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Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508537/superorganismality-and-caste-differentiation-as-points-of-no-return-how-the-major-evolutionary-transitions-were-lost-in-translation
#1
Jacobus J Boomsma, Richard Gawne
More than a century ago, William Morton Wheeler proposed that social insect colonies can be regarded as superorganisms when they have morphologically differentiated reproductive and nursing castes that are analogous to the metazoan germ-line and soma. Following the rise of sociobiology in the 1970s, Wheeler's insights were largely neglected, and we were left with multiple new superorganism concepts that are mutually inconsistent and uninformative on how superorganismality originated. These difficulties can be traced to the broadened sociobiological concept of eusociality, which denies that physical queen-worker caste differentiation is a universal hallmark of superorganismal colonies...
May 15, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480618/beyond-chemoreception-diverse-tasks-of-soluble-olfactory-proteins-in-insects
#2
Paolo Pelosi, Immacolata Iovinella, Jiao Zhu, Guirong Wang, Francesca R Dani
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are regarded as carriers of pheromones and odorants in insect chemoreception. These proteins are typically located in antennae, mouth organs and other chemosensory structures; however, members of both classes of proteins have been detected recently in other parts of the body and various functions have been proposed. The best studied of these non-sensory tasks is performed in pheromone glands, where OBPs and CSPs solubilise hydrophobic semiochemicals and assist their controlled release into the environment...
May 7, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474820/the-long-term-persistence-of-phytoplankton-resting-stages-in-aquatic-seed-banks
#3
Marianne Ellegaard, Sofia Ribeiro
In the past decade, research on long-term persistence of phytoplankton resting stages has intensified. Simultaneously, insight into life-cycle variability in the diverse groups of phytoplankton has also increased. Aquatic 'seed banks' have tremendous significance and show many interesting parallels to terrestrial seed beds of vascular plants, but are much less studied. It is therefore timely to review the phenomenon of long-term persistence of aquatic resting stages in sediment seed banks. Herein we compare function, morphology and physiology of phytoplankton resting stages to factors central for persistence of terrestrial seeds...
May 5, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464469/phylogenetic-perspectives-on-reef-fish-functional-traits
#4
Sergio R Floeter, Mariana G Bender, Alexandre C Siqueira, Peter F Cowman
Functional traits have been fundamental to the evolution and diversification of entire fish lineages on coral reefs. Yet their relationship with the processes promoting speciation, extinction and the filtering of local species pools remains unclear. We review the current literature exploring the evolution of diet, body size, water column use and geographic range size in reef-associated fishes. Using published and new data, we mapped functional traits on to published phylogenetic trees to uncover evolutionary patterns that have led to the current functional diversity of fishes on coral reefs...
May 2, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464404/the-interplay-between-autophagy-and-tumorigenesis-exploiting-autophagy-as-a-means-of-anticancer-therapy
#5
Juan Lorente, Carolina Velandia, Jose A Leal, Yoelsis Garcia-Mayea, Alex Lyakhovich, Hiroshi Kondoh, Matilde E LLeonart
In wild-type cells, autophagy represents a tumour-suppressor mechanism, and dysfunction of the autophagy machinery increases genomic instability, DNA damage, oxidative stress and stem/progenitor expansion, which are events associated with cancer onset. Autophagy occurs at a basal level in all cells depending on cell type and cellular microenvironment. However, the role of autophagy in cancer is diverse and can promote different outcomes even in a single tumour. For example, in hypoxic tumour regions, autophagy emerges as a protective mechanism and allows cancer cell survival...
May 2, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464349/developmental-temperatures-and-phenotypic-plasticity-in-reptiles-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Daniel W A Noble, Vaughn Stenhouse, Lisa E Schwanz
Early environments can profoundly influence an organism in ways that persist over its life. In reptiles, early thermal environments (nest temperatures) can impact offspring phenotype and survival in important ways, yet we still lack an understanding of whether general trends exist and the magnitude of impact. Understanding these patterns is important in predicting how climate change will affect reptile populations and the role of phenotypic plasticity in buffering populations. We compiled data from 175 reptile studies to examine, and quantify, the effect of incubation temperature on phenotype and survival...
May 2, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447398/a-suite-of-essential-biodiversity-variables-for-detecting-critical-biodiversity-change
#7
Dirk S Schmeller, Lauren V Weatherdon, Adeline Loyau, Alberte Bondeau, Lluis Brotons, Neil Brummitt, Ilse R Geijzendorffer, Peter Haase, Mathias Kuemmerlen, Corinne S Martin, Jean-Baptiste Mihoub, Duccio Rocchini, Hannu Saarenmaa, Stefan Stoll, Eugenie C Regan
Key global indicators of biodiversity decline, such as the IUCN Red List Index and the Living Planet Index, have relatively long assessment intervals. This means they, due to their inherent structure, function as late-warning indicators that are retrospective, rather than prospective. These indicators are unquestionably important in providing information for biodiversity conservation, but the detection of early-warning signs of critical biodiversity change is also needed so that proactive management responses can be enacted promptly where required...
April 26, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444848/biologically-meaningful-scents-a-framework-for-understanding-predator-prey-research-across-disciplines
#8
Michael H Parsons, Raimund Apfelbach, Peter B Banks, Elissa Z Cameron, Chris R Dickman, Anke S K Frank, Menna E Jones, Ian S McGregor, Stuart McLean, Dietland Müller-Schwarze, Elisa E Sparrow, Daniel T Blumstein
Fear of predation is a universal motivator. Because predators hunt using stealth and surprise, there is a widespread ability among prey to assess risk from chemical information - scents - in their environment. Consequently, scents often act as particularly strong modulators of memory and emotions. Recent advances in ecological research and analytical technology are leading to novel ways to use this chemical information to create effective attractants, repellents and anti-anxiolytic compounds for wildlife managers, conservation biologists and health practitioners...
April 26, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429851/impacts-of-taxonomic-inertia-for-the-conservation-of-african-ungulate-diversity-an-overview
#9
Spartaco Gippoliti, Fenton P D Cotterill, Dietmar Zinner, Colin P Groves
We review the state of African ungulate taxonomy over the last 120 years, with an emphasis on the introduction of the polytypic species concept and the discipline's general neglect since the middle of the 20th century. We single out negative consequences of 'orthodox' taxonomy, highlighting numerous cases of neglect of threatened lineages, unsound translocations that led to lineage introgression, and cases of maladaptation to local conditions including parasitic infections. Additionally, several captive breeding programmes have been hampered by chromosome rearrangements caused by involuntary lineage mixing...
April 21, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393457/causes-and-consequences-of-variation-in-offspring-body-mass-meta-analyses-in-birds-and-mammals
#10
Victor Ronget, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Tim Coulson, Michael Garratt, François Gueyffier, Jean-Christophe Lega, Jean-François Lemaître
Early survival is highly variable and strongly influences observed population growth rates in most vertebrate populations. One of the major potential drivers of survival variation among juveniles is body mass. Heavy juveniles are better fed and have greater body reserves, and are thus assumed to survive better than light individuals. In spite of this, some studies have failed to detect an influence of body mass on offspring survival, questioning whether offspring body mass does indeed consistently influence juvenile survival, or whether this occurs in particular species/environments...
April 9, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374548/reproductive-senescence-new-perspectives-in-the-wild
#11
Jean-François Lemaître, Jean-Michel Gaillard
According to recent empirical studies, reproductive senescence, the decline in reproductive success with increasing age, seems to be nearly ubiquitous in the wild. However, a clear understanding of the evolutionary causes and consequences of reproductive senescence is still lacking and requires new and integrative approaches. After identifying the sequential and complex nature of female reproductive senescence, we show that the relative contributions of physiological decline and alterations in the efficiency of parental care to reproductive senescence remain unknown and need to be assessed in the light of current evolutionary theories of ageing...
April 4, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371192/reconsidering-connectivity-in-the-sub-antarctic
#12
Katherine L Moon, Steven L Chown, Ceridwen I Fraser
Extreme and remote environments provide useful settings to test ideas about the ecological and evolutionary drivers of biological diversity. In the sub-Antarctic, isolation by geographic, geological and glaciological processes has long been thought to underpin patterns in the region's terrestrial and marine diversity. Molecular studies using increasingly high-resolution data are, however, challenging this perspective, demonstrating that many taxa disperse among distant sub-Antarctic landmasses. Here, we reconsider connectivity in the sub-Antarctic region, identifying which taxa are relatively isolated, which are well connected, and the scales across which this connectivity occurs in both terrestrial and marine systems...
March 29, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338282/don-t-forget-to-look-down%C3%A2-%C3%A2-collaborative-approaches-to-predator-conservation
#13
Steve M Redpath, John D C Linnell, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Luigi Boitani, Nils Bunnefeld, Amy Dickman, R J Gutiérrez, R J Irvine, Maria Johansson, Aleksandra Majić, Barry J McMahon, Simon Pooley, Camilla Sandström, Annelie Sjölander-Lindqvist, Ketil Skogen, Jon E Swenson, Arie Trouwborst, Juliette Young, E J Milner-Gulland
Finding effective ways of conserving large carnivores is widely recognised as a priority in conservation. However, there is disagreement about the most effective way to do this, with some favouring top-down 'command and control' approaches and others favouring collaboration. Arguments for coercive top-down approaches have been presented elsewhere; here we present arguments for collaboration. In many parts of the developed world, flexibility of approach is built into the legislation, so that conservation objectives are balanced with other legitimate goals...
March 24, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299878/igy-a-key-isotype-in-antibody-evolution
#14
Xiaoying Zhang, Rosaleen A Calvert, Brian J Sutton, Katy A Doré
Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is central to our understanding of immunoglobulin evolution. It has links to antibodies from the ancestral IgM to the mucosal IgX and IgA, as well as to mammalian serum IgG and IgE. IgY is found in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and as their most abundant serum antibody, is orthologous to mammalian IgG. However, IgY has the same domain architecture as IgM and IgE, lacking a hinge region and comprising four heavy-chain constant domains. The relationship between IgY and the mucosal antibodies IgX and IgA is discussed herein, in particular the question of how IgA could have contributed to the emergence of IgY...
March 16, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387475/erratum-use-of-erythrocyte-indicators-of-health-and-condition-in-vertebrate-ecophysiology-a-review-and-appraisal
#15
Christopher P Johnstone, Alan Lill, Richard D Reina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194072/the-origin-of-novel-features-by-changes-in-developmental-mechanisms-ontogeny-and-three-dimensional-microanatomy-of-polyodontode-scales-of-two-early-osteichthyans
#16
Qingming Qu, Sophie Sanchez, Min Zhu, Henning Blom, Per Erik Ahlberg
Recent advances in synchrotron imaging allow us to study the three-dimensional (3D) histology of vertebrate fossils, including microfossils (e.g. teeth and scales) of early jawed vertebrates. These microfossils can often be scanned at submicron resolution (<1 µm) because of their small size. The resulting voxel (3D pixel) stacks can be processed into virtual thin sections revealing almost every internal detail of the samples, comparable to traditional thin sections. In addition, 3D models of the internal microanatomical structures, such as embedded odontodes and vasculature, can be assembled and examined in situ...
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154039/a-phenology-of-the-evolution-of-endothermy-in-birds-and-mammals
#17
Barry G Lovegrove
Recent palaeontological data and novel physiological hypotheses now allow a timescaled reconstruction of the evolution of endothermy in birds and mammals. A three-phase iterative model describing how endothermy evolved from Permian ectothermic ancestors is presented. In Phase One I propose that the elevation of endothermy - increased metabolism and body temperature (Tb ) - complemented large-body-size homeothermy during the Permian and Triassic in response to the fitness benefits of enhanced embryo development (parental care) and the activity demands of conquering dry land...
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151556/the-geometry-of-morphospaces-lessons-from-the-classic-raup-shell-coiling-model
#18
Sylvain Gerber
Morphospaces are spatial depictions of morphological variation among biological forms that have become an integral part of the analytical toolkit of evolutionary biologists and palaeobiologists. Nevertheless, the term morphospace brings together a great variety of spaces with different geometries. In particular, many morphospaces lack the metric properties underlying the notions of distance and direction, which are, however, central to the analysis of morphological differences and evolutionary transitions. The problem is illustrated here with the iconic morphospace of coiled shells implemented by Raup 50 years ago...
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145528/use-of-habitat-odour-by-host-seeking-insects
#19
Ben Webster, Ring T Cardé
Locating suitable feeding or oviposition sites is essential for insect survival. Understanding how insects achieve this is crucial, not only for understanding the ecology and evolution of insect-host interactions, but also for the development of sustainable pest-control strategies that exploit insects' host-seeking behaviours. Volatile chemical cues are used by foraging insects to locate and recognise potential hosts but in nature these resources usually are patchily distributed, making chance encounters with host odour plumes rare over distances greater than tens of metres...
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27113012/deciphering-the-virus-to-prokaryote-ratio-vpr-insights-into-virus-host-relationships-in-a-variety-of-ecosystems
#20
Kaarle J Parikka, Marc Le Romancer, Nina Wauters, Stéphan Jacquet
The discovery of the numerical importance of viruses in a variety of (aquatic) ecosystems has changed our perception of their importance in microbial processes. Bacteria and Archaea undoubtedly represent the most abundant cellular life forms on Earth and past estimates of viral numbers (represented mainly by viruses infecting prokaryotes) have indicated abundances at least one order of magnitude higher than that of their cellular hosts. Such dominance has been reflected most often by the virus-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR), proposed as a proxy for the relationship between viral and prokaryotic communities...
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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