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Journal of Morphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523646/phylogenetics-and-ecomorphology-of-emarginate-primary-feathers
#1
Brett Klaassen van Oorschot, Ho Kwan Tang, Bret W Tobalske
Wing tip slots are a distinct morphological trait broadly expressed across the avian clade, but are generally perceived to be unique to soaring raptors. These slots are the result of emarginations on the distal leading and trailing edges of primary feathers, and allow the feathers to behave as individual airfoils. Research suggests these emarginate feathers are an adaptation to increase glide efficiency by mitigating induced drag in a manner similar to aircraft winglets. If so, we might expect birds known for gliding and soaring to exhibit emarginate feather morphology; however, that is not always the case...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517044/intercentrum-versus-pleurocentrum-growth-in-early-tetrapods-a-paleohistological-approach
#2
Marylène Danto, Florian Witzmann, Stephanie E Pierce, Nadia B Fröbisch
A variety of vertebral centrum morphologies have evolved within early tetrapods which range from multipartite centra consisting of intercentra and pleurocentra in stem-tetrapods, temnospondyls, seymouriamorphs, and anthracosaurs up to monospondylous centra in lepospondyls. With the present study, we aim to determine the formation of both intercentrum and pleurocentrum and asked whether these can be homologized based on their bone histology. Both intercentra and pleurocentra ossified endochondrally and periosteal bone was subsequently deposited on the outer surface of the centra...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517034/comparative-musculoskeletal-anatomy-of-chameleon-limbs-with-implications-for-the-evolution-of-arboreal-locomotion-in-lizards-and-for-teratology
#3
Julia L Molnar, Raul E Diaz, Tautis Skorka, Grant Dagliyan, Rui Diogo
Chameleon species have recently been adopted as models for evo-devo and macroevolutionary processes. However, most anatomical and developmental studies of chameleons focus on the skeleton, and information about their soft tissues is scarce. Here, we provide a detailed morphological description based on contrast enhanced micro-CT scans and dissections of the adult phenotype of all the forelimb and hindlimb muscles of the Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) and compare these muscles with those of other chameleons and lizards...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516726/clasper-morphology-of-skates-of-the-tribe-riorajini-chondrichthyes-rajiformes-arhynchobatidae-and-its-systematic-significance
#4
Renan A Moreira, Ulisses L Gomes, Marcelo R de Carvalho
Claspers of adult specimens of the skate tribe Riorajini, family Arhynchobatidae, comprising Atlantoraja and Rioraja, are described, compared, and systematically reinterpreted based on material collected off southeastern and southern Brazil. For the first time the external components and musculature of the clasper of members of this tribe are described and related to internal (skeletal) structures. The component pecten is present in all species of Atlantoraja but absent in Rioraja. The new external component grip, an autapomorphy of A...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516487/the-petrosal-and-bony-labyrinth-of-diplobune-minor-an-enigmatic-artiodactyla-from-the-oligocene-of-western-europe
#5
Maeva J Orliac, Ricardo Araújo, Fabrice Lihoreau
Anoplotheriinae are Paleogene European artiodactyls that present a unique postcranial morphology with a tridactyl autopodium and uncommon limb orientation. This peculiar morphology led to various hypotheses regarding anoplotheriine locomotion from semiaquatic to partly arboreal or partly bipedal. The petrosal bone, housing the organs of balance, and hearing, offers complementary information to postcranial morphology on the ecology of this uncommon artiodactyl. Here, we investigate the middle ear and bony labyrinth of the small anoplotheriine Diplobune minor based on four specimens from the Early Oligocene locality of Itardies (Quercy, France)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516456/description-of-embryonic-development-and-ultrastructure-in-miracidia-of-cardiocephaloides-longicollis-digenea-strigeidae-in-relation-to-active-host-finding-strategy-in-a-marine-environment
#6
Ana Born-Torrijos, Astrid S Holzer, Juan A Raga, Gabrielle S van Beest, Aneta Yoneva
The functional ultrastructure and embryonic development of miracidia in naturally released eggs of the trematode Cardiocephaloides longicollis were studied using light and transmission electron microscopy. This species has operculated eggs and embryogenesis occurs in the marine environment before an actively infecting ciliated miracidium hatches. Six different developmental stages were identified. The lack of pores in the eggshell indicates its impermeability and the miracidium's dependency on glycogen nutritive reserves, contained in numerous vitellocytes in early embryos...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503895/quantitative-comparative-analysis-of-the-nasal-chemosensory-organs-of-anurans-during-larval-development-and-metamorphosis-highlights-the-relative-importance-of-chemosensory-subsystems-in-the-group
#7
Lucas David Jungblut, John O Reiss, Dante A Paz, Andrea G Pozzi
The anuran peripheral olfactory system is composed of a number of subsystems, represented by distinct neuroepithelia. These include the main olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ (found in most tetrapods) and three specialized epithelia of anurans: the buccal-exposed olfactory epithelium of larvae, and the olfactory recess and middle chamber epithelium of postmetamorphic animals. To better characterize the developmental changes in these subsystems across the life cycle, morphometric changes of the nasal chemosensory organs during larval development and metamorphosis were analyzed in three different anuran species (Rhinella arenarum, Hypsiboas pulchellus, and Xenopus laevis)...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503871/subcellular-distribution-of-calcium-during-spermatogenesis-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#8
Amin Golpour, Martin Pšenička, Hamid Niksirat
Calcium plays a variety of vital regulatory functions in many physiological and biochemical events in the cell. The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructural distribution of calcium during different developmental stages of spermatogenesis in a model organism, the zebrafish (Danio rerio), using a combined oxalate-pyroantimonate technique. Samples were treated by potassium oxalate and potassium pyroantimonate during two fixation stages and examined using transmission electron microscopy to detect electron dense intracellular calcium...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503803/a-microstructural-study-of-the-pleon-holding-mechanism-in-carcinus-maenas-decapoda-brachyura-portunoidea-carcinidae-of-different-sizes
#9
Stephanie Köhnk, Stanislav N Gorb, Dirk Brandis
Within the Brachyura there are a variety of specialized holding mechanisms, which facilitate the close attachment of the highly reduced pleon underneath the cephalothorax. The most common mechanism in eubrachyurans, known as the press-button, consists of a sternal protrusion and a corresponding pleonal socket. Reports on the microstructural properties of the surface of these holding structures are scarce and patchy. In this study, the European Green Crab Carcinus maenas, is used as model to describe the microstructure of a typical press-button mechanism with the use of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopic histology...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503758/postnatal-mandible-growth-in-wild-and-laboratory-mice-differences-revealed-from-bone-remodeling-patterns-and-geometric-morphometrics
#10
Jessica Martínez-Vargas, Francesc Muñoz-Muñoz, Cayetana Martinez-Maza, Amalia Molinero, Jacint Ventura
Comparative information on the variation in the temporospatial patterning of mandible growth in wild and laboratory mice during early postnatal ontogeny is scarce but important to understand variation among wild rodent populations. Here, we compare mandible growth between two ontogenetic series from the second to the eighth week of postnatal life, corresponding to two different groups of mice reared under the same conditions: the classical inbred strain C57BL/6J, and Mus musculus domesticus. We characterize the ontogenetic patterns of bone remodeling of the mandibles belonging to these laboratory and wild mice by analyzing bone surface, as well as examine their ontogenetic form changes and bimodular organization using geometric morphometrics...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480566/cranial-suture-complexity-in-caviomorph-rodents-rodentia-ctenohystrica
#11
Guido Buezas, Federico Becerra, Aldo Vassallo
Due to their flexibility, sutures are regions that experience greater strains than the surrounding rigid cranial bones. Cranial sutures differ in their degree of interdigitation or complexity. There is evidence indicating that a more convoluted suture better enables the absorption of high stresses coming from dynamic masticatory forces, and other functions. The Order Rodentia is an interesting clade to study this because of its taxa with diverse chewing modes. Due to repeated loading resulting from gnawing and grinding, energy absorption by the sutures might be a crucial factor in these mammals...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480519/a-complete-survey-of-normal-pores-on-a-smooth-shell-ostracod-crustacea-landmark-based-versus-outline-geometric-morphometrics
#12
Ivana Karanovic, Vesna Lavtižar, Marko Djurakic
Pores and sensilla on ostracod shell have often been used in studies of ontogeny, taxonomy, and phylogeny of the group. However, an analysis of sexual dimorphism and variation between valves in the number and distribution of pores is lacking. Also, such studies have never been done on a widely distributed, morphologically variable, and weakly ornamented freshwater ostracod. Here, we survey pores in one such species, Physocypria kraepelini. We choose 27 homologous pores as landmarks for 2D-geometric morphometric analysis, with the aim to assess intersexual and between valves variation in size and shape relative to the Fourier outline analysis...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470824/ontogenetic-shifts-of-heart-position-in-snakes
#13
Harvey B Lillywhite, Steven M Lillywhite
Heart position relative to total body length (TL) varies among snakes, with anterior hearts in arboreal species and more centrally located hearts in aquatic or ground-dwelling species. Anterior hearts decrease the cardiac work associated with cranial blood flow and minimize drops in cranial pressure and flow during head-up climbing. Here, we investigate whether heart position shifts intraspecifically during ontogenetic increases in TL. Insular Florida cottonmouth snakes, Agkistrodon conanti, are entirely ground-dwelling and have a mean heart position that is 33...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470783/functional-analysis-of-the-musculo-skeletal-system-of-the-gill-apparatus-in-heptranchias-perlo-chondrichthyes-hexanchidae
#14
Nadezhda V Kryukova
Musculo-skeletal morphology is an indispensable source for understanding functional adaptations. Analysis of morphology of the branchial apparatus of Hexanchiform sharks can provide insight into aspects of their respiration that are difficult to observe directly. In this study, I compare the structure of the musculo-skeletal system of the gill apparatus of Heptranchias perlo and Squalus acanthias in respect to their adaptation for one of two respiratory mechanisms known in sharks, namely, the active two-pump (oropharyngeal and parabranchial) ventilation and the ram-jet ventilation...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466563/immunohistochemical-profiling-of-the-ultimobranchial-remnants-in-the-rat-postnatal-thyroid-gland
#15
Victoria Vázquez-Román, José C Utrilla, José M Fernández-Santos, Inés Martín-Lacave
Ultimobranchial (UB) remnants are a constant presence in the thyroid throughout rat postnatal life; however, the difficulty in identifying the most immature forms from the surrounding thyroid tissue prompted us to search for a specific marker. With that objective, we applied a panel of antibodies reported to be specific for their human counterpart, solid cell nests (SCNs), using double immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Our results demonstrated that cytokeratin 34βE12 and p63 are highly sensitive markers for the immunohistologic screening of UB-remnants, independently of their maturity or size...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466514/challenges-in-identifying-and-interpreting-organizational-modules-in-morphology
#16
Borja Esteve-Altava
Form is a rich concept that agglutinates information about the proportions and topological arrangement of body parts. Modularity is readily measurable in both features, the variation of proportions (variational modules) and the organization of topology (organizational modules). The study of variational modularity and of organizational modularity faces similar challenges regarding the identification of meaningful modules and the validation of generative processes; however, most studies in morphology focus solely on variational modularity, while organizational modularity is much less understood...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466496/ultrastructure-of-the-coelom-in-the-brachiopod-lingula-anatina
#17
Elena N Temereva
The organization of the coelomic system and the ultrastructure of the coelomic lining are used in phylogenetic analysis to establish the relationships between major taxa. Investigation of the anatomy and ultrastructure of the coelomic system in brachiopods, which are poorly studied, can provide answers to fundamental questions about the evolution of the coelom in coelomic bilaterians. In the current study, the organization of the coelom of the lophophore in the brachiopod Lingula anatina was investigated using semithin sectioning, 3D reconstruction, and transmission electron microscopy...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464390/functional-morphology-of-the-female-reproductive-system-of-a-crab-with-highly-extensible-seminal-receptacles-and-extreme-sperm-storage-capacity
#18
Nahuel E Farias, Eduardo D Spivak, Tomas A Luppi
We studied the functional morphology of the female reproductive system of the purple stone crab Danielethus crenulatus. The most remarkable feature is the relative storage capacity and extensibility of the seminal receptacles. These receptacles are a pair of simple sacs that lack internal structures dividing the internal lumen. Differences in seminal receptacle size and contents are accompanied by conspicuous changes in receptacle lining at a tissue level. Full seminal receptacles contain discrete sperm masses formed by hardened fluid and densely packed spermatophores...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464311/comparative-anatomy-of-the-dorsal-hump-in-mature-pacific-salmon
#19
Kenta Susuki, Masatoshi Ban, Masaki Ichimura, Hideaki Kudo
Mature male Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) demonstrate prominent morphological changes, such as the development of a dorsal hump. The degree of dorsal hump formation depends on the species in Pacific salmon. It is generally accepted that mature males of sockeye (O. nerka) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon develop most pronounced dorsal humps. The internal structure of the dorsal hump in pink salmon has been confirmed in detail. In this study, the dorsal hump morphologies were analyzed in four Pacific salmon species inhabiting Japan, masu (O...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444917/ultrastructural-comparison-of-the-drosophila-larval-and-adult-ventral-abdominal-neuromuscular-junction
#20
Nicole Wagner
Drosophila melanogaster has recently emerged as model system for studying synaptic transmission and plasticity during adulthood, aging and neurodegeneration. However, still little is known about the basic neuronal mechanisms of synaptic function in the adult fly. Per se, adult Drosophila neuromuscular junctions should be highly suited for studying these aspects as they allow for genetic manipulations in combination with ultrastructural and electrophysiological analyses. Although different neuromuscular junctions of the adult fly have been described during the last years, a direct ultrastructural comparison with their larval counterpart is lacking...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Morphology
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