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Nucleic Acids Research

Tomoko Kato-Inui, Gou Takahashi, Szuyin Hsu, Yuichiro Miyaoka
Genome editing using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) predominantly induces non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), which generates random insertions or deletions, whereas homology-directed repair (HDR), which generates precise recombination products, is useful for wider applications. However, the factors that determine the ratio of HDR to NHEJ products after CRISPR/Cas9 editing remain unclear, and methods by which the proportion of HDR products can be increased have not yet been fully established...
April 17, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Michael J Guertin, Amy E Cullen, Florian Markowetz, Andrew N Holding
A key challenge in quantitative ChIP combined with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is the normalization of data in the presence of genome-wide changes in occupancy. Analysis-based normalization methods were developed for transcriptomic data and these are dependent on the underlying assumption that total transcription does not change between conditions. For genome-wide changes in transcription factor (TF) binding, these assumptions do not hold true. The challenges in normalization are confounded by experimental variability during sample preparation, processing and recovery...
April 17, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Rahul Sinha, Young Jin Kim, Tomoki Nomakuchi, Kentaro Sahashi, Yimin Hua, Frank Rigo, C Frank Bennett, Adrian R Krainer
Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by a point mutation in the IKBKAP gene that results in defective splicing of its pre-mRNA. The mutation weakens the 5' splice site of exon 20, causing this exon to be skipped, thereby introducing a premature termination codon. Though detailed FD pathogenesis mechanisms are not yet clear, correcting the splicing defect in the relevant tissue(s), thus restoring normal expression levels of the full-length IKAP protein, could be therapeutic...
April 17, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Yalena Amador-Cañizares, Annie Bernier, Joyce A Wilson, Selena M Sagan
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) recruits two molecules of the liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) to the 5' end of its genome. This interaction promotes viral RNA accumulation, but the precise mechanism(s) remain incompletely understood. Previous studies suggest that miR-122 is able to protect the HCV genome from 5' exonucleases (Xrn1/2), but this protection is not sufficient to account for the effect of miR-122 on HCV RNA accumulation. Thus, we investigated whether miR-122 was also able to protect the viral genome from innate sensors of RNA or cellular pyrophosphatases...
April 17, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
István Szádeczky-Kardoss, Tibor Csorba, Andor Auber, Anita Schamberger, Tünde Nyikó, János Taller, Tamás I Orbán, József Burgyán, Dániel Silhavy
Translation-dependent mRNA quality control systems protect the protein homeostasis of eukaryotic cells by eliminating aberrant transcripts and stimulating the decay of their protein products. Although these systems are intensively studied in animals, little is known about the translation-dependent quality control systems in plants. Here, we characterize the mechanism of nonstop decay (NSD) system in Nicotiana benthamiana model plant. We show that plant NSD efficiently degrades nonstop mRNAs, which can be generated by premature polyadenylation, and stop codon-less transcripts, which are produced by endonucleolytic cleavage...
April 17, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Anchal Sharma, Chuan Jiang, Subhajyoti De
Although the catalog of cancer-associated mutations in protein-coding regions is nearly complete for all major cancer types, an assessment of regulatory changes in cancer genomes and their clinical significance remain largely preliminary. Adopting bottom-up approach, we quantify the effects of different sources of gene expression variation in a cohort of 3899 samples from 10 cancer types. We find that copy number alterations, epigenetic changes, transcription factors and microRNAs collectively explain, on average, only 31-38% and 18-26% expression variation for cancer-associated and other genes, respectively, and that among these factors copy number alteration has the highest effect...
April 17, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Debostuti Ghoshdastidar, Sanjib Senapati
The functional B-conformation of DNA succumbs to the A-form at low water activity. Methods for room temperature DNA storage that rely upon 'anhydrobiosis', thus, often encounter the loss of DNA activity due to the B→A-DNA transition. Here, we show that ionic liquids, an emerging class of green solvents, can induce conformational transitions in DNA and even rescue the dehydrated DNA in the functional B-form. CD spectroscopic analyses not only reveal rapid transition of A-DNA in 78% ethanol medium to B-conformation in presence of ILs, but also the high resistance of IL-bound B-form to transit to A-DNA under dehydration...
April 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Daniel Dar, Rotem Sorek
Transcription termination in bacteria can occur either via Rho-dependent or independent (intrinsic) mechanisms. Intrinsic terminators are composed of a stem-loop RNA structure followed by a uridine stretch and are known to terminate in a precise manner. In contrast, Rho-dependent terminators have more loosely defined characteristics and are thought to terminate in a diffuse manner. While transcripts ending in an intrinsic terminator are protected from 3'-5' exonuclease digestion due to the stem-loop structure of the terminator, it remains unclear what protects Rho-dependent transcripts from being degraded...
April 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Xuecong Wang, Yogesh Srivastava, Aleksander Jankowski, Vikas Malik, Yuanjie Wei, Ricardo C H Del Rosario, Vlad Cojocaru, Shyam Prabhakar, Ralf Jauch
FOXA1 is a transcription factor capable to bind silenced chromatin to direct context-dependent cell fate conversion. Here, we demonstrate that a compact palindromic DNA element (termed 'DIV' for its diverging half-sites) induces the homodimerization of FOXA1 with strongly positive cooperativity. Alternative structural models are consistent with either an indirect DNA-mediated cooperativity or a direct protein-protein interaction. The cooperative homodimer formation is strictly constrained by precise half-site spacing...
April 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Choudhary Shoaib Ahmed, Poppy L Winlow, Aimee L Parsons, Catherine L Jopling
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive sense RNA virus that persistently infects human liver, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV replication requires the liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122). In contrast to canonical miRNA-mediated repression via 3'UTR sites, miR-122 positively regulates HCV replication by a direct interaction with the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the viral RNA. The protein factor requirements for this unusual miRNA regulation remain poorly understood. Here, we identify eIF4AII, previously implicated in miRNA-mediated repression via 3'UTR sites, as a host factor that is important for HCV replication...
April 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Christian Margreitter, Hui-Chun Lu, Catherine Townsend, Alexander Stewart, Deborah K Dunn-Walters, Franca Fraternali
Antibody repertoire analysis by high throughput sequencing is now widely used, but a persisting challenge is enabling immunologists to explore their data to discover discriminating repertoire features for their own particular investigations. Computational methods are necessary for large-scale evaluation of antibody properties. We have developed BRepertoire, a suite of user-friendly web-based software tools for large-scale statistical analyses of repertoire data. The software is able to use data preprocessed by IMGT, and performs statistical and comparative analyses with versatile plotting options...
April 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Thomas Maurin, Kevin Lebrigand, Sara Castagnola, Agnès Paquet, Marielle Jarjat, Alexandra Popa, Mauro Grossi, Florence Rage, Barbara Bardoni
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, is due to the functional deficiency of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein involved in translational regulation of many messenger RNAs, playing key roles in synaptic morphology and plasticity. To date, no effective treatment for FXS is available. We searched for FMRP targets by HITS-CLIP during early development of multiple mouse brain regions (hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum) at a time of brain development when FMRP is most highly expressed and synaptogenesis reaches a peak...
April 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Mina Lee, Soochul Shin, Heesoo Uhm, Heesun Hong, Jaewon Kirk, Kwangbeom Hyun, Tomasz Kulikowicz, Jaehoon Kim, Byungchan Ahn, Vilhelm A Bohr, Sungchul Hohng
RPA is known to stimulate the helicase activity of Werner syndrome protein (WRN), but the exact stimulation mechanism is not understood. We use single-molecule FRET and magnetic tweezers to investigate the helicase activity of WRN and its stimulation by RPA. We show that WRN alone is a weak helicase which repetitively unwind just a few tens of base pairs, but that binding of multiple RPAs to the enzyme converts WRN into a superhelicase that unidirectionally unwinds double-stranded DNA more than 1 kb. Our study provides a good case in which the activity and biological functions of the enzyme may be fundamentally altered by the binding of cofactors...
April 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Ken-Ichi Miyazono, Sonoko Ishino, Naruto Makita, Tomoko Ito, Yoshizumi Ishino, Masaru Tanokura
Because base deaminations, which are promoted by high temperature, ionizing radiation, aerobic respiration and nitrosative stress, produce mutations during replication, deaminated bases must be repaired quickly to maintain genome integrity. Recently, we identified a novel lesion-specific endonuclease, PfuEndoQ, from Pyrococcus furiosus, and PfuEndoQ may be involved in the DNA repair pathway in Thermococcales of Archaea. PfuEndoQ recognizes a deaminated base and cleaves the phosphodiester bond 5' of the lesion site...
April 12, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Christopher T Coey, Alexander C Drohat
Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) excises thymine from mutagenic G·T mispairs generated by deamination of 5-methylcytosine (mC) and it removes two mC derivatives, 5-formylcytosine (fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (caC), in a multistep pathway for DNA demethylation. TDG is modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins, but the impact of sumoylation on TDG activity is poorly defined and the functions of TDG sumoylation remain unclear. We determined the effect of TDG sumoylation, by SUMO-1 or SUMO-2, on substrate binding and catalytic parameters...
April 12, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Simon Müller, Nadine Bley, Markus Glaß, Bianca Busch, Vanessa Rousseau, Danny Misiak, Tommy Fuchs, Marcell Lederer, Stefan Hüttelmaier
The oncofetal IGF2 mRNA binding proteins (IGF2BPs) are upregulated in most cancers but their paralogue-specific roles in tumor cells remain poorly understood. In a panel of five cancer-derived cell lines, IGF2BP1 shows highly conserved oncogenic potential. Consistently, the deletion of IGF2BP1 impairs the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer-derived cells in nude mice. Gene expression analyses in ovarian cancer-derived cells reveal that the knockdown of IGF2BPs is associated with the downregulation of mRNAs that are prone to miRNA regulation...
April 12, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Wendy N Jefferson, H Karimi Kinyamu, Tianyuan Wang, Adam X Miranda, Elizabeth Padilla-Banks, Alisa A Suen, Carmen J Williams
Little is known regarding how steroid hormone exposures impact the epigenetic landscape in a living organism. Here, we took a global approach to understanding how exposure to the estrogenic chemical, diethylstilbestrol (DES), affects the neonatal mouse uterine epigenome. Integration of RNA- and ChIP-sequencing data demonstrated that ∼80% of DES-altered genes had higher H3K4me1/H3K27ac signal in close proximity. Active enhancers, of which ∼3% were super-enhancers, had a high density of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) binding sites and were correlated with alterations in nearby gene expression...
April 10, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Olga A Zasedateleva, Vadim A Vasiliskov, Sergey A Surzhikov, Viktoriya E Kuznetsova, Valeriy E Shershov, Timur O Guseinov, Igor P Smirnov, Roman A Yurasov, Maksim A Spitsyn, Alexander V Chudinov
To develop structural modifications of dNTPs that are compatible with Taq DNA polymerase activity, we synthesized eight dUTP derivatives conjugated with Cy3 or Cy5 dye analogues that differed in charge and charge distribution throughout the fluorophore. These dUTP derivatives and commercial Cy3- and Cy5-dUTP were studied in Taq polymerase-dependent polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and in primer extension reactions using model templates containing one, two and three adjacent adenine nucleotides. The relative amounts of amplified DNA and the kinetic parameters Km and Vmax characterizing the incorporation of labelled dUMPs have been estimated using fluorescence measurements and analysed...
April 10, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Adam Kawalek, Aneta A Bartosik, Krzysztof Glabski, Grazyna Jagura-Burdzy
ParA and ParB homologs are involved in accurate chromosome segregation in bacteria. ParBs participate in the separation of ori domains by binding to parS palindromes, mainly localized close to oriC. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa neither ParB deficiency nor modification of all 10 parSs is lethal. However, such mutants show not only defects in chromosome segregation but also growth retardation and motility dysfunctions. Moreover, a lack of parB alters expression of over 1000 genes, suggesting that ParB could interact with the chromosome outside its canonical parS targets...
April 10, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Marko Trajkovski, Tamaki Endoh, Hisae Tateishi-Karimata, Tatsuya Ohyama, Shigenori Tanaka, Janez Plavec, Naoki Sugimoto
Molecular crowding conditions provided by high concentration of cosolutes are utilized for characterization of biomolecules in cell-mimicking environment and development of drug-delivery systems. In this context, (poly)ethylene glycols are often used for studying non-canonical DNA structures termed G-quadruplexes, which came into focus by emerging structural biology findings and new therapeutic drug design approaches. Recently, several reports were made arguing against using (poly)ethylene glycols in role of molecular crowding agents due to their direct impact on DNA G-quadruplex stability and topology...
April 10, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
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