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Journal of Morphology

Taro Nojiri, Ingmar Werneburg, Nguyen Truong Son, Vuong Tan Tu, Takenori Sasaki, Yu Maekawa, Daisuke Koyabu
Cochlear morphology has been regarded as one of the key traits to understand the origin and evolution of echolocation in bats, given its functionality and performance for receiving echolocation sonar. While numerous researchers have compared adult-stage morphology, few have studied the prenatal development of the cochlea. Here, we provide the first detailed three-dimensional description of the prenatal cranial development in bats, using Rhinolophus thomasi as a model, with particular interest to the petrosal which houses the cochlea...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Eric Parmentier, Michael L Fine, Cécile Berthe, David Lecchini
Encheliophis chardewalli was described from a single cleared and stained specimen. Twelve years later, additional specimens were found in the lagoon of Moorea (French Polynesia) in association with their host, the sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana. These fish were used to consolidate the species diagnosis, to validate species status and to record sound production. This species is remarkable because of its ability to penetrate inside the cloaca of sea cucumbers having anal teeth and the fact this species is largely unknown despite it lives in lagoons in 1m depth...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Dylan K Wainwright, Sam Ingersoll, George V Lauder
Tunas of the genus Thunnus possess many morphological and physiological adaptations for their high-performance epipelagic ecology. Although Thunnus anatomy has been studied, there are no quantitative studies on the structure of their scales. We investigated the scales of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) from ten regions of the body using micro computed tomography (µCT)-scanning and histology to quantitatively and qualitatively compare regional scale morphology. We found a diversity of scale sizes and shapes across the body of bigeye tuna and discriminant function analysis on variables derived from µCT-data showed that scales across the body differ quantitatively in shape and size...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Alberto A Castro, Theodore Garland
We have used selective breeding with house mice to study coadaptation of morphology and physiology with the evolution of high daily levels of voluntary exercise. Here, we compared hindlimb bones and muscle masses from the 11th generation of four replicate High Runner (HR) lines of house mice bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running with four non-selected control (C) lines. Mass, length, diameter, and depth of the femur, tibia-fibula, and metatarsal bones, as well as masses of gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles, were compared by analysis of covariance with body mass or body length as the covariate...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Sofía Pestoni, Federico Javier Degrange, Claudia Patricia Tambussi, María Manuela Demmel Ferreira, Germán Alfredo Tirao
The cranio-mandibular complex is an important structure involved in food capture and processing. Its morphology is related to the nature of the food item. Jaw muscles enable the motion of this complex and their study is essential for functional and evolutionary analysis. The present study compares available behavioral and dietary data obtained from the literature with novel results from functional morphological analyses of the cranio-mandibular complex of the Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) to understand its relationship with the zoophagous trophic habit of this species...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Olga Vladimirovna Ezhova, Vladimir Vasil'yevich Malakhov, Ekaterina Alekseevna Egorova
Studies of echinoid microscopic anatomy over the last two centuries have created a number of inaccuracies and mistakes that have accumulated in the descriptions of the intricate organization of the coelomic system of Echinoidea. To clarify the situation, we reconstructed the axial complex and radial complex of the echinoid Strongylocentrotus pallidus. The water ring is located between the perivisceral coelom and the perioral coelom. The oral haemal ring lies between the coelothelia of the water-vascular, perivisceral, and perioral rings...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Morphology
William T Gough, Frank E Fish, Dylan K Wainwright, Hilary Bart-Smith
The cetacean tail fluke blades are not supported by any vertebral elements. Instead, the majority of the blades are composed of a densely packed collagenous fiber matrix known as the core layer. Fluke blades from six species of odontocete cetaceans were examined to compare the morphology and orientation of fibers at different locations along the spanwise and chordwise fluke blade axes. The general fiber morphology was consistent with a three-dimensional structure comprised of two-dimensional sheets of fibers aligned tightly in a laminated configuration along the spanwise axis...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Diego Castejón, Guiomar Rotllant, Enric Ribes, Mercè Durfort, Guillermo Guerao
The esophagus of the eucrustaceans is known as a short tube that connects the mouth with the stomach but has generally received little attention by the carcinologists, especially during the larval stages. By this reason, the present study is focused on the morphology and ultrastructure of the esophagus in the brachyuran Maja brachydactyla during the larval development and adult stage. The esophagus shows internally four longitudinal folds. The simple columnar epithelium is covered by a thick cuticle. The epithelial cells of the adults are intensively interdigitated and show abundant apical mitochondria and bundles of filamentous structures...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Yukine Urano, Kyo Tanoue, Ryoko Matsumoto, Soichiro Kawabe, Tomoyuki Ohashi, Shin-Ichi Fujiwara
The beak has independently been evolved accompanied by the edentulism in many tetrapod linages, including extant Testudinata and Aves, and its form and function have been greatly diversified. The beak is formed by beak bones and the overlying keratinous cover, although their profiles are different from each other. Therefore, it is difficult to reliably reconstruct the entire profile of the beak in extinct taxa, whose keratinous tissues are rarely preserved. For elucidation of the morphological relationship between beak bone and overlying keratinous cover, we compared the curvature distribution of the culminal profiles of the upper beak bone and the overlying keratinous cover (rhinotheca) with each other using CT-scan, in 66 extant testudinatan and avian specimens (Aves: 33 genera, 24 families; Testudinata: 12 genera seven families)...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Nafiseh Sanjarani Vahed, Hamid Reza Esmaeili, Mojtaba Masoudi, Mehregan Ebrahimi
The embryonic and early larval development of laboratory reared Zagros tooth-carp, Aphanius vladykovi Coad, 1988, are described and illustrated. Development and embryogenesis start with the external fertilization of sticky, transparent and spherical telolecithal/macrolecithal eggs with a mean diameter of 1.61± 0.12 mm and it continues with meroblastic/radial cleavage, blastulation/blastula formation, epibolic cell migration during gastrulation and organogenesis resulting in a newly hatched larvae of 5.23 ± 0...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Julien Benoit, Kenneth D Angielczyk, Juri A Miyamae, Paul Manger, Vincent Fernandez, Bruce Rubidge
Anomodontia was the most successful herbivorous clade of the mammalian stem lineage (non-mammalian synapsids) during the late Permian and Early Triassic. Among anomodonts, Dicynodontia stands apart because of the presence of an osseous beak that shows evidence of the insertion of a cornified sheath, the ramphotheca. In this study, fourteen anomodont specimens were microCT-scanned and their trigeminal canals reconstructed digitally to understand the origin and evolution of trigeminal nerve innervation of the ramphotheca...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Magdalena Kowalska, Weronika Rupik
We analyzed the development of the pancreatic ducts in grass snake Natrix natrix L. embryos with special focus on the three-dimensional (3D)-structure of the duct network, ultrastructural differentiation of ducts with attention to cell types and lumen formation. Our results indicated that the system of ducts in the embryonic pancreas of the grass snake can be divided into extralobular, intralobular, and intercalated ducts, similarly as in other vertebrate species. However, the pattern of branching was different from that in other vertebrates, which was related to the specific topography of the snake's internal organs...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Manuela Rebora, Jan Michels, Gianandrea Salerno, Lars Heepe, Elena Gorb, Stanislav Gorb
Based on analyses with cryo-scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the present study reports on the morphology and ultrastructure of the attachment structures of the green stinkbug Nezara viridula L. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a cosmopolitan pest of different crops in most areas of the world. In addition, the presence and distribution of large proportions of the elastic protein resilin in these structures was revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The attachment structures of each leg comprise two sclerotised claws, a pair of smooth flexible pulvilli and a hairy adhesive pad located at the ventral side of the basitarsus...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Rodrigo Ponce de León, Odile Volonterio
Ultrastructural studies of spermiogenesis and sperm morphology have found many characters that are likely to provide clues to the phylogeny of the Platyhelminthes. However, the lack of information on many free-living groups has been a limiting factor. There is a single description of the spermatogenesis and spermatozoa in a Phaenocora species, namely P. anomalocoela, therefore a similar analysis was made in Phaenocora unipunctata to compare the intrageneric variation of sperm ultrastructure and spermatogenesis in the Neotyphloplanida...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Denis O Lamoureux, Aaron R H LeBlanc, Michael W Caldwell
The transparency of soft tissue in Xenopus laevis tadpoles and the anterior-posterior orientation of their developing tooth germs in the upper jaw offer a unique opportunity for the in vivo charting of the first 15-20 days of the developing dentition. Twenty-two X. laevis tadpoles were anesthetized daily and their mouths opened to record the first appearance, position, and development of tooth germs in the upper jaw. The initiation patterns revealed considerable variability between animals, and even between the jaw quadrants in the same animal...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Watcharapong Hongjamrassilp, Adam P Summers, Philip A Hastings
The Sarcastic Fringehead (Neoclinus blanchardi, Teleostei) exhibits an extreme version of a common aggressive display, the "gaping display," in which an open mouth is presented toward an opponent. Males of this species have extremely long jaws that extend posteriorly well past the posterior margin of the head and are flared laterally during the gaping display. In this study, we explored morphological traits related to this extraordinary display in this and related species of blennies. Morphological modifications include enlargement of the buccopalatal membrane, elongation of the maxilla via an uncalcified posterior extension, and evolution of a novel hinge between the anterior maxilla and lacrimal bones permitting lateral movement of the upper jaw...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Isabel L Dittmann, Thomas Zauchner, Lucy M Nevard, Maximilian J Telford, Bernhard Egger
Acoel worms are simple, often microscopic animals with direct development, a multiciliated epidermis, a statocyst, and a digestive parenchyma instead of a gut epithelium. Morphological characters of acoels have been notoriously difficult to interpret due to their relative scarcity. The nervous system is one of the most accessible and widely used comparative features in acoels, which have a so-called commissural brain without capsule and several major longitudinal neurite bundles. Here, we use the selective binding properties of a neuropeptide antibody raised in echinoderms (SALMFamide2, or S2), and a commercial antibody against serotonin (5-HT) to provide additional characters of the acoel nervous system...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Nicole LaMassa, Cesar Arenas-Mena, Greg R Phillips
Nuclear egress, also referred to as nuclear envelope (NE) budding, is a process of transport in which vesicles containing molecular complexes or viral particles leave the nucleus through budding from the inner nuclear membrane (INM) to enter the perinuclear space. Following this event, the perinuclear vesicles (PNVs) fuse with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM), where they release their contents into the cytoplasm. Nuclear egress is thought to participate in many functions such as viral replication, cellular differentiation, and synaptic development...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Renan A de Moreira, Thiago S Loboda, Marcelo R de Carvalho
Claspers of stingrays (Myliobatiformes) are poorly documented in comparison to claspers of skates, with our knowledge restricted mainly to external morphological characters and skeletal components included in descriptions of new species; more encompassing morphological comparative analyses are lacking. Concerning potamotrygonins, clasper morphology has been described for a handful of species, but without elucidating their variation and systematic potential. The present article analyzed clasper structures in all genera of the subfamily Potamotrygoninae (Potamotrygon, Paratrygon, Plesiotrygon, and Heliotrygon), which were compared to the clasper of Styracura and some dasyatid genera...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Yan-Ru Zhang, Li-Li Ren, Lu Zhang, Rong Wang, Yang Yu, Peng-Fei Lu, You-Qing Luo
Chlorophorus caragana is a species of long-horned beetle that damages Caragana davazamcii Sancz. (Fabales: Papilionaceae) bushes in desert areas in China. The beetles cause substantial damage to local forestry plantations and the environment. Sensilla on the maxillary and labial palps of coleopterans a allow the insects to recognize their host plants. We used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to study the ultrastructure, distribution, and abundance of various sensilla on the maxillary and labial palps of C...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Morphology
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