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Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288386/pulmonary-endothelial-cell-apoptosis-in-emphysema-and-acute-lung-injury
#1
Eboni Chambers, Sharon Rounds, Qing Lu
Apoptosis plays an essential role in homeostasis and pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Endothelial cells are exposed to various environmental and internal stress and endothelial apoptosis is a pathophysiological consequence of these stimuli. Pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis initiates or contributes to progression of a number of lung diseases. This chapter will focus on the current understanding of the role of pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis in the development of emphysema and acute lung injury (ALI) and the factors controlling pulmonary endothelial life and death...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288385/the-pulmonary-vascular-barrier-insights-into-structure-function-and-regulatory-mechanisms
#2
Kaushik Parthasarathi
Pulmonary blood vessels act as a well-regulated barrier to the flux of fluid and solutes between the lumen and the air space. Perturbation of the barrier function results in excessive fluid leak into the interstitium and alveoli, and impairs gas exchange. Recent studies provide deeper insight into the precise control mechanisms involved in the regulation of the barrier. This chapter will highlight these mechanisms and discuss the current understanding on the fluid and solute transport pathways across the vascular endothelial layer...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288384/comparative-view-of-lung-vascular-endothelium-of-cattle-horses-and-water-buffalo
#3
David Schneberger, Ram S Sethi, Baljit Singh
Endothelium plays an important role in maintaining the vascular barrier and physiological homeostasis. Endothelium also is fundamental to the initiation and regulation of inflammation. Endothelium demonstrates phenotypic and functional heterogeneity not only among various organs but also within an organ. One of the striking examples would be the pulmonary endothelium that participates in creating blood-air barrier. Endothelium in large pulmonary blood vessels is distinct in structure and function from that lining of the pulmonary capillaries...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288383/transcription-factors-regulating-embryonic-development-of-pulmonary-vasculature
#4
Craig Bolte, Jeffrey A Whitsett, Tanya V Kalin, Vladimir V Kalinichenko
Lung morphogenesis is a highly orchestrated process beginning with the appearance of lung buds on approximately embryonic day 9.5 in the mouse. Endodermally derived epithelial cells of the primitive lung buds undergo branching morphogenesis to generate the tree-like network of epithelial-lined tubules. The pulmonary vasculature develops in close proximity to epithelial progenitor cells in a process that is regulated by interactions between the developing epithelium and underlying mesenchyme. Studies in transgenic and knockout mouse models demonstrate that normal lung morphogenesis requires coordinated interactions between cells lining the tubules, which end in peripheral saccules, juxtaposed to an extensive network of capillaries...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177765/xen-and-the-art-of-stem-cell-maintenance-molecular-mechanisms-maintaining-cell-fate-and-self-renewal-in-extraembryonic-endoderm-stem-xen-cell-lines
#5
Amy Ralston
The extraembryonic endoderm is one of the first cell types specified during mammalian development. This extraembryonic lineage is known to play multiple important roles throughout mammalian development, including guiding axial patterning and inducing formation of the first blood cells during embryogenesis. Moreover, recent studies have uncovered striking conservation between mouse and human embryos during the stages when extraembryonic endoderm cells are first specified, in terms of both gene expression and morphology...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177764/rock-and-rho-playlist-for-preimplantation-development-streaming-to-hippo-pathway-and-apicobasal-polarity-in-the-first-cell-differentiation
#6
Vernadeth B Alarcon, Yusuke Marikawa
In placental mammalian development, the first cell differentiation produces two distinct lineages that emerge according to their position within the embryo: the trophectoderm (TE, placenta precursor) differentiates in the surface, while the inner cell mass (ICM, fetal body precursor) forms inside. Here, we discuss how such position-dependent lineage specifications are regulated by the RHOA subfamily of small GTPases and RHO-associated coiled-coil kinases (ROCK). Recent studies in mouse show that activities of RHO/ROCK are required to promote TE differentiation and to concomitantly suppress ICM formation...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177763/transcriptional-regulation-and-genes-involved-in-first-lineage-specification-during-preimplantation-development
#7
Wei Cui, Jesse Mager
The successful development from a single-cell zygote into a complex multicellular organism requires precise coordination of multiple cell-fate decisions. The very first of these is lineage specification into the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) during mammalian preimplantation development. In mouse embryos, transcription factors (TFs) such as Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog are enriched in cells of ICM, which gives rise to the fetus and yolk sac. Conversely, TFs such as Cdx2 and Eomes become highly upregulated in TE, which contribute to the placenta...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177762/chd1-controls-cell-lineage-specification-through-zygotic-genome-activation
#8
Shinnosuke Suzuki, Naojiro Minami
In mammals, the processes spanning from fertilization to the generation of a new organism are very complex and are controlled by multiple genes. Life begins with the encounter of eggs and spermatozoa, in which gene expression is inactive prior to fertilization. After several cell divisions, cells arise that are specialized in implantation, a developmental process unique to mammals. Cells involved in the establishment and maintenance of implantation differentiate from totipotent embryos, and the remaining cells generate the embryo proper...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177761/chromatin-remodelling-proteins-and-cell-fate-decisions-in-mammalian-preimplantation-development
#9
Anzy Miller, Brian Hendrich
The very first cell divisions in mammalian embryogenesis produce a ball of cells, each with the potential to form any cell in the developing embryo or placenta. At some point, the embryo produces enough cells that some are located on the outside of the embryo, while others are completely surrounded by other cells. It is at this point that cells undergo the very first lineage commitment event: outer cells form the trophectoderm and lose the potential to form embryonic lineages, while inner cells form the Inner Cell Mass, which retain embryonic potential...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177760/introduction
#10
Jason G Knott, Keith E Latham
In this special volume on "Chromatin regulation of early embryonic lineage specification," five leaders in the field of mammalian preimplantation embryo development provide their own perspectives on key molecular and cellular processes that mediate lineage formation during the first week of life. The first cell-fate decision involves the formation of the pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) and extraembryonic trophectoderm (TE). The second cell-fate choice encompasses the transformation of ICM into extraembryonic primitive endoderm (PE) and pluripotent epiblast...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116453/the-role-of-the-pulvinar-in-spatial-visual-attention
#11
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
This chapter deals with the role of the pulvinar in spatial visual attention. There are at least two aspects in which the pulvinar seems to be instrumental for selective visual processes. The first aspect concerns pulvinar connectivity pattern. The pulvinar is connected with brain regions known to be playing a role in attentional mechanisms, such as area V4, the superior colliculus (SC), and the inferior parietal cortex (IP). Additionally, the pulvinar is richly interconnected with multiple cortical areas. This enables the pulvinar to serve as a hub for brain communication, potentially gating the flow of information across different regions...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116452/gaba-inactivation-of-the-pulvinar
#12
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
In this chapter, we discuss the effects of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) inactivation of the pulvinar on the electrophysiological responses to visual stimuli. A direct way to access the pulvinar-cortical interaction is to pharmacologically inactivate the pulvinar and measure the impact on cortical activity. To this aim, we have focused our efforts on recording in cortical visual area V2 while inactivating the topographically corresponding region of the pulvinar.
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116451/modulation-of-pulvinar-neuronal-activity-by-arousal
#13
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
In this chapter, we discuss the modulation of pulvinar neuronal activity by arousal. In contrast to electrophysiological recordings in the early visual cortex, neuronal activity in the pulvinar is particularly sensitive to anesthesia. In the absence of sensory stimulation, pulvinar neurons can be characterized by spontaneous low-frequency rhythmic bursts of spiking activity. However, multisensory stimulation capable of arousing the animal from deeper anesthesia levels is able to reestablish the necessary neuronal dynamics and switch the pulvinar into an active state...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116450/response-properties-of-pulvinar-neurons-studied-with-single-unit-electrophysiological-recordings
#14
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
In this chapter, we discuss the types of visual receptive fields revealed by single-unit electrophysiological recordings in the pulvinar. Nearly all neurons with identifiable receptive fields responded to visual stimulation presented on the contralateral hemifield, within 25° of the fovea. The majority of the visual neurons responded to some form of moving stimulus, and some additionally exhibited direction or orientation selectivity. Most units could be driven by monocular stimulation and showed receptive fields of at least 100 square degrees in area...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116449/comparative-pulvinar-organization-across-different-primate-species
#15
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
In this chapter, we compare the pattern of pulvinar immunohistochemical staining for the calcium-binding proteins calbindin and parvalbumin and for the neurofilament protein SMI-32 in macaque, capuchin, and squirrel monkeys. This group of New and Old World primates shares five similar pulvinar subdivisions: PIP, PIM, PIC, PIL, and PILS. In the Old World macaque monkey, the inferior-lateral pulvinar can be subdivided into the P1 and P2 fields based on its connectivity with visual area V1. On the other hand, only the P1 field and no P2 was found in the New World capuchin monkey...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116448/visual-topography-of-the-pulvinar-projection-zones
#16
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
In this chapter, we describe the visuotopy of the pulvinar subdivisions P1, P2, and P4. In all primates, P1 colocalizes with the chemoarchitecturally defined PI and a small portion of PL. The peripheral visual field is represented anteriorly in the medial portion of PI, while central vision is represented more posteriorly in the medial portion of PL. The vertical meridian representation is located on the lateral edge of P1, while the horizontal meridian is represented obliquely from the lateral to the medial extent of P1...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116447/reestablishing-the-chemoarchitectural-borders-based-on-electrophysiological-and-connectivity-data
#17
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
In this chapter, we discuss the poor agreement between visuotopic maps described using electrophysiological and connectivity data and the subdivisions of the pulvinar based on chemoarchitecture. We focus on the differences and similarities between New and Old World monkeys to evaluate how this agreement evolved during evolution. There is some agreement in the localization of P1, described using electrophysiological and connectivity data, and the lateral and central portions of the nucleus pulvinaris inferior (PI), defined based on chemoarchitectural criteria...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116446/connectivity-of-the-pulvinar
#18
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
Pulvinar connectivity has been studied using a variety of neuroanatomical tracing techniques in both New and Old World monkeys. Connectivity studies have revealed additional maps of the visual field other than those described using electrophysiological techniques, such as P3 in the capuchin monkey and P3/P4 in the macaque monkey. In this chapter, we argue that with increasing cortical size, the pulvinar developed new functional subdivisions in order to effectively interconnect and interact with the cortex.
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116445/visual-map-representations-in-the-primate-pulvinar
#19
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
The pulvinar receives direct visual information from the retina and indirect visual information from several cortical and subcortical areas. In this chapter, we discuss the visuotopic organization of the primate pulvinar. Electrophysiological techniques have been systematically employed to study pulvinar visuotopy in the owl, capuchin, and macaque monkeys. A single map of the visual field has been described in the pulvinar of the owl monkey, while two independent maps have been described in the capuchin and macaque pulvinar...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116444/chemoarchitecture-of-the-pulvinar
#20
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
Cytochemical and immunocytochemical methods reveal details of the pulvinar architecture that are not apparent from Nissl and myelin staining. The results of these techniques have been interpreted in different ways by different investigators, each adopting different sets of nomenclature for the various pulvinar subdivisions. In this chapter, we discuss the notion that the differentiation of the pulvinar along primate evolution took place upon a relatively rigid chemoarchitectonic scaffold.
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
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