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Journal of Morphology

Jing-Duan Huang, Shin-Yu Lee, Tzu-Yin Chiang, Chung-Cheng Lu, Mong-Fong Lee
The pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, is an important cephalopod fishery species in southeastern Asia, with understudied reproductive physiology. The present study aimed to investigate the cellular characteristics of epithelial cells found in the nidamental glands (NGs) and accessory NGs (ANGs), as well as the structural connections between these two glands in mature female S. pharaonis. A histological analysis revealed two types of epithelial cells in NGs: Alcian blue-positive, PAS-negative mucosubstance-secreting cells and eosinophilic, PAS-positive granule-secreting cells...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Morphology
George Lawrence Powell, Anthony P Russell, Jennifer Sutey
Postnatal growth patterns within the vertebral column may be informative about body proportions and regionalization. We measured femur length, lengths of all pre-sacral vertebrae, and lengths of intervertebral spaces, from radiographs of a series of 21 Eublepharis macularius, raised under standard conditions and covering most of the ontogenetic body size range. Vertebrae were grouped into cervical, sternal, and dorsal compartments, and lengths of adjacent pairs of vertebrae were summed before analysis. Femur length was included as an index of body size...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Sandra Nauwelaerts, Hilary M Clayton
Data describing segmental masses and moments of inertia (MOI) of limb segments are required for inverse dynamic calculations. In horses, these values are usually calculated using regression equations that have been developed from a limited number of horses representing a small number of breeds. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of a scaling method and a pictorial method for estimating of the values of segmental masses, lengths, and MOI in the equine limb segments by comparing their output with the standard technique involving direct measurements...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Brett R Aiello, Adam R Hardy, Chery Cherian, Aaron M Olsen, Courtney P Orsbon, Melina E Hale, Mark W Westneat
The organization of tissues in appendages often affects their mechanical properties and function. In the fish family Labridae, swimming behavior is associated with pectoral fin flexural stiffness and morphology, where fins range on a continuum from stiff to relatively flexible fins. Across this diversity, pectoral fin flexural stiffness decreases exponentially along the length of any given fin ray, and ray stiffness decreases along the chord of the fin from the leading to trailing edge. In this study, we examine the morphological properties of fin rays, including the effective modulus in bending (E), second moment of area (I), segmentation, and branching patterns, and their impact on fin ray stiffness...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Alois Lametschwandtner, Bernd Minnich
To demonstrate the 3D microvascular anatomy of the brain of the model organism Xenopus laevis Daudin scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts was correlated with light microscopy of stained 7 µm thick serial tissues sections. Results showed that supplying arteries descended from the leptomeningeal surface without remarkable branchings straight to the subventricular zone where they branched and capillarized. Capillaries showed few H- and/or Y-shaped anastomoses during their centrifugal course toward the leptomeningeal surface where they drained into cerebral venules and veins...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Lauren Sumner-Rooney, Julia D Sigwart
Molluscs demonstrate astonishing morphological diversity, and the relationships among clades have been debated for more than a century. Molluscan nervous systems range from simple 'ladder-like' cords to the complex brains of cephalopods. Chitons (Polyplacophora) are assumed to retain many molluscan plesiomorphies, lacking neural condensation and ganglionic structure, and therefore a brain. We reconstructed three-dimensional anatomical models of the nervous system in eight species of chitons in an attempt to clarify chiton neuroarchitecture and its variability...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Mari Carmen Uribe, Harry J Grier
The viviparous teleost Heterandria formosa is a remarkable species for its reproductive characters including: (a) the smallest oocyte in viviparous fish species; (b) a high level of matrotrophy with a complex placenta; and (c) the highest level of superfetation. Superfetation involves (d) the continuous development of oocytes and fertilization at the same time with embryos in gestation. The sequential fertilization of oocytes requires (e) storage of spermatozoa in the ovary. Among these characteristics, fertilization is of fundamental interest, specifically the intrafollicular fertilization of poeciliids, species that do not present micropyle, and the consequent formation of the fertilization plug, a structure developed at the periphery of the follicle where the entrance of spermatozoa occurs...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Elizabeth Psomas, Sholto Holdsworth, Paul Eggleton
Pselaphinae is a species-rich beetle subfamily found globally, with many exhibiting myrmecophily-a symbiotic association with ants. Pselaphine-ant associations vary from facultative to obligate, but direct behavioral observations still remain scarce. Pselaphines are speciose and ecologically abundant within tropical leaf litter invertebrate communities where ants dominate, implying a potentially important ecological role that may be affected by habitat disturbances that impact ants. In this study, we measured and analyzed putative functional traits of leaf litter pselaphines associated with myrmecophily through morphometric analysis...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Mónica C Soliz, María Laura Ponssa, Virginia Abdala
The development of the tetrapod pectoral and pelvic girdles is intimately linked to the proximal segments of the fore- and hindlimbs. Most studies on girdles are osteological and provide little information about soft elements such as muscles and tendons. Moreover, there are few comparative developmental studies. Comparative data gleaned from cleared-and-stained whole mounts and serial histological sections of 10 species of hylid frogs are presented here. Adult skeletal morphology, along with bones, muscles, and connective tissue of both girdles and their association with the proximal portions of the anuran fore- and hindlimbs are described...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Karly Elizabeth Cohen, L Patricia Hernandez
Filter feeding fishes possess several morphological adaptations necessary to capture and concentrate small particulate matter from the water column. Filter feeding teleosts typically employ elongated and tightly packed gill rakers with secondary bony or epithelial modifications that increase filtering efficiency. The gill rakers of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, silver carp, are anatomically distinct from and more complex than the filtering apparatus of other teleostean fishes. The silver carp filtering apparatus is composed of biserial, fused filtering plates used to capture particles ranging in size from 4 to 80 μm...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Marina L Sardi, G Germán Joosten, Cynthia D Pandiani, María Mercedes Gould, Marisol Anzelmo, Fernando Ventrice
In humans, the frontal sinus (FS) is located in the medial part of the supraorbital region, sometimes expanded throughout the frontal squama. It exhibits high morphological variability, but its general form appears to be constrained by surrounding structures. The goal of this study is to analyze FS growth and test for covariation between FS volume and the glabellar region, upper nasal region, bone thickness and endocranial size in a human sample from Argentina. The sample comprises 149 reconstructions derived from computed tomography images of individuals aged 0-31 years...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Katja Kienbaum, Gerhard Scholtz, Carola Becker
Recent studies revealed a high diversity of reproductive structures in heterotreme brachyurans, while those of Thoracotremata seem rather uniform. Yet, there still is a huge lack of data in this group as only few species have been studied with respect to their reproductive system. The phylogenetic position of Percnidae is ambiguous. Recent molecular studies place it within polyphyletic grapsoids. We herein study the reproductive morphology of Percnon gibbesi using histology, scanning electron microscopy, micro-computed tomography and 3D-reconstructions to test whether this species shows the characteristic thoracotreme pattern...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Virginia Abdala, María Laura Ponssa, María José Tulli, Anne-Claire Fabre, Anthony Herrel
Tendon collagen fibrils are the basic force-transmitting units of the tendon. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the diversity in tendon anatomy and ultrastructure, and the possible relationships between this diversity and locomotor modes utilized. Our main objectives were to investigate: (a) the ultra-structural anatomy of the tendons in the digits of frogs; (b) the diversity of collagen fibril diameters across frogs with different locomotor modes; (c) the relationship between morphology, as expressed by the morphology of collagen fibrils and tendons, and locomotor modes...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Jimena García-Rodríguez, Cheryl Lewis Ames, José Eduardo A R Marian, Antonio Carlos Marques
Cubozoans (box jellyfish) are gonochoristic cnidarians with distinct reproductive strategies. This comparative histological study examines the gonad organization of Alatina alata and Copula sivickisi, two box jellyfish species that exhibit different modes of internal fertilization. A. alata reproduces via spermcasting aggregations while C. sivickisi reproduces via copulation; in both cases, internal fertilization occurs in the gastrovascular cavity. Herein, we provide the first histological description of subgastric sacs-structures unique to C...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Eric Parmentier, Michael L Fine, Cécile Berthe, David Lecchini
Encheliophis chardewalli was described from a single cleared and stained specimen. Twelve years later, additional specimens were found in the lagoon of Moorea (French Polynesia) in association with their host, the sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana. These fish were used to consolidate the species diagnosis, to validate species status and to record sound production. This species is remarkable because of its ability to penetrate inside the cloaca of sea cucumbers having anal teeth and the fact this species is largely unknown despite it lives in lagoons in 1m depth...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Taro Nojiri, Ingmar Werneburg, Nguyen Truong Son, Vuong Tan Tu, Takenori Sasaki, Yu Maekawa, Daisuke Koyabu
Cochlear morphology has been regarded as one of the key traits to understand the origin and evolution of echolocation in bats, given its functionality and performance for receiving echolocation sonar. While numerous researchers have compared adult-stage morphology, few have studied the prenatal development of the cochlea. Here, we provide the first detailed three-dimensional description of the prenatal cranial development in bats, using Rhinolophus thomasi as a model, with particular interest to the petrosal which houses the cochlea...
June 2018: Journal of Morphology
Dylan K Wainwright, Sam Ingersoll, George V Lauder
Tunas of the genus Thunnus possess many morphological and physiological adaptations for their high-performance epipelagic ecology. Although Thunnus anatomy has been studied, there are no quantitative studies on the structure of their scales. We investigated the scales of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) from ten regions of the body using micro computed tomography (µCT)-scanning and histology to quantitatively and qualitatively compare regional scale morphology. We found a diversity of scale sizes and shapes across the body of bigeye tuna and discriminant function analysis on variables derived from µCT-data showed that scales across the body differ quantitatively in shape and size...
June 2018: Journal of Morphology
Alberto A Castro, Theodore Garland
We have used selective breeding with house mice to study coadaptation of morphology and physiology with the evolution of high daily levels of voluntary exercise. Here, we compared hindlimb bones and muscle masses from the 11th generation of four replicate High Runner (HR) lines of house mice bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running with four non-selected control (C) lines. Mass, length, diameter, and depth of the femur, tibia-fibula, and metatarsal bones, as well as masses of gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles, were compared by analysis of covariance with body mass or body length as the covariate...
June 2018: Journal of Morphology
Sofía Pestoni, Federico Javier Degrange, Claudia Patricia Tambussi, María Manuela Demmel Ferreira, Germán Alfredo Tirao
The cranio-mandibular complex is an important structure involved in food capture and processing. Its morphology is related to the nature of the food item. Jaw muscles enable the motion of this complex and their study is essential for functional and evolutionary analysis. The present study compares available behavioral and dietary data obtained from the literature with novel results from functional morphological analyses of the cranio-mandibular complex of the Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) to understand its relationship with the zoophagous trophic habit of this species...
June 2018: Journal of Morphology
Olga Vladimirovna Ezhova, Vladimir Vasil'yevich Malakhov, Ekaterina Alekseevna Egorova
Studies of echinoid microscopic anatomy over the last two centuries have created a number of inaccuracies and mistakes that have accumulated in the descriptions of the intricate organization of the coelomic system of Echinoidea. To clarify the situation, we reconstructed the axial complex and radial complex of the echinoid Strongylocentrotus pallidus. The water ring is located between the perivisceral coelom and the perioral coelom. The oral haemal ring lies between the coelothelia of the water-vascular, perivisceral, and perioral rings...
June 2018: Journal of Morphology
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