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Journal of Research in Personality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781390/virtual-personalities-using-computational-modeling-to-understand-within-person-variability
#1
Stephen J Read, Benjamin Smith, Vitaliya Droutman, Lynn C Miller
How can the same underlying psychological/neurobiological system result in both stable between-individual differences and high levels of within-individual variability in personality states over time and situations? We argue that both types of variability result from a psychological system based on structured, chronic motivations, where behavior at a specific point in time is a joint function of the current availability of motive affordances in the situation, current motivationally relevant bodily or interoceptive states, and the result of the competition among alternative active motives...
August 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584388/relations-of-positive-and-negative-expressivity-and-effortful-control-to-kindergarteners-student-teacher-relationship-academic-engagement-and-externalizing-problems-at-school
#2
Anjolii Diaz, Nancy Eisenberg, Carlos Valiente, Sarah VanSchyndel, Tracy L Spinrad, Rebecca Berger, Maciel M Hernandez, Kassondra M Silva, Jody Southworth
The current study examined the role of naturally-occurring negative and positive emotion expressivity in kindergarten and children's effortful control (EC) on their relationships with teachers, academic engagement, and problems behaviors in school. Further, the potential moderating role of EC on these important school outcomes was assessed. Emotion and engagement were observed at school. EC was assessed by multiple methods. Teachers reported on their student-teacher relationships and student's externalizing behaviors...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579657/from-elementary-school-to-midlife-childhood-personality-predicts-behavior-during-cognitive-testing-over-four-decades-later
#3
Christopher S Nave, Grant W Edmonds, Sarah E Hampson, Theresa Murzyn, Kyle S Sauerberger
The current study uses a prospective, longitudinal design and lifespan perspective to understand how child personality relates to directly observed adult behavior during cognitive testing. Teacher assessments of child Big Five personality in elementary school were correlated with directly observed behaviors during a videotaped cognitive test four decades later. Past work suggested Openness and Conscientiousness may relate to task-relevant academic behaviors. Childhood Openness was associated with several behaviors, even after controlling for participant's cognitive performance...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529391/getting-to-the-heart-of-personality-in-early-childhood-cardiac-electrophysiology-and-stability-of-temperament
#4
Mengjiao Li, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Susan D Calkins, Martha Ann Bell
Can detection of highly stable individual differences in temperament in early childhood be enhanced using measures of resting heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)? The current longitudinal study (N = 216, 50% female; two to four years old) tested the statistical moderating effects of longitudinal change in resting HR and RSA on stability of mother-rated temperament. Children with the smallest decreases in resting HR and smallest increases in resting RSA had the most stable individual differences in effortful control...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479643/toddler-emotional-states-temperamental-traits-and-their-interaction-associations-with-mothers-and-fathers-parenting
#5
Margaret A Fields, Pamela M Cole, Mirella C Maggi
We investigated the degree to which toddlers' observed emotional states, toddlers' temperamental traits, and their interaction accounted for variance in mothers' and fathers' parenting. Main effects of two emotional states (positive emotion and negative emotion), three temperamental traits (negative affectivity, effortful control, and surgency) as well as state-by-trait interactions, were examined in relation to parental sensitivity, positive affect, and negative affect. The hypothesis that toddlers' temperamental traits would moderate the association between their observed emotional states and parenting was partially supported...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416889/predicting-toddler-temperamental-approach-withdrawal-contributions-of-early-approach-tendencies-parenting-behavior-and-contextual-novelty
#6
Mairin E Augustine, Kameron J Moding, Cynthia A Stifter
Research suggests that temperamental approach-withdrawal is subject to parenting influences, but few studies have explored how specific parenting behaviors and contextual novelty contribute to the observed pattern of effects. The present study examined associations between infant temperamental approach, mother behavior while introducing novel objects (12 months) and temperamental approach-withdrawal in toddlerhood (18 months) in a sample of 132 infants (68 males). Maternal positive affect predicted more toddler approach-withdrawal for high-approach infants and maternal stimulation predicted less toddler approach-withdrawal for low-approach infants; however, these patterns varied with intensity of novelty in both parenting and toddler outcome contexts...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408770/personality-in-the-age-of-industry-structure-heritability-and-correlates-of-personality-in-middle-childhood-from-the-perspective-of-parents-teachers-and-children
#7
D Angus Clark, C Emily Durbin, Brian M Hicks, William G Iacono, Matt McGue
Middle childhood is a crucial juncture in the lifespan where children work towards achieving a sense of competence foundational for future development. However, middle childhood has historically been underrepresented in the personality literature. The current study provides a comprehensive examination of personality in middle childhood using a large (N = 2510), longitudinal sample of 10- to 12-year-old twins. The structure, heritability, and correlates of personality in this period were investigated using personality ratings of parents, teachers, and children...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408769/variable-and-person-centered-approaches-to-examining-temperament-vulnerability-and-resilience-to-the-effects-of-contextual-risk
#8
Lyndsey Moran, Liliana J Lengua, Maureen Zalewski, Erika Ruberry, Melanie Klien, Stephanie Thompson, Cara Kiff
Using both variable- and person-centered approaches, this study examined the role of temperament in relation to children's vulnerable or resilient responses to cumulative risk. Observed reactivity and regulation dimensions of temperament were tested as mediating and moderating the relation between family cumulative risk and teacher-reported adjustment problems in a sample of 259 preschool-age children. Further, latent profile analyses were used to examine whether profiles of temperament, accounting for multiple characteristics simultaneously, provided additional information about the role of temperament in children's responses to risk...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649150/personality-and-frailty-evidence-from-four-samples
#9
Yannick Stephan, Angelina R Sutin, Brice Canada, Antonio Terracciano
Frailty is a prevalent geriatric syndrome. Little is known about the psychological factors associated with this syndrome. Based on four large samples of older adults aged from 65 to 104 years old, the present study examined whether personality traits are related to frailty. High neuroticism, low conscientiousness, low extraversion, low openness and low agreeableness were related to higher frailty across samples. Longitudinal analysis conducted in one sample revealed that high neuroticism was associated with worsening frailty over an 8-year period...
February 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461710/the-value-of-a-purposeful-life-sense-of-purpose-predicts-greater-income-and-net-worth
#10
Patrick L Hill, Nicholas A Turiano, Daniel K Mroczek, Anthony L Burrow
Having a sense of purpose in life appears valuable across life domains, though it remains unclear whether purpose also provides financial value to individuals. The current study examined sense of purpose as a predictor of concurrent and longitudinal income and net worth levels, using two waves of the MIDUS sample of adults (N = 4660 across both assessments). Participants who reported a higher sense of purpose had higher levels of household income and net worth initially, and were more likely to increase on these financial outcomes over the nine years between assessments...
December 2016: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551162/stress-related-changes-in-personality-a-longitudinal-study-of-perceived-stress-and-trait-pessimism
#11
Grant S Shields, Loren L Toussaint, George M Slavich
Although research has shown that certain aspects of personality can change over time, the determinants of such change remain unclear. Stress alters neural dynamics and precipitates disorders that shape personality traits involving negative affectivity. In this study, therefore, we assessed the perceived stress and pessimism levels of 332 young, middle-aged, and older adults for five weeks to examine how levels of stress and pessimism change and interrelate over time. The best fitting longitudinal model was a bivariate latent growth curve model, which indicated that stress and pessimism both changed and exhibited significant variability in change over time...
October 2016: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042186/are-parenting-practices-associated-with-the-development-of-narcissism-findings-from-a-longitudinal-study-of-mexican-origin-youth
#12
Eunike Wetzel, Richard W Robins
Narcissism is an important and consequential aspect of personality, yet we know little about its developmental origins. Using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin families, we examined cross-lagged relations between parenting behaviors (warmth, hostility, monitoring) and narcissism (superiority, exploitativeness). Parental hostility at age 12 was associated with higher levels of exploitativeness at age 14, whereas parental monitoring at age 12 was associated with lower levels of exploitativeness at age 14...
August 2016: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765998/a-longitudinal-investigation-of-predictors-of-the-association-between-age-3-and-age-6-behavioural-inhibition
#13
Victoria C Johnson, Thomas M Olino, Daniel N Klein, Margaret W Dyson, Sara J Bufferd, C Emily Durbin, Lea R Dougherty, Elizabeth P Hayden
Children who exhibit elevated levels of the temperament trait behavioural inhibition (BI) across time may be at greatest risk for anxiety. However, little research has investigated the influence of other temperamental traits, particularly positive emotionality (PE), on the continuity of BI in childhood, nor whether parental overprotection influences associations between early and later child BI. To explore whether PE and overprotection shape associations between early and later BI, this longitudinal study of three-year-olds (N = 446) followed up at age 6 included tasks tapping child temperament, and parental overprotection was assessed via interview ratings and parent-report...
August 2016: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110044/eavesdropping-on-character-assessing-everyday-moral-behaviors
#14
Kathryn L Bollich, John M Doris, Simine Vazire, Charles L Raison, Joshua J Jackson, Matthias R Mehl
Despite decades of interest in moral character, comparatively little is known about moral behavior in everyday life. This paper reports a novel method for assessing everyday moral behaviors using the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR)-a digital audio-recorder that intermittently samples snippets of ambient sounds from people's environments-and examines the stability of these moral behaviors. In three samples (combined N = 186), participants wore an EAR over one or two weekends. Audio files were coded for everyday moral behaviors (e...
April 2016: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949275/-dis-similarity-in-impulsivity-and-marital-satisfaction-a-comparison-of-volatility-compatibility-and-incompatibility-hypotheses
#15
Jaye L Derrick, Rebecca J Houston, Brian M Quigley, Maria Testa, Audrey Kubiak, Ash Levitt, Gregory G Homish, Kenneth E Leonard
Impulsivity is negatively associated with relationship satisfaction, but whether relationship functioning is harmed or helped when both partners are high in impulsivity is unclear. The influence of impulsivity might be exacerbated (the Volatility Hypothesis) or reversed (the Compatibility Hypothesis). Alternatively, discrepancies in impulsivity might be particularly problematic (the Incompatibility Hypothesis). Behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity were collected from a community sample of couples...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26778865/is-valuing-happiness-associated-with-lower-well-being-a-factor-level-analysis-using-the-valuing-happiness-scale
#16
Maike Luhmann, Elizabeth A Necka, Felix D Schönbrodt, Louise C Hawkley
Recent studies suggest that valuing happiness is negatively associated with well-being. Most of these studies used the Valuing Happiness Scale (Mauss, Tamir, et al., 2011). In the present paper, we examined the factor structure of this scale using data pooled from six independent samples (Ntotal = 938). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Valuing Happiness Scale is not unidimensional and that only one of its three factors correlates negatively with various indicators of well-being, whereas non-significant or positive correlations were found for the other factors...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26392641/regulating-emotion-and-identity-by-narrating-harm
#17
Monisha Pasupathi, Jacob Billitteri, Cade D Mansfield, Cecilia Wainryb, Grace E Hanley, Kiana Taheri
This study examined how narration of harm experiences can regulate self and emotions in ways relevant to well-being. Participants (n = 88, 65% female) were asked to provide 6 narratives about instances when they were victims of harm and 6 narratives about instances when they were perpetrators of harm. Narratives were coded for extent of exploration, growth, damage conclusions and resolution. Participants drew damage conclusions more frequently in victim narratives and growth conclusions more frequently in perpetrator narratives...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26327738/personality-traits-and-body-mass-index-in-asian-populations
#18
Angelina R Sutin, Yannick Stephan, Lei Wang, Shoumin Gao, Ping Wang, Antonio Terracciano
Research on personality and adiposity has focused primarily on Western samples; less is known about the personality correlates of BMI in Asian populations. We examined the association between personality and Body Mass Index (BMI) among community-dwelling Japanese adults (N=380), Chinese adolescents (N=5,882), and a meta-analysis inclusive of a published Korean sample (total N=10,304). In the new samples and meta-analysis, Extraversion and Agreeableness were associated with higher BMI among men. In contrast to what is often found in Western samples, Conscientiousness was mostly unrelated to adiposity...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26097268/whole-trait-theory
#19
William Fleeson, Eranda Jayawickreme
Personality researchers should modify models of traits to include mechanisms of differential reaction to situations. Whole Trait Theory does so via five main points. First, the descriptive side of traits should be conceptualized as density distributions of states. Second, it is important to provide an explanatory account of the Big 5 traits. Third, adding an explanatory account to the Big 5 creates two parts to traits, an explanatory part and a descriptive part, and these two parts should be recognized as separate entities that are joined into whole traits...
June 1, 2015: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158171/cross-cultural-evidence-for-the-two-facet-structure-of-pride
#20
Yan Shi, Joanne M Chung, Joey T Cheng, Jessica L Tracy, Richard W Robins, Xiao Chen, Yong Zheng
Across six studies conducted in Mainland China and South Korea, the present research extended prior findings showing that pride is comprised of two distinct conceptual and experiential facets in the U.S.: a pro-social, achievement-oriented "authentic pride", and an arrogant, self-aggrandizing "hubristic pride". This same two-facet structure emerged in Chinese participants' semantic conceptualizations of pride (Study 1), Chinese and Koreans' dispositional tendencies to experience pride (Studies 2, 3a, and 3b), Chinese and Koreans' momentary pride experiences (Studies 3a, 3b, and 5), and Americans' pride experiences using descriptors derived indigenously in Korea (Study 4)...
April 2015: Journal of Research in Personality
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