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Archives of Microbiology

Takafumi Kataoka, Koji Suzuki, Tomohisa Irino, Masanobu Yamamoto, Seigo Higashi, Hongbin Liu
Microbial nitrification is a key process in the nitrogen cycle in the continental shelf ecosystems. The genotype compositions and abundance of the ammonia monooxygenase gene, amoA, derived from ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in two size fractions (2-10 and 0.2-2 µm), were investigated in the East China Sea (ECS) in May 2008 using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Four sites were selected across the continental shelf edge: continental shelf water (CSW), Kuroshio branch water (KBW), transition between CSW and KBW (TCSKB) and coastal KBW (CKBW)...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Assar Ali Shah, Yuan Xianjun, Dong Zhihao, Li Junfeng, Tao Sao
The study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological and chemical profiles of elephant grass inoculated with and without different wild strains of lactic acid bacteria. Silage was prepared of four treatments and one control with three replicates as control (EKC, adding 2 ml/kg sterilizing water), Lactobacillus plantarum (USA commercial bacteria) (EKP), Lactobacillus plantarum (EKA), Pediococcus acidilactici (EKB), and Pediococcus acidilactici (SKD) isolated from King grass. Silage were prepared using polyethylene terephthalate bottles, and incubated at room temperature for different ensiling days...
November 11, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Chanyanuch Putim, Narumon Phaonakrop, Janthima Jaresitthikunchai, Ratikorn Gamngoen, Khajornsak Tragoolpua, Sorasak Intorasoot, Usanee Anukool, Chayada Sitthidet Tharincharoen, Ponrut Phunpae, Chatchai Tayapiwatana, Watchara Kasinrerk, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Bordin Butr-Indr
The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis has generated great concern in the control of tuberculosis and HIV/TB patients have established severe complications that are difficult to treat. Although, the gold standard of drug-susceptibility testing is highly accurate and efficient, it is time-consuming. Diagnostic biomarkers are, therefore, necessary in discriminating between infection from drug-resistant and drug-susceptible strains. One strategy that aids to effectively control tuberculosis is understanding the function of secreting proteins that mycobacteria use to manipulate the host cellular defenses...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Juan Li, Chisaki Kudo, Akio Tonouchi
A bacterial strain designated PtRA-8(T) was isolated from the trunk surface of a Japanese aspen tree (Populus tremula var. sieboldii). Cells of strain PtRA-8(T) were aerobic, non-motile, non-spore forming, Gram-stain-negative rods, 1.0‒2.0 µm in width and 3.0‒10.0 µm in length. The pH range for growth was between 5.5 and 7.5, with an optimum at 6.5. The temperature range for growth was between 10 and 37 °C, with an optimum at around 25‒30 °C. Strain PtRA-8(T) was highly resistant to UV irradiation, similar to its Deinococcus relatives...
October 28, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Natalia Maria Theresia, Kohei Aida, Ayako Takada, Noritaka Iwai, Masaaki Wachi
The mycolic acid layer and S-layer of Corynebacterium glutamicum have been considered as permeability barriers against lytic agents. EGTA, a calcium chelator, inhibited C. glutamicum growth at relatively lower concentrations compared with other Gram-positive bacteria. We investigated the effect of EGTA on C. glutamicum cell surface structures. Simultaneous addition of EGTA and lysozyme resulted in cell lysis, whereas addition of these reagents separately had no such effect. Analysis of cell surface proteins showed that CspB, an S-layer protein, was released into the culture media and degraded to several sizes upon EGTA treatment...
October 26, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Chao Wang, Yanhua Cui, Xiaojun Qu
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can take advantage of fermentable carbohydrates to produce lactic acid. They are proverbially applied in industry, agricultural production, animal husbandry, food enterprise, pharmaceutical engineering and some other important fields, which are closely related to human life. For performing the probiotic functions, LAB have to face the low pH environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, acid resistance of LAB is of great importance not only for their own growth, but also for fermentation and preparation of probiotic products...
October 26, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
K M Archana, K A Anu-Appaiah
Production of wine with selected yeast strains is a common enological practice followed for the production of wine with desirable organoleptic properties and to guarantee the homogeneity of successive vintages. Sulphur dioxide tolerance and phenyl acrylic acid resistance are the enological traits essential for the survivability of the yeast during fermentation. The present study describes the detection of S. cerevisiae with enological traits, such as phenyl acrylic acid resistance and sulphur dioxide tolerance in a single test...
October 16, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Abhirup Mookherjee, Shivangi Singh, Mrinal K Maiti
Endophytes are microbes which reside inside the plant tissues asymptomatically or causing pathogenicity to the host plant for a brief period. Owing to their presence in a specialized niche, endophytes are capable of synthesizing diverse types of bioactive molecules. Continuous development of resistance mechanism by pathogens to the currently available health treatments and pharmaceuticals has led researchers to explore new therapeutic agents. Quorum sensing has a role in the development of microbial pathogenic traits including biofilm formation...
October 12, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
M A Valdivia-González, W A Díaz-Vásquez, D Ruiz-León, A A Becerra, D R Aguayo, J M Pérez-Donoso, C C Vásquez
The increasing industrial utilization of tellurium has resulted in an important environmental pollution with the soluble, extremely toxic oxyanion tellurite. In this context, the use of microorganisms for detoxifying tellurite or tellurium biorecovery has gained great interest. The ability of different Shewanella strains to reduce tellurite to elemental tellurium was assessed; the results showed that the reduction process is dependent on electron transport and the ∆pH gradient. While S. baltica OS155 showed the highest tellurite resistance, S...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Ryuya Matsuda, Midia Lestari Handayani, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Katsuaki Takechi, Hiroyoshi Takano, Susumu Takio
Neptunomonas sp. BPy-1 is an epiphytic bacterium isolated from in vitro culture of the red alga Pyropia yezoensis. It uses ethanol as a sole carbon source and promotes the growth of host alga. A related bacterium, Neptunomonas sp. BZm-1, was isolated from leaves of Zostera marina found in the Yatsushiro Sea (Japan). BZm-1 showed 99% 16S rRNA sequence identity with Neptunomonas sp. BPy-1. Similar to BPy-1, BZm-1 grew in artificial seawater (ASW) medium containing ethanol or butanol. When thalli were treated with a multi-enzyme cleaner, the growth of treated thalli was retarded, but the addition of BZm-1 to the medium promoted growth...
October 10, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Preeti Jain, Amit Nale, Rajesh Dabur
This study was conducted to explore the antimicrobial mechanism of metabolites from Saraca asoca (SA1) using differential proteomics and metabolic profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa after treatment with effective sub-MIC dose of 312 µg/mL. SA1 fraction was found to contain antibacterial metabolites catechol, protocatechuic acid, and epigallocatechin gallate. Proteome analysis revealed 33 differentially expressed proteins after SA1 treatment. Protein network analysis showed that SA1 treatment upregulated the DNA topological and metabolic processes...
October 9, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Dandan Wang, Zhi Huang, Hong He, Cong Wei
Plant sap-feeding insects of Hemiptera often form intimate symbioses with microbes to obtain nutrients. The cicada Subpsaltria yangi is the only species of the subfamily Tettigadinae known from China. Using high-throughput sequencing combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, we characterize the bacterial composition of the bacteriomes, testes, ovaries and eggs of two representative populations of this species which occur in different habitats and feed on different plant hosts. In both populations, the bacterial community diversity in the testes was significantly higher than that in other tissues...
October 5, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Shi-Wei Liao, Jen-Jie Lee, Christopher P Ptak, Ying-Chen Wu, Shih-Ling Hsuan, Chih-Jung Kuo, Ter-Hsin Chen
In this study, six swine-derived multiple-antimicrobial-resistant (MAR) strains of Salmonella Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) were demonstrated to possess higher efflux pump activity than the wild-type (WT). L-Arabinose, a common inducer for gene expression, modulated S. Choleraesuis efflux pump activity in a dose-dependent manner. At low L-arabinose concentrations, increasing L-arabinose led to a corresponding increase in fluorophore efflux, while at higher L-arabinose concentrations, increasing L-arabinose decreased fluorophore efflux activity...
October 3, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Shi-Qi An, Ji-Liang Tang
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative pathogen, which is associated with hospital-acquired infection. The genome encodes a protein highly related to the Ax21 protein of Xanthomonas oryzae that is implicated in interactions of this plant pathogen with rice. Here, we report on the pleiotropic nature of ax21 mutation in S. maltophilia and the effects of addition of the Ax21 protein on the restoration of the wild-type phenotype. We show that loss by mutation of Ax21 leads to reduced motility, reduced biofilm formation, reduced tolerance to the antibiotic tobramycin and reduced virulence to larvae of Galleria mellonella, as well as alteration in the expression of specific genes associated with virulence or antibiotic resistance...
September 30, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Padmani Sandhu, Yusuf Akhter
Drug resistance is a major concern due to the evolution and emergence of pathogenic bacterial strains with novel strategies to resist the antibiotics in use. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of such pathogens with reported strains, which are not treatable with any of the available anti-TB drugs. This scenario has led to the need to look for some novel drug targets in Mtb, which may be exploited to design effective treatment strategies against the infection. The goal of this review is to discuss one such class of emerging drug targets in Mtb...
September 26, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Pooja V Reddy, T B Karegoudar, T R Monisha, I Mukram, Anand S Nayak
A high-efficiency fluoranthene-degrading bacterium Paenibacillus sp. PRNK-6 was isolated from PAH-contaminated soil. The strain degrades 96% (240 mg l(-1)) of fluoranthene in 48 h. Various metabolic intermediates of fluoranthene catabolism were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Metabolite characterization, metabolite-feeding experiments, and appropriate enzyme activities in the cell-free extracts suggest the existence of a bifurcated pathway down the phthalic acid for complete mineralization of fluoranthene in PRNK-6...
September 23, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Yue Teng, Xianzheng Du, Tao Wang, Chenyu Mi, Hongyan Yu, Luyi Zou
A zinc (Zn)-tolerant fungus, designated BC109-2, was isolated from rhizosphere soil and was identified as Penicillium janthinellum BC109-2 based on ITS sequence analysis. To understand its Zn tolerance mechanisms, a series of studies was carried out addressing the subcellular distribution of Zn, its chemical forms, and the antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and malondialdehyde) of the fungus...
September 8, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Abhijit Poddar, Subrata K Das
The earliest microbiological studies on hot springs in India date from 2003, a much later date compared to global attention in this striking field of study. As of today, 28 out of 400 geothermal springs have been explored following both culturable and non-culturable approaches. The temperatures and pH of the springs are 37-99 °C and 6.8-10, respectively. Several studies have been performed on the description of novel genera and species, characterization of different bio-resources, metagenomics of hot spring microbiome and whole genome analysis of few isolates...
September 8, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Yuan Sheng Huang, Qiang An, Bin Zhao, Qing Hao Lv, Jing Song Guo
The potential for aerobic NO2(-) removal by Alcaligenes faecalis strain NR was investigated. 35 mg/L of NO2(-)-N was removed by strain NR under aerobic conditions in the presence of NH4(+). (15)N-labeling experiment demonstrated that N2O and N2 were possible products during the aerobic nitrite removal process by strain NR. The key enzyme genes of nirK, norB and nosZ, which regulate the aerobic nitrite denitrification process, were successfully amplified from strain NR. The gene sequence analysis indicates that copper-containing nitrite reductase (NIRK) and periplasmic nitrous oxide reductase (NOSZ) were both hydrophilic protein and the transmembrane structures were absent, while nitric oxide reductase large subunit (NORB) was a hydrophobic and transmembrane protein...
September 6, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Qianqian Huang, Devin B Holman, Trevor Alexander, Tianming Hu, Long Jin, Zhongjun Xu, Tim A McAllister, Surya Acharya, Guoqi Zhao, Yuxi Wang
The present study assessed the effect of purple prairie clover (PPC) and PPC condensed tannins (CT) on the fecal microbiota of lambs using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. A total of 18 individual lambs were randomly divided into three groups and fed either green chop alfalfa (Alf), a 40:60 (DM basis; Mix) mixture of Alf and PPC, or Mix supplemented with polyethylene glycol (Mix-P) for 18 days. Fecal samples were collected on days 13 through 18 using digital rectal retrieval. The DNA of fecal samples was extracted and the microbial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing...
September 1, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
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