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Journal of Research in Personality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551162/stress-related-changes-in-personality-a-longitudinal-study-of-perceived-stress-and-trait-pessimism
#1
Grant S Shields, Loren L Toussaint, George M Slavich
Although research has shown that certain aspects of personality can change over time, the determinants of such change remain unclear. Stress alters neural dynamics and precipitates disorders that shape personality traits involving negative affectivity. In this study, therefore, we assessed the perceived stress and pessimism levels of 332 young, middle-aged, and older adults for five weeks to examine how levels of stress and pessimism change and interrelate over time. The best fitting longitudinal model was a bivariate latent growth curve model, which indicated that stress and pessimism both changed and exhibited significant variability in change over time...
October 2016: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765998/a-longitudinal-investigation-of-predictors-of-the-association-between-age-3-and-age-6-behavioural-inhibition
#2
Victoria C Johnson, Thomas M Olino, Daniel N Klein, Margaret W Dyson, Sara J Bufferd, C Emily Durbin, Lea R Dougherty, Elizabeth P Hayden
Children who exhibit elevated levels of the temperament trait behavioural inhibition (BI) across time may be at greatest risk for anxiety. However, little research has investigated the influence of other temperamental traits, particularly positive emotionality (PE), on the continuity of BI in childhood, nor whether parental overprotection influences associations between early and later child BI. To explore whether PE and overprotection shape associations between early and later BI, this longitudinal study of three-year-olds (N = 446) followed up at age 6 included tasks tapping child temperament, and parental overprotection was assessed via interview ratings and parent-report...
August 2016: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110044/eavesdropping-on-character-assessing-everyday-moral-behaviors
#3
Kathryn L Bollich, John M Doris, Simine Vazire, Charles L Raison, Joshua J Jackson, Matthias R Mehl
Despite decades of interest in moral character, comparatively little is known about moral behavior in everyday life. This paper reports a novel method for assessing everyday moral behaviors using the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR)-a digital audio-recorder that intermittently samples snippets of ambient sounds from people's environments-and examines the stability of these moral behaviors. In three samples (combined N = 186), participants wore an EAR over one or two weekends. Audio files were coded for everyday moral behaviors (e...
April 2016: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949275/-dis-similarity-in-impulsivity-and-marital-satisfaction-a-comparison-of-volatility-compatibility-and-incompatibility-hypotheses
#4
Jaye L Derrick, Rebecca J Houston, Brian M Quigley, Maria Testa, Audrey Kubiak, Ash Levitt, Gregory G Homish, Kenneth E Leonard
Impulsivity is negatively associated with relationship satisfaction, but whether relationship functioning is harmed or helped when both partners are high in impulsivity is unclear. The influence of impulsivity might be exacerbated (the Volatility Hypothesis) or reversed (the Compatibility Hypothesis). Alternatively, discrepancies in impulsivity might be particularly problematic (the Incompatibility Hypothesis). Behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity were collected from a community sample of couples...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26778865/is-valuing-happiness-associated-with-lower-well-being-a-factor-level-analysis-using-the-valuing-happiness-scale
#5
Maike Luhmann, Elizabeth A Necka, Felix D Schönbrodt, Louise C Hawkley
Recent studies suggest that valuing happiness is negatively associated with well-being. Most of these studies used the Valuing Happiness Scale (Mauss, Tamir, et al., 2011). In the present paper, we examined the factor structure of this scale using data pooled from six independent samples (N total = 938). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Valuing Happiness Scale is not unidimensional and that only one of its three factors correlates negatively with various indicators of well-being, whereas non-significant or positive correlations were found for the other factors...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26392641/regulating-emotion-and-identity-by-narrating-harm
#6
Monisha Pasupathi, Jacob Billitteri, Cade D Mansfield, Cecilia Wainryb, Grace E Hanley, Kiana Taheri
This study examined how narration of harm experiences can regulate self and emotions in ways relevant to well-being. Participants (n = 88, 65% female) were asked to provide 6 narratives about instances when they were victims of harm and 6 narratives about instances when they were perpetrators of harm. Narratives were coded for extent of exploration, growth, damage conclusions and resolution. Participants drew damage conclusions more frequently in victim narratives and growth conclusions more frequently in perpetrator narratives...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26327738/personality-traits-and-body-mass-index-in-asian-populations
#7
Angelina R Sutin, Yannick Stephan, Lei Wang, Shoumin Gao, Ping Wang, Antonio Terracciano
Research on personality and adiposity has focused primarily on Western samples; less is known about the personality correlates of BMI in Asian populations. We examined the association between personality and Body Mass Index (BMI) among community-dwelling Japanese adults (N=380), Chinese adolescents (N=5,882), and a meta-analysis inclusive of a published Korean sample (total N=10,304). In the new samples and meta-analysis, Extraversion and Agreeableness were associated with higher BMI among men. In contrast to what is often found in Western samples, Conscientiousness was mostly unrelated to adiposity...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26097268/whole-trait-theory
#8
William Fleeson, Eranda Jayawickreme
Personality researchers should modify models of traits to include mechanisms of differential reaction to situations. Whole Trait Theory does so via five main points. First, the descriptive side of traits should be conceptualized as density distributions of states. Second, it is important to provide an explanatory account of the Big 5 traits. Third, adding an explanatory account to the Big 5 creates two parts to traits, an explanatory part and a descriptive part, and these two parts should be recognized as separate entities that are joined into whole traits...
June 1, 2015: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158171/cross-cultural-evidence-for-the-two-facet-structure-of-pride
#9
Yan Shi, Joanne M Chung, Joey T Cheng, Jessica L Tracy, Richard W Robins, Xiao Chen, Yong Zheng
Across six studies conducted in Mainland China and South Korea, the present research extended prior findings showing that pride is comprised of two distinct conceptual and experiential facets in the U.S.: a pro-social, achievement-oriented "authentic pride", and an arrogant, self-aggrandizing "hubristic pride". This same two-facet structure emerged in Chinese participants' semantic conceptualizations of pride (Study 1), Chinese and Koreans' dispositional tendencies to experience pride (Studies 2, 3a, and 3b), Chinese and Koreans' momentary pride experiences (Studies 3a, 3b, and 5), and Americans' pride experiences using descriptors derived indigenously in Korea (Study 4)...
April 2015: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25642000/childhood-sexual-abuse-and-impulsive-personality-traits-mixed-evidence-for-moderation-by-drd4-genotype
#10
K Paige Harden, Marie D Carlson, Natalie Kretsch, William R Corbin, Kim Fromme
This project examines associations between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and two dimensions of impulsivity (sensation seeking and premeditation), and tests whether CSA-personality associations are moderated by the DRD4 exon III VNTR polymorphism. Sample 1 is from a longitudinal study of university students measured at 10 waves over ages 18-24 years (n = 500). Sample 2 is from a national sample of young adult sibling pairs, ages 18-24, from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 2,559). In both samples, CSA was associated with elevated sensation seeking...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26379315/what-s-wrong-moral-understanding-in-psychopathic-offenders
#11
Eyal Aharoni, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Kent A Kiehl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25484472/random-intercept-efa-of-personality-scales
#12
Julian Aichholzer
Previous research suggests that simple structure CFAs of Big Five personality measures fail to accurately reflect the scale's complex factorial structure, whereas EFAs generally perform better. Another strand of research suggests that acquiescence or uniform response bias masks the scale's "true" factorial structure. Random Intercept EFA (RI-EFA) captures acquiescence as well as the complex item-factor structure typical for personality measures. It is applied to the NEO-FFI and the BFI scale to test whether an accurate model-to-data fit can be achieved and whether the "clarity" of the factorial structure improves...
December 2014: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25284906/does-mindfulness-attenuate-thoughts-emphasizing-negativity-but-not-positivity
#13
Laura G Kiken, Natalie J Shook
The current research investigated whether mindfulness is differentially associated with thoughts that emphasize positive or negative valence. In Study 1, trait mindfulness was inversely associated with negative rumination but unassociated with positive rumination, controlling for state affect. In Study 2, participants completed either a mindful breathing meditation or a comparable control exercise, followed by a thought listing while viewing affective images. Compared to the control condition, the mindfulness condition listed proportionately fewer negative thoughts, particularly in response to negative images, and more non-valenced thoughts...
December 1, 2014: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25843985/the-conscientious-retiree-the-relationship-between-conscientiousness-retirement-and-volunteering
#14
Anissa Mike, Joshua J Jackson, Thomas F Oltmanns
The current study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, work status, and volunteering utilizing two large samples, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). It was hypothesized that conscientious adults who were retired would be more likely to volunteer because, after retirement, they gain a substantial amount of free time, while losing an outlet for their industrious and achievement-striving tendencies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed that conscientious, retired individuals were more likely to volunteer than conscientious, working individuals...
October 2014: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25419012/does-personality-moderate-reaction-and-adaptation-to-major-life-events-analysis-of-life-satisfaction-and-affect-in-an-australian-national-sample
#15
Ivana Anusic, Stevie C Y Yap, Richard E Lucas
We used a nationally representative panel of Australian households to replicate a study by Yap et al. (2012) that evaluated how life satisfaction changed following major life events and the extent to which personality moderated those changes. We replicated the protective function of marriage but found that long-term declines that follow widowhood mostly reflect normative changes. In addition, we found that people reported slight decreases in positive affect following marriage and childbirth, an increase in positive affect following widowhood, and a slight increase in negative affect following childbirth, relative to normative trajectories...
August 1, 2014: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25089064/voting-for-a-personality-do-first-impressions-and-self-evaluations-affect-voting-decisions
#16
Markus Koppensteiner, Pia Stephan
Participants were asked to assess their own personality (i.e. Big Five scales), the personality of politicians shown in brief silent video clips, and the probability that they would vote for these politicians. Response surface analyses (RSA) revealed noteworthy effects of self-ratings and observer-ratings of openness, agreeableness, and emotional stability on voting probability. Furthermore, the participants perceived themselves as being more open, more agreeable, more emotionally stable, and more extraverted than the average politician...
August 2014: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24936120/the-interplay-of-stress-and-attachment-in-individuals-weathering-loss-of-employment
#17
Colleen M Varga, Christopher D Nettles, Amy L Whitesel, George W Howe, Karen L Weihs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2014: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24729641/examining-the-etiological-associations-among-higher-order-temperament-dimensions
#18
Nicholas P Allan, Amy J Mikolajewski, Christopher J Lonigan, Sara A Hart, Jeanette Taylor
A multivariate independent pathway model was used to examine the shared and unique genetic and environmental influences of Positive Affect (PA), Negative Affect (NA), and effortful control (EC) in a sample of 686 twin pairs (M age = 10.07, SD = 1.74). There were common genetic influences and nonshared environmental influences shared across all three temperament dimensions and shared environmental influences in common to NA and EC. There were also significant independent genetic influences unique to PA and NA and significant independent shared environmental influences unique to PA...
February 2014: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24563560/neuroticism-and-extraversion-in-youth-predict-mental-wellbeing-and-life-satisfaction-40-years-later
#19
Catharine R Gale, Tom Booth, René Mõttus, Diana Kuh, Ian J Deary
Neuroticism and Extraversion are linked with current wellbeing, but it is unclear whether these traits in youth predict wellbeing decades later. We applied structural equation modelling to data from 4583 people from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. We examined the effects of Neuroticism and Extraversion at ages 16 and 26 years on mental wellbeing and life satisfaction at age 60-64 and explored the mediating roles of psychological and physical health. Extraversion had direct, positive effects on both measures of wellbeing...
December 1, 2013: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24493906/dimensions-of-temperament-and-depressive-symptoms-replicating-a-three-way-interaction
#20
Michael W Vasey, Casaundra N Harbaugh, Chistopher J Lonigan, Beth M Phillips, Benjamin L Hankin, Lore Willem, Patricia Bijttebier
High negative emotionality (NE), low positive emotionality (PE), and low self-regulatory capacity (i.e., effortful control or EC) are related to depressive symptoms and furthermore, may moderate one another's relations to such symptoms. Indeed, preliminary evidence suggests they may operate in a three-way interaction (Dinovo & Vasey, 2011), but the replicability of that finding remains unknown. Therefore, we tested this NExPExEC interaction in association with depressive symptoms in 5 independent samples. This interaction was significant in 4 of the 5 samples and a combined sample and approached significance in the fifth sample...
December 2013: Journal of Research in Personality
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