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Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575351/-enquire-into-all-the-circumstances-of-the-patient-narrowly-john-rutherford-s-clinical-lectures-in-edinburgh-1749-53
#1
Stephen C Craig
Early eighteenth-century Edinburgh provided a unique learning environment for aspiring practitioners: one in which the unity of medicine and surgery was appreciated and clinical observations and a reasoning practitioner became the well spring of proper patient care. John Rutherford, a surgical apprentice in this environment, student on the wards of London hospitals and under Boerhaave at Leiden, became one of the original medical professors at the University of Edinburgh medical school in 1726. Rutherford taught the popular, theory-based Practice of Medicine for twenty-two years...
May 29, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444289/-one-simply-doesn-t-arbitrate-authorship-of-thoughts-socialized-medicine-medical-mccarthyism-and-the-publishing-of-rural-health-and-medical-care-1948
#2
J T H Connor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402543/courtney-q-shah-sex-ed-segregated-the-quest-for-sexual-knowledge-in-progressive-era-america
#3
Alexandra Lord
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402448/catherine-l-thompson-patient-expectations-how-economics-religion-and-malpractice-shaped-therapeutics-in-early-america
#4
Matthew Reeves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335017/the-medical-battery-in-the-united-states-1870-1920-electrotherapy-at-home-and-in-the-clinic
#5
Anna Wexler
This paper focuses on the history of a portable shock-producing electrotherapeutic device known as the medical battery (1870-1920), which provided both direct and alternating current and was thought to cure a wide variety of ailments. The product occupied a unique space at the nexus of medicine, consumerism and quackery: it was simultaneously considered a legitimate device by medical professionals who practiced electrotherapeutics, yet identical versions were sold directly to consumers, often via newspaper advertisements and with cure-all marketing language...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334954/the-science-and-politics-of-naming-reforming-anatomical-nomenclature-ca-1886-1955
#6
Tatjana Buklijas
Anatomical nomenclature is medicine's official language. Early in their medical studies, students are expected to memorize not only the bodily geography but also the names for all the structures that, by consensus, constitute the anatomical body. The making and uses of visual maps of the body have received considerable historiographical attention, yet the history of production, communication, and reception of anatomical names-a history as long as the history of anatomy itself-has been studied far less. My essay examines the reforms of anatomical naming between the first modern nomenclature, the 1895 Basel Nomina Anatomica (BNA), and the 1955 Nomina Anatomica Parisiensia (NAP, also known as PNA), which is the basis for current anatomical terminology...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334826/military-officers-tropical-medicine-and-racial-thought-in-the-formation-of-the-west-india-regiments-1793-1802
#7
Michael Joseph
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794541/military-officers-tropical-medicine-and-racial-thought-in-the-formation-of-the-west-india-regiments-1793-1802
#8
Michael Joseph
The article examines the establishment and growth between 1793 and 1802 of the West India Regiments, British army corps manned by slaves of African descent and commanded by European officers. Focusing on the medical history of British military operations in the West Indies, the article demonstrates that the rationale behind the regiments was medical, but that the impetus for them came from senior military commanders rather than from the medical practitioners whose writings are usually privileged in the historiography...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667536/surgical-innovation-and-the-multiple-meanings-of-randomized-controlled-trials-the-first-rct-on-minimally-invasive-cholecystectomy-1980-2000
#9
Cynthia L Tang, Thomas Schlich
This article uses the case of the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating laparoscopic cholecystectomy to investigate the introduction of minimally invasive surgery in the 1990s and explore the meaning of RCTs within the context of the introduction of a new surgical technology. It thus brings together the history of the use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to remove the gallbladder, and the history of the RCT, shedding light on particular aspects of both. We first situate the RCT in the context of the history of the various treatment options for gallstones, or cholelithiasis, then characterize the specific situation of the rapid, patient-driven spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and in a next step describe how the local context of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a new technology made it possible and desirable to conduct an RCT, despite numerous obstacles...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173156/renaissance-surgery-between-learning-and-craft
#10
Domenico Bertoloni Meli, Cynthia Klestinec
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168300/-ex-museolo-nostro-machaonico-collecting-publishing-and-visualization-in-fabricius-hildanus1
#11
Domenico Bertoloni Meli
This essay seeks to use the learned surgeon Wilhelm Fabry von Hilden (1560–1634), better known by the Latinized name of Fabricius Hildanus, to establish links among areas that have so far generally been seen by historians as separate. They include the publication of Observationes chirurgicae, the establishment of a surgical museum, and the collection and publication of several images documenting his activities. Fabricius was among the first to embark on these three endeavors. The essay provides an especially rich account of his museum, including its holdings and in some cases the preservation methods he employed...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168298/pieter-van-foreest-the-physician-as-writer-on-surgery
#12
Vivian Nutton
The Dutch physician Pieter Van Foreest (1520-97) included nine books of surgical observations among his large series of case-histories. Although he demanded that all physicians should have a knowledge of surgery, his writings show the limitations of his approach as well as the overlap between physicians and surgeons. Certain conditions were treated by both types of practitioner, but Foreest left invasive and manipulative side treatments to surgeons, while claiming the right as a physician to organise the overall treatment of the patient...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168286/when-universities-first-encountered-surgery
#13
Michael McVaugh
From student notes of the teaching of William de Congenis, at Montpellier ca. 1225, we can recognize that surgical education fitted not too uneasily into an academic environment at that moment, when universities and medical faculties were beginning to shape their institutional identity. But medical institutionalization over the next two hundred years operated in a variety of ways to strengthen rather than break down a nascent hierarchical distinction between medical and surgical learning. At Montpellier, medical masters acquired many surgical skills themselves and abandoned the most difficult operations to non-academic restauratores; surgeons per se were not part of the university...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168285/the-great-pox-and-the-surgeon-s-role-in-the-sixteenth-century
#14
R Allen Shotwell
The sixteenth century saw a shift in perceptions of the scope of surgery. The medieval focus on elevating the status of surgery had been accompanied by a certain distancing of surgery from manual operations, but the medical humanism of the sixteenth century embraced manual skills as an important part of medicine, most noticeably in the case of anatomy. In the first part of this paper I use accounts of the treatment of ulcers as a way of exploring these changes in perceptions. Ulcers were a well-known surgical ailment in medieval medicine, but in the sixteenth century they were also associated with the Great Pox...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168282/nature-or-artifice-grafting-in-early-modern-surgery-and-agronomy
#15
Paolo Savoia
In 1597, Gaspare Tagliacozzi published a famous two-volume book on “plastic surgery.” The reconstructive technique he described was based on grafting skin taken from the arm onto the mutilated parts of the patient's damaged face – especially noses. This paper focuses on techniques of grafting, the “culture of grafting,” and the relationships between surgery and plant sciences in the sixteenth century. By describing the fascination with grafting in surgery, natural history, gardening, and agronomy the paper argues that grafting techniques were subject to delicate issues: to what extent it was morally acceptable to deceive the eye with artificial entities? and what was the status of the product of a surgical procedure that challenged the traditional natural/artificial distinction? Finally, this paper shows how in the seventeenth century grafting survived the crisis of Galenism by discussing the role it played in teratology and in controversies on the uses the new mechanistic anatomy...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168277/translating-learned-surgery1
#16
Cynthia Klestinec
This essay explores the increasingly visible or strong relationship between educated surgeons and artisans that can be documented in vernacular translations of Latin surgery texts in the sixteenth century. We often consider the vernacular as a tool for broad dissemination, but vernacular translation was used by educated surgeons for more calculated, professional reasons. In vernacular texts, they began to articulate their role and responsibilities in urban settings (rather than military settings). This essay focuses on the Latin and Italian surgery texts of Giovanni Andrea della Croce, a Venetian, educated surgeon, who began to frame (in text and image) his work according to aspects of artisanal traditions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168271/the-oculist-s-eye-connections-between-cataract-couching-anatomy-and-visual-theory-in-the-renaissance
#17
Tawrin Baker
We now know that cataract couching involves depressing an occluded crystalline lens to the bottom of the vitreous chamber, but from the time of Galen until the seventeenth-century cataracts were thought to be separate concretions arising between the crystalline lens and the pupil. From Antiquity through the Renaissance, the combination of visual theory in which the crystalline humor is the author of vision, and surgical experience—that couching cataracts restored some degree of sight—resulted in anatomists depicting a large space between the crystalline lens and the pupil...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039216/anna-katharina-schaffner-exhaustion-a-history
#18
Susan K Cahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2016: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994046/frances-gage-painting-as-medicine-in-early-modern-rome-giulio-mancini-and-the-efficacy-of-art
#19
Jacqueline Marie Musacchio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2016: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477204/the-pennsylvania-anatomy-act-of-1883-weighing-the-roles-of-professor-william-smith-forbes-and-senator-william-james-mcknight
#20
James R Wright
Effective Anatomical Acts transformed medical education and curtailed grave-robbing. William S. Forbes, Demonstrator of Anatomy at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, authored the Pennsylvania Anatomy Act of 1867, but it was ineffective. In December of 1882, Forbes and accomplices were charged with grave-robbing. Forbes was acquitted in early 1883, but his accomplices were all convicted; nevertheless, these events precipitated a strengthened Anatomy Act in 1883. Forbes was crowned the Father of the Pennsylvania Anatomy Act and was revered by the Philadelphia medical community for his personal sacrifices for medical education; they even paid his legal fees...
October 2016: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
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