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Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association

Tara Mauro, Kenneth Harkin
In dogs with leptospirosis, doxycycline therapy is recommended as the preferred therapy for its ability to eliminate the organism from all tissues, including the renal tubules. Elimination of organisms from the renal tubules terminates leptospiruria and prevents transmission of the organism. This report describes the discovery of persistent leptospiruria in the face of therapy with doxycycline in four dogs and enrofloxacin in one dog. Leptospiruria was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction testing for pathogenic leptospires in all five dogs...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
A Russell Moore, Eryn Medrano, Emily Coffey, Barbara Powers
Special staining and grading of canine liver cytology samples aids in detection of increased copper content. The prevalence of copper in routine diagnostic liver cytology samples, clinical findings associated with high cytologic copper (cCu) grade, and the correlation between cCu grade and histologic findings, including histologic copper (hCu) grade, are unknown. This data may be helpful in ascertaining when to determine a cCu grade and when interpreting cCu grade. Clinical data and available archived hepatic histologic and cytologic samples from 198 dogs were collected, evaluated, rhodanine stained, and graded for copper...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Anna E Dunlap, Marije Risselada
A 1.5 yr old spayed female mixed-breed dog and a 3 yr old spayed female Labrador retriever were evaluated for suspected esophageal fishhook foreign bodies. Radiographs yielded fishhook foreign bodies present caudal to the cardiac silhouette. Endoscopic retrieval for suspected caudal esophageal foreign body was attempted and aborted due to inadequate visualization of the entire fishhooks within the lumen of the esophagus. At surgery, the fishhooks were seen within the caudal mediastinum, and were engaging the left caudal pulmonary artery...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Brian K Flesner, Jon M Fletcher, Taylor Smithee, Bonnie Boudreaux
Canine insulinoma is a highly metastatic neoplasm that is associated with a guarded to poor prognosis in dogs with distant metastases. A median survival of 6 mo has been reported for dogs with metastatic insulinoma. The dog in this report, diagnosed with stage III pancreatic insulinoma, had long-term glycemic control with survival of over 24 mo while receiving prednisone and toceranib phosphate after partial pancreatectomy. Toceranib phosphate has been shown to be an efficacious therapy for canine mast cell tumors with increasing evidence that it may be beneficial in the medical management of neuroendocrine tumors...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Jennifer Moczarnik, Darren J Berger, James O Noxon, Dana N LeVine, Zhoumeng Lin, Johann F Coetzee, Jonathan P Mochel
The use of human generic amoxicillin-clavulanic acid formulations in veterinary medicine is currently lacking supportive evidence. This pilot study was conducted to determine preliminary pharmacokinetic parameters and relative oral bioavailability of a human generic and veterinary proprietary 4:1 amoxicillin-clavulanic acid formulation in healthy dogs to evaluate whether drug exposure was similar and to determine if further comparative investigation is warranted. Each dog received a single oral dose of each formulation containing 500:125 mg of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid at two separate instances with a 2 wk washout period between product administration...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Benjamin Brunson
A 10 yr old spayed female toy poodle was presented to a tertiary referral center for a 10 day history of waxing and waning lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia. An immune-mediated neutropenia (IMN) was suspected to be the underlying cause of her clinical signs. A bone marrow aspirate was obtained from the chostochondral junction of the 11th and 12th ribs on the right side and provided a definitive diagnosis of IMN. A positive response to therapy and repeat blood work further confirmed the diagnosis. Obtaining bone marrow aspirates from the chostochondral junction is a safe, cheap, and reliable method of diagnosing IMN and can be performed in the private practice setting with light sedation and minimal need for specialized equipment...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Kazuki Heishima, Ryota Iwasaki, Mifumi Kawabe, Mami Murakami, Hiroki Sakai, Kohji Maruo, Takashi Mori
Six dogs with massive hepatocellular carcinoma that was not amenable to surgery were treated by oral administration of single-agent toceranib at a dose of 2.0-3.0 mg/kg every other day for a minimum of 60 days. Partial response was achieved in three dogs, stable disease was achieved in one dog, and progressive disease occurred in two dogs, according to the canine Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.0. Observed adverse events were mild to moderate in severity and reported in accordance with the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group's common terminology criteria for adverse events v1...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Jared Jaffey, Amy DeClue, Allison Cannon, Lynel Tocci, Joanna Hyland
Clinically relevant hypocalcemia is a well-documented complication of glucocorticoid administration in people with hypoparathyroidism. The current report describes the phenomenon in a dog. A 7 yr old neutered male Pomeranian was diagnosed with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, and primary hypoparathyroidism. This dog required long-term parenteral calcium gluconate to prevent clinical hypocalcemia despite appropriate doses of oral calcitriol and calcium carbonate. This is the first description of clinically significant presumptive glucocorticoid induced hypocalcemia in a dog with primary hypoparathyroidism...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Loren Sri-Jayantha, Kyle G Matthews, Valery Scharf
A 1 yr old castrated male American Staffordshire terrier mix was treated for Scopulariopsis brevicaulis that was discovered during an evaluation of chronic rhinosinusitis. A sinusotomy was performed, with intraoperative infusion of amikacin-impregnated gel and systemic administration of postoperative amikacin. Antibiotic therapy was initially chosen because of historic culture of Mycoplasma. Fungal culture of the frontal sinus identified S. brevicaulis by combined phenotypic characterization and DNA sequencing after morphologic analysis failed to identify the organism...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Joanne Sohn, Theresa Gruber, Gaylord M Brown
Twenty-five cats at a private animal sanctuary received multiple nonimmunosuppressive doses of parenteral methylprednisolone acetate for at least 3 yr. Complete blood count, chemistry, and T4 results from these cats were examined to look for statistically significant changes. Results found significant changes in triglycerides, amylase, and monocytes. However, these changes remained within the reference interval. All other values showed no significant changes. These results suggest that after 3 yr of chronic parenteral administration of nonimmunosuppressive doses of methylprednisolone acetate, the complete blood count, chemistry, and T4 values in 25 cats were not significantly affected and did not result in abnormal laboratory values...
January 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Daniel P Krull, Stephanie Ann Thomovsky, Annie Vivian Chen, Katrina L Mealey, Mark G Papich
The purpose was to determine the safety and achievable serum concentrations of transdermally administered phenobarbital in healthy cats. The hypothesis was that transdermal phenobarbital would achieve therapeutic serum concentrations (15-45 µg/mL) with minimal short-term adverse effects. Enrolled cats had normal physical and neurologic exams and unremarkable bloodwork. Transdermal phenobarbital in a pluronic lecithin organogel-based vehicle was administered at a dosage of 3.0-3.1 mg/kg per ear pinna (total of 6...
January 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Alaina Moon, Julia Veir
This study described the rate of vaccine reactions in a population of dogs receiving vaccines after diagnosis of primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). A secondary objective was to describe the time elapsed between vaccination and initial diagnosis of IMHA. A medical record search identified cases meeting criteria for primary IMHA. Owners and referring veterinarians were surveyed regarding vaccination of the dog following diagnosis. Referring veterinarians were surveyed regarding vaccination prior to diagnosis of IMHA...
January 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Jason W Stull, Erin Bjorvik, Joshua Bub, Glenda Dvorak, Christine Petersen, Heather L Troyer
A veterinary team's best work can be undone by a breach in infection control, prevention, and biosecurity (ICPB). Such a breach, in the practice or home-care setting, can lead to medical, social, and financial impacts on patients, clients, and staff, as well as damage the reputation of the hospital. To mitigate these negative outcomes, the AAHA ICPB Guidelines Task Force believes that hospital teams should improve upon their current efforts by limiting pathogen exposure from entering or being transmitted throughout the hospital population and using surveillance methods to detect any new entry of a pathogen into the practice...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Ashley Schenk, Cassie Lux, Jeanne Lane, Olya Martin
Hypercalcemia is a biochemical abnormality that, when left untreated, can lead to life-threatening complications including renal failure. Bisphosphonates are routinely used to treat hypercalcemia, but most literature on veterinary patients describes the use of pamidronate. This retrospective case series describes the use of zoledronate for treatment of hypercalcemia in four dogs. Information including signalment, clinical signs, treatment, and outcome was collected. All dogs showed a decrease in total and ionized calcium concentrations after treatment with zoledronate...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Ira Roth, Janet Martin
A 1 yr old castrated male shih tzu was evaluated for an acute right rear limb lameness and hyphema in the anterior chamber of the right eye. On initial examination, the dog was non-weight bearing on his right rear limb. Ophthalmic examination revealed a centrally located, superficial corneal ulcer in the right eye and blood in the anterior chamber. Radiographic findings of the pelvis and right rear were suggestive of avascular necrosis of the right femoral neck with resultant fracture and possible avascular necrosis of the left femoral neck...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Marlene Townsell, Alfred M Legendre, David A Bemis, Ellen Behrend, Stephanie Phillips
Disseminated fungal infections cause morbidity and mortality in dogs. The prognosis varies depending on the infecting agent. Phialosimplex caninus is a recently recognized type of hyalohyphomyces. Knowledge regarding the clinical course of P caninus infection in dogs is limited to two previous case reports. The clinical features, diagnostic findings, responses to medical therapy, and long-term outcomes of three dogs with disseminated P caninus are presented in this study. All dogs had improved quality of life once itraconazole administration, with or without terbinafine, was instituted...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Lauren A Sullivan, Jamie P Lenberg, Pedro Boscan, Timothy B Hackett, David C Twedt
Antiemetics are commonly prescribed during the treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis. This blinded, randomized prospective study compared the quality of clinical recovery and duration of hospitalization in canine parvoviral dogs receiving either maropitant (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb] IV q 24 hr, n = 11) or ondansetron (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb] IV q 8 hr, n = 11). All dogs were treated with IV fluids, cefoxitin, and enteral nutrition. Frequency of vomiting and pain scoring were recorded twice daily. Rescue analgesics and antiemetics were administered as dictated by specific pain and vomiting criteria...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Shiara Arulpagasam, Cassie Lux, Adesola Odunayo, Jeffery Biskup, Xiaocun Sun
Brachycephalic airway syndrome (BAS) is characterized by increased upper airway resistance due to conformational abnormalities occurring in brachycephalic dogs (BD). In this prospective study, we evaluated pulse oximetry (SpO2 ) and arterial blood gas values in 18 healthy BD and compared these values with those of 18 healthy mesocephalic and dolichocephalic dogs (MDD). All dogs were assigned a BAS score based on an owner questionnaire. Inclusion criteria included presentation to the hospital for a problem unrelated to the respiratory system and unremarkable blood analyses and physical examination...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Andrea Dedeaux, Amy Grooters, Nobuko Wakamatsu-Utsuki, Joseph Taboada
Opportunistic fungal infections have long been recognized as rare causes of disease in immunocompetent dogs and cats. Recently, the escalating use of multiagent immunosuppression protocols (especially those that include cyclosporine) has resulted in an increased number of patients with opportunistic fungal infection encountered by small animal practitioners and has altered the typical case phenotype. Based on histologic and cytologic features such as pigmentation, hyphal diameter, and distribution in tissue, these opportunistic mycoses can be placed into categories such as phaeohyphomycosis, hyalohyphomycosis, and eumycotic mycetoma...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Natasha Hodgson, Efa A Llewellyn, David J Schaeffer
Systemic inflammation is known to cause WBC abnormalities, specifically neutrophilia and lymphopenia. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple and affordable biomarker that has been used in human clinical settings of sepsis but has not been investigated in veterinary species. We evaluated NLR in dogs with septic and nonseptic systemic inflammatory diseases and compared with a healthy dog population. An NLR ≥6 had an 84.39% sensitivity and 86.95% specificity to identify dogs with systemic inflammatory states; however, no ratio distinguished septic and nonseptic causes...
November 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
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