Read by QxMD icon Read

Acta Neuropathologica

Hans Lassmann, Monika Bradl
One of the most frequent statements, provided in different variations in the introduction of experimental studies on multiple sclerosis (MS), is that "Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating autoimmune disease and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a suitable model to study its pathogenesis". However, so far, no single experimental model covers the entire spectrum of the clinical, pathological, or immunological features of the disease. Many different models are available, which proved to be highly useful for studying different aspects of inflammation, demyelination, remyelination, and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system...
October 20, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Heiko Braak, Albert C Ludolph, Manuela Neumann, John Ravits, Kelly Del Tredici
Two nerve cells types, Betz cells in layer Vb of the primary motor neocortex and α-motoneurons of the lower brainstem and spinal cord, become involved at the beginning of the pathological cascade underlying sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS). In both neuronal types, the cell nuclei forfeit their normal (non-phosphorylated) expression of the 43-kDa transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43). Here, we present initial evidence that in α-motoneurons the loss of normal nuclear TDP-43 expression is followed by the formation of phosphorylated TDP-43 aggregates (pTDP-43) within the cytoplasm, whereas in Betz cells, by contrast, the loss of normal nuclear TDP-43 expression remains mostly unaccompanied by the development of cytoplasmic aggregations...
October 18, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Asad Jan, Brandon Jansonius, Alberto Delaidelli, Syam Prakash Somasekharan, Forum Bhanshali, Milène Vandal, Gian Luca Negri, Don Moerman, Ian MacKenzie, Frédéric Calon, Michael R Hayden, Stefan Taubert, Poul H Sorensen
Soluble oligomers of amyloid-β (Aβ) impair synaptic plasticity, perturb neuronal energy homeostasis, and are implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Therefore, significant efforts in AD drug discovery research aim to prevent the formation of Aβ oligomers or block their neurotoxicity. The eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF2K) plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity, and couples neurotransmission to local dendritic mRNA translation. Recent evidence indicates that Aβ oligomers activate neuronal eEF2K, suggesting a potential link to Aβ induced synaptic dysfunction...
October 17, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
M Francesca Cordeiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Elisabeth Sanchez-Mejias, Victoria Navarro, Sebastian Jimenez, Maria Sanchez-Mico, Raquel Sanchez-Varo, Cristina Nuñez-Diaz, Laura Trujillo-Estrada, Jose Carlos Davila, Marisa Vizuete, Antonia Gutierrez, Javier Vitorica
The role of microglial cells in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated the existence of a weak microglial response in human AD hippocampus which is in contrast to the massive microglial activation observed in APP-based models. Most importantly, microglial cells displayed a prominent degenerative profile (dentate gyrus > CA3 > CA1 > parahippocampal gyrus), including fragmented and dystrophic processes with spheroids, a reduced numerical density, and a significant decrease in the area of surveillance ("microglial domain")...
October 14, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Jacqueline R Rivas, Sara J Ireland, Rati Chkheidze, William H Rounds, Joseph Lim, Jordan Johnson, Denise M O Ramirez, Ann J Ligocki, Ding Chen, Alyssa A Guzman, Mark Woodhall, Patrick C Wilson, Eric Meffre, Charles White, Benjamin M Greenberg, Patrick Waters, Lindsay G Cowell, Ann M Stowe, Nancy L Monson
Plasmablasts are a highly differentiated, antibody secreting B cell subset whose prevalence correlates with disease activity in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). For most patients experiencing partial transverse myelitis (PTM), plasmablasts are elevated in the blood at the first clinical presentation of disease (known as a clinically isolated syndrome or CIS). In this study we found that many of these peripheral plasmablasts are autoreactive and recognize primarily gray matter targets in brain tissue. These plasmablasts express antibodies that over-utilize immunoglobulin heavy chain V-region subgroup 4 (VH4) genes, and the highly mutated VH4+ plasmablast antibodies recognize intracellular antigens of neurons and astrocytes...
October 11, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Sheng-Han Kuo, Chi-Ying Lin, Jie Wang, Peter A Sims, Ming-Kai Pan, Jyun-You Liou, Danielle Lee, William J Tate, Geoffrey C Kelly, Elan D Louis, Phyllis L Faust
Changes in climbing fiber-Purkinje cell (CF-PC) synaptic connections have been found in the essential tremor (ET) cerebellum, and these changes are correlated with tremor severity. Whether these postmortem changes are specific to ET remains to be investigated. We assessed CF-PC synaptic pathology in the postmortem cerebellum across a range of degenerative movement disorders [10 Parkinson's disease (PD) cases, 10 multiple system atrophy (MSA) cases, 10 spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) cases, and 20 ET cases] and 25 controls...
October 4, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Claudia Cantoni, Francesca Cignarella, Laura Ghezzi, Bob Mikesell, Bryan Bollman, Melissa M Berrien-Elliott, Aaron R Ireland, Todd A Fehniger, Gregory F Wu, Laura Piccio
Myeloid-derived cells play important modulatory and effector roles in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature myeloid cells, composed of monocytic (MO) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) fractions, which can suppress T cell activities in EAE. Their role in MS remains poorly characterized. We found decreased numbers of circulating MDSCs, driven by lower frequencies of the MO-MDSCs, and higher MDSC expression of microRNA miR-223 in MS versus healthy subjects...
October 4, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Jacob I Ayers, Jeffrey Diamond, Adriana Sari, Susan Fromholt, Ahmad Galaleldeen, Lyle W Ostrow, Jonathan D Glass, P John Hart, David R Borchelt
Evidence of misfolded wild-type superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) has been detected in spinal cords of sporadic ALS (sALS) patients, suggesting an etiological relationship to SOD1-associated familial ALS (fALS). Given that there are currently a number of promising therapies under development that target SOD1, it is of critical importance to better understand the role of misfolded SOD1 in sALS. We previously demonstrated the permissiveness of the G85R-SOD1:YFP mouse model for MND induction following injection with tissue homogenates from paralyzed transgenic mice expressing SOD1 mutations...
October 4, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, Marcela Votruba, Florence Burté, Chiara La Morgia, Piero Barboni, Valerio Carelli
Mitochondrial optic neuropathies constitute an important cause of chronic visual morbidity and registrable blindness in both the paediatric and adult population. It is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders caused by both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and a growing list of nuclear genetic defects that invariably affect a critical component of the mitochondrial machinery. The two classical paradigms are Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), which is a primary mtDNA disorder, and autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA) secondary to pathogenic mutations within the nuclear gene OPA1 that encodes for a mitochondrial inner membrane protein...
September 30, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Dusten Unruh, Steven R Schwarze, Laith Khoury, Cheddhi Thomas, Meijing Wu, Li Chen, Rui Chen, Yinxing Liu, Margaret A Schwartz, Christina Amidei, Priya Kumthekar, Carolina G Benjamin, Kristine Song, Caleb Dawson, Joanne M Rispoli, Girish Fatterpekar, John G Golfinos, Douglas Kondziolka, Matthias Karajannis, Donato Pacione, David Zagzag, Thomas McIntyre, Matija Snuderl, Craig Horbinski
Mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is common in gliomas, and produces D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG). The full effects of IDH1 mutations on glioma biology and tumor microenvironment are unknown. We analyzed a discovery cohort of 169 World Health Organization (WHO) grade II-IV gliomas, followed by a validation cohort of 148 cases, for IDH1 mutations, intratumoral microthrombi, and venous thromboemboli (VTE). 430 gliomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed for mRNAs associated with coagulation, and 95 gliomas in a tissue microarray were assessed for tissue factor (TF) protein...
September 23, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Keith A Josephs, Jennifer L Whitwell, Pawel Tacik, Joseph R Duffy, Matthew L Senjem, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Clifford R Jack, Val Lowe, Dennis W Dickson, Melissa E Murray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Nadav J Hart, Yosef Koronyo, Keith L Black, Maya Koronyo-Hamaoui
Although historically perceived as a disorder confined to the brain, our understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has expanded to include extra-cerebral manifestation, with mounting evidence of abnormalities in the eye. Among ocular tissues, the retina, a developmental outgrowth of the brain, is marked by an array of pathologies in patients suffering from AD, including nerve fiber layer thinning, degeneration of retinal ganglion cells, and changes to vascular parameters. While the hallmark pathological signs of AD, amyloid β-protein (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) comprising hyperphosphorylated tau (pTau) protein, have long been described in the brain, identification of these characteristic biomarkers in the retina has only recently been reported...
September 19, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Benjamin Michael Davis, Laura Crawley, Milena Pahlitzsch, Fatimah Javaid, Maria Francesca Cordeiro
Over 60 million people worldwide are diagnosed with glaucomatous optic neuropathy, which is estimated to be responsible for 8.4 million cases of irreversible blindness globally. Glaucoma is associated with characteristic damage to the optic nerve and patterns of visual field loss which principally involves the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). At present, intraocular pressure (IOP) presents the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma, although RGC and vision loss can continue in patients despite well-controlled IOP...
August 20, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Teng Jiang, Ying-Dong Zhang, Qing Gao, Jun-Shan Zhou, Xi-Chen Zhu, Huan Lu, Jian-Quan Shi, Lan Tan, Qi Chen, Jin-Tai Yu
As the most common type of neurodegenerative disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) within the brain. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) 1 is an immune receptor expressed by mononuclear phagocytes including monocytes and microglia, coupling with TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein to regulate immune reactions. Emerging evidence indicates that rs6910730(G), an intronic variant of TREM1, is associated with an increased Aβ neuropathology in the brains of elderly subjects, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
November 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Fausto J Rodriguez, M Adelita Vizcaino, Jaishri Blakeley, Christopher M Heaphy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Olav M Andersen, Ina-Maria Rudolph, Thomas E Willnow
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents one of the most dramatic threats to healthy aging and devising effective treatments for this devastating condition remains a major challenge in biomedical research. Much has been learned about the molecular concepts that govern proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein to amyloid-β peptides (Aβ), and how accelerated accumulation of neurotoxic Aβ peptides underlies neuronal cell death in rare familial but also common sporadic forms of this disease. Out of a plethora of proposed modulators of amyloidogenic processing, one protein emerged as a key factor in AD pathology, a neuronal sorting receptor termed SORLA...
November 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Andrew C Robinson, Laura Palmer, Seth Love, Marie Hamard, Margaret Esiri, Olaf Ansorge, Debbie Lett, Johannes Attems, Chris Morris, Claire Troakes, Sashika Selvackadunco, Andrew King, Safa Al-Sarraj, David M A Mann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Joanna J Phillips, Henry Gong, Katharine Chen, Nancy M Joseph, Jessica van Ziffle, Lee-Way Jin, Boris C Bastian, Andrew W Bollen, Arie Perry, Theodore Nicolaides, David A Solomon, Joseph T Shieh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Lutz Menzel, Magdalena Paterka, Stefan Bittner, Robin White, Wiesia Bobkiewicz, Jack van Horssen, Melitta Schachner, Esther Witsch, Tanja Kuhlmann, Frauke Zipp, Michael K E Schäfer
In multiple sclerosis (MS), the immune cell attack leads to axonal injury as a major cause for neurological disability. Here, we report a novel role of the cell adhesion molecule L1 in the crosstalk between the immune and nervous systems. L1 was found to be expressed by CNS axons of MS patients and human T cells. In MOG35-55-induced murine experimental neuroinflammation, CD4(+) T cells were associated with degenerating axons in the spinal cord, both expressing L1. However, neuronal L1 expression in the spinal cord was reduced, while levels of the transcriptional repressor REST (RE1-Silencing Transcription Factor) were up-regulated...
November 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"