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Archives of Microbiology

G Govinden, J L Parker, K L Naylor, A M Frey, D O C Anumba, G P Stafford
Bacterial vaginosis is a genital tract infection, thought to be caused by transformation of a lactobacillus-rich flora to a dysbiotic microbiota enriched in mixed anaerobes. The most prominent of these is Gardnerella vaginalis (GV), an anaerobic pathogen that produces sialidase enzyme to cleave terminal sialic acid residues from human glycans. Notably, high sialidase activity is associated with preterm birth and low birthweight. We explored the potential of the sialidase inhibitor Zanamavir against GV whole cell sialidase activity using methyl-umbelliferyl neuraminic acid (MU-NANA) cleavage assays, with Zanamavir causing a 30% reduction in whole cell GV sialidase activity (p < 0...
May 18, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
De-Song Ming, Qing-Qing Chen, Xiao-Tin Chen
To clarify the resistance mechanisms of Pannonibacter phragmitetus 31801, isolated from the blood of a liver abscess patient, at the genomic level, we performed whole genomic sequencing using a PacBio RS II single-molecule real-time long-read sequencer. Bioinformatic analysis of the resulting sequence was then carried out to identify any possible resistance genes. Analyses included Basic Local Alignment Search Tool searches against the Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database, ResFinder analysis of the genome sequence, and Resistance Gene Identifier analysis within the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database...
May 14, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Lihong Chai, Zhongmin Dong, Aixia Chen, Hongyuan Wang
The assembly of intestinal microbial communities can play major roles in animal development. We hypothesized that intestinal microbial communities could mirror the developmental programs of amphibian metamorphosis. Here, we surveyed the morphological parameters of the body and intestine of Bufo gargarizans at varying developmental stages and inventoried the intestinal microbial communities of B. gargarizans at four key developmental stages via 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Firstly, our survey showed that during metamorphosis, body weight and intestinal weight were reduced by 56...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Manika Kargeti, K V Venkatesh
The phenotype of Escherichia coli is governed by global transcriptional regulators under variable environmental conditions. Fnr, ArcA, IhfA-B, Crp, and Fis are amongst the major global transcription regulators that change their activity across the range of aeration, hence forming the core transcriptional network responsible for survival under changing aeration conditions. Effect of deletion of these global transcription factors on the kinetics of cell growth and mixed acid production under anaerobic fermentation conditions has not been characterized...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Madhulika Kushwaha, Virender Kumar, Rishi Mahajan, Tek Chand Bhalla, Subhankar Chatterjee, Yusuf Akhter
The present study provides molecular insights into the activity and mechanism of cyanide hydratase enzyme associated with degradation of cyanide compounds, using Serratia marcescens RL2b as a model organism. Resting cells harvested after 20 h achieved complete degradation of 12 mmol l- 1 cyanide in approximately 10 h. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of reaction samples revealed formation of formamide as the only end product, which confirmed the presence of cyanide hydratase activity in S...
May 9, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Manar M Ahmed, Khaled M Aboshanab, Yasser M Ragab, Dominique M Missiakas, Khaled A Aly
The ESAT-6-like secretion system (ESS) of Staphylococcus aureus plays a significant role in persistent infections. EssB is a highly conserved bitopic ESS protein comprising a cytosolic N-terminus, single transmembrane helix and a C-terminus located on the trans-side of the membrane. Six systematic truncations covering various domains of EssB were constructed, followed by bacterial two-hybrid screening of their interaction with EsaA, another conserved integral membrane component of the ESS pathway. Results show that the transmembrane domain of EssB is critical for heterodimerization with EsaA...
May 8, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Ram Hari Dahal, Jaisoo Kim
Two strains of bacteria designated strains S-53T and A27T were isolated from forest soil and subjected to polyphasic characterization. Cells were aerobic, Gram-staining-negative, catalase- and oxidase- positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, and yellow-pigmented. Flexirubin-type pigments were present. Both strains were positive for PNPG, hydrolysed casein, and tyrosine. A phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strains S-53T and A27T formed a lineage within the family Cytophagaceae that were distinct from various members of the genus Dyadobacter (98...
May 8, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
I S Sazykin, M A Sazykina, L E Khmelevtsova, E Yu Seliverstova, K Sh Karchava, M V Zhuravleva
The level of catalase and superoxide dismutase induction, as well as generation of superoxide anion radical in cells and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the culture medium were researched in three strains of oil-degrading bacteria Achromobacter xylosoxidans at cultivation in rich nutrient medium and in the media with hydrocarbons as the only source of carbon. The effects of pentane, decane, hexadecane, cyclohexane, benzene, naphthalene and diesel fuel were evaluated. It was determined that in the microbial cell on media with hydrocarbons, the generation of superoxide anion radical increases, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and induction of superoxide dismutase synthesis occur, and catalase activity is reduced...
April 23, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Chun-Gon Kim, Jong-Pyo Kang, Yue Huo, Mohan Chokkalingam, Yeon-Ju Kim, Dong-Hyun Kim, Deok-Chun Yang
A novel bacterium, designated DCY114T , was isolated from ginseng-cultivated soil in Gochang-gun, Republic of Korea. This isolate was assigned to the genus Paenibacillus and is closely related to Paenibacillus amylolyticus NRRL NRS-290T (98.3%), P. dongdonensis KUDC0114T (98.0%), P. tylopili MK2T (97.9%), P. tundrae A10bT (97.8%), and P. xylanexedens B22aT (97.5%) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain DCY114T is a Gram-reaction positive, catalase and oxidase positive, facultatively aerobic rod that is motile by peritrichous flagella...
April 20, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Feng Liu, Xiong-Chang Ou, Ru-Lin Zhan
A newly isolated strain XC01 was identified as Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae, isolated from an infected mango fruit in Guangxi, China. The complete genome sequence of XC01 was carried out using the PacBio RSII platform. The genome contains a circular chromosome with 3,865,165 bp, 3442 protein-coding genes, 53 tRNAs, and 2 rRNA operons. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this pathogen is very close to the soybeans bacterial pustule pathogen X. citri pv. glycines CFBP 2526, with a completely different host range...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Alejandra Miranda-Carrazco, Juan M Vigueras-Cortés, Lourdes Villa-Tanaca, César Hernández-Rodríguez
Mine tailings and wastewater generate man-made environments with several selective pressures, including the presence of heavy metals, arsenic and high cyanide concentrations, but severe nutritional limitations. Some oligotrophic and pioneer bacteria can colonise and grow in mine wastes containing a low concentration of organic matter and combined nitrogen sources. In this study, Pseudomonas mendocina P6115 was isolated from mine tailings in Durango, Mexico, and identified through a phylogenetic approach of 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB, and rpoD genes...
April 11, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Kavitha Thulasi, Arjun Jayakumar, Aneesh Balakrishna Pillai, Vinod Kumar Gopalakrishnapillai Sankaramangalam, Harikrishnan Kumarapillai
Methylotrophs present in the soil play an important role in the regulation of one carbon compounds in the environment, and thereby aid in mitigating global warming. The study envisages the isolation and characterization of methanol-degrading bacteria from Kuttanad wetland ecosystem, India. Three methylotrophs, viz. Achromobacter spanius KUT14, Acinetobacter sp. KUT26 and Methylobacterium radiotolerans KUT39 were isolated and their phylogenetic positions were determined by constructing a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA sequences...
April 10, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Deping Tang, Jiangong Duan, Qiyu Gao, Yang Zhao, Yang Li, Peng Chen, Jianping Zhou, Zhengrong Wu, Ruixiang Xu, Hongyu Li
Bioleaching is a promising process for 350 million tons Jinchuan low-grade pentlandite. But, Jinchuan pentlandite has lots of magnesium and high concentration of Mg2+ is harmful to bioleaching microorganisms. Thus, finding a way to improve the adaption of microorganisms to Mg2+ is a key for bioleaching. In the study, we found that oxidizing activity, bioleaching ability and biofilm formation of A.f were inhibited by Mg2+ stress. In addition, we analyzed mRNA and small RNA (sRNA) of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A...
April 10, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Shahina Akter, Md Amdadul Huq
A yellow pigmented, Gram-staining negative, motile and rod-shaped novel bacterial strain, designated MAH-14T was isolated from rhizospheric soil and was characterized using a polyphasic approach. The isolated strain was aerobic, oxidase and catalase were positive, optimum growth temperature and pH were 28-30 °C and 6.5, respectively. The novel strain is able to hydrolyze casein, starch, esculin, gelatin, L-tyrosine, DNA, tween 80, tween 20, L-arginine and 4-nitrophenyl-BD-galactopyranoside. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain MAH-14T belongs to the genus Luteibacter and is most closely related to Luteibacter yeojuensis R2A16-10T (98...
April 10, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
A B Alzwghaibi, R Yahyaraeyat, B Nayeri Fasaei, A Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, T Zahraei Salehi
Salmonella is widely distributed throughout the world and can be found in poultry industry, animal breeding centers, food and feedstuffs of all geographical regions. This study was conducted to determine and identify Salmonella serovars isolated from poultry, calves and foodstuffs (poultry and animals products such as egg and meat). A total of one hundred isolates of Salmonella serovars including Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella Pullorum consecutively were subjected to the conventional culture, biochemical and serological assays...
April 7, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Ziv Savin, Shaye Kivity, Hagith Yonath, Shoenfeld Yehuda
Studies are emerging alluding to the role of intestinal microbiome in the pathogenesis of diseases. Intestinal microbiome is susceptible to the influence of environmental factors such as smoking, and recent studies have indicated microbiome alterations in smokers. The aim of the study was to review the literature regarding the impact of smoking on the intestinal microbiome. A literature review of publications in PUBMED was performed using combinations of the terms "Intestinal/Gut/Gastrointestinal/Colonic" with "Microbiome/Microbiota/Microbial/Flora" and "Smoking/Smoker/Tobacco"...
April 6, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Katy Vaillancourt, Geneviève LeBel, Li Yi, Daniel Grenier
Greasy pig disease or exudative epidermitis, a generalized or localized skin disease affecting piglets, is mainly caused by Staphylococcus hyicus, although other staphylococcal species such as Staphylococcus aureus may also induce disease. Piglets with skin lesions can be treated systemically with antibiotics. However, antimicrobial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics are now frequently observed in S. hyicus and S. aureus isolates. In this study, the antibacterial activity of plant essential oils as well as their ability to potentiate the effect of several antimicrobial compounds against S...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Pryce L Haddix, Robert M Q Shanks
Serratia marcescens is a gram-negative, facultatively-anaerobic bacterium and opportunistic pathogen which produces the red pigment prodigiosin. We employed both batch culture and chemostat growth methods to investigate prodigiosin function in the producing organism. Pigmentation correlated with an increased rate of ATP production during population lag phase. Results with a lacZ transcriptional fusion to the prodigiosin (pig) biosynthetic operon revealed that operon transcription is activated by low cellular levels of ATP at high cell density...
April 3, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Ana Rita de Toledo-Piza, Maria Isabel de Oliveira, Giuseppina Negri, Ronaldo Zucatelli Mendonça, Cristina Adelaide Figueiredo
Influenza viruses cause worldwide outbreaks and pandemics in humans and animals every year with considerable morbidity and mortality. The molecular diversity of secondary metabolites extracted from mollusks is a good alternative for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds with unique structures and diverse biological activities. Phyllocaulis boraceiensis is a hermaphroditic slug that exudes mucus, in which was detected hydroxy polyunsaturated fatty acids that exhibited potent antiviral activity against measles virus...
April 3, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Sakon Monggoot, Tanakrit Pichaitam, Chutima Tanapichatsakul, Patcharee Pripdeevech
Mitrephora wangii, an ethnomedicinal plant, has been used as a natural antibiotic and immunity booster in Thailand. A total of 22 fungi were isolated from M. wangii flowers. The fungal isolates were categorized into six genera including Agrocybe, Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Nigrospora, Puccinia and Ustilago. Most extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against at least one of the test bacteria. Aspergillus sp. MFLUCC16-0845 was identified as the most bioactive fungus. Chemical composition of Aspergillus sp...
April 2, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
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