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Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124917/between-bench-and-bedside-building-clinical-consensus-at-the-nih-1977-2013
#1
Todd M Olszewski
After World War II, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) emerged as a major patron of biomedical research. In the succeeding decades, NIH administrators sought to determine how best to disseminate the findings of the research it supported and manage their relationship with clinicians in the national community. This task of bridging research and practice fell to the Office of Medical Applications of Research (OMAR), which administered the NIH Consensus Development Program (CDP) between 1978 and 2012. This article argues that the CDP represented an unusual attempt to depoliticize biomedical research and medical practice at a particularly controversial time in American medicine...
August 14, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718289/-the-neurosis-that-has-possessed-us-political-repression-in-the-cold-war-medical-profession
#2
Merlin Chowkwanyun
Political repression played a central role in shaping the political complexion of the American medical profession, the policies it advocated, and those allowed to function comfortably in it. Previous work on the impact of McCarthyism and medicine focuses heavily on the mid-century failure of national health insurance (NHI) and medical reform organizations that suffered from McCarthyist attacks. The focus is national and birds-eye but says less about the impact on the day-to-day life of physicians caught in a McCarthyist web; and how exactly the machinery of political repression within the medical profession worked on the ground...
July 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529228/live-longer-better-the-historical-roots-of-human-growth-hormone-as-anti-aging-medicine
#3
Aimee Medeiros, Elizabeth Siegel Watkins
In recent years, historians have turned their attention to the emergence of anti-aging medicine, suggesting that this interest group coalesced in the wake of widespread availability of recombinant human growth hormone (HGH) after 1985. We take a longer view of modern anti-aging medicine, unearthing a nexus of scientific, medical, and cultural factors that developed over several decades in the twentieth century to produce circumstances conducive to the emergence of this medical sub-specialty established on the premise of the anti-aging effects of HGH...
July 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408971/the-education-of-american-surgeons-and-the-rise-of-surgical-residencies-1930-1960
#4
Justin Barr
In the first half of the twentieth century, the training of American surgeons changed from an idiosyncratic, often isolated venture to a standardized, regulated, and mandated regimen in the form of the surgical residency. Over the three critical decades between 1930 and 1960, these residencies developed from an extraordinary, unique opportunity for a few leading practitioners to a widespread, uniform requirement. This article explores the transformation of surgical education in the United States, focusing on the standardization and dissemination of residencies during this key period...
July 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329407/transplant-buccaneers-p-k-sen-and-india-s-first-heart-transplant-february-1968
#5
David S Jones, Kavita Sivaramakrishnan
On 17 February 1968, Bombay surgeon Prafulla Kumar Sen transplanted a human heart, becoming the fourth surgeon in the world to attempt the feat. Even though the patient survived just three hours, the feat won Sen worldwide acclaim. The ability of Sen's team to join the ranks of the world's surgical pioneers raises interesting questions. How was Sen able to transplant so quickly? He had to train a team of collaborators, import or reverse engineer technologies and techniques that had been developed largely in the United States, and begin conversations with Indian political authorities about the contested concept of brain death...
July 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893867/psychiatrists-and-the-transformation-of-juvenile-justice-in-philadelphia-1965-1972
#6
Mical Raz
In the late 1960s, Philadelphia psychiatrists evaluated every child who interacted with the city's juvenile courts. These evaluations had an important role in determining the placement and treatment of these children, and emphasized the therapeutic nature of the juvenile courts at the time. Relying on extensive case studies compiled by the Philadelphia Department of Public Welfare, this study reconstructs the roles of psychiatrists in the experiences of children interacting with the juvenile justice system, to shed light on a hitherto unknown aspect of these children's care...
June 8, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579212/introduction-food-as-medicine-medicine-as-food
#7
Juliana Adelman, Lisa Haushofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562337/invalid-cookery-nursing-and-domestic-medicine-in-ireland-c-1900
#8
Juliana Adelman
This article uses a 1903 text by the Irish cookery instructress Kathleen Ferguson to examine the intersections between food, medicine and domestic work. Sick Room Cookery, and numerous texts like it, drew on traditions of domestic medicine and Anglo-Irish gastronomy while also seeking to establish female expertise informed by modern science and medicine. Placing the text in its broader cultural context, the article examines how it fit into the tradition of domestic medicine and the emerging profession of domestic science...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546373/unpalatable-truths-food-and-drink-as-medicine-in-colonial-british-india
#9
Sam Goodman
This article considers the significance of eating and drinking within a series of diaries and journals produced in British colonial India during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The discussion of food and drink in this context was not simply a means to add color or compelling detail to these accounts, but was instead a vital ingredient of the authors' understanding of health and medical treatment. These texts suggest a broader colonial medical understanding of the importance of regulating diet to maintain physical health...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529287/between-food-and-medicine-artificial-digestion-sickness-and-the-case-of-benger-s-food
#10
Lisa Haushofer
In the nineteenth century, food and diet became central to a public health increasingly focused on individual behavior and on the cost of sickness. Because of its potential to impact the economic uptake of food inside individual bodies, digestion became a crucial site of physiological investigation in this context. Out of physiological research on digestion emerged a group of medicinal food products based on digestive enzymes (then referred to as digestive ferments), so-called artificially digested foods. The paper examines the creation and significance of these products, focusing on the case of Benger's Food...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514305/was-luigi-cornaro-a-dietary-expert
#11
Steven Shapin
Luigi Cornaro (d. 1566) was a Venetian nobleman whose book De Vita Sobria (On the Temperate Life) was an instant success and has proved to be one of the most long-lasting and influential works of practical medical advice, counseling readers how to live long and healthily. Yet Cornaro was not a physician and his account raises a series of questions about the nature and location of medical expertise. Who can have that expertise? Can you, and should you, be your own physician, and, if so, on what grounds? I situate Cornaro's claims to expertise within a historically specific culture of medical dietetics in which personal experience counted for much...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514263/food-as-medicine-diet-diabetes-management-and-the-patient-in-twentieth-century-britain
#12
Martin D Moore
In classic accounts of the development of modern medicine in Europe and North America, the sick person is often portrayed as having a history of disappearance with the rise of the objectified body of the modern patient. To this account, sociologists and historians of medicine have added another for the period after 1950, in which the patient as subjective person "reappears" in medical discourse. However, despite histories of practice and identity revising narratives of disappearance, the patient's reappearance has largely escaped further assessment...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579217/nursing-and-hospital-abortions-in-the-united-states-1967-1973
#13
Karissa Haugeberg
Before elective abortion was legalized nationally in 1973 with the U.S. Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade, seventeen states and the District of Columbia liberalized their abortion statutes. While scholars have examined the history of physicians who had performed abortions before and after it was legal and of feminists' work to expand the range of healthcare choices available to women, we know relatively little about nurses' work with abortion. By focusing on the history of nursing in those states that liberalized their abortion laws before Roe, this article reveals how women who sought greater control over their lives by choosing abortion encountered medical professionals who were only just beginning to question the gendered conventions that framed labor roles in American hospitals...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529293/corrigendum
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253198/the-island-of-alternatives-power-medical-science-and-gentle-birthing-in-socialist-czechoslovakia
#15
Ema Hrešanová
Beginning in the early 1980s, medical experts and birthing women increasingly voiced criticism of what had long been the technocratic, depersonalized nature of obstetric treatment in Czechoslovakia, despite the limited opportunities for them to do so publicly. A few maternity hospitals responded to the complaints by introducing radically different regimens of care. This article examines the history of one reformist project that took place in the small town of Ostrov nad Ohří. Ostrov means "island" in Czech and, during the last decade of Communist rule in Czechoslovakia, the Ostrov hospital became an island of alternative obstetric care, embracing Leboyer's method of "gentle birthing," acupuncture, fathers in delivery rooms, and assorted technological innovations that aimed to spark fundamental change in familial and social relationships, and humanize childbirth...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253165/childbirth-and-trauma-1940s-1980s
#16
Paula A Michaels
This article analyzes trauma in mid-twentieth century hospital births, focusing on the United States, but with additional evidence drawn from Great Britain and France. As many as half of women today experience childbirth as traumatic and no evidence suggests that the figure was lower a half-century ago. Drawing on women's birth narratives and psychiatric literature, this article highlights the striking consistency over time in how women describe their experiences of traumatic birth. By the 1970s, however, women proved less ready to accept their trauma as the product of their own psychological shortcomings...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240893/risk-and-reputation-obstetricians-cesareans-and-consent
#17
Jacqueline H Wolf
When physicians performed cesarean sections in the nineteenth century, they customarily sought agreement from all present before proceeding. In contrast, after the introduction of electronic fetal monitoring in the late 1960s, obstetricians obtained permission for a cesarean by offering a choice that ensured consent-give birth by cesarean or give birth vaginally to a damaged or dead baby. This article argues that the manner in which physicians obtained consent for cesareans in the nineteenth century was one factor that kept the cesarean rate low, while the manner in which physicians obtained consent in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries was one factor driving up the cesarean rate...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237011/back-to-bed-from-hospital-to-home-obstetrics-in-the-city-of-chicago
#18
Wendy Kline
This article analyzes the role of doctors and activists in Chicago who successfully redefined the practice and politics of childbirth both locally and ultimately nationwide. It begins with the story of Joseph DeLee's Chicago Maternity Center, responsible for supervising over 100,000 home births between 1932 and 1972. Most of the mothers cared for by the Center were nonwhite, poor, and had little or no access to prenatal care, yet their babies had a far higher survival rate than the nationwide average. Thousands of medical students from all over the Midwest experienced their first deliveries not in hospitals, but in these homes...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228371/introduction-to-a-special-issue-childbirth-history-is-everyone-s-history
#19
Eugene Declercq
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973592/testing-the-gr%C3%A3-fenberg-ring-in-interwar-britain-norman-haire-helena-wright-and-the-debate-over-statistical-evidence-side-effects-and-intra-uterine-contraception
#20
Caroline Rusterholz
This paper examines the introduction to Britain of the Gräfenberg ring, an early version of what later became known as an intrauterine device (IUD). The struggle during the interwar years to establish the value of the ring provides an opportunity for a case study of the evaluation and acceptance of a new medical device. With the professionalization of the birth control movement and the expansion of birth control clinics in interwar Britain, efforts to develop better scientific means for contraception grew rapidly...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
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