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Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528445/interindividual-spread-of-herpesviruses
#1
Keith W Jarosinski
Interindividual spread of herpesviruses is essential for the virus life cycle and maintenance in host populations. For most herpesviruses, the virus-host relationship is close, having coevolved over millions of years resulting in comparatively high species specificity. The mechanisms governing interindividual spread or horizontal transmission are very complex, involving conserved herpesviral and cellular proteins during the attachment, entry, replication, and egress processes of infection. Also likely, specific herpesviruses have evolved unique viral and cellular interactions during cospeciation that are dependent on their relationship...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528444/assembly-and-egress-of-an-alphaherpesvirus-clockwork
#2
Gregory A Smith
All viruses produce infectious particles that possess some degree of stability in the extracellular environment yet disassemble upon cell contact and entry. For the alphaherpesviruses, which include many neuroinvasive viruses of mammals, these metastable virions consist of an icosahedral capsid surrounded by a protein matrix (referred to as the tegument) and a lipid envelope studded with glycoproteins. Whereas the capsid of these viruses is a rigid structure encasing the DNA genome, the tegument and envelope are dynamic assemblies that orchestrate a sequential series of events that ends with the delivery of the genome into the nucleus...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528443/herpesvirus-nuclear-egress
#3
Richard J Roller, Joel D Baines
Herpesviruses assemble and package their genomes into capsids in the nucleus, but complete final assembly of the mature virion in the cell cytoplasm. This requires passage of the genome-containing capsid across the double-membrane nuclear envelope. Herpesviruses have evolved a mechanism that relies on a pair of conserved viral gene products to shuttle the capsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by way of envelopment and de-envelopment at the inner and outer nuclear membranes, respectively. This complex process requires orchestration of the activities of viral and cellular factors to alter the architecture of the nuclear membrane, select capsids at the appropriate stage for egress, and accomplish efficient membrane budding and fusion events...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528442/herpesvirus-capsid-assembly-and-dna-packaging
#4
Jason D Heming, James F Conway, Fred L Homa
Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is the causative agent of several pathologies ranging in severity from the common cold sore to life-threatening encephalitic infection. During productive lytic infection, over 80 viral proteins are expressed in a highly regulated manner, resulting in the replication of viral genomes and assembly of progeny virions. The virion of all herpesviruses consists of an external membrane envelope, a proteinaceous layer called the tegument, and an icosahedral capsid containing the double-stranded linear DNA genome...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528441/herpesvirus-latency-on-the-importance-of-positioning-oneself
#5
Patrick Lomonte
The nucleus is composed of multiple compartments and domains, which directly or indirectly influence many cellular processes including gene expression, RNA splicing and maturation, protein post-translational modifications, and chromosome segregation. Nuclear-replicating viruses, especially herpesviruses, have co-evolved with the cell, adopting strategies to counteract and eventually hijack this hostile environment for their own benefit. This allows them to persist in the host for the entire life of an individual and to ensure their maintenance in the target species...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528440/the-human-cmv-ie1-protein-an-offender-of-pml-nuclear-bodies
#6
Myriam Scherer, Eva-Maria Schilling, Thomas Stamminger
PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are SUMOylation-dependent, highly complex protein assemblies that accumulate in the interchromosomal territories of the cell nucleus. Research of the last two decades revealed that many viruses have evolved effector proteins that modify PML-NBs. This correlates with antagonization of individual PML-NB components which act as host cell restriction factors. The multifunctional immediate-early protein IE1 of human cytomegalovirus directly interacts with the PML protein resulting in a disruption of the dot-like structure of PML-NBs...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528439/innate-immune-mechanisms-and-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-and-disease
#7
Evelyn A Kurt-Jones, Megan H Orzalli, David M Knipe
Innate immune responses play a major role in the control of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, and a multiplicity of mechanisms have emerged as a result of human evolution to sense and respond to HSV infections. HSV in turn has evolved a number of ways to evade immune detection and to blunt human innate immune responses. In this review, we summarize the major host innate immune mechanisms and the HSV evasion mechanisms that have evolved. We further discuss how disease can result if this equilibrium between virus and host response is disrupted...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528438/herpes-simplex-virus-membrane-fusion
#8
Darin J Weed, Anthony V Nicola
Herpes simplex virus mediates multiple distinct fusion events during infection. HSV entry is initiated by fusion of the viral envelope with either the limiting membrane of a host cell endocytic compartment or the plasma membrane. In the infected cell during viral assembly, immature, enveloped HSV particles in the perinuclear space fuse with the outer nuclear membrane in a process termed de-envelopment. A cell infected with some strains of HSV with defined mutations spread to neighboring cells by a fusion event called syncytium formation...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528437/initial-contact-the-first-steps-in-herpesvirus-entry
#9
Walid Azab, Klaus Osterrieder
The entry process of herpesviruses into host cells is complex and highly variable. It involves a sequence of well-orchestrated events that begin with virus attachment to glycan-containing proteinaceous structures on the cell surface. This initial contact tethers virus particles to the cell surface and results in a cascade of molecular interactions, including the tight interaction of viral envelope glycoproteins to specific cell receptors. These interactions trigger intracellular signaling and finally virus penetration after fusion of the viral envelope with cellular membranes...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389754/roles-of-grp78-in-female-mammalian-reproduction
#10
Cheng Zhang
The glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) also referred to as immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (Bip) is one of the best characterized endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone proteins, which belongs to the heat-shock protein (HSP) family. GRP78 as a central regulator of ER stress (ERS) plays many important roles in cell survival and apoptosis through controlling the activation of transmembrane ERS sensors: PKR-like ER-associated kinase (PERK), inositol requiring kinase 1 (IRE1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6)...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389753/the-role-of-hsp70-in-the-regulation-of-autophagy-in-gametogenesis-pregnancy-and-parturition
#11
Steven S Witkin, Tomi T Kanninen, Giovanni Sisti
Induction of the 70 kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) and autophagy are two major mechanisms that promote cell homeostasis during the rapid cell growth and differentiation characteristic of reproduction. Hsp70 insures proper assembly, conformation, and intracellular transport of nascent proteins. Autophagy removes from the cytoplasm proteins, other macromolecules, and organelles that are no longer functional or needed and recycles their components for synthesis of new products under nutritionally limiting conditions...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389752/the-potential-functions-of-small-heat-shock-proteins-in-the-uterine-musculature-during-pregnancy
#12
Daniel J MacPhee, E I Miskiewicz
The small heat shock protein B (HSPB) family is comprised of eleven members with many being induced by physiological stressors. In addition to being molecular chaperones, it is clear these proteins also play important roles in cell death regulation, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and immune system activation. These processes are important for the uterine smooth muscle or myometrium during pregnancy as it changes from a quiescent tissue, during the majority of pregnancy, to a powerful and contractile tissue at labor...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389751/heat-shock-protein-a2-hspa2-regulatory-roles-in-germ-cell-development-and-sperm-function
#13
Brett Nixon, Elizabeth G Bromfield, Jinwei Cui, Geoffry N De Iuliis
Among the numerous families of heat shock protein (HSP) that have been implicated in the regulation of reproductive system development and function, those belonging to the 70 kDa HSP family have emerged as being indispensable for male fertility. In particular, the testis-enriched heat shock 70 kDa protein 2 (HSPA2) has been shown to be critical for the progression of germ cell differentiation during spermatogenesis in the mouse model. Beyond this developmentally important window, mounting evidence has also implicated HSPA2 in the functional transformation of the human sperm cell during their ascent of the female reproductive tract...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389750/the-role-of-heat-shock-factors-in-mammalian-spermatogenesis
#14
Wieslawa Widlak, Natalia Vydra
Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs), as regulators of heat shock proteins (HSPs) expression, are well known for their cytoprotective functions during cellular stress. They also play important yet less recognized roles in gametogenesis. All HSF family members are expressed during mammalian spermatogenesis, mainly in spermatocytes and round spermatids which are characterized by extensive chromatin remodeling. Different HSFs could cooperate to maintain proper spermatogenesis. Cooperation of HSF1 and HSF2 is especially well established since their double knockout results in meiosis arrest, spermatocyte apoptosis, and male infertility...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389749/the-unmysterious-roles-of-hsp90-ovarian-pathology-and-autoantibodies
#15
Eusebio S Pires
The heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins with important physiological functions, whose synthesis is enhanced by elevated temperature or other stresses. HSPs show high sequence homology between different species, from bacteria to humans. Despite the significant degree of evolutionary conservation, HSPs are highly immunogenic. Of the several HSPs, HSP90 is an abundant, constitutively expressed chaperone constituting around 1-2% of total cellular protein under non-stress conditions...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389748/heat-shock-proteins-and-maternal-contribution-to-oogenesis-and-early-embryogenesis
#16
Elisabeth S Christians
Early embryos develop from fertilized eggs using materials that are stored during oocyte growth and which can be defined as maternal contribution (molecules, factors, or determinants). Several heat shock proteins (HSPs) and the heat shock transcriptional factor (HSF) are part of the maternal contribution that is critical for successful embryogenesis and reproduction. A maternal role for heat shock-related genes was mainly demonstrated in genetic experimental organisms (e.g., fly, nematode, mouse). Nowadays, an increasing number of "omics" data are produced from a large panel of organisms implementing a catalog of maternal and/or embryonic HSPs and HSFs...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655006/conclusions
#17
Frederic Shapiro
The abnormal findings in the pudgy mouse are remarkably similar to those in the severe case of human congenital scoliosis such as seen in the spondylocostal dysplasias. The pudgy mouse is an excellent model to study: (i) how gene mutations translate into three-dimensional structural abnormalities and (ii) which other factors contribute to the final deformities.
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655005/discussion
#18
Frederic Shapiro
Each of the radiographic, histologic, whole mount, and three-dimensional computerized reconstruction techniques throws specific light on the vertebral, intervertebral disc, and rib abnormalities in the development of the pudgy mouse. The end result demonstrates a failure of both normal formation and normal segmentation in the pudgy mouse recognized now as a recessive genetic disorder in which mutations in the Delta-like 3 gene (Dll3) have been defined [2]. The variable appearance of the vertebral and rib abnormalities from mouse to mouse, including in particular the variable appearance in affected littermates, indicates that the gene abnormality alone does not account solely for the deformities seen...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655004/results
#19
Frederic Shapiro
Table 3.1 outlines ages of pudgy and non-affected mice, sibling groups with two or more littermates affected, and types of structural studies performed in each mouse. Table 3.2 outlines the age distribution of the studies.
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655003/materials-and-methods
#20
Frederic Shapiro
Mice obtained for this study were products of pudgy breeding pairs from Jackson Laboratories, Bar Harbor, Maine. For the affected pudgy mice, heterozygous unaffected littermates served as controls. An affected pudgy mouse (pu/pu) can be identified at birth since it is approximately three-quarters the length of its non-affected littermates (pu/+) and has a markedly shortened, twisted tail. The mice were sacrificed by intraperitoneal injections of sodium pentobarbital. Vertebral and rib assessments were performed in 68 mice, 37 affected (pu/pu) and 31 non-affected (pu/+) age-matched siblings from the late embryo to 3 months of age...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
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