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Radiation and Environmental Biophysics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653124/epr-spectral-investigation-of-radiation-induced-radicals-of-gallic-acid
#1
Hasan Tuner
In the present work, spectroscopic features of the radiation-induced radicals of gallic acid compounds were investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. While un-irradiated samples presented no EPR signal, irradiated samples exhibited an EPR spectrum consisting of an intense resonance line at the center and weak lines on both sides. Detailed microwave saturation investigations were carried out to determine the origin of the experimental EPR lines. It is concluded that the two side lines of the triplet satellite originate from forbidden "spin-flip" transitions...
June 26, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643118/comparison-of-photon-organ-and-effective-dose-coefficients-for-pimal-stylized-phantom-in-bent-positions-in-standard-irradiation-geometries
#2
Shaheen Dewji, K Lisa Reed, Mauritius Hiller
Computational phantoms with articulated arms and legs have been constructed to enable the estimation of radiation dose in different postures. Through a graphical user interface, the Phantom wIth Moving Arms and Legs (PIMAL) version 4.1.0 software can be employed to articulate the posture of a phantom and generate a corresponding input deck for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code. In this work, photon fluence-to-dose coefficients were computed using PIMAL to compare organ and effective doses for a stylized phantom in the standard upright position with those for phantoms in realistic work postures...
August 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639140/determination-of-the-thermal-and-epithermal-neutron-sensitivities-of-an-lbo-chamber
#3
Satoru Endo, Hitoshi Sato, Takuto Shimazaki, Erika Nakajima, Kei Kotani, Mitsuru Suda, Tsuyoshi Hamano, Tsuyoshi Kajimoto, Kenichi Tanaka, Masaharu Hoshi
An LBO (Li2B4O7) walled ionization chamber was designed to monitor the epithermal neutron fluence in boron neutron capture therapy clinical irradiation. The thermal and epithermal neutron sensitivities of the device were evaluated using accelerator neutrons from the (9)Be(d, n) reaction at a deuteron energy of 4 MeV (4 MeV d-Be neutrons). The response of the chamber in terms of the electric charge induced in the LBO chamber was compared with the thermal and epithermal neutron fluences measured using the gold-foil activation method...
August 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623399/endothelial-dysfunction-in-rectal-cancer-patients-chronically-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation
#4
Tolebay Rakhypbekov, Ken Inoue, Laura Pak, Noriyuki Kawano, Nobuo Takeichi, Masaharu Hoshi, Yoshihiro Noso, Nailya Chaizhunusova, Zukhra Manambayeva, Arman Khozhayev, Maulen Molgazhdarov, Sayakhat Olzhaev, Sholpan Tokanova, Madina Madiyeva
We sought to identify the features of endothelial function in rectal cancer patients who were exposed to chronic ionizing radiation from a nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. We examined 146 individuals, 76 of whom were rectal cancer patients. The existence of a complex of disturbances of the endothelium and hemostasis systems in patients vs non-patients was revealed. Endothelial dysfunction was expressed as an increase of nitric oxide (NO) production along with decreases in vasodilatation function, and increased levels of von Willebrand factor in blood, along with an increase in the number of circulating endotheliocytes...
August 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612110/differential-killing-and-radio-modifying-effects-of-iodoacetate-in-mammalian-normal-and-cancer-cells
#5
Usha Yadav, K B Anjaria, Rajesha Nairy, K B Shirsath, Utkarsha N Desai, Rajesh K Chaurasia, Nagesh N Bhat, B K Sapra
To explore possible applications of iodoacetate (IA), a glycolytic inhibitor, in cancer treatment, we screened its cytotoxicity and radioprotective/sensitizing efficacy in three different mammalian cell lines; A549 (human lung carcinoma), MCF7 (human mammary cancer), a non-cancerous CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells and human lymphocytes. Experiments were carried out using IA concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 2.5 µg/ml, with or without (60)Coγ-radiation. In the outcomes, IA was found to exhibit higher toxicity in the cancer cells, whereas it was non-toxic/marginally toxic to the non-cancerous cells...
August 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612109/erratum-to-risk-of-cancer-incidence-before-the-age-of-15%C3%A2-years-after-exposure-to-ionising-radiation-from-computed-tomography-results-from-a-german-cohort-study
#6
L Krille, S Dreger, R Schindel, T Albrecht, M Asmussen, J Barkhausen, J D Berthold, A Chavan, C Claussen, M Forsting, E A L Gianicolo, K Jablonka, A Jahnen, M Langer, M Laniado, J Lotz, H J Mentzel, A Queißer-Wahrendorf, O Rompel, J Schlick, K Schneider, M Schumacher, M Seidenbusch, C Spix, B Spors, G Staatz, T Vogl, J Wagner, G Weisser, H Zeeb, M Blettner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526979/the-probabilities-of-one-and-multi-track-events-for-modeling-radiation-induced-cell-kill
#7
Uwe Schneider, Fabiano Vasi, Jürgen Besserer
In view of the clinical importance of hypofractionated radiotherapy, track models which are based on multi-hit events are currently reinvestigated. These models are often criticized, because it is believed that the probability of multi-track hits is negligible. In this work, the probabilities for one- and multi-track events are determined for different biological targets. The obtained probabilities can be used with nano-dosimetric cluster size distributions to obtain the parameters of track models. We quantitatively determined the probabilities for one- and multi-track events for 100, 500 and 1000 keV electrons, respectively...
August 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526978/cytogenetic-biodosimetry-and-dose-rate-effect-after-radioiodine-therapy-for-thyroid-cancer
#8
Igor K Khvostunov, Vladimir A Saenko, Valeri Krylov, Andrei Rodichev, Shunichi Yamashita
This study set out to investigate chromosomal damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of thyroid cancer patients receiving (131)I for thyroid remnant ablation or treatment of metastatic disease. The observed chromosomal damage was further converted to the estimates of whole-body dose to project the adverse side effects. Chromosomal aberration analysis was performed in 24 patients treated for the first time or after multiple courses. Blood samples were collected before treatment and 3 or 4 days after administration of 2-4 GBq of (131)I...
August 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500389/degradation-of-phospholipids-under-different-types-of-irradiation-and-varying-oxygen-saturation
#9
Luděk Vyšín, Kateřina Tomanová, Tereza Pavelková, Richard Wagner, Marie Davídková, Viliam Múčka, Václav Čuba, Libor Juha
The effects of different types of radiation on the formation of peroxide forms of 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were studied under various conditions. For the irradiation, an aqueous solution of small unilamellar vesicles was prepared. Variations in parameters such as the dose rate and molecular oxygen saturation levels were evaluated. Our study suggests that the mechanism of the peroxides formation process remains unchanged under irradiation by accelerated electrons, gamma and accelerated protons...
August 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493137/effective-dose-rate-coefficients-for-exposure-to-contaminated-soil
#10
K G Veinot, K F Eckerman, M B Bellamy, M M Hiller, S A Dewji, C E Easterly, N E Hertel, R Manger
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge has undertaken calculations related to various environmental exposure scenarios. A previous paper reported the results for submersion in radioactive air and immersion in water using age-specific mathematical phantoms. This paper presents age-specific effective dose rate coefficients derived using stylized mathematical phantoms for exposure to contaminated soils. Dose rate coefficients for photon, electron, and positrons of discrete energies were calculated and folded with emissions of 1252 radionuclides addressed in ICRP Publication 107 to determine equivalent and effective dose rate coefficients...
August 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374124/external-dose-reconstruction-for-the-former-village-of-metlino-techa-river-russia-based-on-environmental-surveys-luminescence-measurements-and-radiation-transport-modelling
#11
M M Hiller, C Woda, N G Bougrov, M O Degteva, O Ivanov, A Ulanovsky, S Romanov
In the first years of its operation, the Mayak Production Association, a facility part of the Soviet nuclear weapons program in the Southern Urals, Russia, discharged large amounts of radioactively contaminated effluent into the nearby Techa River, thus exposing the people living at this river to external and internal radiations. The Techa River Cohort is a cohort intensely studied in epidemiology to investigate the correlation between low-dose radiation and health effects on humans. For the individuals in the cohort, the Techa River Dosimetry System describes the accumulated dose in human organs and tissues...
May 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337587/erratum-to-internal-exposure-to-neutron-activated-56-mn-dioxide-powder-in-wistar-rats-part%C3%A2-2-pathological-effects
#12
Kazuko Shichijo, Nariaki Fujimoto, Darkhan Uzbekov, Ynkar Kairkhanova, Aisulu Saimova, Nailya Chaizhunusova, Nurlan Sayakenov, Dariya Shabdarbaeva, Nurlan Aukenov, Almas Azimkhanov, Alexander Kolbayenkov, Zhanna Mussazhanova, Daisuke Niino, Masahiro Nakashima, Kassym Zhumadilov, Valeriy Stepanenko, Masao Tomonaga, Tolebay Rakhypbekov, Masaharu Hoshi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337586/the-role-of-fluoride-and-chlorhexidine-in-preserving-hardness-and-mineralization-of-enamel-and-cementum-after-gamma-irradiation
#13
Rowida Abdalla, Maha A Niazy, Wael E Jamil, Hala A Hazzaa, Amal A Elbatouti
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 0.05% sodium fluoride and 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwashes on the micro-hardness of tooth enamel and cementum that was exposed to therapeutic doses of gamma radiation. Sixty extracted human teeth were divided into two groups, one was irradiated, the other was not irradiated. The two groups were further subdivided into three subgroups, which were each treated either with 0.05% sodium fluoride or with 0.12% chlorhexidine; the third subgroup served as a control...
May 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337585/background-gamma-radiation-and-childhood-cancer-in-germany-an-ecological-study
#14
Claudia Spix, Bernd Grosche, Martin Bleher, Peter Kaatsch, Peter Scholz-Kreisel, Maria Blettner
The relationship of low-dose background gamma radiation and childhood leukaemia was investigated in a number of studies. Results from these studies are inconclusive. Therefore, in the present study 25 years of German childhood cancer data were analyzed using interpolated background annual gamma dose rate per community in an ecological study. The main question was leukaemia; as exploratory questions we investigate central nervous system (CNS) tumours, thyroid carcinomas and diagnoses less likely to be related to radiation...
May 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283750/the-effects-of-simulating-a-realistic-eye-model-on-the-eye-dose-of-an-adult-male-undergoing-head-computed-tomography
#15
Parisa Akhlaghi, Atiyeh Ebrahimi-Khankook, Alireza Vejdani-Noghreiyan
In head computed tomography, radiation upon the eye lens (as an organ with high radiosensitivity) may cause lenticular opacity and cataracts. Therefore, quantitative dose assessment due to exposure of the eye lens and surrounding tissue is a matter of concern. For this purpose, an accurate eye model with realistic geometry and shape, in which different eye substructures are considered, is needed. To calculate the absorbed radiation dose of visual organs during head computed tomography scans, in this study, an existing sophisticated eye model was inserted at the related location in the head of the reference adult male phantom recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)...
May 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271222/in-memoriam-ilya-aronovich-likhtarev-1935-2017
#16
LETTER
Mikhail I Balonov, Volodymyr Berkovskyy, André Bouville, Lynn R Anspaugh, Herwig G Paretzke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258386/assessing-the-combined-effect-of-extremely-low-frequency-magnetic-field-exposure-and-oxidative-stress-on-line-1-promoter-methylation-in-human-neural-cells
#17
Gianfranco Giorgi, Chiara Pirazzini, Maria Giulia Bacalini, Cristina Giuliani, Paolo Garagnani, Miriam Capri, Ferdinando Bersani, Brunella Del Re
Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) have been classified as "possibly carcinogenic", but their genotoxic effects are still unclear. Recent findings indicate that epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the genome dysfunction and it is well known that they are affected by environmental factors. To our knowledge, to date the question of whether exposure to ELF-MF can influence epigenetic modifications has been poorly addressed. In this paper, we investigated whether exposure to ELF-MF alone and in combination with oxidative stress (OS) can affect DNA methylation, which is one of the most often studied epigenetic modification...
May 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258385/radioactivity-in-mushrooms-from-selected-locations-in-the-bohemian-forest-czech-republic
#18
Michaela Čadová, Renata Havránková, Jiří Havránek, Friedo Zölzer
(137)Cs is one of the most important radionuclides released in the course of atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and during accidents in nuclear power plants such as that in Chernobyl, Ukraine, or Fukushima, Japan. The aim of this study was to compare (137)Cs and (40)K concentrations in particular species of mushrooms from selected locations in the Bohemian Forest (Czech: Šumava), Czech Republic, where a considerable contamination from the Chernobyl accident had been measured in 1986. Samples were collected between June and October 2014...
May 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124098/measurements-of-radon-activity-concentration-in-mouse-tissues-and-organs
#19
Yuu Ishimori, Hiroshi Tanaka, Akihiro Sakoda, Takahiro Kataoka, Kiyonori Yamaoka, Fumihiro Mitsunobu
The purpose of this study is to investigate the biokinetics of inhaled radon, radon activity concentrations in mouse tissues and organs were determined after mice had been exposed to about 1 MBq/m(3) of radon in air. Radon activity concentrations in mouse blood and in other tissues and organs were measured with a liquid scintillation counter and with a well-type HP Ge detector, respectively. Radon activity concentration in mouse blood was 0.410 ± 0.016 Bq/g when saturated with 1 MBq/m(3) of radon activity concentration in air...
May 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184999/rosiglitazone-enhances-radiosensitivity-by-inhibiting-repair-of-dna-damage-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#20
Zhengzhe An, Jae-Ran Yu, Woo-Yoon Park
Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the main treatment modalities for cervical cancer. Rosiglitazone (ROSI) has been reported to have antiproliferative effects against various types of cancer cells and also to induce antioxidant enzymes that can scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby modify radiosensitivity. Here, we explored the effect of ROSI on radiosensitivity and the underlying mechanisms in cervical cancer cells. Three cervical cancer cell lines (ME-180, HeLa, and SiHa) were used. The cells were pretreated with ROSI and then irradiated...
March 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
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