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Journal of Morphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726276/the-colonic-groove-of-the-plains-viscacha-lagostomus-maximus-histochemical-evidence-of-an-abrupt-change-in-the-glycosylation-pattern-of-goblet-cells
#1
María Florencia Tano de la Hoz, Mirta Alicia Flamini, Carolina Natalia Zanuzzi, Alcira Ofelia Díaz
The ascending colon of most rodent species shows a longitudinal colonic groove that works as a retrograde transport pathway for a mixture of bacteria and mucus toward the cecum. We describe the morphology and glycosylation pattern of the colonic groove of Lagostomus maximus to analyze the role of mucins in this anatomical feature. We also studied the distribution pattern of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) to evaluate their regulatory influence on gut motility. The groove originated near the cecocolic junction and extended along the mesenteric side of the ascending colon, limited at both ends by nonpapillated ridges...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722165/dimorphic-ejaculates-and-sperm-release-strategies-associated-with-alternative-mating-behaviors-in-the-squid
#2
Lígia H Apostólico, José E A R Marian
Sperm competition is a powerful postcopulatory selective force influencing male adaptations associated with increasing fertilization success, and it is usually related to the evolution of different strategies of ejaculate expenditure between individuals. Ejaculates may also be influenced by additional selective pressures associated with sperm competition, such as timing between insemination and fertilization, female reproductive tract morphology, and fertilization environment. Also, males that adopt alternative mating tactics may face distinct sperm competition pressures, which may lead to the evolution of intraspecific diversity in ejaculates...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710876/trunk-elongation-and-ontogenetic-changes-in-the-axial-skeleton-of-triturus-newts
#3
Petar Govedarica, Milena Cvijanović, Maja Slijepčević, Ana Ivanović
Body elongation in vertebrates can be achieved by lengthening of the vertebrae or by an increase in their number. In salamanders, longer bodies are mostly associated with greater numbers of vertebrae in the trunk or tail region. However, studies on the relative contribution of the length of single vertebra to body elongation are lacking. In this study, we focus on evolutionary and ontogenetic changes in differentiation of the trunk vertebrae and the relative contribution of individual vertebrae to trunk lengthening in Triturus newts, a monophyletic group of salamanders that shows remarkable disparity in body shape...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707769/embryonic-development-of-eucorydia-yasumatsui-asahina-with-special-reference-to-external-morphology-insecta-blattodea-corydiidae
#4
Mari Fujita, Ryuichiro Machida
As the first step in the comparative embryological study of Blattodea, with the aim of reconstructing the groundplan and phylogeny of Dictyoptera and Polyneoptera, the embryonic development of a corydiid was examined and described in detail using Eucorydia yasumatsui. Ten to fifteen micropyles are localized on the ventral side of the egg, and aggregated symbiont bacterial "mycetomes" are found in the egg. The embryo is formed by the fusion of paired blastodermal regions, with higher cellular density on the ventral side of the egg...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707347/interspecific-variation-in-the-tetradactyl-manus-of-modern-tapirs-perissodactyla-tapirus-exposed-using-geometric-morphometrics
#5
Jamie A MacLaren, Sandra Nauwelaerts
The distal forelimb (autopodium) of quadrupedal mammals is a key morphological unit involved in locomotion, body support, and interaction with the substrate. The manus of the tapir (Perissodactyla: Tapirus) is unique within modern perissodactyls, as it retains the plesiomorphic tetradactyl (four-toed) condition also exhibited by basal equids and rhinoceroses. Tapirs are known to exhibit anatomical mesaxonic symmetry in the manus, although interspecific differences and biomechanical mesaxony have yet to be rigorously tested...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691340/intra-and-intersexual-swim-bladder-dimorphisms-in-the-plainfin-midshipman-fish-porichthys-notatus-implications-of-swim-bladder-proximity-to-the-inner-ear-for-sound-pressure-detection
#6
Robert A Mohr, Elizabeth A Whitchurch, Ryan D Anderson, Paul M Forlano, Richard R Fay, Darlene R Ketten, Timothy C Cox, Joseph A Sisneros
The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a nocturnal marine teleost that uses social acoustic signals for communication during the breeding season. Nesting type I males produce multiharmonic advertisement calls by contracting their swim bladder sonic muscles to attract females for courtship and spawning while subsequently attracting cuckholding type II males. Here, we report intra- and intersexual dimorphisms of the swim bladder in a vocal teleost fish and detail the swim bladder dimorphisms in the three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) of plainfin midshipman fish...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691246/formation-and-function-of-the-xestoleberis-spot-in-xestoleberis-hanaii-crustacea-ostracoda
#7
Shinnosuke Yamada
The crescent sculpture of the so-called "Xestoleberis-spot" develops inside the calcified valve of the family Xestoleberididae. Electron microscopic observations on both, intermoult and postmoult stages of Xestoleberis species reveal that the "Xestoleberis-spot" system consists of three elements; two calcified chambers, a vesicle of electron-dense material and an uncalcified procuticle. The formation and function of the "Xestoleberis-spot" system are discussed. In conclusion, the "Xestoleberis-spot" system functions as the muscle attachment site for several antennal muscles, and provides the material for chitinous fibers in the exocuticle of outer lamella...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691238/structure-and-ultrastructure-of-eyes-and-brains-of-thalia-democratica-thaliacea-tunicata-chordata
#8
Katrin Braun, Thomas Stach
Salps are marine planktonic chordates that possess an obligatory alternation of reproductive modes in subsequent generations. Within tunicates, salps represent a derived life cycle and are of interest in considerations of the evolutionary origin of complex anatomical structures and life history strategies. In the present study, the eyes and brains of both the sexual, aggregate blastozooid and the asexual, solitary oozooid stage of Thalia democratica (Forskål, ) were digitally reconstructed in detail based on serial sectioning for light and transmission electron microscopy...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691222/the-morphology-of-the-male-reproductive-system-spermatogenesis-and-the-spermatozoon-of-daphnia-magna-crustacea-branchiopoda
#9
Maggie Wuerz, Erwin Huebner, Judith Huebner
This study analyses the histological and cellular morphology of the testis and sperm development in the male Daphnia magna Straus 1820. Due to the rarity of males and predominately parthenogenetic lifecycle of Daphnia, there has been limited detailed information on males in contrast to the well-studied female. Using light and electron microscopy approaches, we describe the morphology of the testis during the progression from an immature to mature testis. The testis has an encasing muscular mesh sheath outside the basal lamina, beneath which is a thin somatic epithelial cell layer...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688114/shape-analysis-of-the-jaws-between-two-minnow-species-over-ontogeny
#10
Colby J Gerth, Anabela Maia
This study compares sand shiner (Notropis stramineus) and silverjaw (Ericymba buccata) minnows, in terms of the morphological shape changes of the upper, lower, and pharyngeal jaws over ontogeny. These two species of minnows initially feed on midge larvae and undergo an ontogenic prey shift. The traditional morphometrics measured-total length, snout-to-vent length, eye diameter, premaxilla length, lower jaw length, gape-were regressed onto total length to test for allometry. Digital pictures were processed with tpsDig and further analyzed with MorphoJ utilizing a regular geometric morphometrics procedure using principle component analyses...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681453/ovarian-nests-in-cultured-females-of-the-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii-chondrostei-acipenseriformes
#11
Monika Żelazowska, Dorota Fopp-Bayat
Ovaries of Acipenser baerii are of an alimentary type and probably are meroistic. They contain ovarian nests, individual follicles, inner germinal ovarian epithelium, and fat tissue. Nests comprise cystoblasts, germline cysts, numerous early previtellogenic oocytes, and somatic cells. Cysts are composed of cystocytes, which are connected by intercellular bridges and are in the pachytene stage of the first meiotic prophase. They contain bivalents, finely granular, medium electron dense material, and nucleoli in the nucleoplasm...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643449/morphology-of-the-tongue-of-vermilingua-xenarthra-pilosa-and-evolutionary-considerations
#12
Daniel M Casali, Elisângela Martins-Santos, André L Q Santos, Flávia R Miranda, Germán A B Mahecha, Fernando A Perini
The tongue of anteaters (Xenarthra, Pilosa, Vermilingua) is a highly specialized for myrmecophagy. Here, we describe the topography and histology of the tongue, and compare it to that of other xenarthrans and other myrmecophagous eutherian mammals. The tongue of Vermilingua is long and slender, with an apical protuberance, which differs between Myrmecophagidae and Cyclopes didactylus. In the former, the rostral region is conical, and in the latter, it is dorsoventrally compressed, as observed in sloths. The tongue of Vermilingua has filiform and circumvallate papillae on the surface; foliate and fungiform papillae are absent...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635148/how-common-are-cranial-sesamoids-among-squamates
#13
Ricardo Montero, Juan D Daza, Aaron M Bauer, Virginia Abdala
Sesamoids are elements that originate as intratendinous structures due to genetic and epigenetic factors. These elements have been reported frequently in vertebrates, although cranial sesamoids have been recorded almost exclusively in non-tetrapod Osteichthyes. The only tetrapod cranial sesamoids reported until now have been the transiliens cartilage (of crocodiles and turtles), and another one located in the quadrate-mandibular joint of birds. Here, we examined seven squamate species using histological sections, dissections of preserved specimens, dry skeletons, cleared and stained specimens, computed tomographies (CT), and report the presence of other cranial sesamoids...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621462/evidence-for-convergent-evolution-of-a-neocortex-like-structure-in-a-late-permian-therapsid
#14
Michael Laaß, Anders Kaestner
The special sensory, motor, and cognitive capabilities of mammals mainly depend upon the neocortex, which is the six-layered cover of the mammalian forebrain. The origin of the neocortex is still controversial and the current view is that larger brains with neocortex first evolved in late Triassic Mammaliaformes. Here, we report the earliest evidence of a structure analogous to the mammalian neocortex in a forerunner of mammals, the fossorial anomodont Kawingasaurus fossilis from the late Permian of Tanzania...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621458/what-did-the-unossified-zone-of-the-non-mammalian-therapsid-braincase-house
#15
Michael Laaß, Burkhard Schillinger, Anders Kaestner
Most nonmammalian synapsids possess a mid-dorsal depression in the brain cavity known as the "unossified zone." It remains obscure which structures this zone contained, and, as candidates, the vermis of the cerebellum, the superior sagittal sinus, a junction of several blood vessels, the pineal gland or other midbrain structures were considered. Neutron tomography of a skull of Diictodon feliceps (Therapsida, Anomodontia) revealed some clear impressions of canals in this region of the brain cavity. Furthermore, the prootic sinus probably ran on the internal surface of the pila antotica and had a similar course in anomodonts as it has been proposed for cynodonts and Mesozoic mammals...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603933/pretarsal-structures-in-leiodidae-and-agyrtidae-coleoptera-staphylinoidea
#16
Pedro Gnaspini, Caio Antunes-Carvalho, Richard A B Leschen
We analysed pretarsal characters of 87 species of Leiodidae (including 10 cholevines and representatives of all tribes and ca. 60% of the genera of non-cholevines), five species of Agyrtidae, and nine representatives of outgroup taxa (Hydraenidae, Staphylinidae, Hydrophilidae, and Histeridae) using scanning electron microscopy. We focused our observations on the architecture of the empodium (including the sclerites and associated setae), the shape and composition of the medial projection of the distal margin of the terminal tarsomere, and the armature of the claws, which were considered a promising source of information for delimiting supraspecific taxa in our previous study...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603865/correlates-between-calcaneal-morphology-and-locomotion-in-extant-and-extinct-carnivorous-mammals
#17
Elsa Panciroli, Christine Janis, Maximilion Stockdale, Alberto Martín-Serra
Locomotor mode is an important component of an animal's ecology, relating to both habitat and substrate choice (e.g., arboreal versus terrestrial) and in the case of carnivores, to mode of predation (e.g., ambush versus pursuit). Here, we examine how the morphology of the calcaneum, the 'heel bone' in the tarsus, correlates with locomotion in extant carnivores. Other studies have confirmed the correlation of calcaneal morphology with locomotion behaviour and habitat. The robust nature of the calcaneum means that it is frequently preserved in the fossil record...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573741/patterns-of-morphological-integration-between-parietal-and-temporal-areas-in-the-human-skull
#18
Emiliano Bruner, Ana Sofia Pereira-Pedro, Markus Bastir
Modern humans have evolved bulging parietal areas and large, projecting temporal lobes. Both changes, largely due to a longitudinal expansion of these cranial and cerebral elements, were hypothesized to be the result of brain evolution and cognitive variations. Nonetheless, the independence of these two morphological characters has not been evaluated. Because of structural and functional integration among cranial elements, changes in the position of the temporal poles can be a secondary consequence of parietal bulging and reorientation of the head axis...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573665/oligomeric-larvae-of-the-pycnogonids-revisited
#19
Nina Alexeeva, Ekaterina Bogomolova, Yuta Tamberg, Natalia Shunatova
Organization and ultrastructure of the protonymphon larva were never adequately described, despite it being the common larval type of the enigmatic sea spiders and the only example of oligosegmented life stage among recent chelicerates. We have made a comprehensive examination of the newly hatched free-living protonymphons of Nymphon brevirostre using SEM, TEM, light, and confocal microscopy. Although fairly typical in their broad characters, protonymphon larvae have a number of unique and unexpected traits...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568283/the-lungs-of-polypterus-senegalus-and-erpetoichthys-calabaricus-insights-into-the-structure-and-functional-distribution-of-the-pulmonary-epithelial-cells
#20
José M Icardo, Elvira Colvee, Michal Kuciel, Eugenia R Lauriano, Giacomo Zaccone
The present article is a comparative, structural study of the lung of Polypterus senegalus and Erpetoichthys calabaricus, two species representative of the two genera that constitute the Polypteriformes. The lung of the two species is an asymmetric, bi-lobed organ that arises from a slit-like opening in the ventral side of the pharynx. The wall is organized into layers, being thicker in P. senegalus. The inner epithelium contains ciliated and non-ciliated bands. The latter constitute the respiratory surface and are wider in E...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Morphology
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