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Radiation and Environmental Biophysics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027002/camel-molar-tooth-enamel-response-to-gamma-rays-using-epr-spectroscopy
#1
N A El-Faramawy, I El-Somany, A Mansour, A M Maghraby, H Eissa, A Wieser
Tooth enamel samples from molar teeth of camel were prepared using a combined procedure of mechanical and chemical tooth treatment. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, the dose response of tooth enamel samples was examined and compared to that of human enamel. The EPR dose response of the tooth enamel samples was obtained through irradiation to gamma doses from 1 Gy up to 100 kGy. It was found that the radiation-induced EPR signal increased linearly with gamma dose for all studied tooth enamel samples, up to about 15 kGy...
October 12, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993937/cytogenetic-abnormalities-of-the-descendants-of-permanent-residents-of-heavily-contaminated-east-kazakhstan
#2
Nailya Chaizhunusova, Madina Madiyeva, Kimio Tanaka, Masaharu Hoshi, Noriyuki Kawano, Yoshihiro Noso, Nobuo Takeichi, Tolebay Rakhypbekov, Nailya Urazalina, Galina Dovgal, Tamara Rymbaeva, Sholpan Tokanova, Meruert Beisengazina, Kulypash Kembayeva, Ken Inoue
More than 400 nuclear explosion tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) and significant radioactive substances were released. The long-term consequences of the activities at the SNTS and the appearance of any hereditary effects remain insufficiently studied about 25 years after the test site was closed. The population living in villages near the SNTS are considered to have been heavily exposed to external and internal radiation. This study aims to perform an assessment and comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of the inhabitants living near the SNTS, and their first-(F1) and second-(F2) generation children...
October 9, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939964/dose-and-dose-rate-extrapolation-factors-for-malignant-and-non-malignant-health-endpoints-after-exposure-to-gamma-and-neutron-radiation
#3
Van Tran, Mark P Little
Murine experiments were conducted at the JANUS reactor in Argonne National Laboratory from 1970 to 1992 to study the effect of acute and protracted radiation dose from gamma rays and fission neutron whole body exposure. The present study reports the reanalysis of the JANUS data on 36,718 mice, of which 16,973 mice were irradiated with neutrons, 13,638 were irradiated with gamma rays, and 6107 were controls. Mice were mostly Mus musculus, but one experiment used Peromyscus leucopus. For both types of radiation exposure, a Cox proportional hazards model was used, using age as timescale, and stratifying on sex and experiment...
September 22, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929295/characterization-of-phenolic-pellets-for-esr-dosimetry-in-photon-beam-radiotherapy
#4
Salvatore Gallo, Giuseppina Iacoviello, Salvatore Panzeca, Ivan Veronese, Antonio Bartolotta, Daniele Dondi, Anna Maria Gueli, Gianfranco Loi, Anna Longo, Eleonora Mones, Maurizio Marrale
This work deals with the dosimetric features of a particular phenolic compound (IRGANOX 1076(®)) for dosimetry of clinical photon beams by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. After the optimization of the ESR readout parameters (namely modulation amplitude and microwave power) to maximise the signal without excessive spectrum distortions, basic dosimetric properties of laboratory-made phenolic dosimeters in pellet form, such as reproducibility, dose-response, sensitivity, linearity and dose rate dependence were investigated...
September 19, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918482/in-memoriam-prof-dr-j%C3%A3-rgen-kiefer
#5
LETTER
Michael Hausmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916937/the-conversion-of-exposures-due-to-radon-into-the-effective-dose-the-epidemiological-approach
#6
T R Beck
The risks and dose conversion coefficients for residential and occupational exposures due to radon were determined with applying the epidemiological risk models to ICRP representative populations. The dose conversion coefficient for residential radon was estimated with a value of 1.6 mSv year(-1) per 100 Bq m(-3) (3.6 mSv per WLM), which is significantly lower than the corresponding value derived from the biokinetic and dosimetric models. The dose conversion coefficient for occupational exposures with applying the risk models for miners was estimated with a value of 14 mSv per WLM, which is in good accordance with the results of the dosimetric models...
September 15, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913689/the-evaluation-of-protective-effect-of-lycopene-against-genotoxic-influence-of-x-irradiation-in-human-blood-lymphocytes
#7
Aneta Gajowik, Małgorzata M Dobrzyńska
Many studies suggest that exogenous antioxidants may protect cells against DNA damage caused with ionizing radiation. One of the most powerful antioxidants is lycopene (LYC), a carotenoid derived from tomatoes. The aim of this study was to investigate, using the comet assay, whether LYC can act as protectors/modifiers and prevent DNA damage induced in human blood lymphocytes, as well as to mitigate the effects of radiation exposure. In this project, LYC, dissolved in DMSO at a concentration of 10, 20 or 40 μM/ml of cell suspension, was added to the isolated lymphocytes from human blood at appropriate intervals before or after the X-irradiation at doses of 0...
September 14, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889186/local-bone-marrow-exposure-how-to-interpret-the-data-on-stable-chromosome-aberrations-in-circulating-lymphocytes-some-comments-on-the-use-of-fish-method-for-dose-reconstruction-for-techa-riverside-residents
#8
Evgenia I Tolstykh, Marina O Degteva, Alexandra V Vozilova, Lynn R Anspaugh
The method of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) applied to peripheral blood T lymphocytes is used for retrospective dose estimation, and the results obtained from the analysis of stable chromosomal aberrations are usually interpreted as a dose accumulated in the red bone marrow (RBM). However, after local internal exposure of the RBM, doses derived from FISH were found to be lower than those derived from direct measurements of radionuclides accumulated in the bodies of exposed persons. These results were obtained for people residing near the Techa River contaminated by (89,90)Sr (beta-emitters) in 1949-1956 (Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia)...
September 9, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871389/boron-neutron-capture-therapy-bnct-translational-studies-in-the-hamster-cheek-pouch-model-of-oral-cancer-at-the-new-b2-configuration-of-the-ra-6-nuclear-reactor
#9
Andrea Monti Hughes, Juan Longhino, Esteban Boggio, Vanina A Medina, Diego J Martinel Lamas, Marcela A Garabalino, Elisa M Heber, Emiliano C C Pozzi, María E Itoiz, Romina F Aromando, David W Nigg, Verónica A Trivillin, Amanda E Schwint
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on selective accumulation of B-10 carriers in tumor followed by neutron irradiation. We demonstrated, in 2001, the therapeutic effect of BNCT mediated by BPA (boronophenylalanine) in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer, at the RA-6 nuclear reactor. Between 2007 and 2011, the RA-6 was upgraded, leading to an improvement in the performance of the BNCT beam (B2 configuration). Our aim was to evaluate BPA-BNCT radiotoxicity and tumor control in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new "B2" configuration...
September 4, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871381/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-protects-thyroid-cells-against-dna-damage-induced-by-external-and-internal-irradiation
#10
Tomomi Kurashige, Mika Shimamura, Yuji Nagayama
We evaluated the effect of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and micronuclei (MN) induced by internal and external irradiation using a rat thyroid cell line PCCL3. In internal irradiation experiments, ROS and DSB levels increased immediately after (131)I addition and then gradually declined, resulting in very high levels of MN at 24 and 48 h. NAC administration both pre- and also post-(131)I addition suppressed ROS, DSB and MN...
September 4, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866809/how-radiation-influences-atherosclerotic-plaque-development-a-biophysical-approach-in-apoe-formula-see-text-mice
#11
Astrid Kloosterman, Teun van Dillen, Harmen Bijwaard, Sylvia Heeneman, Saske Hoving, Fiona A Stewart, Fieke Dekkers
Atherosclerosis is the development of lipid-laden plaques in arteries and is nowadays considered as an inflammatory disease. It has been shown that high doses of ionizing radiation, as used in radiotherapy, can increase the risk of development or progression of atherosclerosis. To elucidate the effects of radiation on atherosclerosis, we propose a mathematical model to describe radiation-promoted plaque development. This model distinguishes itself from other models by combining plaque initiation and plaque growth, and by incorporating information from biological experiments...
September 2, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849262/the-influence-of-radiotherapy-on-ceruloplasmin-and-transferrin-in-whole-blood-of-breast-cancer-patients
#12
Ryszard Krzyminiewski, Bernadeta Dobosz, Tomasz Kubiak
Ceruloplasmin and transferrin are proteins which play a potential role in the process of breast cancer development. These molecules contain Cu(2+) (ceruloplasmin) or Fe(3+) ions (transferrin) and thus constitute paramagnetic centers, which can be studied using electron paramagnetic resonance method. The aim of the study was to determine how paramagnetic centers in whole blood of breast cancer patients change under the influence of radiation therapy. Samples of whole blood were taken from 17 women with breast cancer treated with radiotherapy...
August 28, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840329/organ-and-effective-dose-rate-coefficients-for-submersion-exposure-in-occupational-settings
#13
K G Veinot, S A Dewji, M M Hiller, K F Eckerman, C E Easterly
External dose coefficients for environmental exposure scenarios are often computed using assumption on infinite or semi-infinite radiation sources. For example, in the case of a person standing on contaminated ground, the source is assumed to be distributed at a given depth (or between various depths) and extending outwards to an essentially infinite distance. In the case of exposure to contaminated air, the person is modeled as standing within a cloud of infinite, or semi-infinite, source distribution. However, these scenarios do not mimic common workplace environments where scatter off walls and ceilings may significantly alter the energy spectrum and dose coefficients...
August 24, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791476/abscopal-effect-of-boron-neutron-capture-therapy-bnct-proof-of-principle-in-an-experimental-model-of-colon-cancer
#14
Verónica A Trivillin, Emiliano C C Pozzi, Lucas L Colombo, Silvia I Thorp, Marcela A Garabalino, Andrea Monti Hughes, Sara J González, Rubén O Farías, Paula Curotto, Gustavo A Santa Cruz, Daniel G Carando, Amanda E Schwint
The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, the abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Twenty-six BDIX rats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1 × 10(6) DHD/K12/TRb syngeneic colon cancer cells in the right hind flank. Three weeks post-inoculation, the right leg of 12 rats bearing the tumor nodule was treated with BPA-BNCT (BPA-Boronophenylalanine) at the RA-3 nuclear reactor located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at an absorbed dose of 7.5 Gy to skin as the dose-limiting tissue...
August 8, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780694/dose-rate-effects-of-low-let-ionizing-radiation-on-fish-cells
#15
Nguyen T K Vo, Colin B Seymour, Carmel E Mothersill
Radiobiological responses of a highly clonogenic fish cell line, eelB, to low-LET ionizing radiation and effects of dose rates were studied. In acute exposure to 0.1-12 Gy of gamma rays, eelB's cell survival curve displayed a linear-quadratic (LQ) relationship. In the LQ model, α, β, and α/β ratio were 0.0024, 0.037, and 0.065, respectively; for the first time that these values were reported for fish cells. In the multi-target model, n, D o, and D q values were determined to be 4.42, 2.16, and 3.21 Gy, respectively, and were the smallest among fish cell lines being examined to date...
August 5, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776193/calculating-the-radiological-parameters-used-in-non-human-biota-dose-assessment-tools-using-erica-tool-and-site-specific-data
#16
Maria Sotiropoulou, Heleny Florou, Georgios Kitis
The substantial complexity in ecosystem-radionuclide interactions is difficult to be represented in terms of radiological doses. Thus, radiological dose assessment tools use typical exposure situations for generalized organisms and ecosystems. In the present study, site-specific data and radioactivity measurements of terrestrial organisms (grass and herbivore mammals) and abiotic components (soil) are provided. The retrieved data are used in combination with the ERICA Assessment Tool for calculation of radiological parameters...
August 3, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643118/comparison-of-photon-organ-and-effective-dose-coefficients-for-pimal-stylized-phantom-in-bent-positions-in-standard-irradiation-geometries
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Shaheen Dewji, K Lisa Reed, Mauritius Hiller
Computational phantoms with articulated arms and legs have been constructed to enable the estimation of radiation dose in different postures. Through a graphical user interface, the Phantom wIth Moving Arms and Legs (PIMAL) version 4.1.0 software can be employed to articulate the posture of a phantom and generate a corresponding input deck for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code. In this work, photon fluence-to-dose coefficients were computed using PIMAL to compare organ and effective doses for a stylized phantom in the standard upright position with those for phantoms in realistic work postures...
August 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639140/determination-of-the-thermal-and-epithermal-neutron-sensitivities-of-an-lbo-chamber
#18
Satoru Endo, Hitoshi Sato, Takuto Shimazaki, Erika Nakajima, Kei Kotani, Mitsuru Suda, Tsuyoshi Hamano, Tsuyoshi Kajimoto, Kenichi Tanaka, Masaharu Hoshi
An LBO (Li2B4O7) walled ionization chamber was designed to monitor the epithermal neutron fluence in boron neutron capture therapy clinical irradiation. The thermal and epithermal neutron sensitivities of the device were evaluated using accelerator neutrons from the (9)Be(d, n) reaction at a deuteron energy of 4 MeV (4 MeV d-Be neutrons). The response of the chamber in terms of the electric charge induced in the LBO chamber was compared with the thermal and epithermal neutron fluences measured using the gold-foil activation method...
August 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623399/endothelial-dysfunction-in-rectal-cancer-patients-chronically-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation
#19
Tolebay Rakhypbekov, Ken Inoue, Laura Pak, Noriyuki Kawano, Nobuo Takeichi, Masaharu Hoshi, Yoshihiro Noso, Nailya Chaizhunusova, Zukhra Manambayeva, Arman Khozhayev, Maulen Molgazhdarov, Sayakhat Olzhaev, Sholpan Tokanova, Madina Madiyeva
We sought to identify the features of endothelial function in rectal cancer patients who were exposed to chronic ionizing radiation from a nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. We examined 146 individuals, 76 of whom were rectal cancer patients. The existence of a complex of disturbances of the endothelium and hemostasis systems in patients vs non-patients was revealed. Endothelial dysfunction was expressed as an increase of nitric oxide (NO) production along with decreases in vasodilatation function, and increased levels of von Willebrand factor in blood, along with an increase in the number of circulating endotheliocytes...
August 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612110/differential-killing-and-radio-modifying-effects-of-iodoacetate-in-mammalian-normal-and-cancer-cells
#20
Usha Yadav, K B Anjaria, Rajesha Nairy, K B Shirsath, Utkarsha N Desai, Rajesh K Chaurasia, Nagesh N Bhat, B K Sapra
To explore possible applications of iodoacetate (IA), a glycolytic inhibitor, in cancer treatment, we screened its cytotoxicity and radioprotective/sensitizing efficacy in three different mammalian cell lines; A549 (human lung carcinoma), MCF7 (human mammary cancer), a non-cancerous CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells and human lymphocytes. Experiments were carried out using IA concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 2.5 µg/ml, with or without (60)Coγ-radiation. In the outcomes, IA was found to exhibit higher toxicity in the cancer cells, whereas it was non-toxic/marginally toxic to the non-cancerous cells...
August 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
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