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Journal of Morphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139147/the-development-of-lingual-glands-in-the-domestic-duck-anas-platyrhynchos-f-domestica-3d-reconstruction-lm-and-sem-study
#1
Kinga Skieresz-Szewczyk, Pieter Cornillie, Hanna Jackowiak
The major salivary glands of birds develop by branching or elongation of the epithelial cords. The development of the minor salivary glands in form of the lingual glands has never been described. Among birds, only Anatidae have three types of the lingual glands: rostral, caudo-lateral, and caudo-medial lingual glands. The study aims to characterize the manner and rate of the lingual glands development in the domestic duck and their topographical arrangement relative to the hyoid apparatus. The study reveals that all three types of the lingual glands develop by branching...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139133/cranial-shape-variation-in-jacarean-caimanines-crocodylia-alligatoroidea-and-its-implications-in-the-taxonomic-status-of-extinct-species-the-case-of-melanosuchus-fisheri
#2
Christian Foth, María Victoria Fernandez Blanco, Paula Bona, Torsten M Scheyer
Melanosuchus niger (Crocodylia, Alligatoroidea) is one of the six living caimanine species widely distributed throughout the Amazon River basin today. Although there is only one extant species of Melanosuchus, fossil material assigned to this genus, represented by M. fisheri, has been reported from the late Miocene in South America. However, the validity of this taxon has been questioned and a recent investigation indicates that the referred specimen of M. fisheri (MCZ 4336) actually belongs to Globidentosuchus brachyrostris, while those diagnostic characters present in the holotype (MCNC 243) fall into the spectrum of intraspecific variation of M...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119604/anatomy-and-histology-of-the-prostate-and-glands-of-cowper-in-three-species-of-neotropical-bats
#3
María Daniela Miotti, Marcos I Mollerach, Ruben M Barquez
The reproductive accessory glands (RAG) are essential components in reproduction because their secretion products ensure survival, viability, and sperm motility. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the morphological and histological structure of the RAG in three species of bats of the genus Sturnira (S. erythromos, S. lilium, and S. oporaphilum). The RAG complex comprise a compact gland (prostate), which surrounds the urethra, and a pair of Glands of Cowper at the base of penis. Anatomical and histologically, the prostate are differentiated in two regions, ventral and dorsal...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098722/the-structure-of-the-cutaneous-pedal-glands-in-the-banded-snail-cepaea-hortensis-m%C3%A3-ller-1774
#4
Janek von Byern, Norbert Cyran, Waltraud Klepal, Livia Rudoll, Johannes Suppan, Sophie Greistorfer
Although gastropods have been crawling through the ocean and on the land for 60 million years, we still know very little about the sticky mucus produced in their foot. Most research has been focused on marine species in particular and, to a lesser extent, on the well-known terrestrial species Arion vulgaris and Cornu aspersum. Within this study, we aim to characterize the foot anatomy of a smaller representative of the family Helicidae, the banded snail Cepaea hortensis. We are particularly interested in the microanatomy of the foot glands, their position, and the histochemical nature of their secretory content...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098716/neuroanatomy-of-hyalinella-punctata-common-patterns-and-new-characters-in-phylactolaemate-bryozoans
#5
Magdalena Ambros, Andreas Wanninger, Thomas F Schwaha
Studies on the bryozoan adult nervous system employing immunocytochemical techniques and confocal laser scanning microscopy are scarce. To gain a better view into the structure and evolution of the nervous system of the Phylactolaemata, the earliest extant branch and sister taxon to the remaining Bryozoa, this work aims to characterize the nervous system of Hyalinella punctata with immunocytochemical techniques and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The cerebral ganglion is located between the anus and the pharynx and contains a lumen...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087002/ultrastructural-immunolocalization-of-hyaluronate-in-regenerating-tail-of-lizards-and-amphibians-supports-an-immune-suppressive-role-to-favor-regeneration
#6
Lorenzo Alibardi
Hyaluronate is produced in high amount during the initial stages of regeneration of the tail and limbs of lizards, newts, and frog tadpoles. The fine distribution of hyaluronate in the regenerating tail blastemas has been assessed by ultrastructural immunolocalization of the Hyaluronate Binding Protein (HABP), a protein that indirectly reveals the presence of hyaluronate in tissues. The present electron microscopic study shows that HABP is detected in the cytoplasm but this proteins is mainly localized on the surfaces of cells in the wound epidermis and mesenchymal cells of the blastema...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086998/size-and-number-of-the-hypoglossal-nerve-foramina-in-the-avian-skull-and-their-potential-neuroanatomical-significance
#7
Gerald Mayr
The cranial openings of nervus hypoglossus, the 12th cranial nerve, are for the first time studied across a broad range of higher avian taxa. This nerve plays an important role in the innervation of the syrinx and exits the skull through a variable number of foramina. Most previous authors described 2-3 foramina nervi hypoglossi (FNH) for neornithine birds, but the number, size, and arrangement of FNH is actually more variable than what is apparent from the literature. In the case of three foramina, there is usually a pair of caudal foramina and a rostral one, but even in closely related taxa, a great variability of the FNH pattern may exist...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076541/oogenesis-in-the-viviparous-phoronid-phoronis-embryolabi
#8
Elena N Temereva
The study of gametogenesis is useful for phylogenetic analysis and can also provide insight into the physiology and biology of species. This report describes oogenesis in the Phoronis embryolabi, a newly described species, which has an unusual type of development, that is, a viviparity of larvae. Phoronid oogonia are described here for the first time. Yolk formation is autoheterosynthetic. Heterosynthesis occurs in the peripheral cytoplasm via fusion of endocytosic vesicles. Simultaneously, the yolk is formed autosynthetically by rough endoplasmic reticulum in the central cytoplasm...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068074/the-anterior-process-of-the-malleus-in-extant-lagomorpha-mammalia
#9
Wolfgang Maier, Adrian Tröscher, Irina Ruf
The anterior anchoring of the malleus of 30 extant species of Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, pikas) has been studied on the basis of histological serial sections and µCT-scans. It is shown that former studies of Oryctolagus, Lepus, and Ochotona are incomplete, because the rostral part of the processus anterior of the malleus is always lacking due to damage of this extremely delicate structure. Our study shows that in perinatal stages of Leporidae the praearticulare develops a prominent processus internus that fits into a groove at the ventral side of the tegmen tympani; this "tongue and groove"-arrangement may act as a hinge...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068071/development-of-the-muscles-associated-with-the-mandibular-and-hyoid-arches-in-the-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii-acipenseriformes-acipenseridae
#10
Peter Warth, Eric J Hilton, Benjamin Naumann, Lennart Olsson, Peter Konstantinidis
The skeleton of the jaws and neurocranium of sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are connected only through the hyoid arch. This arrangement allows considerable protrusion and retraction of the jaws and is highly specialized among ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). To better understand the unique morphology and the evolution of the jaw apparatus in Acipenseridae, we investigated the development of the muscles of the mandibular and hyoid arches of the Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii. We used a combination of antibody staining and formalin-induced fluorescence of tissues imaged with confocal microscopy and subsequent three-dimensional reconstruction...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068070/geometric-morphometric-analysis-as-a-proxy-to-evaluate-age-related-change-in-molar-shape-variation-of-low-crowned-notoungulata-mammalia
#11
Alejo C Scarano, Bárbara Vera
Shape and age variation in dentition of Paleogene extinct native South American ungulates (Notoungulata) has been traditionally described using qualitative and quantitative approaches, and has played a controversial role in the systematics of several groups. Such is the case of the Notopithecidae, a group of notoungulates with low-crowned teeth, known from the middle Eocene of Patagonia (Argentina). In this group, as well as in other contemporary families, extreme morphological changes associated to increasing dental wear were originally assumed to represent taxonomic differences; thus, dozens of species were erected, clearly reflecting the difficulty of defining discrete characters...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055140/morphological-analysis-of-the-male-reproductive-accessory-glands-of-the-bat-artibeus-lituratus-phyllostomidae-chiroptera
#12
Renata T S Santos, Laís R M Pires, Edna S S Albernaz, Cleber S Andrade, Cornélio S Santiago, Eliana Morielle-Versute, Sebastião R Taboga, Mateus R Beguelini
Bats are distributed worldwide from tropical to temperate regions. Despite their wide geographical radiation and advances in studies using evolutionary approaches, aspects related to the reproduction of these animals remain poorly explored, especially those related to the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the morphophysiology of the male RAGs in the bat Artibeus lituratus. The RAGs in A. lituratus are composed of a compact intra-abdominal glandular complex, consisting of the prostate with two prostatic regions (ventral and dorsal), plus Littre glands and a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055136/the-rhinoceros-among-serpents-comparative-anatomy-and-experimental-biophysics-of-calabar-burrowing-python-calabaria-reinhardtii-skin
#13
Dawei Han, Bruce A Young
The Calabar burrowing python (Calabaria reinhardtii) has a unique combination of marked thickness of the integumentary layers, a highly organized lamellate arrangement of the dermal collagen bundles, and a reduction in the size of the interscale hinge region of the integument. Biomechanical testing demonstrates that the skin of C. reinhardtii is more resistant to penetration than the skin of other snakes. The laminar arrangement of the collagen bundles provides for penetrative resistance, even while maintaining the flexibility characteristic of snake skin...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044744/ontogenetic-variation-in-the-sensory-structures-on-the-pedipalps-of-cosmetid-harvestmen-arachnida-opiliones-laniatores
#14
Victor R Townsend, Bruce P Enzmann
In arachnids, pedipalps are highly variable appendages that may be used in feeding, courtship, defense, and agonistic encounters. In cosmetid harvestmen, adults have pedipalps that feature flattened femora, spoon-shaped tibiae, and robust tarsal claws. In contrast, the pedipalps of nymphs are elongate with cylindrical podomeres and are adorned with delicate pretarsi. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the distribution of cuticular structures (e.g., sensilla chaetica, pores) on the elements of the pedipalps of adults and nymphs of three species of cosmetid harvestmen...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044658/gills-of-the-medaka-oryzias-latipes-a-scanning-electron-microscopy-study
#15
Isabelle Leguen
The general morphology and surface ultrastructure of the gills of adult and larvae medaka (Oryzias latipes) were studied in freshwater and seawater using scanning electron microscopy. The gills of all examined fish were structurally similar to those of other teleosts and consisted of four pairs of arches supporting (i) filaments bearing lamellae and (ii) rakers containing taste buds. Three cell types, specifically pavement cells, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs), and mucous cells, constituted the surface layer of the gill epithelium...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044653/morphological-changes-of-the-optic-lobe-from-late-embryonic-to-adult-stages-in-oval-squids-sepioteuthis-lessoniana
#16
Yung-Chieh Liu, Wen-Sung Chung, Chun-Chieh Yu, Su-Ting Hsu, Fung-Lan Chan, Tsung-Han Liu, Chia-Hao Su, Yeukuang Hwu, N Justin Marshall, Chuan-Chin Chiao
The optic lobe is the largest brain area within the central nervous system of cephalopods and it plays important roles in the processing of visual information, the regulation of body patterning, and locomotive behavior. The oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana has relatively large optic lobes that are responsible for visual communication via dynamic body patterning. It has been observed that the visual behaviors of oval squids change as the animals mature, yet little is known about how the structure of the optic lobes changes during development...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044619/variation-in-crocodilian-dorsal-scute-organization-and-geometry-with-a-discussion-of-possible-functional-implications
#17
Lauren T English
Dermal ossifications, including osteoderms, are present in many vertebrates and are frequently interpreted as a defense against predators. Nevertheless, osteoderms remain ubiquitous in adult crocodilians while being absent in hatchlings, even though adults rarely experience predation. In other biological systems, increased variation, particularly fluctuating asymmetry, have proven useful for identifying biological structures likely to have evolved under relaxed selection, which in turn may inform their function...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044593/patterns-of-chondrification-and-ossification-in-the-skull-of-graptemys-pseudogeographica-the-false-map-turtle-emydidae
#18
Sharon C Danielson, Christopher A Sheil
Patterns of ossification and chondrification are well-described for several species of turtles, but details of the chondrocranial anatomy are known for only a handful of species. Cleared and double-stained embryos of Graptemys pseudogeographica were used to examine the fully formed chondrocranium and the formation, chondrification, and ossification of the cranium. The chondrocranium of G. pseudogeographica possesses an unusually large, irregularly shaped foramen epiphaniale that is joined with the fenestra olfactoria...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960402/sequence-and-timing-of-early-cranial-skeletal-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#19
Paul Lukas, Lennart Olsson
Xenopus laevis is widely used as a model organism in biological research. Morphological descriptions of the larval cartilaginous skeleton are more than half a century old and comprehensive studies of early cartilage differentiation and development are missing. A proper understanding of early cranial skeletal development in X. laevis requires a detailed description that can function as a baseline for experimental studies. This basis makes it possible to evaluate skeletal defects produced by experiments on gene interactions, such as gain- or loss-of function experiments...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948643/a-potential-link-between-lateral-semicircular-canal-orientation-head-posture-and-dietary-habits-in-extant-rhinos-perissodactyla-rhinocerotidae
#20
Rico Schellhorn
Extant rhinoceroses share the characteristic nasal horn, although the number and size of horns varies among the five species. Although all species are herbivores, their dietary preferences, occipital shapes, and common head postures vary. Traditionally, to predict the "usual" head posture (the most used head posture of animals during normal unstressed activities, i.e., standing) of rhinos, the occipital shape was used. While a backward inclined occiput implies a downward hanging head (often found in grazers), a forward inclined occiput is related to the horizontal head posture in browsing rhinos...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Morphology
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