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Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008706/consumer-driven-nutrient-dynamics-in-freshwater-ecosystems-from-individuals-to-ecosystems
#1
Carla L Atkinson, Krista A Capps, Amanda T Rugenski, Michael J Vanni
The role of animals in modulating nutrient cycling [hereafter, consumer-driven nutrient dynamics (CND)] has been accepted as an important influence on both community structure and ecosystem function in aquatic systems. Yet there is great variability in the influence of CND across species and ecosystems, and the causes of this variation are not well understood. Here, we review and synthesize the mechanisms behind CND in fresh waters. We reviewed 131 articles on CND published between 1973 and 1 June 2015. The rate of new publications in CND has increased from 1...
December 23, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995767/mannoside-recognition-and-degradation-by-bacteria
#2
Simon Ladevèze, Elisabeth Laville, Jordane Despres, Pascale Mosoni, Gabrielle Potocki-Véronèse
Mannosides constitute a vast group of glycans widely distributed in nature. Produced by almost all organisms, these carbohydrates are involved in numerous cellular processes, such as cell structuration, protein maturation and signalling, mediation of protein-protein interactions and cell recognition. The ubiquitous presence of mannosides in the environment means they are a reliable source of carbon and energy for bacteria, which have developed complex strategies to harvest them. This review focuses on the various mannosides that can be found in nature and details their structure...
December 20, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982504/climate-change-and-nesting-behaviour-in-vertebrates-a-review-of-the-ecological-threats-and-potential-for-adaptive-responses
#3
Mark C Mainwaring, Iain Barber, Denis C Deeming, David A Pike, Elizabeth A Roznik, Ian R Hartley
Nest building is a taxonomically widespread and diverse trait that allows animals to alter local environments to create optimal conditions for offspring development. However, there is growing evidence that climate change is adversely affecting nest-building in animals directly, for example via sea-level rises that flood nests, reduced availability of building materials, and suboptimal sex allocation in species exhibiting temperature-dependent sex determination. Climate change is also affecting nesting species indirectly, via range shifts into suboptimal nesting areas, reduced quality of nest-building environments, and changes in interactions with nest predators and parasites...
December 16, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891813/geographic-variation-in-genetic-and-demographic-performance-new-insights-from-an-old-biogeographical-paradigm
#4
Samuel Pironon, Guillaume Papuga, Jesús Villellas, Amy L Angert, María B García, John D Thompson
The 'centre-periphery hypothesis' (CPH) is a long-standing postulate in ecology that states that genetic variation and demographic performance of a species decrease from the centre to the edge of its geographic range. This hypothesis is based on an assumed concordance between geographical peripherality and ecological marginality such that environmental conditions become harsher towards the limits of a species range. In this way, the CPH sets the stage for understanding the causes of distribution limits. To date, no study has examined conjointly the consistency of these postulates...
November 27, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879038/detecting-and-avoiding-likely-false-positive-findings%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-practical-guide
#5
Wolfgang Forstmeier, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Timothy H Parker
Recently there has been a growing concern that many published research findings do not hold up in attempts to replicate them. We argue that this problem may originate from a culture of 'you can publish if you found a significant effect'. This culture creates a systematic bias against the null hypothesis which renders meta-analyses questionable and may even lead to a situation where hypotheses become difficult to falsify. In order to pinpoint the sources of error and possible solutions, we review current scientific practices with regard to their effect on the probability of drawing a false-positive conclusion...
November 23, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878942/morphological-evolution-of-the-mammalian-jaw-adductor-complex
#6
Stephan Lautenschlager, Pamela Gill, Zhe-Xi Luo, Michael J Fagan, Emily J Rayfield
The evolution of the mammalian jaw during the transition from non-mammalian synapsids to crown mammals is a key event in vertebrate history and characterised by the gradual reduction of its individual bones into a single element and the concomitant transformation of the jaw joint and its incorporation into the middle ear complex. This osteological transformation is accompanied by a rearrangement and modification of the jaw adductor musculature, which is thought to have allowed the evolution of a more-efficient masticatory system in comparison to the plesiomorphic synapsid condition...
November 23, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862868/mirror-neurons-in-the-tree-of-life-mosaic-evolution-plasticity-and-exaptation-of-sensorimotor-matching-responses
#7
Antonella Tramacere, Telmo Pievani, Pier F Ferrari
Considering the properties of mirror neurons (MNs) in terms of development and phylogeny, we offer a novel, unifying, and testable account of their evolution according to the available data and try to unify apparently discordant research, including the plasticity of MNs during development, their adaptive value and their phylogenetic relationships and continuity. We hypothesize that the MN system reflects a set of interrelated traits, each with an independent natural history due to unique selective pressures, and propose that there are at least three evolutionarily significant trends that gave raise to three subtypes: hand visuomotor, mouth visuomotor, and audio-vocal...
November 16, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862887/revisiting-the-links-between-bone-remodelling-and-osteocytes-insights-from-across-phyla
#8
John D Currey, Mason N Dean, Ron Shahar
We question two major tenets of bone biology: that the primary role of remodelling is to remove damage in the bone (so-called damage-driven remodelling) and that osteocytes are the only strain-sensing orchestrators of this process. These concepts are distilled largely from research on model mammal species, but in fact, there are a number of features of various bones, from mammalian and non-mammalian species, that do not accord with these 'rules'. Here, we assemble a variety of examples, ranging from species that lack osteocytes but that still seem capable of remodelling their bones, to species with osteocytic bones that do not remodel, and to instances of inter-species, inter-bone and/or intra-bone variation in bone remodelling that show that this purported repair process is not always where the 'rules' tell us it should be...
November 14, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807946/sensory-based-conservation-of-seabirds-a-review-of-management-strategies-and-animal-behaviours-that-facilitate-success
#9
Megan R Friesen, Jacqueline R Beggs, Anne C Gaskett
Sensory-based conservation harnesses species' natural communication and signalling behaviours to mitigate threats to wild populations. To evaluate this emerging field, we assess how sensory-based manipulations, sensory mode, and target taxa affect success. To facilitate broader, cross-species application of successful techniques, we test which behavioural and life-history traits correlate with positive conservation outcomes. We focus on seabirds, one of the world's most rapidly declining groups, whose philopatry, activity patterns, foraging, mate choice, and parental care behaviours all involve reliance on, and therefore strong selection for, sophisticated sensory physiology and accurate assessment of intra- and inter-species signals and cues in several sensory modes...
November 2, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791332/decreasing-water-availability-across-the-globe-improves-the-effectiveness-of-protective-ant-plant-mutualisms-a-meta-analysis
#10
Laura C Leal, Paulo E C Peixoto
Abiotic conditions can increase the costs of services and/or the benefits of rewards provided by mutualistic partners. Consequently, in some situations, the outcome of mutualisms can move from beneficial to detrimental for at least one partner. In the case of protective mutualisms between ant bodyguards and plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), plants from arid environments face a trade-off between EFN production and maintenance and water and carbon economy. This trade-off may increase EFN costs and decrease their value as a defensive strategy to plants in such environments...
October 28, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779364/insulin-like-growth-factor-axis-targeting-in-cancer-and-tumour-angiogenesis%C3%A2-%C3%A2-the-missing-link
#11
Judy R van Beijnum, Wietske Pieters, Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska, Arjan W Griffioen
Numerous molecular players in the process of tumour angiogenesis have been shown to offer potential for therapeutic targeting. Initially denoted to be involved in malignant transformation and tumour progression, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling axis has been subject to therapeutic interference, albeit with limited clinical success. More recently, IGFs and their receptors have received attention for their contribution to tumour angiogenesis, which offers novel therapeutic opportunities. Here we review the contribution of this signalling axis to tumour angiogenesis, the mechanisms of resistance to therapy and the interplay with other pro-angiogenic pathways, to offer insight in the renewed interest in the application of IGF axis targeting agents in anti-cancer combination therapies...
October 24, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075073/resolving-the-relationships-of-paleocene-placental-mammals
#12
Thomas J D Halliday, Paul Upchurch, Anjali Goswami
The 'Age of Mammals' began in the Paleocene epoch, the 10 million year interval immediately following the Cretaceous-Palaeogene mass extinction. The apparently rapid shift in mammalian ecomorphs from small, largely insectivorous forms to many small-to-large-bodied, diverse taxa has driven a hypothesis that the end-Cretaceous heralded an adaptive radiation in placental mammal evolution. However, the affinities of most Paleocene mammals have remained unresolved, despite significant advances in understanding the relationships of the extant orders, hindering efforts to reconstruct robustly the origin and early evolution of placental mammals...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075072/use-of-erythrocyte-indicators-of-health-and-condition-in-vertebrate-ecophysiology-a-review-and-appraisal
#13
Christopher P Johnstone, Alan Lill, Richard D Reina
We review evidence for and against the use of erythrocyte indicators of health status and condition, parasite infection level and physiological stress in free-living vertebrates. The use of indicators that are measured directly from the blood, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and parameters that are calculated from multiple measured metrics, such as mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin content or mean cell haemoglobin concentration is evaluated. The evidence for or against the use of any given metric is equivocal when the relevant research is considered in total, although there is sometimes strong support for using a particular metric in a particular taxon...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26766070/evolution-and-function-of-anterior-cervical-vertebral-fusion-in-tetrapods
#14
Collin S VanBuren, David C Evans
The evolution of vertebral fusion is a poorly understood phenomenon that results in the loss of mobility between sequential vertebrae. Non-pathological fusion of the anterior cervical vertebrae has evolved independently in numerous extant and extinct mammals and reptiles, suggesting that the formation of a 'syncervical' is an adaptation that arose to confer biomechanical advantage(s) in these lineages. We review syncervical anatomy and evolution in a broad phylogenetic context for the first time and provide a comprehensive summary of proposed adaptive hypotheses...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26727244/conservation-status-of-freshwater-mussels-in-europe-state-of-the-art-and-future-challenges
#15
Manuel Lopes-Lima, Ronaldo Sousa, Juergen Geist, David C Aldridge, Rafael Araujo, Jakob Bergengren, Yulia Bespalaya, Erika Bódis, Lyubov Burlakova, Dirk Van Damme, Karel Douda, Elsa Froufe, Dilian Georgiev, Clemens Gumpinger, Alexander Karatayev, Ümit Kebapçi, Ian Killeen, Jasna Lajtner, Bjørn M Larsen, Rosaria Lauceri, Anastasios Legakis, Sabela Lois, Stefan Lundberg, Evelyn Moorkens, Gregory Motte, Karl-Otto Nagel, Paz Ondina, Adolfo Outeiro, Momir Paunovic, Vincent Prié, Ted von Proschwitz, Nicoletta Riccardi, Mudīte Rudzīte, Māris Rudzītis, Christian Scheder, Mary Seddon, Hülya Şereflişan, Vladica Simić, Svetlana Sokolova, Katharina Stoeckl, Jouni Taskinen, Amílcar Teixeira, Frankie Thielen, Teodora Trichkova, Simone Varandas, Heinrich Vicentini, Katarzyna Zajac, Tadeusz Zajac, Stamatis Zogaris
Freshwater mussels of the Order Unionida provide important ecosystem functions and services, yet many of their populations are in decline. We comprehensively review the status of the 16 currently recognized species in Europe, collating for the first time their life-history traits, distribution, conservation status, habitat preferences, and main threats in order to suggest future management actions. In northern, central, and eastern Europe, a relatively homogeneous species composition is found in most basins...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26613547/using-contact-networks-to-explore-mechanisms-of-parasite-transmission-in-wildlife
#16
Lauren A White, James D Forester, Meggan E Craft
A hallmark assumption of traditional approaches to disease modelling is that individuals within a given population mix uniformly and at random. However, this assumption does not always hold true; contact heterogeneity or preferential associations can have a substantial impact on the duration, size, and dynamics of epidemics. Contact heterogeneity has been readily adopted in epidemiological studies of humans, but has been less studied in wildlife. While contact network studies are becoming more common for wildlife, their methodologies, fundamental assumptions, host species, and parasites vary widely...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608222/autocrine-embryotropins-revisited-how-do-embryos-communicate-with-each-other-in-vitro-when-cultured-in-groups
#17
Eline Wydooghe, Leen Vandaele, Sonia Heras, Petra De Sutter, Dieter Deforce, Luc Peelman, Catharina De Schauwer, Ann Van Soom
In the absence of the maternal genital tract, preimplantation embryos can develop in vitro in culture medium where all communication with the oviduct or uterus is absent. In several mammalian species, it has been observed that embryos cultured in groups thrive better than those cultured singly. Here we argue that group-cultured embryos are able to promote their own development in vitro by the production of autocrine embryotropins that putatively serve as a communication tool. The concept of effective communication implies an origin, a signalling agent, and finally a recipient that is able to decode the message...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26588818/the-origin-of-the-animals-and-a-savannah-hypothesis-for-early-bilaterian-evolution
#18
Graham E Budd, Sören Jensen
The earliest evolution of the animals remains a taxing biological problem, as all extant clades are highly derived and the fossil record is not usually considered to be helpful. The rise of the bilaterian animals recorded in the fossil record, commonly known as the 'Cambrian explosion', is one of the most significant moments in evolutionary history, and was an event that transformed first marine and then terrestrial environments. We review the phylogeny of early animals and other opisthokonts, and the affinities of the earliest large complex fossils, the so-called 'Ediacaran' taxa...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26587693/seed-fate-and-decision-making-processes-in-scatter-hoarding-rodents
#19
Nathanael I Lichti, Michael A Steele, Robert K Swihart
A mechanistic understanding of seed movement and survival is important both for the development of theoretical models of plant population dynamics, spatial spread, and community assembly, and for the conservation and management of plant communities under global change. While models of wind-borne seed dispersal have advanced rapidly over the past two decades, models for animal-mediated dispersal have failed to make similar progress due to their dependence on interspecific interactions and complex, context-dependent behaviours...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26565143/reducing-sample-size-in-experiments-with-animals-historical-controls-and-related-strategies
#20
Matthew Kramer, Enrique Font
Reducing the number of animal subjects used in biomedical experiments is desirable for ethical and practical reasons. Previous reviews of the benefits of reducing sample sizes have focused on improving experimental designs and methods of statistical analysis, but reducing the size of control groups has been considered rarely. We discuss how the number of current control animals can be reduced, without loss of statistical power, by incorporating information from historical controls, i.e. subjects used as controls in similar previous experiments...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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