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Archives of Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888323/the-calmodulin-gene-in-neurospora-crassa-is-required-for-normal-vegetative-growth-ultraviolet-survival-and-sexual-development
#1
Vijya Laxmi, Ranjan Tamuli
We isolated a Neurospora crassa mutant of the calmodulin (cmd) gene using repeat-induced point mutation and studied its phenotypes. The cmd (RIP) mutant showed a defect in growth, reduced aerial hyphae, decreased carotenoid accumulation, a severe reduction in viability upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and a fertility defect. Moreover, meiotic silencing of the cmd gene resulted in a barren phenotype. In addition, we also performed site-directed mutational analysis of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase-2 (Ca(2+)/CaMK-2), a target of the CaM protein encoded by the cmd gene...
November 25, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888322/allee-effect-the-story-behind-the-stabilization-or-extinction-of-microbial-ecosystem
#2
REVIEW
Madhurankhi Goswami, Purnita Bhattacharyya, Prosun Tribedi
A population exhibiting Allee effect shows a positive correlation between population fitness and population size or density. Allee effect decides the extinction or conservation of a microbial population and thus appears to be an important criterion in population ecology. The underlying factor of Allee effect that decides the stabilization and extinction of a particular population density is the threshold or the critical density of their abundance. According to Allee, microbial populations exhibit a definite, critical or threshold density, beyond which the population fitness of a particular population increases with the rise in population density and below it, the population fitness goes down with the decrease in population density...
November 25, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888321/genetic-characterization-of-canine-parvovirus-type-2-subtypes-in-maputo-mozambique
#3
J Figueiredo, C Miranda, R Souto, E Silva, J Fafetine, G Thompson
Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) comprises three antigenic subtypes (2a, 2b and 2c) that have been reported in many countries. These subtypes cause serious disease in dogs with characteristic gastroenteritis signs. Little information has been documented in Africa about the genetic characterization of CPV-2. The aim of this study was to detect and to characterize the CPV-2 subtypes circulating in dogs admitted to Veterinary Clinics from two cities of Mozambique, Maputo and Matola, in 2010. A total of 40 field fecal samples were collected and tested for CPV-2 by polymerase chain reaction assay...
November 25, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885407/effect-of-metal-sulfide-pulp-density-on-gene-expression-of-electron-transporters-in-acidithiobacillus-sp-fj2
#4
Faezeh Fatemi, Saba Miri, Samaneh Jahani
In Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, one of the most important bioleaching bacterial species, the proteins encoded by the rus operon are involved in the electron transfer from Fe(2+) to O2. To obtain further knowledge about the mechanism(s) involved in the adaptive responses of the bacteria to growth on the different uranium ore pulp densities, we analyzed the expression of the four genes from the rus operon by real-time PCR, when Acidithiobacillus sp. FJ2 was grown in the presence of different uranium concentrations...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872947/design-and-characterisation-of-synthetic-operons-for-biohydrogen-technology
#5
Ciaran M Lamont, Frank Sargent
Biohydrogen is produced by a number of microbial systems and the commonly used host bacterium Escherichia coli naturally produces hydrogen under fermentation conditions. One approach to engineering additional hydrogen production pathways is to introduce non-native hydrogenases into E. coli. An attractive candidate is the soluble [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha, which has been shown to link NADH/NAD(+) biochemistry directly to hydrogen metabolism, an activity that E. coli does not perform. In this work, three synthetic operons were designed that code for the soluble hydrogenase and two different enzyme maturase systems...
November 21, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864589/functionality-of-tn916-in-paenibacillus-larvae
#6
Douglas W Dingman
The conjugative transposon Tn916 was determined to be functional in Paenibacillus larvae in regard to expression of tetracycline resistance and conjugative transfer. Expression of erythromycin resistance, using Tn916ΔE, was also observed. Conjugative transfer experiments employing Paenibacillus popilliae strains Tc1001 and Em1001 as transposon donors and experiments using different P. larvae subspecies or different transposon-containing strains demonstrated interspecies and intraspecies transfer occurred for Tn916 and Tn916ΔE...
November 18, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838734/acyl-homoserine-lactone-based-quorum-sensing-stimulates-biofilm-formation-by-salmonella-enteritidis-in-anaerobic-conditions
#7
Felipe Alves de Almeida, Natan de Jesus Pimentel-Filho, Uelinton Manoel Pinto, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Dantas Vanetti
Quorum sensing regulates a variety of phenotypes in bacteria including the production of virulence factors. Salmonella spp. have quorum sensing systems mediated by three autoinducers (AI-1, AI-2, and AI-3). The AI-1-mediated system is incomplete in that the bacterium relies on the synthesis of signaling molecules by other microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the AI-1 N-dodecanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) on the growth, motility, adhesion, and biofilm formation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 578 on a polystyrene surface...
November 12, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830270/comparative-study-of-rhizobacterial-communities-in-pepper-greenhouses-and-examination-of-the-effects-of-salt-accumulation-under-different-cropping-systems
#8
Mi-Seon Hahm, Jin-Soo Son, Byung-Soo Kim, Sa-Youl Ghim
This study compared rhizobacterial communities in pepper greenhouses under a paddy-upland (rice-pepper) rotational system (PURS) and a monoculture repeated cropping system (RCS) and examined adverse effects of high salinity on soil properties. The following soil properties were analyzed: electrical conductivity (EC), pH, concentration of four cations (Na, Ca, Mg, and K), total nitrogen, and organic matter content. Rhizobacterial communities were analyzed using culture-based and culture-independent (pyrosequencing) methods...
November 9, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830269/inhibition-of-the-multidrug-efflux-pump-lmrs-from-staphylococcus-aureus-by-cumin-spice-cuminum-cyminum
#9
Prathusha Kakarla, Jared Floyd, MunMun Mukherjee, Amith R Devireddy, Madhuri A Inupakutika, Indrika Ranweera, Ranjana Kc, Ugina 'Shrestha, Upender Rao Cheeti, Thomas Mark Willmon, Jaclyn Adams, Merissa Bruns, Shravan Kumar Gunda, Manuel F Varela
Staphylococcus aureus is a serious causative agent of infectious disease. Multidrug-resistant strains like methicillin-resistant S. aureus compromise treatment efficacy, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Active efflux represents a major antimicrobial resistance mechanism. The proton-driven multidrug efflux pump, LmrS, actively exports structurally distinct antimicrobials. To circumvent resistance and restore clinical efficacy of antibiotics, efflux pump inhibitors are necessary, and natural edible spices like cumin are potential candidates...
November 9, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816987/aspergillus-flavus-growth-inhibition-by-lactobacillus-strains-isolated-from-traditional-fermented-kenyan-milk-and-maize-products
#10
Sara Ahlberg, Vesa Joutsjoki, Sini Laurikkala, Pekka Varmanen, Hannu Korhonen
Certain strains of lactic acid bacteria have been reported to inhibit fungal growth and may so be potential as biocontrol agents. In this study, 171 LAB strains were isolated from traditional fermented Kenyan milk and maize products and tested against aflatoxin-producing A. flavus fungi. The three LAB strains showing highest antifungal activity were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. None of the strains were able to completely inhibit fungal growth under conditions favorable for fungi and suboptimal for LAB...
November 5, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815566/evidence-of-mercury-trapping-in-biofilm-eps-and-mer-operon-based-volatilization-of-inorganic-mercury-in-a-marine-bacterium-bacillus-cereus-bw-201b
#11
Hirak R Dash, Subham Basu, Surajit Das
Biofilm-forming mercury-resistant marine bacterium Bacillus cereus BW-201B has been explored to evident that the bacterial biofilm-EPS (exopolymers) trap inorganic mercury but subsequently release EPS-bound mercury for induction of mer operon-mediated volatilization of inorganic mercury. The isolate was able to tolerate 50 ppm of mercury and forms biofilm in presence of mercury. mer operon-mediated volatilization was confirmed, and -SH was found to be the key functional group of bacterial EPS responsible for mercury binding...
November 4, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807600/metagenomic-analysis-reveals-the-influences-of-milk-containing-antibiotics-on-the-rumen-microbes-of-calves
#12
Wei Li, Yunsheng Han, Xue Yuan, Guan Wang, Zhibo Wang, Qiqi Pan, Yan Gao, Yongli Qu
Milk containing antibiotics is used as cost-effective feed for calves, which may lead to antibiotic residues-associated food safety problems. This study aims to investigate the influence of antibiotics on rumen microbes. Through metagenomic sequencing, the rumen microbial communities of calves fed with pasteurized milk containing antibiotics (B1), milk containing antibiotics (B2) and fresh milk (B3) were explored. Each milk group included calves in 2 (T1), 3 (T2) and 6 (T3) months of age. Using FastQC software and SOAPdenovo 2, the filtered data, respectively, were performed with quality control and sequence splicing...
November 2, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803972/low-nitrogen-stress-stimulating-the-indole-3-acetic-acid-biosynthesis-of-serratia-sp-zm-is-vital-for-the-survival-of-the-bacterium-and-its-plant-growth-promoting-characteristic
#13
Liming Ouyang, Haiyan Pei, Zhaohui Xu
Serratia sp. ZM is a plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacterial strain isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Populus euphratica in northwestern China. In this study, low nitrogen supply significantly stimulated the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in Serratia sp.ZM. The inoculation of the bacterium to wheat seedlings improved plant growth compared with the uninoculated group, and the stimulating effect was more prominent under low nitrogen stress. Inactivation of the predicted key gene in the IAA biosynthesis pathway impaired IAA production and significantly hampered mutant growth in poor medium...
November 1, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796471/deletion-of-degq-gene-enhances-outer-membrane-vesicle-production-of-shewanella-oneidensis-cells
#14
Yoshihiro Ojima, Thivagaran Mohanadas, Kosei Kitamura, Shota Nunogami, Reiki Yajima, Masahito Taya
Shewanella oneidensis is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe that can use a wide variety of terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. In this study, S. oneidensis degQ gene, encoding a putative periplasmic serine protease, was cloned and expressed. The activity of purified DegQ was inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate, a typical serine protease-specific inhibitor, indicating that DegQ is a serine protease. In-frame deletion and subsequent complementation of the degQ were carried out to examine the effect of envelope stress on the production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs)...
October 31, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785532/antibacterial-activity-and-chemical-characteristics-of-several-western-australian-honeys-compared-to-manuka-honey-and-pasture-honey
#15
Niloufar Roshan, Thomas Rippers, Cornelia Locher, Katherine A Hammer
The physicochemical parameters and antibacterial activity of 10 Western Australian (WA) and two comparator honeys were determined. Honeys showed a pH range of 4.0-4.7, colour range of 41.3-470.7 mAU, methylglyoxal levels ranging from 82.2 to 325.9 mg kg(-1) and hydrogen peroxide levels after 2 h of 22.7-295.5 µM. Antibacterial activity was assessed by the disc diffusion assay, phenol equivalence assay, determination of minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations and a time-kill assay. Activity was shown for all honeys by one or more method, however, activity varied according to which assay was used...
October 26, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778038/erratum-to-aurantibacter-crassamenti-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-bacterium-isolated-from-marine-sediment
#16
Jaewoo Yoon, Hiroaki Kasai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771746/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-the-gtpv-bidirectional-promoter-region
#17
Hui Zhang, Zhihua Sun, Na Zhang, Zhiqiang Li, Pengyan Wang, Qiang Fu, Yan Ren, Xuehua Shao, Yu Zhang, Zhiru Guo, Chuangfu Chen
The goat pox chick embryo-attenuated virus (GTPV) has been developed as an effective vaccine that can elicit protective immune responses. It possesses a large genome and a robust ability to express exogenous genes. Thus, this virus is an ideal vector for recombinant live vaccines for infectious diseases in ruminant animals. In this study, we identified a novel bidirectional promoter region of GTPV through screening named PbVV(±). PbVV(±) is located between ETF-l and VITF-3, which are transcribed in opposite directions...
October 22, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771745/stress-responses-of-acinetobacter-strain-y-during-phenol-degradation
#18
Johnson Lin
Quantification of gene expression of Acinetobacter strain Y under 1000 mg/l of phenol was investigated using qPCR and proteomic analyses. The results show that Acinetobacter strain Y utilized 100 % of phenol within 18 h of exposure. The results of qPCR and proteomic analyses demonstrate a sequential expression of phenol-degrading genes of Acinetobacter strain Y via the ortho-pathway followed by the β-ketoadipate pathway. Many stress-responsive proteins such as chaperones, chaperonins, porins and the enzymes involved in the signal transduction pathway were upregulated especially in the early stage...
October 22, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766355/mariprofundus-micogutta-sp-nov-a-novel-iron-oxidizing-zetaproteobacterium-isolated-from-a-deep-sea-hydrothermal-field-at-the-bayonnaise-knoll-of-the-izu-ogasawara-arc-and-a-description-of-mariprofundales-ord-nov-and-zetaproteobacteria-classis-nov
#19
Hiroko Makita, Emiko Tanaka, Satoshi Mitsunobu, Masayuki Miyazaki, Takuro Nunoura, Katsuyuki Uematsu, Yoshihiro Takaki, Shinro Nishi, Shigeru Shimamura, Ken Takai
A novel iron-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic bacterium, strain ET2(T), was isolated from a deep-sea sediment in a hydrothermal field of the Bayonnaise knoll of the Izu-Ogasawara arc. Cells were bean-shaped, curved short rods. Growth was observed at a temperature range of 15-30 °C (optimum 25 °C, doubling time 24 h) and a pH range of 5.8-7.0 (optimum pH 6.4) in the presence of NaCl at a range of 1.0-4.0 % (optimum 2.75 %). The isolate was a microaerophilic, strict chemolithoautotroph capable of growing using ferrous iron and molecular oxygen (O2) as the sole electron donor and acceptor, respectively; carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source; and either ammonium or nitrate as the sole nitrogen source...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766354/global-transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-response-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum-to-ferulic-acid
#20
Can Chen, Junfeng Pan, Xiaobing Yang, He Xiao, Yaoling Zhang, Meiru Si, Xihui Shen, Yao Wang
Corynebacterium glutamicum can survive by using ferulic acid as the sole carbon source. In this study, we assessed the response of C. glutamicum to ferulic acid stress by means of a global transcriptional response analysis. The transcriptional data showed that several genes involved in degradation of ferulic acid were affected. Moreover, several genes related to the stress response; protein protection or degradation and DNA repair; replication, transcription and translation; and the cell envelope were differentially expressed...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
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