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Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178238/intergenerational-effects-of-nutrition-on-immunity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Catherine E Grueber, Lindsey J Gray, Katrina M Morris, Stephen J Simpson, Alistair M Senior
Diet and immunity are both highly complex processes through which organisms interact with their environment and adapt to variable conditions. Parents that are able to transmit information to their offspring about prevailing environmental conditions have a selective advantage by 'priming' the physiology of their offspring. We used a meta-analytic approach to test the effect of parental diet on offspring immune responses. Using the geometric framework for nutrition (a method for analysing diet compositions wherein food nutrient components are expressed as axes in a Cartesian coordinate space) to define dietary manipulations in terms of their energy and macronutrient compositions, we compiled the results of 226 experiments from 38 published papers on the intergenerational effects of diet on immunity, across a range of study species and immunological responses...
November 27, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160024/a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-the-perspectives-on-the-causes-of-the-science-practice-gap-in-ecology-and-conservation
#2
Diana Bertuol-Garcia, Carla Morsello, Charbel N El-Hani, Renata Pardini
Applying scientific knowledge to confront societal challenges is a difficult task, an issue known as the science-practice gap. In Ecology and Conservation, scientific evidence has been seldom used directly to support decision-making, despite calls for an increasing role of ecological science in developing solutions for a sustainable future. To date, multiple causes of the science-practice gap and diverse approaches to link science and practice in Ecology and Conservation have been proposed. To foster a transparent debate and broaden our understanding of the difficulties of using scientific knowledge, we reviewed the perceived causes of the science-practice gap, aiming to: (i) identify the perspectives of ecologists and conservation scientists on this problem, (ii) evaluate the predominance of these perspectives over time and across journals, and (iii) assess them in light of disciplines studying the role of science in decision-making...
November 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154454/identification-of-de-novo-germline-mutations-and-causal-genes-for-sporadic-diseases-using-trio-based-whole-exome-genome-sequencing
#3
Zi-Bing Jin, Zhongshan Li, Zhenwei Liu, Yi Jiang, Xue-Bi Cai, Jinyu Wu
Whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing (WGS/WES) of the affected proband together with normal parents (trio) is commonly adopted to identify de novo germline mutations (DNMs) underlying sporadic cases of various genetic disorders. However, our current knowledge of the occurrence and functional effects of DNMs remains limited and accurately identifying the disease-causing DNM from a group of irrelevant DNMs is complicated. Herein, we provide a general-purpose discussion of important issues related to pathogenic gene identification based on trio-based WGS/WES data...
November 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125205/reconstructing-pectoral-appendicular-muscle-anatomy-in-fossil-fish-and-tetrapods-over-the-fins-to-limbs-transition
#4
Julia L Molnar, Rui Diogo, John R Hutchinson, Stephanie E Pierce
The question of how tetrapod limbs evolved from fins is one of the great puzzles of evolutionary biology. While palaeontologists, developmental biologists, and geneticists have made great strides in explaining the origin and early evolution of limb skeletal structures, that of the muscles remains largely unknown. The main reason is the lack of consensus about appendicular muscle homology between the closest living relatives of early tetrapods: lobe-finned fish and crown tetrapods. In the light of a recent study of these homologies, we re-examined osteological correlates of muscle attachment in the pectoral girdle, humerus, radius, and ulna of early tetrapods and their close relatives...
November 10, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119723/tick-attachment-cement%C3%A2-%C3%A2-reviewing-the-mysteries-of-a-biological-skin-plug-system
#5
Johannes Suppan, Benedikt Engel, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann, Sylvia Nürnberger
The majority of ticks in the family Ixodidae secrete a substance anchoring their mouthparts to the host skin. This substance is termed cement. It has adhesive properties and seals the lesion during feeding. The particular chemical composition and the curing process of the cement are unclear. This review summarizes the literature, starting with a historical overview, briefly introducing the different hypotheses on the origin of the adhesive and how the tick salivary glands have been identified as its source...
November 8, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115026/scaling-biodiversity-responses-to-hydrological-regimes
#6
Robert J Rolls, Jani Heino, Darren S Ryder, Bruce C Chessman, Ivor O Growns, Ross M Thompson, Keith B Gido
Of all ecosystems, freshwaters support the most dynamic and highly concentrated biodiversity on Earth. These attributes of freshwater biodiversity along with increasing demand for water mean that these systems serve as significant models to understand drivers of global biodiversity change. Freshwater biodiversity changes are often attributed to hydrological alteration by water-resource development and climate change owing to the role of the hydrological regime of rivers, wetlands and floodplains affecting patterns of biodiversity...
November 8, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114986/towards-an-eco-phylogenetic-framework-for-infectious-disease-ecology
#7
Nicholas M Fountain-Jones, William D Pearse, Luis E Escobar, Ana Alba-Casals, Scott Carver, T Jonathan Davies, Simona Kraberger, Monica Papeş, Kurt Vandegrift, Katherine Worsley-Tonks, Meggan E Craft
Identifying patterns and drivers of infectious disease dynamics across multiple scales is a fundamental challenge for modern science. There is growing awareness that it is necessary to incorporate multi-host and/or multi-parasite interactions to understand and predict current and future disease threats better, and new tools are needed to help address this task. Eco-phylogenetics (phylogenetic community ecology) provides one avenue for exploring multi-host multi-parasite systems, yet the incorporation of eco-phylogenetic concepts and methods into studies of host pathogen dynamics has lagged behind...
November 8, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111610/the-function-and-mechanism-of-vocal-accommodation-in-humans-and-other-primates
#8
Hanna Ruch, Yvonne Zürcher, Judith M Burkart
The study of non-human animals, in particular primates, can provide essential insights into language evolution. A critical element of language is vocal production learning, i.e. learning how to produce calls. In contrast to other lineages such as songbirds, vocal production learning of completely new signals is strikingly rare in non-human primates. An increasing body of research, however, suggests that various species of non-human primates engage in vocal accommodation and adjust the structure of their calls in response to environmental noise or conspecific vocalizations...
November 7, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105292/ediacaran-developmental-biology
#9
Frances S Dunn, Alexander G Liu, Philip C J Donoghue
Rocks of the Ediacaran System (635-541 Ma) preserve fossil evidence of some of the earliest complex macroscopic organisms, many of which have been interpreted as animals. However, the unusual morphologies of some of these organisms have made it difficult to resolve their biological relationships to modern metazoan groups. Alternative competing phylogenetic interpretations have been proposed for Ediacaran taxa, including algae, fungi, lichens, rhizoid protists, and even an extinct higher-order group (Vendobionta)...
November 3, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068134/structure-function-and-regulation-of-mitofusin-2-in-health-and-disease
#10
Gursimran Chandhok, Michael Lazarou, Brent Neumann
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that constantly migrate, fuse, and divide to regulate their shape, size, number, and bioenergetic function. Mitofusins (Mfn1/2), optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), are key regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission. Mutations in these molecules are associated with severe neurodegenerative and non-neurological diseases pointing to the importance of functional mitochondrial dynamics in normal cell physiology. In recent years, significant progress has been made in our understanding of mitochondrial dynamics, which has raised interest in defining the physiological roles of key regulators of fusion and fission and led to the identification of additional functions of Mfn2 in mitochondrial metabolism, cell signalling, and apoptosis...
October 25, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034568/innovation-not-recovery-dynamic-redox-promotes-metazoan-radiations
#11
Rachel Wood, Douglas H Erwin
Environmental fluctuations in redox may reinforce rather than hinder evolutionary transitions, such that variability in near-surface oceanic oxygenation can promote morphological evolution and novelty. Modern, low-oxygen regions are heterogeneous and dynamic habitats that support low diversity and are inhabited by opportunistic and non-skeletal metazoans. We note that several major radiation episodes follow protracted or repeating intervals (>1 million years) of persistent and dynamic shallow marine redox (oceanic anoxic events)...
October 16, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024366/tethyan-changes-shaped-aquatic-diversification
#12
Zhonge Hou, Shuqiang Li
The Tethys Ocean existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia from the Triassic to the Pliocene. Analyses of multiple biogeographic and phylogenetic histories reveal that the subsequent breakup of the Tethys greatly influenced the distributions of many species. The ancestral Tethyan realm broke into five biogeographic provinces, including the present-day East Pacific, West Atlantic, East Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, and Indo-West Pacific. Palaeogeographic maps illustrate the Mesozoic Atlantic opening, the Cenozoic closure of the Tethys, the Messinian Salinity Crisis, the mid-Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway, and Quaternary geological changes...
October 12, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024277/how-intraspecific-variation-in-seed-dispersing-animals-matters-for-plants
#13
Rafał Zwolak
Seed dispersal by animals is a complex phenomenon, characterized by multiple mechanisms and variable outcomes. Most researchers approach this complexity by analysing context-dependency in seed dispersal and investigating extrinsic factors that might influence interactions between plants and seed dispersers. Intrinsic traits of seed dispersers provide an alternative way of making sense of the enormous variation in seed fates. I review causes of intraspecific variability in frugivorous and granivorous animals, discuss their effects on seed dispersal, and outline likely consequences for plant populations and communities...
October 10, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990321/ecological-and-evolutionary-legacy-of-megafauna-extinctions
#14
Mauro Galetti, Marcos Moleón, Pedro Jordano, Mathias M Pires, Paulo R Guimarães, Thomas Pape, Elizabeth Nichols, Dennis Hansen, Jens M Olesen, Michael Munk, Jacqueline S de Mattos, Andreas H Schweiger, Norman Owen-Smith, Christopher N Johnson, Robert J Marquis, Jens-Christian Svenning
For hundreds of millions of years, large vertebrates (megafauna) have inhabited most of the ecosystems on our planet. During the late Quaternary, notably during the Late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, Earth experienced a rapid extinction of large, terrestrial vertebrates. While much attention has been paid to understanding the causes of this massive megafauna extinction, less attention has been given to understanding the impacts of loss of megafauna on other organisms with whom they interacted. In this review, we discuss how the loss of megafauna disrupted and reshaped ecological interactions, and explore the ecological consequences of the ongoing decline of large vertebrates...
October 9, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967704/reappraising-the-early-evidence-of-durophagy-and-drilling-predation-in-the-fossil-record-implications-for-escalation-and-the-cambrian-explosion
#15
Russell D C Bicknell, John R Paterson
The Cambrian Explosion is arguably the most extreme example of a biological radiation preserved in the fossil record, and studies of Cambrian Lagerstätten have facilitated the exploration of many facets of this key evolutionary event. As predation was a major ecological driver behind the Explosion - particularly the radiation of biomineralising metazoans - the evidence for shell crushing (durophagy), drilling and puncturing predation in the Cambrian (and possibly the Ediacaran) is considered. Examples of durophagous predation on biomineralised taxa other than trilobites are apparently rare, reflecting predator preference, taphonomic and sampling biases, or simply lack of documentation...
October 2, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944555/biological-hierarchies-and-the-nature-of-extinction
#16
Curtis R Congreve, Amanda R Falk, James C Lamsdell
Hierarchy theory recognises that ecological and evolutionary units occur in a nested and interconnected hierarchical system, with cascading effects occurring between hierarchical levels. Different biological disciplines have routinely come into conflict over the primacy of different forcing mechanisms behind evolutionary and ecological change. These disconnects arise partly from differences in perspective (with some researchers favouring ecological forcing mechanisms while others favour developmental/historical mechanisms), as well as differences in the temporal framework in which workers operate...
September 24, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941124/comparing-species-interaction-networks-along-environmental-gradients
#17
Loïc Pellissier, Camille Albouy, Jordi Bascompte, Nina Farwig, Catherine Graham, Michel Loreau, Maria Alejandra Maglianesi, Carlos J Melián, Camille Pitteloud, Tomas Roslin, Rudolf Rohr, Serguei Saavedra, Wilfried Thuiller, Guy Woodward, Niklaus E Zimmermann, Dominique Gravel
Knowledge of species composition and their interactions, in the form of interaction networks, is required to understand processes shaping their distribution over time and space. As such, comparing ecological networks along environmental gradients represents a promising new research avenue to understand the organization of life. Variation in the position and intensity of links within networks along environmental gradients may be driven by turnover in species composition, by variation in species abundances and by abiotic influences on species interactions...
September 22, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941010/atad3-proteins-brokers-of-a-mitochondria-endoplasmic-reticulum-connection-in-mammalian-cells
#18
Jacques Baudier
In yeast, a sequence of physical and genetic interactions termed the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria organizing network (ERMIONE) controls mitochondria-ER interactions and mitochondrial biogenesis. Several functions that characterize ERMIONE complexes are conserved in mammalian cells, suggesting that a similar tethering complex must exist in metazoans. Recent studies have identified a new family of nuclear-encoded ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+-ATPase) mitochondrial membrane proteins specific to multicellular eukaryotes, called the ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 3 (ATAD3) proteins (ATAD3A and ATAD3B)...
September 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929570/impacts-of-human-induced-environmental-change-in-wetlands-on-aquatic-animals
#19
Michael Sievers, Robin Hale, Kirsten M Parris, Stephen E Swearer
Many wetlands harbour highly diverse biological communities and provide extensive ecosystem services; however, these important ecological features are being altered, degraded and destroyed around the world. Despite a wealth of research on how animals respond to anthropogenic changes to natural wetlands and how they use created wetlands, we lack a broad synthesis of these data. While some altered wetlands may provide vital habitat, others could pose a considerable risk to wildlife. This risk will be heightened if such wetlands are ecological traps - preferred habitats that confer lower fitness than another available habitat...
September 19, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921784/the-evolution-of-gonad-expenditure-and-gonadosomatic-index-gsi-in-male-and-female-broadcast-spawning-invertebrates
#20
Geoff A Parker, Steven A Ramm, Jussi Lehtonen, Jonathan M Henshaw
Sedentary broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates, which release both eggs and sperm into the water for fertilization, are of special interest for sexual selection studies. They provide unique insight into the early stages of the evolutionary succession leading to the often-intense operation of both pre- and post-mating sexual selection in mobile gonochorists. Since they are sessile or only weakly mobile, adults can interact only to a limited extent with other adults and with their own fertilized offspring...
September 18, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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