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Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655006/conclusions
#1
Frederic Shapiro
The abnormal findings in the pudgy mouse are remarkably similar to those in the severe case of human congenital scoliosis such as seen in the spondylocostal dysplasias. The pudgy mouse is an excellent model to study: (i) how gene mutations translate into three-dimensional structural abnormalities and (ii) which other factors contribute to the final deformities.
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655005/discussion
#2
Frederic Shapiro
Each of the radiographic, histologic, whole mount, and three-dimensional computerized reconstruction techniques throws specific light on the vertebral, intervertebral disc, and rib abnormalities in the development of the pudgy mouse. The end result demonstrates a failure of both normal formation and normal segmentation in the pudgy mouse recognized now as a recessive genetic disorder in which mutations in the Delta-like 3 gene (Dll3) have been defined [2]. The variable appearance of the vertebral and rib abnormalities from mouse to mouse, including in particular the variable appearance in affected littermates, indicates that the gene abnormality alone does not account solely for the deformities seen...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655004/results
#3
Frederic Shapiro
Table 3.1 outlines ages of pudgy and non-affected mice, sibling groups with two or more littermates affected, and types of structural studies performed in each mouse. Table 3.2 outlines the age distribution of the studies.
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655003/materials-and-methods
#4
Frederic Shapiro
Mice obtained for this study were products of pudgy breeding pairs from Jackson Laboratories, Bar Harbor, Maine. For the affected pudgy mice, heterozygous unaffected littermates served as controls. An affected pudgy mouse (pu/pu) can be identified at birth since it is approximately three-quarters the length of its non-affected littermates (pu/+) and has a markedly shortened, twisted tail. The mice were sacrificed by intraperitoneal injections of sodium pentobarbital. Vertebral and rib assessments were performed in 68 mice, 37 affected (pu/pu) and 31 non-affected (pu/+) age-matched siblings from the late embryo to 3 months of age...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655002/introduction
#5
Frederic Shapiro
Normal and abnormal vertebral development have been studied over the past 200 years at increasing levels of resolution as techniques for biological investigation have improved. Disordered development of the axial skeleton from the early embryonic period on leads to structurally malformed vertebrae and intervertebral discs and ribs causing the severe deformities of scoliosis, kyphosis, and kyphoscoliosis. Developmental malformation of the axial skeleton therefore has led to considerable biological and clinical interest...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464364/since-its-discovery-in-1952-acrosomal-exocytosis-also-called-acrosome-reaction-has-been-a-fascinating-process
#6
EDITORIAL
Mariano G Buffone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464363/from-pictures-to-knowledge-bio-image-informatics-coming-of-age
#7
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207370/bioimage-informatics-for-big-data
#8
REVIEW
Hanchuan Peng, Jie Zhou, Zhi Zhou, Alessandro Bria, Yujie Li, Dean Mark Kleissas, Nathan G Drenkow, Brian Long, Xiaoxiao Liu, Hanbo Chen
Bioimage informatics is a field wherein high-throughput image informatics methods are used to solve challenging scientific problems related to biology and medicine. When the image datasets become larger and more complicated, many conventional image analysis approaches are no longer applicable. Here, we discuss two critical challenges of large-scale bioimage informatics applications, namely, data accessibility and adaptive data analysis. We highlight case studies to show that these challenges can be tackled based on distributed image computing as well as machine learning of image examples in a multidimensional environment...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207369/challenges-and-benchmarks-in-bioimage-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Michal Kozubek
Similar to the medical imaging community, the bioimaging community has recently realized the need to benchmark various image analysis methods to compare their performance and assess their suitability for specific applications. Challenges sponsored by prestigious conferences have proven to be an effective means of encouraging benchmarking and new algorithm development for a particular type of image data. Bioimage analysis challenges have recently complemented medical image analysis challenges, especially in the case of the International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI)...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207368/segmenting-and-tracking-multiple-dividing-targets-using-ilastik
#10
REVIEW
Carsten Haubold, Martin Schiegg, Anna Kreshuk, Stuart Berg, Ullrich Koethe, Fred A Hamprecht
Tracking crowded cells or other targets in biology is often a challenging task due to poor signal-to-noise ratio, mutual occlusion, large displacements, little discernibility, and the ability of cells to divide. We here present an open source implementation of conservation tracking (Schiegg et al., IEEE international conference on computer vision (ICCV). IEEE, New York, pp 2928-2935, 2013) in the ilastik software framework. This robust tracking-by-assignment algorithm explicitly makes allowance for false positive detections, undersegmentation, and cell division...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207367/knime-for-open-source-bioimage-analysis-a-tutorial
#11
Christian Dietz, Michael R Berthold
The open analytics platform KNIME is a modular environment that enables easy visual assembly and interactive execution of workflows. KNIME is already widely used in various areas of research, for instance in cheminformatics or classical data analysis. In this tutorial the KNIME Image Processing Extension is introduced, which adds the capabilities to process and analyse huge amounts of images. In combination with other KNIME extensions, KNIME Image Processing opens up new possibilities for inter-domain analysis of image data in an understandable and reproducible way...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207366/integrated-high-content-quantification-of-intracellular-ros-levels-and-mitochondrial-morphofunction
#12
REVIEW
Tom Sieprath, Tobias D J Corne, Peter H G M Willems, Werner J H Koopman, Winnok H De Vos
Oxidative stress arises from an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their removal by cellular antioxidant systems. Especially under pathological conditions, mitochondria constitute a relevant source of cellular ROS. These organelles harbor the electron transport chain, bringing electrons in close vicinity to molecular oxygen. Although a full understanding is still lacking, intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial function are also linked to changes in mitochondrial morphology...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207365/image-informatics-strategies-for-deciphering-neuronal-network-connectivity
#13
REVIEW
Jan R Detrez, Peter Verstraelen, Titia Gebuis, Marlies Verschuuren, Jacobine Kuijlaars, Xavier Langlois, Rony Nuydens, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Winnok H De Vos
Brain function relies on an intricate network of highly dynamic neuronal connections that rewires dramatically under the impulse of various external cues and pathological conditions. Amongst the neuronal structures that show morphological plasticity are neurites, synapses, dendritic spines and even nuclei. This structural remodelling is directly connected with functional changes such as intercellular communication and the associated calcium bursting behaviour. In vitro cultured neuronal networks are valuable models for studying these morpho-functional changes...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207364/analyzing-protein-clusters-on-the-plasma-membrane-application-of-spatial-statistical-analysis-methods-on-super-resolution-microscopy-images
#14
REVIEW
Laura Paparelli, Nikky Corthout, Benjamin Pavie, Wim Annaert, Sebastian Munck
The spatial distribution of proteins within the cell affects their capability to interact with other molecules and directly influences cellular processes and signaling. At the plasma membrane, multiple factors drive protein compartmentalization into specialized functional domains, leading to the formation of clusters in which intermolecule interactions are facilitated. Therefore, quantifying protein distributions is a necessity for understanding their regulation and function. The recent advent of super-resolution microscopy has opened up the possibility of imaging protein distributions at the nanometer scale...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207363/transforms-and-operators-for-directional-bioimage-analysis-a-survey
#15
REVIEW
Zsuzsanna Püspöki, Martin Storath, Daniel Sage, Michael Unser
We give a methodology-oriented perspective on directional image analysis and rotation-invariant processing. We review the state of the art in the field and make connections with recent mathematical developments in functional analysis and wavelet theory. We unify our perspective within a common framework using operators. The intent is to provide image-processing methods that can be deployed in algorithms that analyze biomedical images with improved rotation invariance and high directional sensitivity. We start our survey with classical methods such as directional-gradient and the structure tensor...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207362/image-degradation-in-microscopic-images-avoidance-artifacts-and-solutions
#16
REVIEW
Joris Roels, Jan Aelterman, Jonas De Vylder, Saskia Lippens, Hiêp Q Luong, Christopher J Guérin, Wilfried Philips
The goal of modern microscopy is to acquire high-quality image based data sets. A typical microscopy workflow is set up in order to address a specific biological question and involves different steps. The first step is to precisely define the biological question, in order to properly come to an experimental design for sample preparation and image acquisition. A better object representation allows biological users to draw more reliable scientific conclusions. Image restoration can manipulate the acquired data in an effort to reduce the impact of artifacts (spurious results) due to physical and technical limitations, resulting in a better representation of the object of interest...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207361/seeing-is-believing-quantifying-is-convincing-computational-image-analysis-in-biology
#17
REVIEW
Ivo F Sbalzarini
Imaging is center stage in biology. Advances in microscopy and labeling techniques have enabled unprecedented observations and continue to inspire new developments. Efficient and accurate quantification and computational analysis of the acquired images, however, are becoming the bottleneck. We review different paradigms of computational image analysis for intracellular, single-cell, and tissue-level imaging, providing pointers to the specialized literature and listing available software tools. We place particular emphasis on clear categorization of image-analysis frameworks and on identifying current trends and challenges in the field...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194355/acrosome-reaction-as-a-preparation-for-gamete-fusion
#18
REVIEW
Patricia S Cuasnicú, Vanina G Da Ros, Mariana Weigel Muñoz, Débora J Cohen
The acrosome reaction (AR) is a universal requisite for sperm-egg fusion. However, whereas through the animal kingdom fusion of spermatozoa with the egg plasma membrane occurs via the inner acrosomal membrane exposed after the AR, in eutherian mammals, gamete fusion takes place through a specialized region of the acrosome known as the equatorial segment (ES) which becomes fusogenic only after the AR is completed. This chapter focuses on the different molecular mechanisms involved in the acquisition of the fusogenicity of the ES after the AR...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194354/site-of-mammalian-sperm-acrosome-reaction
#19
REVIEW
Noritaka Hirohashi
Until recently, no special attention has been paid to the question of the site of mammalian sperm acrosome reaction (AR) in the female reproductive tract. Because AR is an essential process that enables the spermatozoon to fertilize, it is generally believed that it occurs at a specific step during sperm-egg interaction. It is generally thought that "the site of action coincides with the site of commitment." Thus, understanding the roles of AR and acrosomal substances is needed to gain insight into the site of the sperm commitment to undergo AR...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194353/role-of-actin-cytoskeleton-during-mammalian-sperm-acrosomal-exocytosis
#20
REVIEW
Ana Romarowski, Guillermina M Luque, Florenza A La Spina, Dario Krapf, Mariano G Buffone
Mammalian sperm require to undergo an exocytotic process called acrosomal exocytosis in order to be able to fuse with the oocyte. This ability is acquired during the course of sperm capacitation. This review is focused on one aspect related to this acquisition: the role of the actin cytoskeleton. Evidence from different laboratories indicates that actin polymerization occurs during capacitation, and the detection of several actin-related proteins suggests that the cytoskeleton is involved in important sperm functions...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
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