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Vitamins and Hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061978/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Gerald Litwack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061977/the-big-role-of-small-rnas-in-anxiety-and-stress-related-disorders
#2
S Malan-Müller, S M J Hemmings
In the study of complex, heterogeneous disorders, such as anxiety and stress-related disorders, epigenetic factors provide an additional level of heritable complexity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, noncoding RNAs that function as epigenetic modulators of gene expression by binding to target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and subsequently blocking translation or accelerating their degradation. In light of their abundance in the central nervous system (CNS) and their involvement in synaptic plasticity and neuronal differentiation, miRNAs represent an exciting frontier to be explored in the etiology and treatment of anxiety and stress-related disorders...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061976/neuroendocrine-underpinnings-of-increased-risk-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-women
#3
M A Briscione, V Michopoulos, T Jovanovic, S D Norrholm
Women are particularly vulnerable to the effects of psychological trauma and the development of trauma-, stressor-, and anxiety-related mental illnesses such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the current chapter, we examine the female hormonal systems that interact with psychobiological stress response systems to elicit maladaptive behavior and mental disease states in traumatized female populations. In addition, we provide a contemporary translational example of a stress vulnerability genomic profile (coding for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) that may underlie the specific susceptibilities observed in women...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061975/the-place-of-stress-and-emotions-in-the-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#4
S Pellissier, B Bonaz
Our emotional state can have many consequences on our somatic health and well-being. Negative emotions such as anxiety play a major role in gut functioning due to the bidirectional communications between gut and brain, namely, the brain-gut axis. The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), characterized by an unusual visceral hypersensitivity, is the most common disorder encountered by gastroenterologists. Among the main symptoms, the presence of current or recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with bloating and altered bowel habits characterizes this syndrome that could strongly alter the quality of life...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061974/the-role-of-elements-in-anxiety
#5
K Młyniec, M Gaweł, U Doboszewska, G Starowicz, G Nowak
Elements (bioelements) are necessary factors required for the physiological function of organisms. They are critically involved in fundamental processes of life. Extra- and intracellular message and metabolic pathway factors as well as structural components include one or many elements in their functional structure. Recent years have seen an intensification in terms of knowledge gained about the roles of elements in anxiety disorders. In this chapter we present a review of the most important current data concerning the involvement of zinc, magnesium, copper, lithium, iron, and manganese, and their deficiency, in the pathophysiology and treatment of anxiety...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061973/the-melatonergic-system-in-anxiety-disorders-and-the-role-of-melatonin-in-conditional-fear
#6
F Huang, Z Yang, C-Q Li
BACKGROUND: Resistance to extinction of certain conditioned responses forms the basis of anxieties, phobias, and compulsions. There has been an available effective means of extinction-based exposure psychotherapy for the treatment of anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that has been hypothesized to result from impaired extinction of fear memory. PTSD is considered as a memory disorder within a Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction framework. Therefore, the aim of this review was to report the preclinical profile of melatonin, a pineal gland hormone, as a potential pharmacological option in the treatment of anxiety disorders such as PTSD, tested with the Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061972/estrogen-receptors-modulation-of-anxiety-like-behavior
#7
A P Borrow, R J Handa
Estrogens exert profound effects on the expression of anxiety in humans and rodents; however, the directionality of these effects varies considerably within both clinical and preclinical literature. It is believed that discrepancies regarding the nature of estrogens' effects on anxiety are attributable to the differential effects of specific estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes. In this chapter we will discuss the relative impact on anxiety and anxiety-like behavior of each of the three main ERs: ERα, which has a generally anxiogenic effect, ERβ, which has a generally anxiolytic effect, and the G-protein-coupled ER known as GPR30, which has been found to both increase and decrease anxiety-like behavior...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061971/the-endocannabinoid-system-and-anxiety
#8
S F Lisboa, F V Gomes, A L B Terzian, D C Aguiar, F A Moreira, L B M Resstel, F S Guimarães
The medical properties of Cannabis sativa is known for centuries. Since the discovery and characterization of the endogenous cannabinoid system, several studies have evaluated how cannabinoid compounds and, particularly, how the modulation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system influences a wide range of functions, from metabolic to mental disorders. Cannabinoids and eCB system often exert opposite effects on several functions, such as anxiety. Although the mechanisms are not completely understood, evidence points to different factors influencing those effects...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061970/nitric-oxide-and-anxiety
#9
K Gulati, N Rai, A Ray
Anxiety is a common neuropsychiatric disorder which affects both physical and mental health. Complex neurobiological mechanisms are involved in the genesis of anxiety, and the drugs used to date, though effective, are not free from shortcomings. Conventional agents like the classical benzodiazepines and the atypical nonbenzodiazepine agents like buspirone have their own limitations. There is thus need to explore newer neurochemical pathways to develop efficacious and safer drugs for the disorder. Nitric oxide (NO) is a unique neuromodulator substance, with the ability to influence and modulate several other conventional messengers which play an important role in anxiety...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061969/role-of-nitric-oxide-in-stress-induced-anxiety-from-pathophysiology-to-therapeutic-target
#10
A Kumar, P Chanana
Stress is often marked by a state of hyperarousal to aid the initiation of necessary stress response for the successful management of stressful stimuli. It can be manifested as a challenge (stimulus) that requires behavioral, psychological, and physiological adaptations for the maintenance of a state of homeostasis in response to stressful stimuli. In an organism, miscellaneous stressors trigger a wide spectrum of alterations in hormonal and neuronal physiologies, resulting in behavioral (anxiety and depression disorders, diminished food intake and gastrointestinal dysfunctions, decline in sexual behavior, diabetes, and loss of cognitive function) and other physiological responses...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061968/natriuretic-peptides-in-anxiety-and-panic-disorder
#11
T Meyer, C Herrmann-Lingen
Natriuretic peptides exert pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system, including natriuresis, diuresis, vasodilation, and lusitropy, by signaling through membrane-bound guanylyl cyclases. In addition to their use as diagnostic and prognostic markers for heart failure, accumulating behavioral evidence suggests that these hormones also modulate anxiety symptoms and panic attacks. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the role of natriuretic peptides in animal and human anxiety and highlights some novel aspects from recent clinical studies on this topic...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061967/stress-anxiety-and-immunomodulation-a-pharmacological-analysis
#12
A Ray, K Gulati, N Rai
Stress and stressful events are common occurrences in our daily lives and such aversive situations bring about complex changes in the biological system. Such stress responses influence the brain and behavior, neuroendocrine and immune systems, and these responses orchestrate to increase or decrease the ability of the organism to cope with such stressors. The brain via expression of complex behavioral paradigms controls peripheral responses to stress and a bidirectional link exists in the modulation of stress effects...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450740/preface
#13
EDITORIAL
Gerald Litwack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450739/thymosin-beta-4-a-potential-novel-therapy-for-neurotrophic-keratopathy-dry-eye-and-ocular-surface-diseases
#14
G Sosne, D Rimmer, H K Kleinman, G Ousler
Chronic ocular surface diseases such as dry eye, blepharitis, and neurotrophic keratopathies represent a significant and a growing therapeutic challenge. The basis of this expanding prevalence is multifactorial and may due to issues such as an aging population, an increasing use of video display terminals, and increases in frequency of refractive surgeries. The growing incidence of diseases such as diabetes may also be a contributing factor. Current treatments for ocular surface disease include artificial tears, lubricants, tear duct plugs, steroids, antibiotics, cyclosporine, scleral lenses, and serum tears...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450738/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-promotes-dermal-healing
#15
H K Kleinman, G Sosne
No agent has been identified that significantly accelerates the repair of chronic dermal wounds in humans. Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a small, abundant, naturally occurring regenerative protein that is found in body fluids and inside cells. It was found to have angiogenic and antiinflammatory activity and to be high in platelets that aggregate at the wound site. Thus we used Tβ4 initially in dermal healing. It has since been shown to have many activities important in tissue protection, repair, and regeneration...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450737/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-roles-in-development-repair-and-engineering-of-the-cardiovascular-system
#16
E D Marks, A Kumar
The burden of cardiovascular disease is a growing worldwide issue that demands attention. While many clinical trials are ongoing to test therapies for treating the heart after myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure, there are few options doctors able to currently give patients to repair the heart. This eventually leads to decreased ventricular contractility and increased systemic disease, including vascular disorders that could result in stroke. Small peptides such as thymosin β4 (Tβ4) are upregulated in the cardiovascular niche during fetal development and after injuries such as MI, providing increased neovasculogenesis and paracrine signals for endogenous stem cell recruitment to aid in wound repair...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450736/cardioprotection-by-thymosin-beta-4
#17
G T Pipes, J Yang
Treatment with thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) reduces infarct volume and preserves cardiac function in preclinical models of cardiac ischemic injury. These effects stem in part from decreased infarct size, but additional benefits are likely due to specific antifibrotic and proangiogenic activities. Injected or transgenic Tβ4 increase blood vessel growth in large and small animal models, consistent with Tβ4 converting hibernating myocardium to an actively contractile state following ischemia. Tβ4 and its degradation products have antifibrotic effects in in vitro assays and in animal models of fibrosis not related to cardiac injury...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450735/prothymosin-alpha-and-immune-responses-are-we-close-to-potential-clinical-applications
#18
P Samara, K Ioannou, O E Tsitsilonis
The thymus gland produces soluble molecules, which mediate significant immune functions. The first biologically active thymic extract was thymosin fraction V, the fractionation of which led to the isolation of a series of immunoactive polypeptides, including prothymosin alpha (proTα). ProTα displays a dual role, intracellularly as a survival and proliferation mediator and extracellularly as a biological response modifier. Accordingly, inside the cell, proTα is implicated in crucial intracellular circuits and may serve as a surrogate tumor biomarker, but when found outside the cell, it could be used as a therapeutic agent for treating immune system deficiencies...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450734/immune-modulation-with-thymosin-alpha-1-treatment
#19
R King, C Tuthill
Thymosin alpha 1 (Ta1) is a peptide originally isolated from thymic tissue as the compound responsible for restoring immune function to thymectomized mice. Ta1 has a pleiotropic mechanism of action, affecting multiple immune cell subsets that are involved in immune suppression. Ta1 acts through Toll-like receptors in both myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, leading to activation and stimulation of signaling pathways and initiation of production of immune-related cytokines. Due to the immune stimulating effects of Ta1, the compound would be expected to show utility for treatment of immune suppression, whether related to aging or to diseases such as infection or cancer...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450733/thymosin-beta-4-is-a-potential-regulator-of-hepatic-stellate-cells
#20
J Kim, Y Jung
Liver fibrosis, a major characteristic of chronic liver disease, is inappropriate tissue remodeling caused by prolonged parenchymal cell injury and inflammation. During liver injury, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) undergo transdifferentiation from quiescent HSCs into activated HSCs, which promote the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, leading to liver fibrosis. Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4), a major actin-sequestering protein, is the most abundant member of the highly conserved β-thymosin family and controls cell morphogenesis and motility by regulating the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
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