek-Gladysinska, Anna Wieczorek, Anna Walaszczyk, Karol Jelonek, Artur Jozwik, Monika Pietrowska, Wolfgang Dörr, Dorota Gabrys, Piotr Widlak
The aim of the study was to investigate long-term effects of radiation on the (ultra)structure and function of the liver in mice. The experiments were conducted on wild-type C57BL/6J and apolipoprotein E knock-out (ApoE-/- ) male mice which received a single dose (2 or 8 Gy) of X-rays to the heart with simultaneous exposure of liver to low doses (no more than 30 and 120 mGy, respectively). Livers were collected for analysis 60 weeks after irradiation and used for morphological, ultrastructural, and biochemical studies...
February 22, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468413/the-level-of-dna-damage-in-mouse-hematopoietic-cells-and-in-frog-and-human-blood-cells-as-induced-by-the-action-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-vitro
#8
Nikolay Sirota, Elena Kuznetsova, Irina Mitroshina
Comparative studies of the level of DNA damage induced in vitro by X-rays (0-8 Gy) or hydrogen peroxide (0-300 µM) in cells of blood, spleen, and bone marrow of mice and in blood cells of frogs and humans were performed using the alkaline comet assay. For both agents, the levels of induced DNA damage in leucocytes/splenocytes of mice were higher than those in blood cells of frogs and humans, while in human leucocytes, they were comparable with those in frog blood cells. The rate of DNA repair in frog blood cells was very slow...
February 21, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453555/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-hyperthermia-and-electron-radiation-on-prostate-cancer-stem-cells
#9
Zhila Rajaee, Samideh Khoei, Seied Rabi Mahdavi, Marzieh Ebrahimi, Sakine Shirvalilou, Alireza Mahdavian
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hyperthermia, 6 MeV electron radiation and combination of these treatments on cancer cell line DU145 in both monolayer culture and spheroids enriched for prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Flowcytometric analysis of the expression of molecular markers CD133+ /CD44+ was carried out to determine the prostate CSCs in cell line DU145 grown as spheroids in serum-free medium. Following monolayer and spheroid culture, DU145 cells were treated with different doses of hyperthermia, electron beam and combination of them...
February 17, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453554/in-vitro-studies-of-dna-damage-and-repair-mechanisms-induced-by-bnct-in-a-poorly-differentiated-thyroid-carcinoma-cell-line
#10
C Rodriguez, M Carpano, P Curotto, S Thorp, M Casal, G Juvenal, M Pisarev, M A Dagrosa
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for aggressive tumors is based on nuclear reaction [ 10 B (n, α) 7 Li]. Previously, we demonstrated that BNCT could be applied for the treatment of undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to describe the DNA damage pattern and the repair pathways that are activated by BNCT in thyroid cells. We analyzed γH2AX foci and the expression of Ku70, Rad51 and Rad54, main effector enzymes of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathways, respectively, in thyroid follicular carcinoma cells...
February 16, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362875/impact-of-updating-the-non-radiation-parameters-in-the-icrp-103-detriment-model
#11
Joachim Breckow, Samaneh Emami, Sara Amalhaf, Arwin Beshgard, Jonas Buermeyer, Kaija Spruck
The radiation detriment in ICRP 103 is defined as the product of the organ-specific risk coefficient and the damage that may be associated with a cancer type or hereditary effect. This is used to indicate a weighted risk according to the radiation sensitivity of different organs and the severity of damage that may possibly arise. While the risk refers to radiation exposure parameters, the extent of damage is independent of radiation. The parameters that are not affected by radiation are lethality, impairment of quality of life, and reduced life expectancy, which are considered as quantities associated with the severity of disease or damage...
May 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260314/coordinated-radiation-protection-research-in-europe-is-it-the-beginning-of-a-new-era
#12
EDITORIAL
W Rühm, Anna A Friedl, A Wojcik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255926/optically-stimulated-luminescence-osl-dosimetry-in-irradiated-alumina-substrates-from-mobile-phone-resistors
#13
Therése Geber-Bergstrand, Christian Bernhardsson, Maria Christiansson, Sören Mattsson, Christopher L Rääf
In this study the dosimetric properties of alumina (Al2 O3 ) substrates found in resistors retrieved from mobile phones were investigated. Measurements of the decline of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) generated following exposure of these substrates to ionising radiation showed that 16% of the signal could still be detected after 2 years (735 days). Further, the magnitude of the regenerative dose (calibration dose; Di ) had no impact on the accuracy of dose estimates. Therefore, it is recommended that the Di be set as low as is practicable, so as to accelerate data retrieval...
March 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247291/multidisciplinary-european-low-dose-initiative-melodi-strategic-research-agenda-for-low-dose-radiation-risk-research
#14
REVIEW
M Kreuzer, A Auvinen, E Cardis, M Durante, M Harms-Ringdahl, J R Jourdain, B G Madas, A Ottolenghi, S Pazzaglia, K M Prise, R Quintens, L Sabatier, S Bouffler
MELODI (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative) is a European radiation protection research platform with focus on research on health risks after exposure to low-dose ionising radiation. It was founded in 2010 and currently includes 44 members from 18 countries. A major activity of MELODI is the continuous development of a long-term European Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) on low-dose risk for radiation protection. The SRA is intended to identify priorities for national and European radiation protection research programs as a basis for the preparation of competitive calls at the European level...
March 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243128/measurement-of-131-i-activity-in-air-indoor-polish-nuclear-medical-hospital-as-a-tool-for-an-internal-dose-assessment
#15
K Brudecki, A Szczodry, T Mróz, A Kowalska, J W Mietelski
This paper presents results of131 I air activity measurements performed within nuclear medical hospitals as a tool for internal dose assessment. The study was conducted at a place of preparation and administration of131 I ("hot room") and at a nurse station.131 I activity measurements were performed for 5 and 4 consecutive working days, at the "hot room" and nurse station, respectively. Iodine from the air was collected by a mobile HVS-30 aerosol sampler combined with a gas sampler. Both the gaseous and aerosol fractions were measurement...
March 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230533/regulation-of-type-i-collagen-expression-by-microrna-29-following-ionizing-radiation
#16
Hiroyuki Yano, Ryoji Hamanaka, Miki Nakamura-Ota, Juan Juan Zhang, Noritaka Matsuo, Hidekatsu Yoshioka
Radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is thought to involve the excessive accumulation of collagen and other extracellular matrix components; previously, we reported that ionizing radiation increased the type I collagen expression and that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was involved in this increase through activating its downstream mediator, Smad3. A recent study found that microRNAs (miRNAs)-small, noncoding sequences approximately 20 nucleotides long-negatively regulate the gene expression posttranscriptionally, and it has been suggested that miRNAs play essential roles in cellular processes, including fibrosis...
March 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222678/dose-responses-for-mortality-from-cerebrovascular-and-heart-diseases-in-atomic-bomb-survivors-1950-2003
#17
Helmut Schöllnberger, Markus Eidemüller, Harry M Cullings, Cristoforo Simonetto, Frauke Neff, Jan Christian Kaiser
The scientific community faces important discussions on the validity of the linear no-threshold (LNT) model for radiation-associated cardiovascular diseases at low and moderate doses. In the present study, mortalities from cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) and heart diseases from the latest data on atomic bomb survivors were analyzed. The analysis was performed with several radio-biologically motivated linear and nonlinear dose-response models. For each detrimental health outcome one set of models was identified that all fitted the data about equally well...
March 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335772/investigation-on-the-correlation-between-energy-deposition-and-clustered-dna-damage-induced-by-low-energy-electrons
#18
Wei Liu, Zhenyu Tan, Liming Zhang, Christophe Champion
This study presents the correlation between energy deposition and clustered DNA damage, based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the spectrum of direct DNA damage induced by low-energy electrons including the dissociative electron attachment. Clustered DNA damage is classified as simple and complex in terms of the combination of single-strand breaks (SSBs) or double-strand breaks (DSBs) and adjacent base damage (BD). The results show that the energy depositions associated with about 90% of total clustered DNA damage are below 150 eV...
January 15, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327260/lifetime-study-in-mice-after-acute-low-dose-ionizing-radiation-a-multifactorial-study-with-special-focus-on-cataract-risk
#19
Claudia Dalke, Frauke Neff, Savneet Kaur Bains, Scott Bright, Deborah Lord, Peter Reitmeir, Ute Rößler, Daniel Samaga, Kristian Unger, Herbert Braselmann, Florian Wagner, Matthias Greiter, Maria Gomolka, Sabine Hornhardt, Sarah Kunze, Stefan J Kempf, Lillian Garrett, Sabine M Hölter, Wolfgang Wurst, Michael Rosemann, Omid Azimzadeh, Soile Tapio, Michaela Aubele, Fabian Theis, Christoph Hoeschen, Predrag Slijepcevic, Munira Kadhim, Michael Atkinson, Horst Zitzelsberger, Ulrike Kulka, Jochen Graw
Because of the increasing application of ionizing radiation in medicine, quantitative data on effects of low-dose radiation are needed to optimize radiation protection, particularly with respect to cataract development. Using mice as mammalian animal model, we applied a single dose of 0, 0.063, 0.125 and 0.5 Gy at 10 weeks of age, determined lens opacities for up to 2 years and compared it with overall survival, cytogenetic alterations and cancer development. The highest dose was significantly associated with increased body weight and reduced survival rate...
January 11, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164324/effect-of-follow-up-period-on-minimal-significant-dose-in-the-atomic-bomb-survivor-studies
#20
John Cologne, Dale L Preston, Eric J Grant, Harry M Cullings, Kotaro Ozasa
It was recently suggested that earlier reports on solid-cancer mortality and incidence in the Life Span Study of atomic-bomb survivors contain still-useful information about low-dose risk that should not be ignored, because longer follow-up may lead to attenuated estimates of low-dose risk due to longer time since exposure. Here it is demonstrated, through the use of all follow-up data and risk models stratified on period of follow-up (as opposed to sub-setting the data by follow-up period), that the appearance of risk attenuation over time may be the result of less-precise risk estimation-in particular, imprecise estimation of effect-modification parameters-in the earlier periods...
November 21, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
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