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Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association

Jooyae Paik, Ji-Houn Kang, Dongwoo Chang, Mhan-Pyo Yang
A 5-year-old intact female cocker spaniel dog weighing 7.8 kg was referred with anorexia, vomiting, and depression. At referral, the dog was diagnosed initially with typical hypoadrenocorticism, and 2 d later, concurrent primary hypothyroidism was detected. Hormonal replacement therapies, including fludrocortisone, prednisolone, and levothyroxine, were initiated, but a few days later the dog became abruptly tachypneic, and thoracic radiographs indicated the development of pulmonary edema. Echocardiography showed that there were abnormalities indicating impaired left ventricular function, although the heart valves were normal...
September 29, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Jarrod Butler, Safdar Khan, Gina Scarzella
Two young American miniature horses from the same farm were evaluated by a veterinarian due to presence of lethargy, anorexia, and cardiac arrhythmias. Both horses were treated aggressively with IV fluids and other supportive measures. The first horse died approximately 72 hr after the start of clinical signs and the second horse was humanely euthanized due to poor response to treatment. Oleander toxicosis was suspected based on the types of clinical signs present and due to several oleander plants and dried leaves present on the property...
September 29, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Ryota Iwasaki, Takashi Mori, Yusuke Ito, Mifumi Kawabe, Mami Murakmi, Kohji Maruo
The sternal lymph nodes receive drainage from a wide variety of structures in the thoraco-abdominal region. Evaluation of these lymph nodes is essential, especially in cancer patients. Computed tomography (CT) can detect sternal lymph nodes more accurately than radiography or ultrasonography, and the criteria of the sternal lymphadenopathy are unknown. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the CT characteristics of the sternal lymph nodes in dogs considered unlikely to have lymphadenopathy...
September 29, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Ioannis Savvas, Dimitrios Raptopoulos, Timoleon Rallis
Emerging evidence from veterinary and medical clinical research shows that reducing preoperative fasting time may reduce the incidence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) intraoperatively. In order to evaluate the effect of two different preoperative fasting times on the incidence of GER during general anesthesia, 120 dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: administration of canned food 3 h before premedication (group C3, n = 60) and administration of canned food 10 h before premedication (group C10, n = 60)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Amir Shanan, Brenda Stevens, Gail Bishop, Kathleen Cooney, Shea Cox, Robin Downing, Kathy Mitchener, Nancy Soares, Tammy Wynn
End-of-life (EOL) care and decisionmaking embody the critical final stage in a pet's life and are as important and meaningful as the sum of the clinical care provided for all prior life stages. EOL care should focus on maximizing patient comfort and minimizing suffering while providing a collaborative and supportive partnership with the caregiver client. Timely, empathetic, and nonjudgmental communication is the hallmark of effective client support. Veterinarians should not allow an EOL patient to succumb to a natural death without considering the option of euthanasia and ensuring that other measures to alleviate discomfort and distress are in place...
September 29, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Susan Taylor, Katie Minor, Cindy L Shmon, G Diane Shelton, Edward E Patterson, James R Mickelson
Completed surveys were obtained from owners of 165 border collies experiencing repeated episodes of abnormal gait or collapse during strenuous exercise. Unremarkable veterinary evaluation and lack of disease progression over time made common systemic, cardiac, and neurologic causes of exercise intolerance unlikely. Survey questions addressed signalment, age of onset, description of episodes, and owner perception of factors associated with collapse. Most dogs were young adults (median 2 y) when episodes began, and they had experienced from two to more than 100 episodes (median six) prior to their owners completing the survey...
September 29, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Owen T Skinner, Laura C Cuddy, James G Coisman, Jennifer L Covey, Gary W Ellison
Perineal wounds in dogs present a challenge due to limited local availability of skin for closure and constant exposure to fecal contaminants. This report describes temporary rectal stenting in two dogs following severe perineal wounds. Dog 1 presented with a 4 × 4 cm full-thickness perineal slough secondary to multiple rectal perforations. A 12 mm internal diameter endotracheal tube was placed per-rectum as a temporary stent to minimize fecal contamination. The stent was removed 18 days after placement, and the perineal wound had healed at 32 days post-stent placement, when a minor rectal stricture associated with mild, intermittent tenesmus was detected...
September 29, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Zoe Reed, Clinton Doering, Paul M Barrett
A 9 yr old rat terrier presented with corneal ulceration and conjunctivitis that developed acutely after digging among dry leaves in wooded northern Arizona. Ophthalmic examination revealed multiple linear foreign bodies throughout the adnexal tissue and cornea of the left eye. Manual removal of material was unsuccessful. The palpebral conjunctiva required excision with tenotomy scissors to remove structures and allow corneal healing. Microscopic examination revealed structures believed to be setae from a Theraphosidae tarantula...
September 29, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Eleni Basdani, Lysimachos G Papazoglou, Michail N Patsikas, Georgios M Kazakos, Katerina K Adamama-Moraitou, Ioannis Tsokataridis
Ten dogs that presented with trauma-induced upper airway rupture or stenosis were reviewed. Tracheal rupture was seen in seven dogs, tracheal stenosis in one dog, and laryngeal rupture in two dogs. Clinical abnormalities included respiratory distress in five dogs, subcutaneous emphysema in eight, air leakage through the cervical wound in seven, stridor in three dogs, pneumomediastinum in four and pneumothorax in one dog. Reconstruction with simple interrupted sutures was performed in four dogs, tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis in five dogs, and one dog was euthanized intraoperatively...
September 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Ivana Calice, Yves Moens
Modern spirometry, like no other monitoring technique, allows insight into breath-to-breath respiratory mechanics. Spirometers continuously measure volume, airway pressure, and flow while calculating and continuously displaying respiratory system compliance and resistance in the form of loops. The aim of this case series is to show how observation of spirometric loops, similar to electrocardiogram or CO2 curve monitoring, can improve safety of anesthetic management in small animals. Spirometric monitoring cases described in this case series are based on use of the anaesthesia monitor Capnomac Ultima with a side stream spirometry sensor...
September 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Lynda Rutherford, Anneliese Stell, Ken Smith, Nicola Kulendra
Intrathoracic extracardiac hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is rare in dogs. This report describes three dogs with acute onset dyspnea due to hemorrhagic pleural effusion resulting from intrathoracic extracardiac masses, which were confirmed as HSA by histopathology. The dogs were stabilized with thoracocentesis and intravascular fluid resuscitation. Computed tomography identified intrathoracic masses, which were not originating from the heart or pulmonary parenchyma. Surgical exploration was performed in all cases. Case 1 was euthanized intraoperatively as the tumor could not be dissected from the aorta...
September 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Andrew David Gibson, Emma Davies, Ana Lara-Garcia, Pilar Lafuente
This case report describes the diagnosis of a peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the deep branch of the radial nerve distal to the elbow in a dog. The lesion was identified using computed tomography and ultrasonography and confirmed as sarcoma on histopathological analysis of incisional biopsies. Clinical signs dramatically improved following surgical biopsy before recurring three months later. Repeat epineurotomy of the deep branch of the radial nerve resulted in clinical improvement for a further month before signs once again returned...
September 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Maria Ardiaca, Cristina Bonvehi, Marina Cuesta, Alicia Gomez, Andres Montesinos
To date, descriptions of pathologic conditions of the seminal vesicle in rabbits are scarce and limited to the laboratory animals in experimental conditions. The present article describes three cases of strangury, abdominal pain, and anorexia associated with seminal vesiculitis in pet rabbits. Three non-neutered male pet rabbits aged 3.6, 1.5, and 2.1 yrs were presented with strangury, abdominal pain, and anorexia. Seminal vesiculitis was diagnosed based on clinical signs and ultrasonography findings. Vesiculectomy was performed in two cases that presented strangury refractory to medical treatment, and diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology...
September 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Shannon Ryan Hauck, Kelly Gisselman, Amy Cordner, Angela Gasser Nicholson
Chronic vomiting in cats is a common presenting problem seen in veterinary practice today. The initial step when presented with a vomiting patient is to differentiate between vomiting and regurgitation or dysphagia. There are numerous causes for chronic vomiting in cats, and therefore a detailed and comprehensive patient history and a systematic diagnostic approach are key steps in determining the cause for vomiting and the most appropriate treatment plan. Common causes for chronic vomiting in cats may include inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy, gastrointestinal motility disorders, neoplasia, and extra-gastrointestinal diseases, such as renal disease, hepatobiliary disease, and hyperthyroidism...
September 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Benjamin Ley, Edward Silverman, Kara Peery, Delfina Dominguez
Nosocomial infections are a concern of growing interest in veterinary medicine. Clipper blades have been confirmed as fomites for numerous potential pathogens and, as such, may be associated with wound and surgical site infections. The goal of this study was to evaluate the disinfectant capabilities of several commonly used clipper blade cleaning products. Seventy sterile clipper blades were inoculated with strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli , and Staphylococcus aureus . Blades were then subjected to one of seven treatment groups for disinfecting...
September 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Elizabeth Thompson, Amy E Fauber, Roy R Pool
Two cats, both over 10 yr old, were presented for evaluation of non-painful bony proliferations on the appendicular skeleton. These proliferations were identifiable via palpation. Radiographs showed a smooth, proliferative bony lesion of the distal femur (case 1) and tarsus (case 2) with mild soft tissue swelling. Surgical debulking with incomplete resection was performed in each cat. Subsequent histopathology resulted in a diagnosis of periosteal chondrosarcoma (PC). Although both cats have experienced local recurrence, both are still alive more than 2...
September 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Joseph D Palamara, Jennifer J Bonczynski, Jason M Berg, Philip J Bergman
The prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in dogs with Type I intervertebral disc extrusion has been reported as high as 38% within 6 wk of surgery. Proper treatment of a UTI is important with myelopathy because it is a risk factor for persistent infection and reinfection in dogs. The study authors' investigated the incidence of UTIs in dogs having received either cefovecin or cefazolin as a preoperative prophylactic antibiotic for thoracolumbar hemilaminectomy. Thirty-nine dogs were retrospectively identified and assigned to groups based on preoperative antibiotic administration and postoperative urinary tract management...
September 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Susan Taylor, Cindy Shmon, Lillian Su, Tasha Epp, Katie Minor, James Mickelson, Edward Patterson, G Diane Shelton
Clinical and metabolic variables were evaluated in 13 dogs with border collie collapse (BCC) before, during, and following completion of standardized strenuous exercise protocols. Six dogs participated in a ball-retrieving protocol, and seven dogs participated in a sheep-herding protocol. Findings were compared with 16 normal border collies participating in the same exercise protocols (11 retrieving, five herding). Twelve dogs with BCC developed abnormal mentation and/or an abnormal gait during evaluation. All dogs had post-exercise elevations in rectal temperature, pulse rate, arterial blood pH, PaO2, and lactate, and decreased PaCO2 and bicarbonate, as expected with strenuous exercise, but there were no significant differences between BCC dogs and normal dogs...
September 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Stephanie Engel, Karen Marie Hilling, Travis Kuder Meuten, Chad Brendan Frank, Angela J Marolf
Primary hypodipsic hypernatremia is a rarely reported disease in dogs. Reported underlying causes associated with this disease in dogs include congenital malformations, encephalitis, intracranial neoplasia, and pressure atrophy of the hypothalamus secondary to hydrocephalus. The dog in this report had an infiltrative neoplastic disorder, likely causing damage to the hypothalamic osmoreceptors responsible for the thirst generation. The neoplastic process was identified histopathologically as glioblastoma multiforme, an unusual tumor to occur in a dog this young...
September 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Stephanie Johnnides, Tiffany Green, Paul Eubig
Oral exposure to the secretions of Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus ) can carry a high fatality rate without early and appropriate treatment. In dogs, the clinical syndrome, which is evident almost immediately, manifests in profuse ptyalism along with gastrointestinal, respiratory, and neurologic signs. Severe cardiac arrhythmias develop less frequently. This review will cover the history, toxicology, and clinical syndrome of Rhinella marina intoxication, and will discuss the recommended therapies for stabilization...
July 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
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