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Vitamins and Hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629527/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Gerald Litwack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629526/erythropoietin-receptor-signaling-and-lipid-rafts
#2
Kathy McGraw, Alan List
Erythropoiesis is tightly regulated by the growth factor erythropoietin (Epo). Signal activation begins when Epo engages its cognate receptor, Epo-R, triggering receptor homodimerization, and recruitment of signaling intermediates including Jak2 that phosphorylates both the receptor cytoplasmic tail and downstream effectors including the transcription factor, STAT5. Transcription factors subsequently activate transcription of prosurvival and prodifferentiation genes responsible for red blood cell production...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629525/erythropoietin-regulation-by-angiotensin-ii
#3
Yong-Chul Kim, Ognoon Mungunsukh, Regina M Day
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key regulator of blood pressure and blood volume homeostasis. The RAS is primarily comprised of the precursor protein angiotensinogen and the two proteases, renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin I (Ang I) is derived from angiotensinogen by renin, but appears to have no biological activity. In contrast, angiotensin II (Ang II) that has a variety of biological functions in the cells is converted from Ang I through removal of two-C-terminal residues by ACE...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629524/endogenous-erythropoietin
#4
Steven J Korzeniewski, Athina Pappas
We sought to briefly describe current models of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) pleiotropic properties to make four points clear. First, endogenous EPO regulates erythroid cell apoptosis so that red blood cell production is balanced against the number of cells destroyed in order to maintain optimal tissue oxygen levels (i.e., consistent with provision of homeostatic functional signaling information). Second, preclinical and clinical studies alike provide additional evidence of other (i.e., extraerythropoietic) immune-related and growth/trophic properties...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629523/significance-of-erythropoietin-receptor-antagonist-emp9-in-cancers
#5
Yoshiko Yasuda, Mitsugu Fujita
We have clarified that cancer cells express their own erythropoietin (Epo) and its receptor (EpoR) mRNA levels, and the respective proteins, which are under the control of Epo-EpoR signaling. Then we explored to inhibit the Epo-EpoR signaling with an EpoR antagonist Epo mimetic peptide 9 (EMP9) that is a derivative of an Epo-mimicking peptide EMP1. In the study of the cancer cell lines in vitro, rhEpo accelerated the cancer cell growth, whereas the EMP9 inhibited the cell growth along with the inhibition of STAT5 tyrosine phosphorylation...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629522/erythropoietin-stem-cell-factor-and-cancer-cell-migration
#6
Maria J Vazquez-Mellado, Victor Monjaras-Embriz, Leticia Rocha-Zavaleta
Cell migration of normal cells is tightly regulated. However, tumor cells are exposed to a modified microenvironment that promotes cell migration. Invasive migration of tumor cells is stimulated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and is regulated by growth factors. Erythropoietin (Epo) is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and is also known to be a potent chemotactic agent that induces cell migration by binding to its receptor (EpoR). Expression of EpoR has been documented in tumor cells, and the potential of Epo to induce cell migration has been explored...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629521/erythropoietin-promotes-glioblastoma-via-mir-451-suppression
#7
Begum Alural, Zeynep O Ayyildiz, Kemal U Tufekci, Sermin Genc, Kursad Genc
Erythropoietin (EPO) is an erythropoiesis stimulating growth factor and hormone. EPO has been widely used in the treatment of chronic renal failure, cancer, and chemotherapy-related anemia for three decades. However, many clinical trials showed that EPO treatment may be associated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression. EPO is able to cross blood-brain barriers, and this may lead to an increased possibility of central nervous system tumors such as glioblastoma. Indeed, EPO promotes glioblastoma growth and invasion in animal studies...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629520/the-erythropoietin-system-protects-the-heart-upon-injury-by-cardiac-progenitor-cell-activation
#8
Maria P Zafeiriou
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a growth hormone, widely known for its role in erythropoiesis. The broad expression of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) in adult organs suggested that EPO may also affect other cells besides late erythroid progenitors. In the embryonic heart, EPOR is expressed in all cells including the immature proliferating cardiomyocytes. In contrast to the embryonic heart in adulthood, EPOR expression is decreased and mainly detected in immature proliferating cells (i.e., resident cardiac progenitor cells) rather than in terminally differentiated cells (i...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629519/erythropoietin-endogenous-protection-of-ischemic-brain
#9
Robert T Mallet, Myoung-Gwi Ryou
The human brain requires uninterrupted delivery of blood-borne oxygen and nutrients to sustain its function. Focal ischemia, particularly, ischemic stroke, and global ischemia imposed by cardiac arrest disrupt the brain's fuel supply. The resultant ATP depletion initiates a complex injury cascade encompassing intracellular Ca(2+) overload, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxido-nitrosative stress, extracellular matrix degradation, and inflammation, culminating in neuronal and astroglial necrosis and apoptosis, neurocognitive deficits, and even death...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629518/analysis-of-the-asymmetry-of-activated-epo-receptor-enables-designing-small-molecule-agonists
#10
Frank Guarnieri
Amgen solved the high-resolution cocrystal structure of erythropoietin (EPO) bound to the extracellular part of the receptor (EPOR) in 1998, which reveals that the EPO-EPOR interaction surface is formed by 11 salt bridges, 17 H-bonds, and 2 hydrophobic clusters centered at a pair of crucial phenylalanines (F93). The EPOR has two domains, one that penetrates the membrane and a second extracellular domain that forms one arm of the binding site for the EPO ligand. The complete competent receptor-binding site is a homodimer of EPOR with the two arms forming a funnel-shaped cup where EPO binds...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629517/erythropoietin-mediated-neuroprotection-in-insects-suggests-a-prevertebrate-evolution-of-erythropoietin-like-signaling
#11
Ralf Heinrich, Verena Günther, Natasa Miljus
The cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) mediates protective and regenerative functions in mammalian nervous systems via activation of poorly characterized receptors that differ from the "classical" homodimeric Epo receptor expressed on erythroid progenitor cells. Epo genes have been identified in vertebrate species ranging from human to fish, suggesting that Epo signaling evolved earlier than the vertebrate lineage. Studies on insects (Locusta migratoria, Chorthippus biguttulus, Tribolium castaneum) revealed Epo-mediated neuroprotection and neuroregeneration...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629516/context-dependent-skeletal-effects-of-erythropoietin
#12
Sahar Hiram-Bab, Drorit Neumann, Yankel Gabet
Erythropoietin (Epo) is the main hormone that regulates the production of red blood cells (hematopoiesis), by stimulating their progenitors. Beyond this vital function, several emerging roles have been noted for Epo in other tissues, including neurons, heart, and retina. The skeletal system is also affected by Epo; however, its actions on bone are, as yet, controversial. Here, we review the seemingly contradicting evidence regarding Epo effects on bone remodeling. We also discuss the evidence pointing to a direct vs indirect effect of Epo on the osteoblastic and osteoclastic cell lineages...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629515/mutual-cross-talk-between-iron-homeostasis-and-erythropoiesis
#13
Ilona Rybinska, Gaetano Cairo
Iron is necessary for physiological processes essential for the activity of all cells, but the erythropoietic compartment is a privileged iron consumer. In fact, a considerable amount of iron is daily required for hemoglobin synthesis and erythroid cell proliferation. Therefore, a tight link exists between iron metabolism and erythropoiesis. The iron needed for hemoglobin synthesis is mainly ensured by inhibiting hepcidin expression, thereby increasing both ferroportin-mediated iron export from the duodenal absorptive cells and iron release from the reticuloendothelial cells that process old and/or damaged red blood cells...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629514/erythropoietin-mediated-regulation-of-central-respiratory-command
#14
Tommy Seaborn, Céline Caravagna
Erythropoietin (Epo) is a cytokine expressed throughout the body, including in the central nervous system where it can act as a breathing modulator in the central respiratory network. In vitro, Epo allows maintaining the activity of respiratory neurons during acute hypoxia, resulting in inhibition of the hypoxia-induced rhythm depression. In vivo, Epo action on the central respiratory command results in enhancement of the acute hypoxic ventilatory response, allowing a better oxygenation of the body by improvement of gases exchanges in the lungs...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629513/erythropoietin-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis
#15
Soumyadeep Dey, Constance T Noguchi
Erythropoietin (EPO), known primarily for its erythropoietic activity, is commonly used clinically to treat anemia of chronic kidney disease. However, the expression of EPO receptor (EpoR) beyond erythroid tissue provides for potential extrahematopoietic effects of EPO, including EPO regulation of metabolic homeostasis (Zhang et al., 2014). Small clinical studies have shown that EPO treatment in patients with end-stage renal disease improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Studies in animal models have shown that EPO regulation of metabolism is mainly attributed to its response in fat, and the hypothalamus-pituitary axis (Dey et al...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629512/erythropoietin-receptor-structural-domains
#16
Qingxin Li, CongBao Kang
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone that is important for regulating red blood cell production. It is functional through binding to its receptor-EpoR. EpoR is a single-span membrane protein. It contains an extracellular region, a transmembrane domain, and a C-terminus. The extracellular region is important for binding to EPO, and its conformation is critical for signal transduction. The transmembrane domain contains 21 residues forming a helix which plays an important role in transferring ligand-induced conformational changes of the extracellular domain across the cell membrane...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215309/preface
#17
EDITORIAL
Gerald Litwack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215308/releasing-mechanism-of-neurotrophic-factors-via-polysialic-acid
#18
REVIEW
C Sato
Neurotrophins are well-characterized neurologically active molecules in the central nervous system. The regulation of these signaling molecules, which are involved in cell growth, differentiation, and survival, is critical for normal brain function. Among the different types of neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in various brain functions, including memory consolidation, synaptic plasticity, and adult neurogenesis, and is therefore a key molecule for understanding comprehensive brain function and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diseases...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215307/structural-characterization-of-the-p75-neurotrophin-receptor-a-stranger-in-the-tnfr-superfamily
#19
REVIEW
M Vilar
Although p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) was the founding member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), it is an atypical TNFRSF protein. p75(NTR) like TNF-R1 and Fas-R contain an extracellular domain with four cysteine-rich domains (CRD) and a death domain (DD) in the intracellular region. While TNFRSF proteins are activated by trimeric TNFSF ligands, p75(NTR) forms dimers activated by dimeric neurotrophins that are structurally unrelated to TNFSF proteins. In addition, although p75(NTR) shares with other members the interaction with the TNF receptor-associated factors to activate the NF-κB and cell death pathways, p75(NTR) does not interact with the DD-containing proteins FADD, TRADD, or MyD88...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215306/neurotrophin-receptors-and-perineural-invasion-analyses-in-select-lineage-unrelated-cutaneous-malignancies-with-a-propensity-for-perineural-invasion
#20
REVIEW
N F Frydenlund, M Mahalingam
In this chapter, we parse the literature on neurotrophins that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of perineural invasion (PNI) in select lineage-unrelated malignancies. We also detail evidence linking neurotrophins and their receptors (TrkA, RET, p75NGFR, and NCAM) to the pathogenesis of PNI in desmoplastic melanoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma-both malignancies with an established propensity for PNI. Lastly, the clinical potential of neurotrophins as receptors for targeted therapies is explored...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
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