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Journal of Morphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401572/morphological-structures-for-potential-sperm-storage-in-poeciliid-fishes-does-superfetation-matter
#1
Claudia Olivera-Tlahuel, Maricela Villagrán-Santa Cruz, Norma A Moreno-Mendoza, J Jaime Zúñiga-Vega
Sperm storage within the female reproductive tract has been reported as a reproductive strategy in several species of vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the morphological structures that allow for sperm to be stored and kept viable for long periods are relatively unknown in osteichthyes. We use histological and stereological tools to identify and quantify sperm storage structures (spermathecae) in 12 species of viviparous Poeciliidae. We found spermathecae in nine species, six of which exhibit superfetation (the ability of females to simultaneously carry within the ovary two or more broods of embryos at different stages of development)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390189/in-memoriam-dr-frederick-w-harrison-1938-2016
#2
EDITORIAL
Fernando Pardos, Paul F Maderson, Matthias Starck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 8, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386944/growth-and-shaping-of-metacarpal-and-carpal-cartilage-anlagen-application-of-morphometry-to-the-development-of-short-and-long-bone-a-study-of-human-hand-anlagen-in-the-fetal-period
#3
Ugo E Pazzaglia, Terenzio Congiu, Valeria Sibilia, Lavinia Casati, Andrea Minini, Anna Benetti
A histological and morphometric analysis of human metacarpal and carpal anlagen between the 16th and 22nd embryonic weeks was carried out with the aim of studying the establishment of the respective anlage architecture. No differences in the pattern of growth were documented between the peripheral and central zones of the metacarpal epiphyses and those of the carpals. The regulation of longitudinal growth in long bone anlagen occurred in the transition zone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis (homologous to the metaphyseal growth plate cartilage in more advanced developmental stage of the bone)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370269/eye-ontogeny-in-pleurodema-bufoninum-a-comparison-with-pleurodema-somuncurense-anura-leptodactylidae
#4
Clara Volonteri, Diego A Barrasso, Leonardo Cotichelli, Néstor G Basso, Gladys N Hermida
Vision is one of the main sensory systems in amphibians, and the eye structure is highly associated with habitat conditions. The ontogeny, as well as the adult structure, of the eye has been studied in only a few species. The life change after metamorphosis is accompanied by changes in the visual environment. The aim of this work is to describe the eye ontogeny of Pleurodema bufoninum and to compare it with that of Pleurodema somuncurense. Specimens of both Pleurodema species were processed for histology analysis at different stages of development, including the tadpole, postmetamorphic, and adult forms...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370359/comparative-gastrointestinal-morphology-of-tachyoryctes-splendens-r%C3%A3-ppell-1835-and-heliophobius-emini-noack-1894-two-species-of-east-african-mole-rats
#5
Lauren Sahd, Daniella L Pereira, Nigel C Bennett, Sanet H Kotzé
Tachyoryctes splendens (Northeast African mole-rat) and Heliophobius emini (Emin's mole-rat) are two African mole-rats that represent separate allopatric rodent families namely Spalacidae and Bathyergidae respectively. While these species consume a similar diet of underground plant storage organs such as roots and tubers, T. splendens has been reported to additionally consume small amounts of aerial foliage. This study aims to provide detailed gross morphological and histological morphometric analyses of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of these two subterranean species...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370192/getting-to-the-root-of-fireworms-stinging-chaetae-chaetal-arrangement-and-ultrastructure-of-eurythoe-complanata-pallas-1766-amphinomida
#6
Ekin Tilic, Benedikt Pauli, Thomas Bartolomaeus
Amphinomid species are since long known to cause urtication upon contact with the human skin. Since it has been reported that amphinomid chaetae are hollow, it has repeatedly been suggested that poison is injected upon epidermal contact. To test predictions for the structural correlate of such a stinging device we studied the structure and formation of chaetae in the fireworm Eurythoe complanata (Amphinomida). Neither the structure of the chaetae nor their formation and their position within the parapodium provide evidence for their function as hollow needles to inject poison...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370120/lessons-from-the-first-dorsal-fin-in-atheriniforms-a-new-mode-of-dorsal-fin-development-and-its-phylogenetic-implications
#7
Philipp Richter, Timo Moritz
The median fins in extant actinopterygians are the product of millions of years of evolution. During this time, different developmental patterns for the dorsal and anal fins emerged leading to a high variation in median fin morphology and ontogeny. In this study, the development of anal and dorsal fins in atheriniforms is described and its consequences for the current phylogenetic hypothesis are discussed. Developmental series of five atheriniform species were investigated using clearing and staining as well as antibody staining...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370364/morphological-novelty-and-modest-developmental-truncation-in-barboides-africa-s-smallest-vertebrates-teleostei-cyprinidae
#8
Kevin W Conway, Kole M Kubicek, Ralf Britz
Miniaturization, the evolution of extremely small adult body size, is widespread amongst animals and commonly associated with novel ecological, physiological, and morphological attributes. The phenotypes of miniaturized taxa are noteworthy because they combine reductions and structural simplifications with novel traits not developed in their larger relatives. Previous research on miniature cyprinid fishes (focused predominantly on South and South East Asian taxa of a single subfamily) has identified two distinct classes of miniature taxa: proportioned dwarves and developmentally truncated miniatures...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345764/the-tarsal-metatarsal-complex-of-caviomorph-rodents-anatomy-and-functional-adaptive-analysis
#9
Adriana M Candela, Nahuel A Muñoz, César M García-Esponda
Caviomorph rodents represent a major adaptive radiation of Neotropical mammals. They occupy a variety of ecological niches, which is also reflected in their wide array of locomotor behaviors. It is expected that this radiation would be mirrored by an equivalent disparity of tarsal-metatarsal morphology. Here, the tarsal-metatarsal complex of Erethizontidae, Cuniculidae, Dasyproctidae, Caviidae, Chinchillidae, Octodontidae, Ctenomyidae, and Echimyidae was examined, in order to evaluate its anatomical variation and functional-adaptive relevance in relation to locomotor behaviors...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345247/functional-morphological-adaptations-of-the-bony-labyrinth-in-marsupials-mammalia-theria
#10
Cathrin Pfaff, Stefan Czerny, Doris Nagel, Jürgen Kriwet
Diprotodontia represents the largest and ecologically most distinct order of marsupials occurring in Australasian being highly divers in size, locomotion, habitat preferences, feeding, and activity pattern. The spatial orientation in the habitat and therefore the three-dimensional space is detected by the vestibular system of the inner ear, more precisely by the three semicircular canals. In this study, we investigated the bony labyrinth of diprotodontian and selected non-diprotodontian marsupial mammals of almost all genera with noninvasive micro-CT scanning and 3D-reconstructions...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345239/the-anatomy-of-the-blood-vascular-system-of-the-giant-vestimentiferan-tubeworm-riftia-pachyptila-siboglinidae-annelida
#11
Nadezhda N Rimskaya-Korsakova, Sergey V Galkin, Vladimir V Malakhov
The giant dimensions of vestimentiferan Riftia pachyptila (Jones, ) are achieved thanks to the well-developed vascular system. In the vestimentum, there is a complicated net of lacunae, including the brain blood supply and the ventral lacuna underlying the ciliary field. The trunk region has an extensive network of blood vessels feeding the gonads («rete mirabile»). The thick muscular lining of the mesenterial vessels in the trunk and the dorsal vessel in the opisthosome serves as an additional pump, pushing blood into numerous vessels in the segments...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333390/epithelial-crypts-a-complex-and-enigmatic-olfactory-organ-in-african-and-south-american-lungfish-lepidosireniformes-dipnoi
#12
Carolin Wittmer, Christine Nowack
African lungfish (Protopterus) seem unique among osteognathostomes in possessing a potential vomeronasal organ homolog in form of accessory epithelial crypts within their nasal cavity. Many details regarding structural and functional properties of these crypts are still unexplored. In this study, we reinvestigate the issue and also present the first data on epithelial crypts in the South American lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa. The nasal cavities of L. paradoxa and Protopterus annectens were studied using histology, scanning electron microscopy, and alcian blue and PAS staining...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333389/the-cochlea-of-the-enigmatic-pygmy-right-whale-caperea-marginata-informs-mysticete-phylogeny
#13
Travis Park, Felix G Marx, Erich M G Fitzgerald, Alistair R Evans
The pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata, is the least understood extant baleen whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti). Knowledge on its basic anatomy, ecology, and fossil record is limited, even though its singular position outside both balaenids (right whales) and balaenopteroids (rorquals + grey whales) gives Caperea a pivotal role in mysticete evolution. Recent investigations of the cetacean cochlea have provided new insights into sensory capabilities and phylogeny. Here, we extend this advance to Caperea by describing, for the first time, the inner ear of this enigmatic species...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333368/morphological-specializations-of-the-yolk-sac-for-yolk-processing-in-embryonic-corn-snakes-pantherophis-guttatus-colubridae
#14
Kathryn G Powers, Daniel G Blackburn
Non-avian reptiles commonly are assumed to be like birds in their overall patterns of development. However, colubrid corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) have mechanisms of yolk cellularization and processing that are entirely different from the avian pattern. In birds, a vascular "yolk sac" surrounds and digests the liquid yolk. In contrast, in corn snakes, the yolk material is converted into vascularized cords of yolk-filled cells. In this study, we used stereomicroscopy, histology, and scanning electron microscopy to analyze this unusual developmental pattern in corn snakes...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261870/development-and-fate-of-the-postovulatory-follicle-complex-postovulatory-follicle-and-observations-on-folliculogenesis-and-oocyte-atresia-in-ovulated-common-snook-centropomus-undecimalis-bloch-1792
#15
Harry J Grier, Carole L Neidig, Irani Quagio-Grassiotto
The common snook, Centropomus undecimalis, was induced to ovulate using a time-release, GnRH analogue. Ovulation occurred the afternoon or evening the day after hormone administration. The time of ovulation was established within half an hour. At ovulation, three fish per time-group were divided into 0, 6, 12, 18 hr and one thru five days post-ovulation to study changes in the postovulatory follicle complex (POC). Histology of the ovaries revealed changes in the POC, postovulatory follicle (POF) and oocyte atresia through five days post-ovulation...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185320/orientation-of-the-lateral-semicircular-canal-in-xenarthra-and-its-links-with-head-posture-and-phylogeny
#16
Florence Coutier, Lionel Hautier, Raphaël Cornette, Eli Amson, Guillaume Billet
The orientation of the semicircular canals of the inner ear in the skull of vertebrates is one of the determinants of the capacity of this system to detect a given rotational movement of the head. Past functional studies on the spatial orientation of the semicircular canals essentially focused on the lateral semicircular canal (LSC), which is supposedly held close to horizontal during rest and/or alert behaviors. However, they generally investigated this feature in only a few and distantly related taxa. Based on 3D-models reconstructed from µCT-scans of skulls, we examined the diversity of orientations of the LSC within one of the four major clades of placental mammals, that is, the superorder Xenarthra, with a data set that includes almost all extant genera and two extinct taxa...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182299/tentacle-structure-in-freshwater-bryozoans
#17
Yuta Tamberg, Natalia Shunatova
Tentacles are the main food-gathering organs of bryozoans. The most common design is a hollow tube of extracellular matrix (ECM), covered with ten columns of epithelial cells on the outside, and a coelothelium on the inside. Nerves follow the ECM, going between the bases of some epidermal cells. The tentacle musculature includes two bundles formed by myoepithelial cells of the coelothelium. The tentacles of freshwater (phylactolaemate) bryozoans, however, differ somewhat in structure from those of marine bryozoans...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182298/looking-into-the-puparium-micro-ct-visualization-of-the-internal-morphological-changes-during-metamorphosis-of-the-blow-fly-calliphora-vicina-with-the-first-quantitative-analysis-of-organ-development-in-cyclorrhaphous-dipterans
#18
Daniel Martín-Vega, Thomas J Simonsen, Martin J R Hall
Metamorphosis of cyclorrhaphous flies takes place inside a barrel-like puparium, formed by the shrinking, hardening and darkening of the third-instar larval cuticle. The opacity of this structure hampers the visualization of the morphological changes occurring inside and therefore a full understanding of the metamorphosis process. Here, we use micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to describe the internal morphological changes that occur during metamorphosis of the blow fly, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at a greater temporal resolution than anything hitherto published...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182295/development-of-cranial-muscles-in-the-actinopterygian-fish-senegal-bichir-polypterus-senegalus-cuvier-1829
#19
Masatsugu Noda, Tsutomu Miyake, Masataka Okabe
Polypterus senegalus Cuvier, 1829 is one of the most basal living actinopterygian fish and a member of the Actinopterygii. We analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of cranial muscle development of P. senegalus using whole-mount immunostaining and serial sectioning. We described the detailed structure of the external gill muscles which divided into dorsal and ventral parts after yolk exhaustion. The pattern of the division is similar to that of urodeles. We suggest that, the external gill muscles of P. senegalus are involved in spreading and folding of the external gill stem and the branches...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176372/development-of-the-skull-and-pectoral-girdle-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii-and-russian-sturgeon-acipenser-gueldenstaedtii-acipenseriformes-acipenseridae
#20
Peter Warth, Eric J Hilton, Benjamin Naumann, Lennart Olsson, Peter Konstantinidis
The head is considered the major novelty of the vertebrates and directly linked to their evolutionary success. Its form and development as well as its function, for example in feeding, is of major interest for evolutionary biologists. In this study, we describe the skeletal development of the cranium and pectoral girdle in Siberian (Acipenser baerii) and Russian sturgeon (A. gueldenstaedtii), two species that are commonly farmed in aquaculture and increasingly important in developmental studies. This study comprises the development of the neuro-, viscero- and dermatocranium and the dermal and chondral components of the pectoral girdle, from first condensation of chondrocytes in prehatchlings to the early juvenile stage and reveals a clear pattern in formation...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Morphology
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