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Vitamins and Hormones

Gerald Litwack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
G Sosne, D Rimmer, H K Kleinman, G Ousler
Chronic ocular surface diseases such as dry eye, blepharitis, and neurotrophic keratopathies represent a significant and a growing therapeutic challenge. The basis of this expanding prevalence is multifactorial and may due to issues such as an aging population, an increasing use of video display terminals, and increases in frequency of refractive surgeries. The growing incidence of diseases such as diabetes may also be a contributing factor. Current treatments for ocular surface disease include artificial tears, lubricants, tear duct plugs, steroids, antibiotics, cyclosporine, scleral lenses, and serum tears...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
H K Kleinman, G Sosne
No agent has been identified that significantly accelerates the repair of chronic dermal wounds in humans. Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a small, abundant, naturally occurring regenerative protein that is found in body fluids and inside cells. It was found to have angiogenic and antiinflammatory activity and to be high in platelets that aggregate at the wound site. Thus we used Tβ4 initially in dermal healing. It has since been shown to have many activities important in tissue protection, repair, and regeneration...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
E D Marks, A Kumar
The burden of cardiovascular disease is a growing worldwide issue that demands attention. While many clinical trials are ongoing to test therapies for treating the heart after myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure, there are few options doctors able to currently give patients to repair the heart. This eventually leads to decreased ventricular contractility and increased systemic disease, including vascular disorders that could result in stroke. Small peptides such as thymosin β4 (Tβ4) are upregulated in the cardiovascular niche during fetal development and after injuries such as MI, providing increased neovasculogenesis and paracrine signals for endogenous stem cell recruitment to aid in wound repair...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
G T Pipes, J Yang
Treatment with thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) reduces infarct volume and preserves cardiac function in preclinical models of cardiac ischemic injury. These effects stem in part from decreased infarct size, but additional benefits are likely due to specific antifibrotic and proangiogenic activities. Injected or transgenic Tβ4 increase blood vessel growth in large and small animal models, consistent with Tβ4 converting hibernating myocardium to an actively contractile state following ischemia. Tβ4 and its degradation products have antifibrotic effects in in vitro assays and in animal models of fibrosis not related to cardiac injury...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
P Samara, K Ioannou, O E Tsitsilonis
The thymus gland produces soluble molecules, which mediate significant immune functions. The first biologically active thymic extract was thymosin fraction V, the fractionation of which led to the isolation of a series of immunoactive polypeptides, including prothymosin alpha (proTα). ProTα displays a dual role, intracellularly as a survival and proliferation mediator and extracellularly as a biological response modifier. Accordingly, inside the cell, proTα is implicated in crucial intracellular circuits and may serve as a surrogate tumor biomarker, but when found outside the cell, it could be used as a therapeutic agent for treating immune system deficiencies...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
R King, C Tuthill
Thymosin alpha 1 (Ta1) is a peptide originally isolated from thymic tissue as the compound responsible for restoring immune function to thymectomized mice. Ta1 has a pleiotropic mechanism of action, affecting multiple immune cell subsets that are involved in immune suppression. Ta1 acts through Toll-like receptors in both myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, leading to activation and stimulation of signaling pathways and initiation of production of immune-related cytokines. Due to the immune stimulating effects of Ta1, the compound would be expected to show utility for treatment of immune suppression, whether related to aging or to diseases such as infection or cancer...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
J Kim, Y Jung
Liver fibrosis, a major characteristic of chronic liver disease, is inappropriate tissue remodeling caused by prolonged parenchymal cell injury and inflammation. During liver injury, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) undergo transdifferentiation from quiescent HSCs into activated HSCs, which promote the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, leading to liver fibrosis. Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4), a major actin-sequestering protein, is the most abundant member of the highly conserved β-thymosin family and controls cell morphogenesis and motility by regulating the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
R Nepravishta, W Mandaliti, P S Vallebona, F Pica, E Garaci, M Paci
Thymosinα1 is a peptidic hormone with pleiotropic activity, which is used in the therapy of several diseases. It is unstructured in water solution and interacts with negative regions of micelles and vesicles assuming two tracts of helical conformation with a structural flexible break in between. The studies of the interaction of Thymosinα1 with micelles of mixed dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and sodium dodecylsulfate and vesicles with mixed dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine, the latter the negative component of the membranes, by (1)H and natural abundance (15)N NMR are herewith reported, reviewed, and discussed...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
M Freire, C S Sarandeses, G Covelo, C Díaz-Jullien
Prothymosin α (ProTα), the precursor of the thymosin α1 and thymosin α11, is a 109-111 amino acids protein widely distributed in the mammalian tissues that is essential for the cell proliferation and survival through its implication on chromatin remodeling and in the proapoptotic activity. ProTα is phosphorylated at Thr residues by the M2 isoenzyme of the pyruvate kinase in a process that is dependent on the cell proliferation activity, which constitutes a novel dual functionality of this enzyme. The Thr residues phosphorylated are apparently dependent on the carcinogenic transformation of the cells...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
B Xue, R C Robinson
Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is a 43-amino acid signature motif peptide that defines the beta-thymosin (βT) family of proteins. βTs are intrinsically unstructured in their free states and undergo disorder-to-order transitions in carrying out their biological functions. This property poses challenges in determining their 3D structures, mainly favoring structural studies on the complexes formed between βTs and their interaction partners. One of the βTs' primary binding partners is monomeric actin, a major component of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
L Renault
β-Thymosins are a family of heat-stable multifunctional polypeptides that are expressed as small proteins of about 5kDa (~45 amino acids) almost exclusively in multicellular animals. They were first isolated from the thymus. As full-length or truncated polypeptides, they appear to stimulate a broad range of extracellular activities in various signaling pathways, including tissue repair and regeneration, inflammation, cell migration, and immune defense. However, their cell surface receptors and structural mechanisms of regulations in these multiple pathways remain still poorly understood...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
K Hoch, D E Volk
The thymosin proteins are all short, highly charged, intrinsically unstructured proteins under natural conditions. However, structure can be induced in many of the thymosin proteins by providing charge neutralization at low pH or by the addition of Zn(2+) ions, organic reagents such as trifluoroethanol, hexafluoropropanol, or n-dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, or interactions with their natural binding partner proteins. The differing structures of thymosin alpha and thymosin beta proteins have been studied by circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance, and crystallographic methods in order to better understand the role of these proteins...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
Gerald Litwack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
J Xie, Y-L Wu, C-L Huang
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of mortality for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cardiac hypertrophy, occurring in up to 95% patients with CKD (also known as uremic cardiomyopathy), increases their risk for cardiovascular death. Many CKD-specific risk factors of uremic cardiomyopathy have been recognized, such as secondary hyperparathyroidism, indoxyl sulfate (IS)/p-cresyl, and vitamin D deficiency. However, several randomized controlled trials have recently shown that these risk factors have little impact on the mortality of CVD...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
J A Neyra, M C Hu
Alpha-Klotho (αKlotho) protein is encoded by the gene, Klotho, and functions as a coreceptor for endocrine fibroblast growth factor-23. The extracellular domain of αKlotho is cleaved by secretases and released into the circulation where it is called soluble αKlotho. Soluble αKlotho in the circulation starts to decline in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 2 and urinary αKlotho in even earlier CKD stage 1. Therefore soluble αKlotho is an early and sensitive marker of decline in kidney function. Preclinical data from numerous animal experiments support αKlotho deficiency as a pathogenic factor for CKD progression and extrarenal CKD complications including cardiac and vascular disease, hyperparathyroidism, and disturbed mineral metabolism...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
K Akasaka-Manya, H Manya, T Endo
The α-Klotho mouse is an animal model that prematurely shows phenotypes resembling human aging, such as osteoporosis, arteriosclerosis, pulmonary emphysema, and kidney damage. Interestingly, these abnormalities are triggered by a deficiency of a single protein, α-Klotho. The kidney is an organ that highly expresses α-Klotho, suggesting that α-Klotho is important for kidney function. Recent studies suggest that α-Klotho is associated with phosphate, vitamin D, and calcium homeostasis. The calcium imbalance in α-Klotho mice may induce calpain overactivation, leading to cell death and tissue destruction...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
C R Abraham, P C Mullen, T Tucker-Zhou, C D Chen, E Zeldich
In this chapter, we will describe what has been learned about Klotho and its potential functions in the brain. Klotho is localized in the choroid plexus and, to a lesser extent, in hippocampal neurons. Cognitive decline is a common issue in human aging affecting over 50% of the population. This cognitive decline can also be seen in animal models such as the Rhesus monkey. A long-term study undertaken by our lab demonstrated that normal brain aging in rhesus monkeys and other animal models is associated with a significant downregulation of Klotho expression...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
T Rubinek, I Wolf
The klotho gene is implicated in many physiological activities, among them aging, glucose metabolism, and phosphate and calcium metabolism. Many cellular activities of klotho were implicated in promoting these activities. Two of them, inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 pathway and of the Wnt signaling pathway, are also major pathways associated with cancer development and progression. These discoveries prompted a surge of research aiming to elucidate the role of klotho in cancer. Studies show that klotho is universally silenced in a wide array of malignancies, including breast, pancreatic, ovarian, lung, colorectal, and melanoma, and that klotho's expression can serve as an invaluable prognostic marker...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
T Fu, J K Kemper
The obesity epidemic and the urgent need for effective and safe drugs to treat obesity-related diseases have greatly increased research interest in the metabolic hormones, fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19, FGF15 in mice), and FGF21. FGF19 and FGF21 function as endocrine hormones that play key roles in energy metabolism and counteract obesity. Importantly, in obese humans and lab animals, circulating FGF19 and FGF21 levels are elevated, and metabolic actions of these hormones are impaired but the underlying mechanisms remained unknown...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
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