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Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association

Jason W Stull, Erin Bjorvik, Joshua Bub, Glenda Dvorak, Christine Petersen, Heather L Troyer
A veterinary team's best work can be undone by a breach in infection control, prevention, and biosecurity (ICPB). Such a breach, in the practice or home-care setting, can lead to medical, social, and financial impacts on patients, clients, and staff, as well as damage the reputation of the hospital. To mitigate these negative outcomes, the AAHA ICPB Guidelines Task Force believes that hospital teams should improve upon their current efforts by limiting pathogen exposure from entering or being transmitted throughout the hospital population and using surveillance methods to detect any new entry of a pathogen into the practice...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Ashley Schenk, Cassie Lux, Jeanne Lane, Olya Martin
Hypercalcemia is a biochemical abnormality that, when left untreated, can lead to life-threatening complications including renal failure. Bisphosphonates are routinely used to treat hypercalcemia, but most literature on veterinary patients describes the use of pamidronate. This retrospective case series describes the use of zoledronate for treatment of hypercalcemia in four dogs. Information including signalment, clinical signs, treatment, and outcome was collected. All dogs showed a decrease in total and ionized calcium concentrations after treatment with zoledronate...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Ira Roth, Janet Martin
A 1 yr old castrated male shih tzu was evaluated for an acute right rear limb lameness and hyphema in the anterior chamber of the right eye. On initial examination, the dog was non-weight bearing on his right rear limb. Ophthalmic examination revealed a centrally located, superficial corneal ulcer in the right eye and blood in the anterior chamber. Radiographic findings of the pelvis and right rear were suggestive of avascular necrosis of the right femoral neck with resultant fracture and possible avascular necrosis of the left femoral neck...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Marlene Townsell, Alfred M Legendre, David A Bemis, Ellen Behrend, Stephanie Phillips
Disseminated fungal infections cause morbidity and mortality in dogs. The prognosis varies depending on the infecting agent. Phialosimplex caninus is a recently recognized type of hyalohyphomyces. Knowledge regarding the clinical course of P caninus infection in dogs is limited to two previous case reports. The clinical features, diagnostic findings, responses to medical therapy, and long-term outcomes of three dogs with disseminated P caninus are presented in this study. All dogs had improved quality of life once itraconazole administration, with or without terbinafine, was instituted...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Lauren A Sullivan, Jamie P Lenberg, Pedro Boscan, Timothy B Hackett, David C Twedt
Antiemetics are commonly prescribed during the treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis. This blinded, randomized prospective study compared the quality of clinical recovery and duration of hospitalization in canine parvoviral dogs receiving either maropitant (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb] IV q 24 hr, n = 11) or ondansetron (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb] IV q 8 hr, n = 11). All dogs were treated with IV fluids, cefoxitin, and enteral nutrition. Frequency of vomiting and pain scoring were recorded twice daily. Rescue analgesics and antiemetics were administered as dictated by specific pain and vomiting criteria...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Shiara Arulpagasam, Cassie Lux, Adesola Odunayo, Jeffery Biskup, Xiaocun Sun
Brachycephalic airway syndrome (BAS) is characterized by increased upper airway resistance due to conformational abnormalities occurring in brachycephalic dogs (BD). In this prospective study, we evaluated pulse oximetry (SpO2 ) and arterial blood gas values in 18 healthy BD and compared these values with those of 18 healthy mesocephalic and dolichocephalic dogs (MDD). All dogs were assigned a BAS score based on an owner questionnaire. Inclusion criteria included presentation to the hospital for a problem unrelated to the respiratory system and unremarkable blood analyses and physical examination...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Andrea Dedeaux, Amy Grooters, Nobuko Wakamatsu-Utsuki, Joseph Taboada
Opportunistic fungal infections have long been recognized as rare causes of disease in immunocompetent dogs and cats. Recently, the escalating use of multiagent immunosuppression protocols (especially those that include cyclosporine) has resulted in an increased number of patients with opportunistic fungal infection encountered by small animal practitioners and has altered the typical case phenotype. Based on histologic and cytologic features such as pigmentation, hyphal diameter, and distribution in tissue, these opportunistic mycoses can be placed into categories such as phaeohyphomycosis, hyalohyphomycosis, and eumycotic mycetoma...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Natasha Hodgson, Efa A Llewellyn, David J Schaeffer
Systemic inflammation is known to cause WBC abnormalities, specifically neutrophilia and lymphopenia. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple and affordable biomarker that has been used in human clinical settings of sepsis but has not been investigated in veterinary species. We evaluated NLR in dogs with septic and nonseptic systemic inflammatory diseases and compared with a healthy dog population. An NLR ≥6 had an 84.39% sensitivity and 86.95% specificity to identify dogs with systemic inflammatory states; however, no ratio distinguished septic and nonseptic causes...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Kristina Bowles Miller, Amandine Lejeune, Rebecca Regan, Anna Szivek, Kevin Kow
Carboplatin is a platinum chemotherapeutic agent commonly used in veterinary oncology that is currently classified as an irritant to local tissues when extravasated. To the authors' knowledge, there are no reports of vesicant injuries associated with carboplatin administration reported in the veterinary literature. In this case series, seven dogs are described to have experienced injuries following a suspected carboplatin extravasation resembling vesicant injuries a median of 7 days after carboplatin administration (range 4-15 days)...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Elizabeth A Maxwell, Larie Allen
A 6 yr old Boston terrier presented with acute onset of vomiting and anuria 4 days following a caesarian section and ovariohysterectomy for treatment of dystocia. A total cystectomy with ligation of both ureters was diagnosed via exploratory laparotomy surgery. A jejunocystoplasty was performed in addition to a bilateral reimplantation of the ureters into the reconstructed bladder and proximal urethra. Postoperative complications included a retained ureteral stent, persistent pyelectasia, persistent hydroureters, recurrent urinary tract infections, and intermittent urinary incontinence...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Jennifer McGill, Kelley M Thieman Mankin, Joseph Cyrus Parambeth, John Edwards, Audrey Cook
A 1 yr old intact male miniature dachshund presented for posturing to urinate without voiding and nocturia. Physical examination revealed congenital reproductive abnormalities and a fluid-filled structure caudal to the urinary bladder. The dog was diagnosed with a prostatic cyst and underwent an exploratory laparotomy with an attempt to remove the cyst. Twelve weeks later, the dog returned with recurring clinical signs, and the cyst was found to have returned back to its original size. A second intact male miniature dachshund presented at 7 mo of age for stranguria...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Taylor C Graville, Jennifer M Gambino, Jason A Syrcle
An acetabular physeal fracture in a 13 wk old dog was treated with open fixation using Kirschner wire cross pins and a four-pin Type 1A external fixator, resulting in successful healing of the fracture. Three years following the surgery, marked osteoarthrosis of the affected hip was noted, although clinical function of the hip was good. The authors suggest this fixation method be considered a viable option for fixation of acetabular physeal fractures in dogs.
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Luca Formaggini, Matteo Tommasini Degna
Gastropexy is a surgical technique performed to prevent and decrease the recurrence rate of gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV). The objective of this prospective, a descriptive cohort study on 100 client-owned dogs who were presented with GDV, is to describe a modified belt-loop gastropexy and determine its intraoperative complications and long-term efficacy. The transversus abdominis muscle was used to make an oblique belt-loop. A seromuscular antral fold, instead of a seromuscular antral flap, was passed through the belt-loop, and then, the passed portion of the antral fold was sutured to the dissected edge of the abdominal wall...
September 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Sarah Ruth Kalafut, Pamela Schwartz, Rachael Leigh Currao, Andrew Scott Levien, George E Moore
Septic peritonitis is a common, life-threatening condition encountered in dogs and cats. Efficacy of peritoneal lavage has not been proven in veterinary studies. Our objective was to evaluate differences in bacterial identity and susceptibility in samples obtained pre- and postlavage in animals who underwent laparotomy for treatment of septic peritonitis and to assess the effect of empirical antimicrobial selection on survival. Culture samples were collected from the peritoneal surface pre- and postlavage from dogs and cats treated surgically for septic peritonitis...
September 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Cesar Gomes, Ivan Doran, Edward Friend, Mickey Tivers, Guillaume Chanoit
The purpose of the study was to report the postoperative outcome, complications, and long-term follow-up of the use of a static hydraulic urethral sphincter for the management of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in female dogs. Medical records were reviewed to extract information on long-term (>365 days) outcome data. Telephone owner questionnaire was performed to assess postoperative urinary continence scores (scale 1-10, where 10 is complete continence) and the presence and frequency of complications...
September 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Ryan Nicoletti, Ruthanne Chun, Kaitlin M Curran, Louis-Philippe de de Lorimier, Michelle A Morges, Suzanne Rau, Courtney H Zwahlen, Douglas H Thamm
Feline exocrine pancreatic carcinoma has been reported to be an aggressive tumor with a high metastatic rate and poor prognosis. Studies reporting long-term outcome of cats after surgical removal of solitary pancreatic carcinomas are rare, due to the uncommon diagnosis and paucity of cats who undergo treatment. In this study, nine cases of feline exocrine pancreatic carcinoma from seven academic and private practice veterinary hospitals were reviewed to examine the outcome in cats undergoing surgical removal of the mass...
September 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Melanie J Hezzell, Margaret Sleeper, Jonathan Ferrari, Jason Arndt
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a physiologic phenomenon that occurs due to changing autonomic tone resulting in variable RR intervals. A reduction in HRV is used as an index of pain in neonatal human patients. Objective measures of pain would be valuable in the evaluation of canine patients and assessment of response to pain management strategies. We hypothesized that dogs with diseases associated with discomfort (osteoarthritis and bone neoplasia) would have reduced HRV compared with normal, healthy dogs...
September 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Sophie Palierne, Patricia Meynaud, Alexis Bilmont, Maxence Delverdier, Marie-Odile Semin, Mailys Stieglitz, Guillaume Riviere, André Autefage
The objective of this study was to compare the clinical, biological, macroscopic, and histologic outcomes after resection of the soft palate by plasma-mediated bipolar radiofrequency ablation (PBRA) or traditional incisional techniques (incisional soft palate resection [INC]) in dogs. Ten dogs were divided in two groups. In the INC group, the soft palate was incised with scissors and the wound was sutured in a continuous pattern. In the PBRA group, a wand was used to ablate the desired portion of the soft palate, without suture...
September 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Amy C Dixon-Jimenez, Amanda E Coleman, Gregg S Rapoport, Kate E Creevy, Ira Roth, Maria Correa, Andrew R Moorhead
This descriptive study was designed to ascertain the current heartworm treatment strategies employed by veterinary graduates of a single college of veterinary medicine, to assess the frequency with which each of these treatment strategies is prescribed, and to report the motivation behind the use of these treatment strategies. A survey containing a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended questions was distributed via e-mail with an online link during 2013 to graduates of the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine...
September 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Anastacia Marie Davis, Janet A Grimes, Mandy L Wallace, Catherine A M Vetter, Allyson Sterman, Kelley Thieman Mankin, Katelyn C Hlusko, Brad M Matz, Samantha Lin, Valery F Scharf, Karen K Cornell, Chad W Schmiedt
The purpose of this study was to evaluate owner perception of outcome following permanent tracheostomy (PT) in dogs. Medical records of dogs who received PT from 2002 to 2016 were reviewed. A questionnaire was given to owners verbally or by e-mail to ascertain their perception of their dog's outcome after PT. Median time to questionnaire administration from PT surgery was 608 days (64-3,708). Owner satisfaction after PT was high (89.7%), with the majority stating they would have the procedure performed again (79...
September 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
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