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Radiation and Environmental Biophysics

A A Akleyev, E A Blinova, Ilya I Dolgushin
Dose- and dose rate-dependent increase in the number of СD3+ СD16+ CD56+ -lymphocytes and lysosomal activity of neutrophils was noted in peripheral blood of the Techa riverside residents with increased level of TCR gene-mutated T lymphocytes long after chronic exposure of predominantly red bone marrow (mean exposure dose was 0.89 ± 0.09 Gy, individual dose range was 0.09-1.96 Gy). The performed analysis showed that the above-mentioned immunological changes could be a response to an increase in the frequency of mutations (TCR mutations in particular) in the cells of exposed individuals...
December 1, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Anne-Laure Perraud, Deviyani M Rao, Elizabeth A Kosmacek, Aleksandra Dagunts, Rebecca E Oberley-Deegan, Fabienne Gally
Radiodermatitis is a painful side effect for cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Irradiation of the skin causes inflammation and breakdown of the epidermis and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality in severe cases, as seen in exposure from accidents or weapons such as "dirty bombs" and ultimately leads to tissue fibrosis. However, the pathogenesis of radiodermatitis is not fully understood. Using a mouse model of radiodermatitis, we showed that the Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) ion channel plays a significant role in the development of dermatitis following exposure to ionizing radiation...
November 27, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Takuya Kanemitsu, Shinji Kawabata, Masao Fukumura, Gen Futamura, Ryo Hiramatsu, Naosuke Nonoguchi, Fumiko Nakagawa, Takushi Takata, Hiroki Tanaka, Minoru Suzuki, Shin-Ichiro Masunaga, Koji Ono, Shin-Ichi Miyatake, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Toshihiko Kuroiwa
Folic acid (FA) has high affinity for the folate receptor (FR), which is limited expressed in normal human tissues, but over-expressed in several tumor cells, including glioblastoma cells. In the present work, a novel pteroyl-closo-dodecaborate conjugate (PBC) was developed, in which the pteroyl group interacts with FR, and the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using PBC was investigated. Thus, in vitro and in vivo studies were performed using F98 rat glioma cells and F98 glioma-bearing rats...
November 24, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Venkateswarlu Raavi, J Surendran, K Karthik, Solomon F D Paul, K Thayalan, J Arunakaran, Perumal Venkatachalam
Radiological accidents and nuclear terrorism pose an increased threat to members of the public who, following such an event, would need to be assessed for medical care by fast triage. Assay methods such as chromosome aberrations (CA), cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques have been well established for dose estimation and their potential for handling more samples has also been proved with automation. However, culturing of lymphocytes is an inevitable step, which limits the potential of these markers for triage...
November 22, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Andrzej Wojcik, Karim Hamza, Iann Lundegård, Margareta Enghag, Karin Haglund, Leena Arvanitis, Linda Schenk
The levels of stochastic health effects following exposure to low doses of ionising radiation are not well known. A consequence of the uncertainty is that any radiation exposure is met with deep concern-both by the public and by scientists who disagree about how the partly conflicting results from low-dose studies should be interpreted. The concern is not limited to ionising radiation but is inherent to other areas of modern technologies such as biotechnology or electromagnetic fields. The everyday presence of advanced technologies confronts people with the necessity to take decisions and there is an ongoing debate regarding both the nature and magnitude of potential risks and how education efforts may empower peoples´ decision-making...
November 22, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
I Słonecka, K Łukasik, K W Fornalski
This article describes the application of a simplified Bayesian method for estimation of doses from a mixed field using cytogenetic biological dosimetry, taking as an example neutron and gamma radiation emitted from the MARIA nuclear research reactor in Poland. The Bayesian approach is a good alternative to the commonly used iterative method, which allows separate dose estimation. In the present paper, a computer program, which uses the iterative and simplified Bayesian methods to calculate mixed radiation doses, is introduced...
November 21, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Miriam Kullmann, Paul F Rühle, Alexandra Harrer, Anna Donaubauer, Ina Becker, Renate Sieber, Gerhart Klein, Claudia Fournier, Rainer Fietkau, Udo S Gaipl, Benjamin Frey
Sustained pain relief following radon spa therapy in patients suffering from chronic painful diseases has been well described. But still, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We conducted the prospective and explorative RAD-ON01 study which included 103 patients who suffered from chronic painful musculoskeletal disorders of the spine and/or joints and present here the data of the examination of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum of the patients before and at weeks 6, 12 and 30 after therapy...
November 19, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
K N Apsalikov, A Lipikhina, B Grosche, T Belikhina, E Ostroumova, S Shinkarev, V Stepanenko, T Muldagaliev, S Yoshinaga, T Zhunussova, M Hoshi, H Katayama, D T Lackland, S L Simon, A Kesminiene
Direct quantitative assessment of health risks following exposure to ionizing radiation is based on findings from epidemiological studies. Populations affected by nuclear bomb testing are among those that allow such assessment. The population living around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site is one of the largest human cohorts exposed to radiation from nuclear weapons tests. Following research that started in the 1960s, a registry that contains information on more than 300,000 individuals residing in the areas neighboring to the test site was established...
November 16, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
R Vali, M E Adelikhah, S A H Feghhi, O Noorikalkhoran, R Ahangari
Radiological dose assessment is one of the main categories of safety assessment for nuclear reactors and facilities. The radiation risks to the public and to the environment that may arise from these facilities have to be assessed and, if necessary, controlled. The main objective of this paper is the assessment of radiation doses to residents of Tehran province after a hypothetical accident of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) including the determination of any protective actions that might be needed for the benefit of people's health...
November 12, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Mariana Baptista, Salvatore Di Maria, Sandra Vieira, Joana Santos, Joana Pereira, Miguel Pereira, Pedro Vaz
Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is widely used for pre-treatment verification and patient setup in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). CBCT imaging is employed daily and several times per patient, resulting in potentially high cumulative imaging doses to healthy tissues that surround exposed target organs. Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) is the parameter used by CBCT equipment as indication of the radiation output to patients. This study aimed to increase the knowledge on the relation between CBCT organ doses and weighted CTDI (CTDIW ) for a thorax scanning protocol...
November 3, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Franck Carbonero, Alba C Mayta-Apaza, Jiang-Zhou Yu, Matt Lindeblad, Alex Lyubimov, Flavia Neri, Erzsebet Szilagyi, Amelia Bartholomew
In rodent studies, the gut microbiota has been implicated in facilitating both radioresistance, by protecting the epithelium from apoptotic responses and radiosensitivity, inducing endothelial apoptotic responses. Despite the observation that large animal models, such as the Chinese Rhesus macaque and the Gottingen Minipig, demonstrate similarity to human physiologic responses to radiation, little is known about radiation-induced changes of the gut microbiome in these models. To compare the two models, we used bioequivalent radiation doses which resulted in an LD50 for Gottingen Minipigs and Chinese Rhesus macaques, 1...
November 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
D V Ivanov, E A Shishkina, D I Osipov, V I Starichenko, S N Bayankin, M V Zhukovsky, E A Pryakhin
Otoliths are the organs which fish use for hearing and keeping balance. Otoliths are the most calcified tissues in the fish body. In contrast to bones, otoliths are not affected by remodeling and, therefore, they are expected to accumulate any dose from ionizing radiation during lifetime. Therefore, EPR dosimetry with fish otoliths could be an important tool for dose reconstruction in radiobiology and radioecology. It could also provide useful information remediation actions to de-contaminate waterbodies. Consequently, in the present study, otoliths of three contaminated fish species (roach (Rutilus rutilus), pike (Esox lucius) and perch (Perca Fluviatilis)) were examined with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy...
November 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Mohammad Abuqbeitah, Mustafa Demir, İffet Çavdar, Handan Tanyildizi, Nami Yeyin, Lebriz Uslu-Beşli, Levent Kabasakal, Nazenin İpek Işıkcı, Kerim Sönmezoğlu
The aim of the present study was to review the available models developed for calculating red bone marrow dose in radioiodine therapy using clinical data. The study includes 18 patients (12 females and six males) with metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer. Radioiodine tracer of 73 ± 16 MBq 131 I was orally administered, followed by blood sampling (2 ml) and whole-body scans (WBSs) done at several time points (2, 6, 24, 48, 72, and ≥ 96 h). Red bone marrow dose was estimated using the OLINDA/EXM 1...
November 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Eder J Guidelli, Iara S Lima, Oswaldo Baffa
The risk of a radiation episode has increased in the last years due to several reasons. In case of a nuclear incident, as with the use of an improvised nuclear device, determination of the radiation doses received by the victims is of utmost importance to define the appropriate medical treatment or to monitor the late effects of radiation. Dose assessment in case of accidents can be performed using commonplace materials found in the accident area. In this paper, the dosimetric properties of monosodium glutamate are investigated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), for retrospective and accidental dosimetry...
November 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Ali Neshastehriz, Zohreh Khosravi, Habib Ghaznavi, Ali Shakeri-Zadeh
Recently, gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (Au@IONPs) have received a great deal of attention in cancer therapy. In this in vitro study we aimed to investigate the anti-cancer effects of Au@IONPs core-shell nanoparticles when applied in thermo-radiotherapy. Moreover, we investigated the level of apoptosis induced in U87-MG human glioma cells after receiving a combinatorial treatment regimen (Au@IONPs + hyperthermia + radiotherapy). Firstly, the Au@IONPs nanocomplex was prepared and characterized...
November 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Uwe Schneider, Linda Walsh, Wayne Newhauser
Obtaining a correct dose-response relationship for radiation-induced cancer after radiotherapy presents a major challenge for epidemiological studies. The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of the associated uncertainties. To accomplish this goal, some aspects of an epidemiological study on breast cancer following radiotherapy of Hodgkin's disease were simulated with Monte Carlo methods. It is demonstrated that although the doses to the breast volume are calculated by one treatment plan, the locations and sizes of the induced secondary breast tumours can be simulated and, based on these simulated locations and sizes, the absorbed doses at the site of tumour incidence can also be simulated...
November 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
K Bales, S Dewji, E Sanchez
Neutron dose coefficients for standard irradiation geometries have been reported in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 116 for the ICRP Publication 110 adult reference phantoms. In the present work, organ and effective dose coefficients have been calculated for a receptor in both upright and articulated (bent) postures representing more realistic working postures exposed to a mono-energetic neutron radiation field. This work builds upon prior work by Dewji and co-workers comparing upright and bent postures for exposure to mono-energetic photon fields...
November 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
G M Kendall, P Chernyavskiy, J D Appleton, J C H Miles, R Wakeford, M Athanson, T J Vincent, N P McColl, M P Little
Gamma radiation from naturally occurring sources (including directly ionizing cosmic-rays) is a major component of background radiation. An understanding of the magnitude and variation of doses from these sources is important, and the ability to predict them is required for epidemiological studies. In the present paper, indoor measurements of naturally occurring gamma-rays at representative locations in Great Britain are summarized. It is shown that, although the individual measurement data appear unimodal, the distribution of gamma-ray dose-rates when averaged over relatively small areas, which probably better represents the underlying distribution with inter-house variation reduced, appears bimodal...
November 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Serine Sarra Bouacid, Fayçal Kharfi, Fouad Boulakhssaim
In this work, dose measurements were performed to evaluate an external radiotherapy treatment plan and, particularly, to validate dose calculations for a lung lesion case. Doses were calculated by the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system using the AAA anisotropic analytical algorithm. The measurements were performed using a Rando anthropomorphic phantom and TLD700 thermoluminescent dosimeters. The comparison between doses calculated and doses measured by means of thermoluminescence (TL) shows compatibility except for a few points, due to the limitations in the heterogeneity correction used for the case studied here...
September 11, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Vladimir Spielmann, Wei Bo Li, Maria Zankl
Internal dosimetry after incorporation of radionuclides requires standardized biokinetic and dosimetric models. The aim of the present work was to identify the parameters and the components of the models which contribute most to dosimetric uncertainty. For this a method was developed allowing for the calculation of the uncertainties of the absorbed dose coefficients. More specifically, the sampling-based regression method and the variance-based method were used to develop and apply a global method of sensitivity analysis...
August 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
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