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Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association

Kathleen Ann Bonawandt, Jason M Berg, Richard J Joseph, Joseph D Stefanacci
A 7 yr old female spayed Yorkshire terrier was referred to the author's institute for a 5 mo history of recurrent cervical spinal pain. Neurologic examination did not reveal any deficits. Hematologic and serum analyses were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs that incorporated the cervical spine did not show structural abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine demonstrated a contrast enhancing, intradural extramedullary lesion at the level of the C2 vertebra. Hemilaminectomy was performed, during which a long, narrow nematode was visualized upon opening of the dura mater...
November 14, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Leonardo Cavaliere, Giovanni Romito, Oriol Domenech, Luigi Venco
A 14 mo old shih tzu was referred for dyspnea, hemoptysis, and hematuria. Heartworm disease with caval syndrome was diagnosed by laboratory tests, thoracic radiography, and transthoracic echocardiography. The minimally invasive heartworm removal procedure was performed using flexible alligator forceps guided by transesophageal echocardiography. The procedure was successfully performed removing over 94% of heartworms displayed echocardiographically without any intraoperative complication.
November 14, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Jean-Guillaume Robert Grand
Transcondylar screw fixation was performed using a minimally invasive percutaneous technique on three dogs (four elbows) diagnosed with incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle. The technique was performed using an aiming device in all four elbow joints and assisted by intraoperative fluoroscopy in one. All screws were successfully placed on first attempt and no elbow joint required repositioning of the transcondylar screw. On immediate postoperative radiographs, median transcondylar screw angulation was 2...
November 14, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Ashley A Smith, Amandine Lejeune, Kelvin Kow, Rowan J Milner, Carlos H M Souza
Although canine multicentric lymphoma is initially responsive to multidrug chemotherapy, resistance and relapse create a need for novel chemotherapeutics. Bleomycin is an antitumor antibiotic with a minimal adverse event profile; though commonly used for human non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, its use is poorly characterized in dogs. The purpose of this retrospective case series was to describe the clinical response and adverse event profile of systemic bleomycin for canine multicentric lymphoma (n = 10). A partial response was noted in one dog that died 24 days later due to unrelated disease...
November 14, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Ana M L Jacinto, Alison E Ridyard, Itamar Aroch, Penny J Watson, Linda R Morrison, Marge L Chandler, Dip Acvim, Sharon Kuzi
Dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) are suggested to be at increased risk of developing thromboembolic events. However, with some exceptions, there are very few reports of thromboembolism in such dogs. This multicentre retrospective observational study describes a case series of thromboembolism (TE) in eight dogs with PLE secondary to non-neoplastic, chronic small intestinal disease. Seven dogs had poorly controlled PLE when the thromboembolic event occurred. Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) occurred in six dogs, while one dog developed splenic vein thrombosis and another had concurrent splenic vein and aortic TE...
November 14, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Evence Daure, Linda Ross, Cynthia R L Webster
Gastroduodenal ulceration in small animals is a complex and important comorbidity that occurs when the physiological homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract is disrupted secondary to administration of medications or the presence of local or systemic diseases. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the veterinary literature regarding the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and risk factors associated with gastroduodenal ulceration in small animals. Pertinent concepts from the human literature will be integrated into the discussion...
November 14, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Evence Daure, Linda Ross, Cynthia R L Webster
In the first part of this review, we discussed the pathophysiology and epidemiology of gastric acid secretion and the epidemiology of gastroduodenal ulceration in dogs and cats. In this section, we discuss the pharmacology and evidence-based clinical use of histamine-2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors.
November 14, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Laura Elizabeth Selmic, Lynn R Griffin, Michael W Nolan, James Custis, Elissa Randall, Stephen J Withrow
This case report describes the use of two new concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of metastatic osteosarcoma (OSA) in one dog. The dog was initially presented for positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) as full-body staging following amputation and adjuvant chemotherapy for treatment of OSA of the proximal tibia. The initial PET/CT did not show evidence of metastatic disease. Six mo after OSA, diagnosis pulmonary metastatic nodules were identified and oral toceranib phosphate was initiated...
November 14, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Mary Lynn Higginbotham, Sara E Fritz
The use of cytotoxic drugs to treat neoplastic conditions is increasing in veterinary practices. Many agents have the potential to be genotoxic and evidence of exposure to cytotoxic drugs has been found in healthcare workers handling these pharmaceuticals. To date, limited contamination evaluations have been performed in veterinary practices. Evaluation for carboplatin contamination was performed at a veterinary teaching hospital involving twelve areas in the dispensary and treatment room. Detectable levels of platinum were found on the surface of the biological safety cabinet where drugs are transferred from vial to administration device...
November 14, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Stephanie L Shaver, Laura A Barbur, David A Jimenez, Benjamin M Brainard, Karen K Cornell, MaryAnn G Radlinsky, Chad W Schmiedt
Brachycephalic airway syndrome may predispose to gastroesophageal reflux (GER) because of the high negative intrathoracic pressures required to overcome conformational partial upper airway obstruction. To investigate this, 20 dogs presenting for elective correction of brachycephalic airway syndrome (cases) and 20 non-brachycephalic dogs (controls) undergoing other elective surgeries were prospectively enrolled. Dogs underwent a standardized anesthetic protocol, and esophageal pH was monitored. Signalment, body weight, historical gastrointestinal and respiratory disease, complete blood count, serum biochemical values, radiographic findings, and anesthetic and surgical time were compared between cases and controls, and dogs that did and did not have basic (pH > 7...
November 14, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Mark W Harmon, Stacey B Leach, Kenneth E Lamb
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common myocardial disorder of dogs, typically affecting large and giant breeds. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical features of DCM in standard schnauzers. Medical records for 15 standard schnauzers diagnosed with DCM were reviewed. The median age at diagnosis of DCM was 1.6 yr, with all dogs developing left-sided congestive heart failure (CHF). The median age of onset of CHF was 1.6 yr, and was significantly shorter in males (1.5 yr) than for females (2...
November 14, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
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November 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Jooyae Paik, Ji-Houn Kang, Dongwoo Chang, Mhan-Pyo Yang
A 5 yr old intact female cocker spaniel dog weighing 7.8 kg was referred with anorexia, vomiting, and depression. At referral, the dog was diagnosed initially with typical hypoadrenocorticism, and 2 d later, concurrent primary hypothyroidism was detected. Hormonal replacement therapies, including fludrocortisone, prednisolone, and levothyroxine, were initiated, but a few days later the dog became abruptly tachypneic, and thoracic radiographs indicated the development of pulmonary edema. Echocardiography showed that there were abnormalities indicating impaired left ventricular function, although the heart valves were normal...
November 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Jarrod Butler, Safdar Khan, Gina Scarzella
Two young American miniature horses from the same farm were evaluated by a veterinarian due to presence of lethargy, anorexia, and cardiac arrhythmias. Both horses were treated aggressively with IV fluids and other supportive measures. The first horse died approximately 72 hr after the start of clinical signs and the second horse was humanely euthanized due to poor response to treatment. Oleander toxicosis was suspected based on the types of clinical signs present and due to several oleander plants and dried leaves present on the property...
November 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Ryota Iwasaki, Takashi Mori, Yusuke Ito, Mifumi Kawabe, Mami Murakmi, Kohji Maruo
The sternal lymph nodes receive drainage from a wide variety of structures in the thoraco-abdominal region. Evaluation of these lymph nodes is essential, especially in cancer patients. Computed tomography (CT) can detect sternal lymph nodes more accurately than radiography or ultrasonography, and the criteria of the sternal lymphadenopathy are unknown. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the CT characteristics of the sternal lymph nodes in dogs considered unlikely to have lymphadenopathy...
November 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Ioannis Savvas, Dimitrios Raptopoulos, Timoleon Rallis
Emerging evidence from veterinary and medical clinical research shows that reducing preoperative fasting time may reduce the incidence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) intraoperatively. In order to evaluate the effect of two different preoperative fasting times on the incidence of GER during general anesthesia, 120 dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: administration of canned food 3 h before premedication (group C3, n = 60) and administration of canned food 10 h before premedication (group C10, n = 60)...
November 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Gail Bishop, Kathleen Cooney, Shea Cox, Robin Downing, Kathy Mitchener, Amir Shanan, Nancy Soares, Brenda Stevens, Tammy Wynn
End-of-life (EOL) care and decisionmaking embody the critical final stage in a pet's life and are as important and meaningful as the sum of the clinical care provided for all prior life stages. EOL care should focus on maximizing patient comfort and minimizing suffering while providing a collaborative and supportive partnership with the caregiver client. Timely, empathetic, and nonjudgmental communication is the hallmark of effective client support. Veterinarians should not allow an EOL patient to succumb to a natural death without considering the option of euthanasia and ensuring that other measures to alleviate discomfort and distress are in place...
November 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Susan Taylor, Katie Minor, Cindy L Shmon, G Diane Shelton, Edward E Patterson, James R Mickelson
Completed surveys were obtained from owners of 165 border collies experiencing repeated episodes of abnormal gait or collapse during strenuous exercise. Unremarkable veterinary evaluation and lack of disease progression over time made common systemic, cardiac, and neurologic causes of exercise intolerance unlikely. Survey questions addressed signalment, age of onset, description of episodes, and owner perception of factors associated with collapse. Most dogs were young adults (median 2 yr) when episodes began, and they had experienced from 2 to more than 100 episodes (median 6) prior to their owners completing the survey...
November 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Owen T Skinner, Laura C Cuddy, James G Coisman, Jennifer L Covey, Gary W Ellison
Perineal wounds in dogs present a challenge due to limited local availability of skin for closure and constant exposure to fecal contaminants. This report describes temporary rectal stenting in two dogs following severe perineal wounds. Dog 1 presented with a 4 × 4 cm full-thickness perineal slough secondary to multiple rectal perforations. A 12 mm internal diameter endotracheal tube was placed per-rectum as a temporary stent to minimize fecal contamination. The stent was removed 18 days after placement, and the perineal wound had healed at 32 days post-stent placement, when a minor rectal stricture associated with mild, intermittent tenesmus was detected...
November 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Zoe Reed, Clinton Doering, Paul M Barrett
A 9 yr old rat terrier presented with corneal ulceration and conjunctivitis that developed acutely after digging among dry leaves in wooded northern Arizona. Ophthalmic examination revealed multiple linear foreign bodies throughout the adnexal tissue and cornea of the left eye. Manual removal of material was unsuccessful. The palpebral conjunctiva required excision with tenotomy scissors to remove structures and allow corneal healing. Microscopic examination revealed structures believed to be setae from a Theraphosidae tarantula...
November 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
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