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Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446228/integrins-promote-axonal-regeneration-after-injury-of-the-nervous-system
#1
Bart Nieuwenhuis, Barbara Haenzi, Melissa R Andrews, Joost Verhaagen, James W Fawcett
Integrins are cell surface receptors that form the link between extracellular matrix molecules of the cell environment and internal cell signalling and the cytoskeleton. They are involved in several processes, e.g. adhesion and migration during development and repair. This review focuses on the role of integrins in axonal regeneration. Integrins participate in spontaneous axonal regeneration in the peripheral nervous system through binding to various ligands that either inhibit or enhance their activation and signalling...
February 15, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446223/evolution-and-development-of-scyphozoan-jellyfish
#2
Rebecca R Helm
Scyphozoan jellyfish, or scyphomedusae, are conspicuous members of many ocean ecosystems, and have large impacts on human health and industry. Most scyphomedusae are the final stage in a complex life cycle that also includes two intermediate stages: the larval planula and benthic polyp. In species with all three life-cycle stages, the metamorphosis of a polyp into a juvenile scyphomedusa (ephyra) is termed strobilation, and polyps can produce one ephyra (termed monodisc strobilation) or many ephyrae (termed polydisc strobilation)...
February 14, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441716/behavioural-mating-displays-depend-on-mitochondrial-function-a-potential-mechanism-for-linking-behaviour-to-individual-condition
#3
Rebecca E Koch, Geoffrey E Hill
Males of many animal species court females using complex behavioural displays that are challenging to produce, and some of these displays have been shown to be associated with aspects of male quality. However, the mechanisms by which behavioural displays are linked to individual condition remain uncertain. Herein, we illustrate fundamental mechanistic connections between mitochondrial function and neurogenesis, energy production, and a variety of pathways that underlie the ability of an individual to perform complex behaviours...
February 13, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436097/amyloids-of-multiple-species-are-they-helpful-in-survival
#4
Arun Upadhyay, Amit Mishra
Amyloids are primarily known for their roles in neurodegenerative disorders, as well as in systemic diseases like diabetes. Evolutionary forces tend to maintain a healthy set of heritable characteristics, while eliminating toxic or unfavourable elements; but amyloids seem to represent an exception to this fundamental concept. In addition to their presence in mammals, amyloids also persist in the proteome of many lower organisms that may be linked with possible roles in survival, which are still unexplored. Herein, we address some unanswered questions regarding amyloids: are these well-structured proteinaceous aggregates a by-product of inefficient folding events, or have they been retained in our protein repertoire for as yet unknown functional roles; and how do protein misfolding and associated disorders originate, despite the presence of protein quality-control systems inside the cells? This review aims to extend our current understanding about the multifaceted useful properties of amyloids and their functional interactions with other molecular pathways in various species; this may provide new insights to identify novel therapeutic strategies for ageing and neurodegenerative diseases...
February 13, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417719/the-role-of-mate-choice-copying-in-speciation-and-hybridization
#5
Susana A M Varela, Margarida Matos, Ingo Schlupp
Mate-choice copying, a social, non-genetic mechanism of mate choice, occurs when an individual (typically a female) copies the mate choice of other individuals via a process of social learning. Over the past 20 years, mate-choice copying has consistently been shown to affect mate choice in several species, by altering the genetically based expression of mating preferences. This behaviour has been claimed by several authors to have a significant role in evolution. Because it can cause or increase skews in male mating success, it seems to have the potential to induce a rapid change of the directionality and rate of sexual selection, possibly leading to divergent evolution and speciation...
February 8, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356358/epigenetics-and-the-maintenance-of-developmental-plasticity-extending-the-signalling-theory-framework
#6
Zachary M Laubach, Wei Perng, Dana C Dolinoy, Christopher D Faulk, Kay E Holekamp, Thomas Getty
Developmental plasticity, a phenomenon of importance in both evolutionary biology and human studies of the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD), enables organisms to respond to their environment based on previous experience without changes to the underlying nucleotide sequence. Although such phenotypic responses should theoretically improve an organism's fitness and performance in its future environment, this is not always the case. Herein, we first discuss epigenetics as an adaptive mechanism of developmental plasticity and use signaling theory to provide an evolutionary context for DOHaD phenomena within a generation...
January 21, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356270/phytoplankton-defence-mechanisms-traits-and-trade-offs
#7
Marina Pančić, Thomas Kiørboe
In aquatic ecosystems, unicellular algae form the basis of the food webs. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that one of the mechanisms that maintain high diversity of phytoplankton is through predation and the consequent evolution of defence mechanisms. Proposed defence mechanisms in phytoplankton are diverse and include physiological (e.g. toxicity, bioluminescence), morphological (e.g. silica shell, colony formation), and behavioural (e.g. escape response) traits. However, the function of many of the proposed defence mechanisms remains elusive, and the costs and benefits (trade-offs) are often unquantified or undocumented...
January 21, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341390/building-a-new-research-framework-for-social-evolution-intralocus-caste-antagonism
#8
Tanya M Pennell, Luke Holman, Edward H Morrow, Jeremy Field
The breeding and non-breeding 'castes' of eusocial insects provide a striking example of role-specific selection, where each caste maximises fitness through different morphological, behavioural and physiological trait values. Typically, queens are long-lived egg-layers, while workers are short-lived, largely sterile foragers. Remarkably, the two castes are nevertheless produced by the same genome. The existence of inter-caste genetic correlations is a neglected consequence of this shared genome, potentially hindering the evolution of caste dimorphism: alleles that increase the productivity of queens may decrease the productivity of workers and vice versa, such that each caste is prevented from reaching optimal trait values...
January 16, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282837/do-reef-corals-age
#9
John C Bythell, Barbara E Brown, Thomas B L Kirkwood
Hydra is emerging as a model organism for studies of ageing in early metazoan animals, but reef corals offer an equally ancient evolutionary perspective as well as several advantages, not least being the hard exoskeleton which provides a rich fossil record as well as a record of growth and means of ageing of individual coral polyps. Reef corals are also widely regarded as potentially immortal at the level of the asexual lineage and are assumed not to undergo an intrinsic ageing process. However, putative molecular indicators of ageing have recently been detected in reef corals...
December 28, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282838/the-inositol-pyrophosphate-pathway-in-health-and-diseases
#10
Anutosh Chakraborty
Inositol pyrophosphates (IPPs) are present in organisms ranging from plants, slime moulds and fungi to mammals. Distinct classes of kinases generate different forms of energetic diphosphate-containing IPPs from inositol phosphates (IPs). Conversely, polyphosphate phosphohydrolase enzymes dephosphorylate IPPs to regenerate the respective IPs. IPPs and/or their metabolizing enzymes regulate various cell biological processes by modulating many proteins via diverse mechanisms. In the last decade, extensive research has been conducted in mammalian systems, particularly in knockout mouse models of relevant enzymes...
December 27, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243391/bayesian-molecular-dating-opening-up-the-black-box
#11
Lindell Bromham, Sebastián Duchêne, Xia Hua, Andrew M Ritchie, David A Duchêne, Simon Y W Ho
Molecular dating analyses allow evolutionary timescales to be estimated from genetic data, offering an unprecedented capacity for investigating the evolutionary past of all species. These methods require us to make assumptions about the relationship between genetic change and evolutionary time, often referred to as a 'molecular clock'. Although initially regarded with scepticism, molecular dating has now been adopted in many areas of biology. This broad uptake has been due partly to the development of Bayesian methods that allow complex aspects of molecular evolution, such as variation in rates of change across lineages, to be taken into account...
December 15, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230921/global-grass-poaceae-success-underpinned-by-traits-facilitating-colonization-persistence-and-habitat-transformation
#12
H P Linder, Caroline E R Lehmann, Sally Archibald, Colin P Osborne, David M Richardson
Poaceae (the grasses) is arguably the most successful plant family, in terms of its global occurrence in (almost) all ecosystems with angiosperms, its ecological dominance in many ecosystems, and high species richness. We suggest that the success of grasses is best understood in context of their capacity to colonize, persist, and transform environments (the "Viking syndrome"). This results from combining effective long-distance dispersal, efficacious establishment biology, ecological flexibility, resilience to disturbance and the capacity to modify environments by changing the nature of fire and mammalian herbivory...
December 12, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230933/biology-and-pathological-implications-of-brown-adipose-tissue-promises-and-caveats-for-the-control-of-obesity-and-its-associated-complications
#13
Pablo Tapia, Marta Fernández-Galilea, Fermín Robledo, Pablo Mardones, José E Galgani, Víctor A Cortés
The discovery of metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has fuelled the research of diverse aspects of this previously neglected tissue. BAT is solely present in mammals and its clearest physiological role is non-shivering thermogenesis, owing to the capacity of brown adipocytes to dissipate metabolic energy as heat. Recently, a number of other possible functions have been proposed, including direct regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis and the secretion of a number of factors with diverse regulatory actions...
December 11, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178238/intergenerational-effects-of-nutrition-on-immunity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Catherine E Grueber, Lindsey J Gray, Katrina M Morris, Stephen J Simpson, Alistair M Senior
Diet and immunity are both highly complex processes through which organisms interact with their environment and adapt to variable conditions. Parents that are able to transmit information to their offspring about prevailing environmental conditions have a selective advantage by 'priming' the physiology of their offspring. We used a meta-analytic approach to test the effect of parental diet on offspring immune responses. Using the geometric framework for nutrition (a method for analysing diet compositions wherein food nutrient components are expressed as axes in a Cartesian coordinate space) to define dietary manipulations in terms of their energy and macronutrient compositions, we compiled the results of 226 experiments from 38 published papers on the intergenerational effects of diet on immunity, across a range of study species and immunological responses...
November 27, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160024/a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-the-perspectives-on-the-causes-of-the-science-practice-gap-in-ecology-and-conservation
#15
Diana Bertuol-Garcia, Carla Morsello, Charbel N El-Hani, Renata Pardini
Applying scientific knowledge to confront societal challenges is a difficult task, an issue known as the science-practice gap. In Ecology and Conservation, scientific evidence has been seldom used directly to support decision-making, despite calls for an increasing role of ecological science in developing solutions for a sustainable future. To date, multiple causes of the science-practice gap and diverse approaches to link science and practice in Ecology and Conservation have been proposed. To foster a transparent debate and broaden our understanding of the difficulties of using scientific knowledge, we reviewed the perceived causes of the science-practice gap, aiming to: (i) identify the perspectives of ecologists and conservation scientists on this problem, (ii) evaluate the predominance of these perspectives over time and across journals, and (iii) assess them in light of disciplines studying the role of science in decision-making...
November 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154454/identification-of-de-novo-germline-mutations-and-causal-genes-for-sporadic-diseases-using-trio-based-whole-exome-genome-sequencing
#16
Zi-Bing Jin, Zhongshan Li, Zhenwei Liu, Yi Jiang, Xue-Bi Cai, Jinyu Wu
Whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing (WGS/WES) of the affected proband together with normal parents (trio) is commonly adopted to identify de novo germline mutations (DNMs) underlying sporadic cases of various genetic disorders. However, our current knowledge of the occurrence and functional effects of DNMs remains limited and accurately identifying the disease-causing DNM from a group of irrelevant DNMs is complicated. Herein, we provide a general-purpose discussion of important issues related to pathogenic gene identification based on trio-based WGS/WES data...
November 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125205/reconstructing-pectoral-appendicular-muscle-anatomy-in-fossil-fish-and-tetrapods-over-the-fins-to-limbs-transition
#17
Julia L Molnar, Rui Diogo, John R Hutchinson, Stephanie E Pierce
The question of how tetrapod limbs evolved from fins is one of the great puzzles of evolutionary biology. While palaeontologists, developmental biologists, and geneticists have made great strides in explaining the origin and early evolution of limb skeletal structures, that of the muscles remains largely unknown. The main reason is the lack of consensus about appendicular muscle homology between the closest living relatives of early tetrapods: lobe-finned fish and crown tetrapods. In the light of a recent study of these homologies, we re-examined osteological correlates of muscle attachment in the pectoral girdle, humerus, radius, and ulna of early tetrapods and their close relatives...
November 10, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119723/tick-attachment-cement%C3%A2-%C3%A2-reviewing-the-mysteries-of-a-biological-skin-plug-system
#18
Johannes Suppan, Benedikt Engel, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann, Sylvia Nürnberger
The majority of ticks in the family Ixodidae secrete a substance anchoring their mouthparts to the host skin. This substance is termed cement. It has adhesive properties and seals the lesion during feeding. The particular chemical composition and the curing process of the cement are unclear. This review summarizes the literature, starting with a historical overview, briefly introducing the different hypotheses on the origin of the adhesive and how the tick salivary glands have been identified as its source...
November 8, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115026/scaling-biodiversity-responses-to-hydrological-regimes
#19
Robert J Rolls, Jani Heino, Darren S Ryder, Bruce C Chessman, Ivor O Growns, Ross M Thompson, Keith B Gido
Of all ecosystems, freshwaters support the most dynamic and highly concentrated biodiversity on Earth. These attributes of freshwater biodiversity along with increasing demand for water mean that these systems serve as significant models to understand drivers of global biodiversity change. Freshwater biodiversity changes are often attributed to hydrological alteration by water-resource development and climate change owing to the role of the hydrological regime of rivers, wetlands and floodplains affecting patterns of biodiversity...
November 8, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114986/towards-an-eco-phylogenetic-framework-for-infectious-disease-ecology
#20
Nicholas M Fountain-Jones, William D Pearse, Luis E Escobar, Ana Alba-Casals, Scott Carver, T Jonathan Davies, Simona Kraberger, Monica Papeş, Kurt Vandegrift, Katherine Worsley-Tonks, Meggan E Craft
Identifying patterns and drivers of infectious disease dynamics across multiple scales is a fundamental challenge for modern science. There is growing awareness that it is necessary to incorporate multi-host and/or multi-parasite interactions to understand and predict current and future disease threats better, and new tools are needed to help address this task. Eco-phylogenetics (phylogenetic community ecology) provides one avenue for exploring multi-host multi-parasite systems, yet the incorporation of eco-phylogenetic concepts and methods into studies of host pathogen dynamics has lagged behind...
November 8, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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