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Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299878/igy-a-key-isotype-in-antibody-evolution
#1
Xiaoying Zhang, Rosaleen A Calvert, Brian J Sutton, Katy A Doré
Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is central to our understanding of immunoglobulin evolution. It has links to antibodies from the ancestral IgM to the mucosal IgX and IgA, as well as to mammalian serum IgG and IgE. IgY is found in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and as their most abundant serum antibody, is orthologous to mammalian IgG. However, IgY has the same domain architecture as IgM and IgE, lacking a hinge region and comprising four heavy-chain constant domains. The relationship between IgY and the mucosal antibodies IgX and IgA is discussed herein, in particular the question of how IgA could have contributed to the emergence of IgY...
March 16, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231637/preen-oil-and-bird-fitness-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence
#2
Gregorio Moreno-Rueda
The uropygial gland is a holocrine complex exclusive to birds that produces an oleaginous secretion (preen oil) whose function is still debated. Herein, I examine critically the evidence for the many hypotheses of potential functions of this gland. The main conclusion is that our understanding of this gland is still in its infancy. Even for functions that are considered valid by most researchers, real evidence is scarce. Although it seems clear that preen oil contributes to plumage maintenance, we do not know whether this is due to a role in reducing mechanical abrasion or in reducing feather degradation by keratinophilic organisms...
February 23, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231621/the-biogeography-of-tropical-reef-fishes-endemism-and-provinciality-through-time
#3
Peter F Cowman, Valeriano Parravicini, Michel Kulbicki, Sergio R Floeter
The largest marine biodiversity hotspot straddles the Indian and Pacific Oceans, driven by taxa associated with tropical coral reefs. Centred on the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA), this biodiversity hotspot forms the 'bullseye' of a steep gradient in species richness from this centre to the periphery of the vast Indo-Pacific region. Complex patterns of endemism, wide-ranging species and assemblage differences have obscured our understanding of the genesis of this biodiversity pattern and its maintenance across two-thirds of the world's oceans...
February 23, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220655/ppars-in-the-central-nervous-system-roles-in-neurodegeneration-and-neuroinflammation
#4
Juan M Zolezzi, Manuel J Santos, Sussy Bastías-Candia, Claudio Pinto, Juan A Godoy, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Over 25 years have passed since peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs), were first described. Like other members of the nuclear receptors superfamily, PPARs have been defined as critical sensors and master regulators of cellular metabolism. Recognized as ligand-activated transcription factors, they are involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism, taking part in different cellular processes, including cellular differentiation and apoptosis, inflammatory modulation and attenuation of acute and chronic neurological damage in vivo and in vitro...
February 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220606/lamarck-rises-from-his-grave-parental-environment-induced-epigenetic-inheritance-in-model-organisms-and-humans
#5
Yan Wang, Huijie Liu, Zhongsheng Sun
Organisms can change their physiological/behavioural traits to adapt and survive in changed environments. However, whether these acquired traits can be inherited across generations through non-genetic alterations has been a topic of debate for over a century. Emerging evidence indicates that both ancestral and parental experiences, including nutrition, environmental toxins, nurturing behaviour, and social stress, can have powerful effects on the physiological, metabolic and cellular functions in an organism...
February 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177203/biology-and-insights-into-the-role-of-cohesin-protease-separase-in-human-malignancies
#6
Nenggang Zhang, Debananda Pati
Separase, an enzyme that resolves sister chromatid cohesion during the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, plays a pivotal role in chromosomal segregation and cell division. Separase protein, encoded by the extra spindle pole bodies like 1 (ESPL1) gene, is overexpressed in numerous human cancers including breast, bone, brain, and prostate. Separase is oncogenic, and its overexpression is sufficient to induce mammary tumours in mice. Either acute or chronic overexpression of separase in mouse mammary glands leads to aneuploidy and tumorigenesis, and inhibition of separase enzymatic activity decreases the growth of human breast tumour xenografts in mice...
February 8, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105701/climate-change-and-alpine-stream-biology-progress-challenges-and-opportunities-for-the-future
#7
Scott Hotaling, Debra S Finn, J Joseph Giersch, David W Weisrock, Dean Jacobsen
In alpine regions worldwide, climate change is dramatically altering ecosystems and affecting biodiversity in many ways. For streams, receding alpine glaciers and snowfields, paired with altered precipitation regimes, are driving shifts in hydrology, species distributions, basal resources, and threatening the very existence of some habitats and biota. Alpine streams harbour substantial species and genetic diversity due to significant habitat insularity and environmental heterogeneity. Climate change is expected to affect alpine stream biodiversity across many levels of biological resolution from micro- to macroscopic organisms and genes to communities...
January 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075073/resolving-the-relationships-of-paleocene-placental-mammals
#8
Thomas J D Halliday, Paul Upchurch, Anjali Goswami
The 'Age of Mammals' began in the Paleocene epoch, the 10 million year interval immediately following the Cretaceous-Palaeogene mass extinction. The apparently rapid shift in mammalian ecomorphs from small, largely insectivorous forms to many small-to-large-bodied, diverse taxa has driven a hypothesis that the end-Cretaceous heralded an adaptive radiation in placental mammal evolution. However, the affinities of most Paleocene mammals have remained unresolved, despite significant advances in understanding the relationships of the extant orders, hindering efforts to reconstruct robustly the origin and early evolution of placental mammals...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075072/use-of-erythrocyte-indicators-of-health-and-condition-in-vertebrate-ecophysiology-a-review-and-appraisal
#9
Christopher P Johnstone, Alan Lill, Richard D Reina
We review evidence for and against the use of erythrocyte indicators of health status and condition, parasite infection level and physiological stress in free-living vertebrates. The use of indicators that are measured directly from the blood, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and parameters that are calculated from multiple measured metrics, such as mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin content or mean cell haemoglobin concentration is evaluated. The evidence for or against the use of any given metric is equivocal when the relevant research is considered in total, although there is sometimes strong support for using a particular metric in a particular taxon...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26766070/evolution-and-function-of-anterior-cervical-vertebral-fusion-in-tetrapods
#10
Collin S VanBuren, David C Evans
The evolution of vertebral fusion is a poorly understood phenomenon that results in the loss of mobility between sequential vertebrae. Non-pathological fusion of the anterior cervical vertebrae has evolved independently in numerous extant and extinct mammals and reptiles, suggesting that the formation of a 'syncervical' is an adaptation that arose to confer biomechanical advantage(s) in these lineages. We review syncervical anatomy and evolution in a broad phylogenetic context for the first time and provide a comprehensive summary of proposed adaptive hypotheses...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26727244/conservation-status-of-freshwater-mussels-in-europe-state-of-the-art-and-future-challenges
#11
Manuel Lopes-Lima, Ronaldo Sousa, Juergen Geist, David C Aldridge, Rafael Araujo, Jakob Bergengren, Yulia Bespalaya, Erika Bódis, Lyubov Burlakova, Dirk Van Damme, Karel Douda, Elsa Froufe, Dilian Georgiev, Clemens Gumpinger, Alexander Karatayev, Ümit Kebapçi, Ian Killeen, Jasna Lajtner, Bjørn M Larsen, Rosaria Lauceri, Anastasios Legakis, Sabela Lois, Stefan Lundberg, Evelyn Moorkens, Gregory Motte, Karl-Otto Nagel, Paz Ondina, Adolfo Outeiro, Momir Paunovic, Vincent Prié, Ted von Proschwitz, Nicoletta Riccardi, Mudīte Rudzīte, Māris Rudzītis, Christian Scheder, Mary Seddon, Hülya Şereflişan, Vladica Simić, Svetlana Sokolova, Katharina Stoeckl, Jouni Taskinen, Amílcar Teixeira, Frankie Thielen, Teodora Trichkova, Simone Varandas, Heinrich Vicentini, Katarzyna Zajac, Tadeusz Zajac, Stamatis Zogaris
Freshwater mussels of the Order Unionida provide important ecosystem functions and services, yet many of their populations are in decline. We comprehensively review the status of the 16 currently recognized species in Europe, collating for the first time their life-history traits, distribution, conservation status, habitat preferences, and main threats in order to suggest future management actions. In northern, central, and eastern Europe, a relatively homogeneous species composition is found in most basins...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26613547/using-contact-networks-to-explore-mechanisms-of-parasite-transmission-in-wildlife
#12
Lauren A White, James D Forester, Meggan E Craft
A hallmark assumption of traditional approaches to disease modelling is that individuals within a given population mix uniformly and at random. However, this assumption does not always hold true; contact heterogeneity or preferential associations can have a substantial impact on the duration, size, and dynamics of epidemics. Contact heterogeneity has been readily adopted in epidemiological studies of humans, but has been less studied in wildlife. While contact network studies are becoming more common for wildlife, their methodologies, fundamental assumptions, host species, and parasites vary widely...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608222/autocrine-embryotropins-revisited-how-do-embryos-communicate-with-each-other-in-vitro-when-cultured-in-groups
#13
Eline Wydooghe, Leen Vandaele, Sonia Heras, Petra De Sutter, Dieter Deforce, Luc Peelman, Catharina De Schauwer, Ann Van Soom
In the absence of the maternal genital tract, preimplantation embryos can develop in vitro in culture medium where all communication with the oviduct or uterus is absent. In several mammalian species, it has been observed that embryos cultured in groups thrive better than those cultured singly. Here we argue that group-cultured embryos are able to promote their own development in vitro by the production of autocrine embryotropins that putatively serve as a communication tool. The concept of effective communication implies an origin, a signalling agent, and finally a recipient that is able to decode the message...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26588818/the-origin-of-the-animals-and-a-savannah-hypothesis-for-early-bilaterian-evolution
#14
Graham E Budd, Sören Jensen
The earliest evolution of the animals remains a taxing biological problem, as all extant clades are highly derived and the fossil record is not usually considered to be helpful. The rise of the bilaterian animals recorded in the fossil record, commonly known as the 'Cambrian explosion', is one of the most significant moments in evolutionary history, and was an event that transformed first marine and then terrestrial environments. We review the phylogeny of early animals and other opisthokonts, and the affinities of the earliest large complex fossils, the so-called 'Ediacaran' taxa...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26587693/seed-fate-and-decision-making-processes-in-scatter-hoarding-rodents
#15
Nathanael I Lichti, Michael A Steele, Robert K Swihart
A mechanistic understanding of seed movement and survival is important both for the development of theoretical models of plant population dynamics, spatial spread, and community assembly, and for the conservation and management of plant communities under global change. While models of wind-borne seed dispersal have advanced rapidly over the past two decades, models for animal-mediated dispersal have failed to make similar progress due to their dependence on interspecific interactions and complex, context-dependent behaviours...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26565143/reducing-sample-size-in-experiments-with-animals-historical-controls-and-related-strategies
#16
Matthew Kramer, Enrique Font
Reducing the number of animal subjects used in biomedical experiments is desirable for ethical and practical reasons. Previous reviews of the benefits of reducing sample sizes have focused on improving experimental designs and methods of statistical analysis, but reducing the size of control groups has been considered rarely. We discuss how the number of current control animals can be reduced, without loss of statistical power, by incorporating information from historical controls, i.e. subjects used as controls in similar previous experiments...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26548910/the-role-of-oxytocin-in-relationships-between-dogs-and-humans-and-potential-applications-for-the-treatment-of-separation-anxiety-in-dogs
#17
Lauren E Thielke, Monique A R Udell
The hormone oxytocin plays an important role in attachment formation and bonding between humans and domestic dogs. Recent research has led to increased interest in potential applications for intranasal oxytocin to aid with the treatment of psychological disorders in humans. While a few studies have explored the effects of intranasally administered oxytocin on social cognition and social bonding in dogs, alternative applications have not yet been explored for the treatment of behavioural problems in this species...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26548761/circulating-phagocytes-the-ancient-and-conserved-interface-between-immune-and-neuroendocrine-function
#18
Davide Malagoli, Mauro Mandrioli, Fabio Tascedda, Enzo Ottaviani
Immune and neuroendocrine functions display significant overlap in highly divergent and evolutionarily distant models such as molluscs, crustaceans, insects and mammals. Fundamental players in this crosstalk are professional phagocytes: macrophages in vertebrates and immunocytes in invertebrates. Although they have different developmental origins, macrophages and immunocytes possess comparable functions and differentiate under the control of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors. Macrophages and immunocytes share their pools of receptors, signalling molecules and pathways with neural cells and the neuro-endocrine system...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26538112/fossils-of-parasites-what-can-the-fossil-record-tell-us-about-the-evolution-of-parasitism
#19
Tommy L F Leung
Parasites are common in many ecosystems, yet because of their nature, they do not fossilise readily and are very rare in the geological record. This makes it challenging to study the evolutionary transition that led to the evolution of parasitism in different taxa. Most studies on the evolution of parasites are based on phylogenies of extant species that were constructed based on morphological and molecular data, but they give us an incomplete picture and offer little information on many important details of parasite-host interactions...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26537849/multiple-successional-pathways-in-human-modified-tropical-landscapes-new-insights-from-forest-succession-forest-fragmentation-and-landscape-ecology-research
#20
Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Felipe P L Melo, Miguel Martínez-Ramos, Frans Bongers, Robin L Chazdon, Jorge A Meave, Natalia Norden, Bráulio A Santos, Inara R Leal, Marcelo Tabarelli
Old-growth tropical forests are being extensively deforested and fragmented worldwide. Yet forest recovery through succession has led to an expansion of secondary forests in human-modified tropical landscapes (HMTLs). Secondary forests thus emerge as a potential repository for tropical biodiversity, and also as a source of essential ecosystem functions and services in HMTLs. Such critical roles are controversial, however, as they depend on successional, landscape and socio-economic dynamics, which can vary widely within and across landscapes and regions...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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