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Vitamins and Hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215309/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Gerald Litwack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215308/releasing-mechanism-of-neurotrophic-factors-via-polysialic-acid
#2
C Sato
Neurotrophins are well-characterized neurologically active molecules in the central nervous system. The regulation of these signaling molecules, which are involved in cell growth, differentiation, and survival, is critical for normal brain function. Among the different types of neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in various brain functions, including memory consolidation, synaptic plasticity, and adult neurogenesis, and is therefore a key molecule for understanding comprehensive brain function and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diseases...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215307/structural-characterization-of-the-p75-neurotrophin-receptor-a-stranger-in-the-tnfr-superfamily
#3
M Vilar
Although p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) was the founding member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), it is an atypical TNFRSF protein. p75(NTR) like TNF-R1 and Fas-R contain an extracellular domain with four cysteine-rich domains (CRD) and a death domain (DD) in the intracellular region. While TNFRSF proteins are activated by trimeric TNFSF ligands, p75(NTR) forms dimers activated by dimeric neurotrophins that are structurally unrelated to TNFSF proteins. In addition, although p75(NTR) shares with other members the interaction with the TNF receptor-associated factors to activate the NF-κB and cell death pathways, p75(NTR) does not interact with the DD-containing proteins FADD, TRADD, or MyD88...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215306/neurotrophin-receptors-and-perineural-invasion-analyses-in-select-lineage-unrelated-cutaneous-malignancies-with-a-propensity-for-perineural-invasion
#4
N F Frydenlund, M Mahalingam
In this chapter, we parse the literature on neurotrophins that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of perineural invasion (PNI) in select lineage-unrelated malignancies. We also detail evidence linking neurotrophins and their receptors (TrkA, RET, p75NGFR, and NCAM) to the pathogenesis of PNI in desmoplastic melanoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma-both malignancies with an established propensity for PNI. Lastly, the clinical potential of neurotrophins as receptors for targeted therapies is explored...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215305/bdnf-during-withdrawal
#5
H Geoffroy, F Noble
Among the adaptations observed following drugs of abuse consumption, BDNF levels are widely altered in both brain and periphery. In this chapter, we first reviewed these adaptations in preclinical studies, in both juveniles and adult animals. A particular focus was made on protracted withdrawal as incubation is often associated with an increase in central BDNF levels. Then, we reported mixed results regarding the role of BDNF in drug-seeking behavior in animals as BDNF can either enhance reinstatement or have protective properties...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215304/neurotrophins-and-migraine
#6
L B Martins, A L Teixeira, R B Domingues
Neurotrophins (NTs) have been implicated in generation and modulation of nociceptive pathways. Change in NTs levels is associated with painful conditions and neurological diseases such as migraine. Currently, it is generally recognized that migraine headaches result from the activation and sensitization of trigeminal sensory afferent fibers leading to neuropeptides release such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). This triggers an inflammatory cascade causing a neurogenic inflammation...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215303/neurotrophic-factors-used-to-treat-spinal-cord-injury
#7
S I Hodgetts, A R Harvey
The application of neurotrophic factors as a therapy to improve morphological and behavioral outcomes after experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) has been the focus of many studies. These studies vary markedly in the type of neurotrophic factor that is delivered, the mode of administration, and the location, timing, and duration of the treatment. Generally, the majority of studies have had significant success if neurotrophic factors are applied in or close to the lesion site during the acute or the subacute phase after SCI...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215302/the-role-of-neurotrophin-signaling-in-gliomagenesis-a-focus-on-the-p75-neurotrophin-receptor-p75-ntr-cd271
#8
M M Alshehri, S M Robbins, D L Senger
The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR), a.k.a. CD271), a transmembrane glycoprotein and a member of the tumor necrosis family (TNF) of receptors, was originally identified as a nerve growth factor receptor in the mid-1980s. While p75(NTR) is recognized to have important roles during neural development, its presence in both neural and nonneural tissues clearly supports the potential to mediate a broad range of functions depending on cellular context. Using an unbiased in vivo selection paradigm for genes underlying the invasive behavior of glioma, a critical characteristic that contributes to poor clinical outcome for glioma patients, we identified p75(NTR) as a central regulator of glioma invasion...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215301/neurotrophic-factors-and-maternal-nutrition-during-pregnancy
#9
M Dhobale
Maternal nutrition is one of the major determinants of pregnancy outcome. It has been suggested that reduced intakes or lack of specific nutrients during pregnancy influences the length of gestation, proper placental and fetal growth during pregnancy. Maternal nutrition, particularly micronutrients such as folate and vitamin B12, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are the major determinants of the one carbon cycle and are suggested to be at the heart of intrauterine programming of diseases in adult life...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215300/the-role-of-neurotrophins-in-inflammation-and-allergy
#10
S Manti, P Brown, M K Perez, G Piedimonte
Allergic inflammation is the result of a specific pattern of cellular and humoral responses leading to the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system, which, in turn, results in physiological and structural changes affecting target tissues such as the airways and the skin. Eosinophil activation and the production of soluble mediators such as IgE antibodies are pivotal features in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. In the past few years, however, convincing evidence has shown that neurons and other neurosensory structures are not only a target of the inflammatory process but also participate in the regulation of immune responses by actively releasing soluble mediators...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215299/zinc-interactions-with-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-related-peptide-fragments
#11
A Travaglia, D La Mendola
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for neuronal development and survival, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive function. Dysregulation of BDNF signaling is involved in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. Alteration of metal ion homeostasis is observed both in normal aging and in many neurodegenerative diseases. Interestingly, there is a significant overlap between brain areas characterized by metal ion dyshomeostasis and those where BDNF exerts its biological activity...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215298/development-of-precision-small-molecule-proneurotrophic-therapies-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
J Janssens, D Lu, B Ni, W Chadwick, S Siddiqui, A Azmi, H Etienne, A Jushaj, J van Gastel, B Martin, S Maudsley
Age-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, will represent one of the largest future burdens on worldwide healthcare systems due to the increasing proportion of elderly in our society. As deficiencies in neurotrophins are implicated in the pathogenesis of many age-related neurodegenerative disorders, it is reasonable to consider that global neurotrophin resistance may also become a major healthcare threat. Central nervous system networks are effectively maintained through aging by neuroprotective and neuroplasticity signaling mechanisms which are predominantly controlled by neurotrophin receptor signaling...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215297/neurotrophins-role-in-placental-growth-and-development
#13
A S Sahay, D P Sundrani, S R Joshi
Neurotrophins, a family of closely related proteins, were originally identified as growth factors for survival, development, and function of neurons in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Subsequently, neurotrophins have been shown to have functions in immune and reproductive systems. Neurotrophins like nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are known to play an important role during pregnancy in the process of placental angiogenesis and maturation. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of neurotrophins in the human placenta...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215296/neurotrophins-in-the-brain-interaction-with-alcohol-exposure-during-development
#14
K E Boschen, A Y Klintsova
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a result of the teratogenic effects of alcohol on the developing fetus. Decades of research examining both individuals with FASDs and animal models of developmental alcohol exposure have revealed the devastating effects of alcohol on brain structure, function, behavior, and cognition. Neurotrophic factors have an important role in guiding normal brain development and cellular plasticity in the adult brain. This chapter reviews the current literature showing that alcohol exposure during the developmental period impacts neurotrophin production and proposes avenues through which alcohol exposure and neurotrophin action might interact...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215295/bdnf-propeptide-a-novel-modulator-of-synaptic-plasticity
#15
M Kojima, T Mizui
One of the most characterized neurotrophic factors is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which regulates neuronal survival and differentiation, and functions in activity-dependent plasticity processes such as long-term potentiation, long-term depression (LTD), and learning memory. Similar to other growth factors, BDNF protein is produced by transcriptional and translational mechanisms. Nevertheless, a posttranslational mechanism, the proteolytic conversion of precursor BDNF into at least two fragments, bioactive BDNF and the prodomain, has not been well elucidated...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215294/bdnf-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#16
G Leal, C R Bramham, C B Duarte
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to a family of small secreted proteins that also include nerve growth factor, neurotrophin 3, and neurotrophin 4. BDNF stands out among all neurotrophins by its high expression levels in the brain and its potent effects at synapses. Several aspects of BDNF biology such as transcription, processing, and secretion are regulated by synaptic activity. Such observations prompted the suggestion that BDNF may regulate activity-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP), a sustained enhancement of excitatory synaptic efficacy thought to underlie learning and memory...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215293/neuronal-roles-of-the-bicaudal-d-family-of-motor-adaptors
#17
M Budzinska, K B Wicher, M Terenzio
All cell types rely on active intracellular cargo transport to shuttle essential cellular components such as proteins, lipids, RNA, and even organelles from the center to the periphery and vice versa. Additionally, several signaling pathways take advantage of intracellular transport to propagate their signals by moving activated receptors and protein effectors to specific locations inside the cell. Neurons particularly, being a very polarized cell type, are highly dependent on molecular motors for the anterograde and retrograde delivery of essential cellular components and signaling molecules...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215292/emergent-role-of-coronin-1a-in-neuronal-signaling
#18
M Martorella, K Barford, B Winkler, C D Deppmann
The Coronin family of proteins were first noted for their role in pathogen-host interactions and for modulating actin dynamics. Recently, however, Coronins have been found in a greater variety of cell types, and novel roles for the Coronins within the nervous system have been discovered. In the immune system, Coronin-1a enables Mycobacterium tuberculosis to evade lysosomal destruction. This activity appears to be analogous to protection of the NGF-TrkA signaling endosome during sympathetic nervous system development that is required for survival signaling...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215291/crystal-structures-of-neurotrophin-receptors-kinase-domain
#19
T Bertrand
Neurotrophins and their receptors (Trk) play key roles in the development of the nervous system and in cell survival. Trk receptors are therefore attractive pharmacological targets for brain disorders as well as for cancers. While the druggability of the extracellular domain of the receptors, that specifically binds neurotrophins, is yet to be proven, the intracellular kinase domains are attractive targets for small-molecule binding. The recent crystal structures of the three isoforms of the Trk family, TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC have been described in their apo forms and in complex with potent and selective pan-Trk inhibitors...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061978/preface
#20
EDITORIAL
Gerald Litwack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
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