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Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429851/impacts-of-taxonomic-inertia-for-the-conservation-of-african-ungulate-diversity-an-overview
#1
Spartaco Gippoliti, Fenton P D Cotterill, Dietmar Zinner, Colin P Groves
We review the state of African ungulate taxonomy over the last 120 years, with an emphasis on the introduction of the polytypic species concept and the discipline's general neglect since the middle of the 20th century. We single out negative consequences of 'orthodox' taxonomy, highlighting numerous cases of neglect of threatened lineages, unsound translocations that led to lineage introgression, and cases of maladaptation to local conditions including parasitic infections. Additionally, several captive breeding programmes have been hampered by chromosome rearrangements caused by involuntary lineage mixing...
April 21, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393457/causes-and-consequences-of-variation-in-offspring-body-mass-meta-analyses-in-birds-and-mammals
#2
Victor Ronget, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Tim Coulson, Michael Garratt, François Gueyffier, Jean-Christophe Lega, Jean-François Lemaître
Early survival is highly variable and strongly influences observed population growth rates in most vertebrate populations. One of the major potential drivers of survival variation among juveniles is body mass. Heavy juveniles are better fed and have greater body reserves, and are thus assumed to survive better than light individuals. In spite of this, some studies have failed to detect an influence of body mass on offspring survival, questioning whether offspring body mass does indeed consistently influence juvenile survival, or whether this occurs in particular species/environments...
April 9, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374548/reproductive-senescence-new-perspectives-in-the-wild
#3
Jean-François Lemaître, Jean-Michel Gaillard
According to recent empirical studies, reproductive senescence, the decline in reproductive success with increasing age, seems to be nearly ubiquitous in the wild. However, a clear understanding of the evolutionary causes and consequences of reproductive senescence is still lacking and requires new and integrative approaches. After identifying the sequential and complex nature of female reproductive senescence, we show that the relative contributions of physiological decline and alterations in the efficiency of parental care to reproductive senescence remain unknown and need to be assessed in the light of current evolutionary theories of ageing...
April 4, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371192/reconsidering-connectivity-in-the-sub-antarctic
#4
Katherine L Moon, Steven L Chown, Ceridwen I Fraser
Extreme and remote environments provide useful settings to test ideas about the ecological and evolutionary drivers of biological diversity. In the sub-Antarctic, isolation by geographic, geological and glaciological processes has long been thought to underpin patterns in the region's terrestrial and marine diversity. Molecular studies using increasingly high-resolution data are, however, challenging this perspective, demonstrating that many taxa disperse among distant sub-Antarctic landmasses. Here, we reconsider connectivity in the sub-Antarctic region, identifying which taxa are relatively isolated, which are well connected, and the scales across which this connectivity occurs in both terrestrial and marine systems...
March 29, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338282/don-t-forget-to-look-down%C3%A2-%C3%A2-collaborative-approaches-to-predator-conservation
#5
Steve M Redpath, John D C Linnell, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Luigi Boitani, Nils Bunnefeld, Amy Dickman, R J Gutiérrez, R J Irvine, Maria Johansson, Aleksandra Majić, Barry J McMahon, Simon Pooley, Camilla Sandström, Annelie Sjölander-Lindqvist, Ketil Skogen, Jon E Swenson, Arie Trouwborst, Juliette Young, E J Milner-Gulland
Finding effective ways of conserving large carnivores is widely recognised as a priority in conservation. However, there is disagreement about the most effective way to do this, with some favouring top-down 'command and control' approaches and others favouring collaboration. Arguments for coercive top-down approaches have been presented elsewhere; here we present arguments for collaboration. In many parts of the developed world, flexibility of approach is built into the legislation, so that conservation objectives are balanced with other legitimate goals...
March 24, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299878/igy-a-key-isotype-in-antibody-evolution
#6
Xiaoying Zhang, Rosaleen A Calvert, Brian J Sutton, Katy A Doré
Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is central to our understanding of immunoglobulin evolution. It has links to antibodies from the ancestral IgM to the mucosal IgX and IgA, as well as to mammalian serum IgG and IgE. IgY is found in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and as their most abundant serum antibody, is orthologous to mammalian IgG. However, IgY has the same domain architecture as IgM and IgE, lacking a hinge region and comprising four heavy-chain constant domains. The relationship between IgY and the mucosal antibodies IgX and IgA is discussed herein, in particular the question of how IgA could have contributed to the emergence of IgY...
March 16, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231637/preen-oil-and-bird-fitness-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence
#7
Gregorio Moreno-Rueda
The uropygial gland is a holocrine complex exclusive to birds that produces an oleaginous secretion (preen oil) whose function is still debated. Herein, I examine critically the evidence for the many hypotheses of potential functions of this gland. The main conclusion is that our understanding of this gland is still in its infancy. Even for functions that are considered valid by most researchers, real evidence is scarce. Although it seems clear that preen oil contributes to plumage maintenance, we do not know whether this is due to a role in reducing mechanical abrasion or in reducing feather degradation by keratinophilic organisms...
February 23, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231621/the-biogeography-of-tropical-reef-fishes-endemism-and-provinciality-through-time
#8
Peter F Cowman, Valeriano Parravicini, Michel Kulbicki, Sergio R Floeter
The largest marine biodiversity hotspot straddles the Indian and Pacific Oceans, driven by taxa associated with tropical coral reefs. Centred on the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA), this biodiversity hotspot forms the 'bullseye' of a steep gradient in species richness from this centre to the periphery of the vast Indo-Pacific region. Complex patterns of endemism, wide-ranging species and assemblage differences have obscured our understanding of the genesis of this biodiversity pattern and its maintenance across two-thirds of the world's oceans...
February 23, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220655/ppars-in-the-central-nervous-system-roles-in-neurodegeneration-and-neuroinflammation
#9
Juan M Zolezzi, Manuel J Santos, Sussy Bastías-Candia, Claudio Pinto, Juan A Godoy, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Over 25 years have passed since peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs), were first described. Like other members of the nuclear receptors superfamily, PPARs have been defined as critical sensors and master regulators of cellular metabolism. Recognized as ligand-activated transcription factors, they are involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism, taking part in different cellular processes, including cellular differentiation and apoptosis, inflammatory modulation and attenuation of acute and chronic neurological damage in vivo and in vitro...
February 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220606/lamarck-rises-from-his-grave-parental-environment-induced-epigenetic-inheritance-in-model-organisms-and-humans
#10
Yan Wang, Huijie Liu, Zhongsheng Sun
Organisms can change their physiological/behavioural traits to adapt and survive in changed environments. However, whether these acquired traits can be inherited across generations through non-genetic alterations has been a topic of debate for over a century. Emerging evidence indicates that both ancestral and parental experiences, including nutrition, environmental toxins, nurturing behaviour, and social stress, can have powerful effects on the physiological, metabolic and cellular functions in an organism...
February 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177203/biology-and-insights-into-the-role-of-cohesin-protease-separase-in-human-malignancies
#11
Nenggang Zhang, Debananda Pati
Separase, an enzyme that resolves sister chromatid cohesion during the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, plays a pivotal role in chromosomal segregation and cell division. Separase protein, encoded by the extra spindle pole bodies like 1 (ESPL1) gene, is overexpressed in numerous human cancers including breast, bone, brain, and prostate. Separase is oncogenic, and its overexpression is sufficient to induce mammary tumours in mice. Either acute or chronic overexpression of separase in mouse mammary glands leads to aneuploidy and tumorigenesis, and inhibition of separase enzymatic activity decreases the growth of human breast tumour xenografts in mice...
February 8, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387475/erratum-use-of-erythrocyte-indicators-of-health-and-condition-in-vertebrate-ecophysiology-a-review-and-appraisal
#12
Christopher P Johnstone, Alan Lill, Richard D Reina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194072/the-origin-of-novel-features-by-changes-in-developmental-mechanisms-ontogeny-and-three-dimensional-microanatomy-of-polyodontode-scales-of-two-early-osteichthyans
#13
Qingming Qu, Sophie Sanchez, Min Zhu, Henning Blom, Per Erik Ahlberg
Recent advances in synchrotron imaging allow us to study the three-dimensional (3D) histology of vertebrate fossils, including microfossils (e.g. teeth and scales) of early jawed vertebrates. These microfossils can often be scanned at submicron resolution (<1 µm) because of their small size. The resulting voxel (3D pixel) stacks can be processed into virtual thin sections revealing almost every internal detail of the samples, comparable to traditional thin sections. In addition, 3D models of the internal microanatomical structures, such as embedded odontodes and vasculature, can be assembled and examined in situ...
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154039/a-phenology-of-the-evolution-of-endothermy-in-birds-and-mammals
#14
Barry G Lovegrove
Recent palaeontological data and novel physiological hypotheses now allow a timescaled reconstruction of the evolution of endothermy in birds and mammals. A three-phase iterative model describing how endothermy evolved from Permian ectothermic ancestors is presented. In Phase One I propose that the elevation of endothermy - increased metabolism and body temperature (Tb ) - complemented large-body-size homeothermy during the Permian and Triassic in response to the fitness benefits of enhanced embryo development (parental care) and the activity demands of conquering dry land...
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151556/the-geometry-of-morphospaces-lessons-from-the-classic-raup-shell-coiling-model
#15
Sylvain Gerber
Morphospaces are spatial depictions of morphological variation among biological forms that have become an integral part of the analytical toolkit of evolutionary biologists and palaeobiologists. Nevertheless, the term morphospace brings together a great variety of spaces with different geometries. In particular, many morphospaces lack the metric properties underlying the notions of distance and direction, which are, however, central to the analysis of morphological differences and evolutionary transitions. The problem is illustrated here with the iconic morphospace of coiled shells implemented by Raup 50 years ago...
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145528/use-of-habitat-odour-by-host-seeking-insects
#16
Ben Webster, Ring T Cardé
Locating suitable feeding or oviposition sites is essential for insect survival. Understanding how insects achieve this is crucial, not only for understanding the ecology and evolution of insect-host interactions, but also for the development of sustainable pest-control strategies that exploit insects' host-seeking behaviours. Volatile chemical cues are used by foraging insects to locate and recognise potential hosts but in nature these resources usually are patchily distributed, making chance encounters with host odour plumes rare over distances greater than tens of metres...
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27113012/deciphering-the-virus-to-prokaryote-ratio-vpr-insights-into-virus-host-relationships-in-a-variety-of-ecosystems
#17
Kaarle J Parikka, Marc Le Romancer, Nina Wauters, Stéphan Jacquet
The discovery of the numerical importance of viruses in a variety of (aquatic) ecosystems has changed our perception of their importance in microbial processes. Bacteria and Archaea undoubtedly represent the most abundant cellular life forms on Earth and past estimates of viral numbers (represented mainly by viruses infecting prokaryotes) have indicated abundances at least one order of magnitude higher than that of their cellular hosts. Such dominance has been reflected most often by the virus-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR), proposed as a proxy for the relationship between viral and prokaryotic communities...
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103505/revisiting-the-holy-grail-using-plant-functional-traits-to-understand-ecological-processes
#18
Jennifer L Funk, Julie E Larson, Gregory M Ames, Bradley J Butterfield, Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Jennifer Firn, Daniel C Laughlin, Ariana E Sutton-Grier, Laura Williams, Justin Wright
One of ecology's grand challenges is developing general rules to explain and predict highly complex systems. Understanding and predicting ecological processes from species' traits has been considered a 'Holy Grail' in ecology. Plant functional traits are increasingly being used to develop mechanistic models that can predict how ecological communities will respond to abiotic and biotic perturbations and how species will affect ecosystem function and services in a rapidly changing world; however, significant challenges remain...
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27062331/the-early-eocene-birds-of-the-messel-fossil-site-a-48-million-year-old-bird-community-adds-a-temporal-perspective-to-the-evolution-of-tropical-avifaunas
#19
Gerald Mayr
Birds play an important role in studies addressing the diversity and species richness of tropical ecosystems, but because of the poor avian fossil record in all extant tropical regions, a temporal perspective is mainly provided by divergence dates derived from calibrated molecular analyses. Tropical ecosystems were, however, widespread in the Northern Hemisphere during the early Cenozoic, and the early Eocene German fossil site Messel in particular has yielded a rich avian fossil record. The Messel avifauna is characterized by a considerable number of flightless birds, as well as a high diversity of aerial insectivores and the absence of large arboreal birds...
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27062218/fault-bars-in-bird-feathers-mechanisms-and-ecological-and-evolutionary-causes-and-consequences
#20
Roger Jovani, Sievert Rohwer
Fault bars are narrow malformations in feathers oriented almost perpendicular to the rachis where the feather vein and even the rachis may break. Breaks in the barbs and barbules result in small pieces of the feather vein being lost, while breaks in the rachis result in loss of the distal portion of the feather. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of 74 papers on fault bar formation in hopes of providing a clearer approach to their study. First, we review the evidence that the propensity to develop fault bars is modified by natural selection...
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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