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Journal of Comparative Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512739/normal-develompent-of-spinal-axons-in-early-embryo-stages-and-posterior-locomotor-function-is-independent-of-gal-1
#1
Juana M Pasquini, Francisco J Barrantes, Héctor R Quintá
It was recently described that Galectin-1 (Gal-1) promotes axonal growth after spinal cord injury. This effect depends on protein dimerization, since monomeric Gal-1 fails to stimulate axonal re-growth. Gal-1 is expressed in vivo at concentrations that favor the monomeric species. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether endogenous Gal-1 is required for spinal axon development and normal locomotor behavior in mice. In order to characterize axonal development, we used a novel combination of 3-DISCO technique with 1-photon microscopy and epifluorescence microscopy under high power LED illumination, followed by serial image section deconvolution and 3-D reconstruction...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510275/single-cell-transcriptome-profiling-of-developing-chick-retinal-cells
#2
Lauren A Laboissonniere, Gregory M Martin, Jillian J Goetz, Ran Bi, Brock Pope, Kallie Weinand, Laura Ellson, Diane Fru, Miranda Lee, Andrea K Wester, Peng Liu, Jeffrey M Trimarchi
The vertebrate retina is a specialized photosensitive tissue comprised of six neuronal and one glial cell types, each of which develops in prescribed proportions at overlapping timepoints from a common progenitor pool. While each of these cells has a specific function contributing to proper vision in the mature animal, their differential representation in the retina as well as the presence of distinctive cellular subtypes makes identifying the transcriptomic signatures that lead to each retinal cell's fate determination and development challenging...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510270/mouse-fgf8-cre-lacz-lineage-analysis-defines-the-territory-of-the-postnatal-mammalian-isthmus
#3
Charles Watson, Tomomi Shimogori, Luis Puelles
The isthmus is recognized as the most rostral segment of the hindbrain in non-mammalian vertebrates . In mammalian embryos, transient Fgf8 expression defines the developing isthmic region, lying between the midbrain and the first rhombomere, but there has been uncertainty about the existence of a distinct isthmic segment in postnatal mammals. We attempted to find if the region of early embryonic Fgf8 expression (which is considered to involve the entire extent of the prospective isthmus initially) might help to identify the boundaries of the isthmus in postnatal animals...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498492/multiple-roles-of-afadin-in-the-ultrastructural-morphogenesis-of-mouse-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses
#4
Kousyoku Sai, Shujie Wang, Aika Kaito, Takeshi Fujiwara, Tomohiko Maruo, Yu Itoh, Muneaki Miyata, Shotaro Sakakibara, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Kazuyoshi Murata, Yuuki Yamaguchi, Tomohiro Haruta, Hideo Nishioka, Yuki Motojima, Miyuki Komura, Kazushi Kimura, Kenji Mandai, Yoshimi Takai, Akira Mizoguchi
A hippocampal mossy fiber synapse, which is implicated in learning and memory, has a complex structure in which mossy fiber boutons attach to the dendritic shaft by puncta adherentia junctions (PAJs) and wrap around a multiply-branched spine, forming synaptic junctions. Here, we electron microscopically analyzed the ultrastructure of this synapse in afadin-deficient mice. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that typical PAJs with prominent symmetrical plasma membrane darkening undercoated with the thick filamentous cytoskeleton were observed in the control synapse, whereas in the afadin-deficient synapse, atypical PAJs with the symmetrical plasma membrane darkening, which was much less in thickness and darkness than those of the control typical PAJs, were observed...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472866/innervation-of-the-syrinx-of-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#5
Macarena Faunes, João F Botelho, J Martin Wild
In songbirds the learning and maintenance of song is dependent on auditory feedback, but little is known about the presence or role of other forms of sensory feedback. Here we studied the innervation of the avian vocal organ, the syrinx, in the zebra finch. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and neural tracing with subunit B of cholera toxin (CTB), we analysed the peripheral and central endings of the branch of the hypoglossal nerve that supplies the syrinx, the tracheosyringeal nerve...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472863/sexually-selected-size-differences-and-conserved-sexual-monomorphism-of-genital-cortex
#6
Simon M Lauer, Constanze Lenschow, Michael Brecht
The mammalian somatosensory cortex shows marked species-specific differences. How evolution in general and sexual selection in particular shape the somatosensory cortical body representation has not been delineated, however. Here we address this issue by a comparative analysis of genital cortex. Genitals are unique body parts in that they show sexual dimorphism, major changes in puberty and typically more pronounced species differences than other body parts (Hosken and Stockley, 2004). To study the evolution of genital cortex we flattened cortical hemispheres and assembled 104 complete body maps, revealed by cytochrome oxidase activity in layer 4 of 8 rodent and 1 lagomorph species...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472858/selective-neuronal-expression-of-the-soxe-factor-sox8-in-direct-pathway-striatal-projection-neurons-of-the-developing-mouse-brain
#7
Paloma Merchan-Sala, Diana Nardini, Ronald R Waclaw, Kenneth Campbell
The striatum is the major component of the basal ganglia and is well known to play a key role in the control of motor function via balanced output from the indirect (iSPNs) and direct pathway striatal projection neurons (dSPNs). Little is known, however, about the molecular genetic mechanisms that control the formation of the iSPNs versus dSPNs. We show here that the SoxE family member, Sox8, is co-expressed with the dSPN marker, Isl1, in the developing striatum. Moreover, dSPNs, as marked by Isl1-cre fate map, express Sox8 in the embryonic striatum and Sox8-EGFP BAC transgenic mice specifically reveal the direct pathway axons during development...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472857/c-fos-and-arc-arg3-1-expression-in-auditory-and-visual-cortices-after-hearing-loss-evidence-of-sensory-crossmodal-reorganization-in-adult-rats
#8
M Pernia, S Estevez, C Poveda, I Plaza, J Carro, M Juiz, M A Merchan
Cross-modal reorganization in the auditory and visual cortices has been reported after hearing and visual deficits mostly during the developmental period, possibly underlying sensory compensation mechanisms. However, there are very few data on the existence or nature and timeline of such reorganization events during sensory deficits in adulthood. In this study, we assessed long-term changes in activity-dependent immediate early genes c-Fos and Arc/Arg3.1 in auditory and neighboring visual cortical areas after bilateral deafness in young adult rats...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472856/multiple-cell-types-form-the-vip-amacrine-cell-population
#9
Luis Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Alexander Solomon, Kristopher Sheets, Hinekura Hapukino, Allen Rodriguez, Nicholas C Brecha
Amacrine cells are a heterogeneous group of interneurons that form microcircuits with bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells to process visual information in the inner retina. This study has characterized the morphology, neurochemistry and major cell types of a VIP-ires-Cre amacrine cell population. VIP-tdTomato and -Confetti (Brainbow2.1) mouse lines were generated by crossing a VIP-ires-Cre line with either a Cre-dependent tdTomato or Brainbow2.1 reporter line. Retinal sections and whole-mounts were evaluated by quantitative, immunohistochemical and intracellular labeling approaches...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472854/reorganization-of-the-septohippocampal-cholinergic-fiber-system-in-experimental-epilepsy
#10
Joana I Soares, Maria C Valente, Pedro A Andrade, Gisela H Maia, Nikolai V Lukoyanov
The septohippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission has long been implicated in seizures, but little is known about the structural features of this projection system in epileptic brain. We evaluated the effects of experimental epilepsy on the areal density of cholinergic terminals (fiber varicosities) in the dentate gyrus. For this purpose, we used two distinct post-status epilepticus rat models, in which epilepsy was induced with injections of either kainic acid or pilocarpine. To visualize the cholinergic fibers, we used brain sections immunostained for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449299/arnold-bernard-scheibel-m-d-1923-2017
#11
Bob Jacobs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445613/neuronal-distribution-of-tyramine-and-the-tyramine-receptor-amtar1-in-the-honeybee-brain
#12
Markus Thamm, Christina Scholl, Tina Reim, Kornelia Grübel, Karin Möller, Wolfgang Rössler, Ricarda Scheiner
Tyramine is an important neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and neurohormone in insects. In honeybees, it is assumed to have functions in modulating sensory responsiveness and controlling motor behavior. Tyramine can bind to two characterized receptors in honeybees, both of which are coupled to intracellular cAMP pathways. How tyramine acts on neuronal, cellular and circuit levels is unclear. We investigated the spatial brain expression of the tyramine receptor AmTAR1 using a specific antibody. This antibody detects a membrane protein of the expected molecular weight in western blot analysis...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425097/seizure-frequency-correlates-with-loss-of-dentate-gyrus-gabaergic-neurons-in-a-mouse-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
Paul S Buckmaster, Emily Abrams, Xiling Wen
Epilepsy occurs in one of 26 people. Temporal lobe epilepsy is common and can be difficult to treat effectively. It can develop after brain injuries that damage the hippocampus. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms involving the hippocampal dentate gyrus have been proposed. This study evaluated a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy to test which pathological changes in the dentate gyrus correlate with seizure frequency and help prioritize potential mechanisms for further study. FVB mice (n = 127) that had experienced status epilepticus after systemic treatment with pilocarpine 31-61 days earlier were video-monitored for spontaneous, convulsive seizures 9 hr/day every day for 24-36 days...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420031/the-ventromedial-hypothalamic-nucleus-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata-afferent-and-efferent-projections-in-relation-to-the-control-of-reproductive-behaviour
#14
J Martin Wild
Sex-specific mating behaviors occur in a variety of mammals, with the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) mediating control of male and female sexual behaviour, respectively. In birds, likewise, POM is predominantly involved in the control of male reproductive behaviour, but the degree to which VMH is involved in female reproductive behaviour is unclear. Here, in male and female zebra finches, a combination of aromatase immunohistochemistry and conventional tract tracing facilitated the definition of two separate but adjacent nuclei in the basal hypothalamus: an oblique band of aromatase-positive (AR+) neurons, and ventromedial to this, an ovoid, aromatase-negative (AR-) nucleus...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395119/spatial-and-temporal-expression-profiles-of-urocortin-3-mrna-in-the-brain-of-the-chicken-gallus-gallus
#15
Sylvia V H Grommen, Melissa K Scott, Veerle M Darras, Bert De Groef
Urocortin 3 (UCN3) is a neuropeptide believed to regulate stress-coping responses by binding to type 2 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors. Here we report the cloning and brain distribution of UCN3 mRNA in a sauropsid - the chicken, Gallus gallus. Mature chicken UCN3 is predicted to be a 40-amino acid peptide showing high sequence similarity to human (93%), mouse (93%), and Xenopus (88%) UCN3. During the last third of embryonic development, UCN3 mRNA levels changed differentially in the various brain parts...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395115/the-brain-of-the-tree-pangolin-manis-tricuspis-i-general-appearance-of-the-central-nervous-system
#16
Aminu Imam, Moyosore S Ajao, Adhil Bhagwandin, Amadi O Ihunwo, Paul R Manger
Here, we describe the superficial appearance of the brain of the rarely studied tree pangolin. Phylogenetic analyses have placed the pangolins, order Pholidota, as a sister group to the order Carnivora. The majority of features visible on the surface of the tree pangolin brain, and its overall appearance can be described as typically mammalian. The pattern of sulci and gyri, while simple, appears very similar to that observed in carnivores. Two derived features of the Pholidota were observed, the first being the rostral decussation of the pyramidal tract, which instead of occurring at the spinomedullary junction, decussates at the level of the caudal pole of the facial nerve nucleus in the rostral medulla oblongata...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387937/specific-connections-of-the-interpeduncular-subnuclei-reveal-distinct-components-of-the-habenulopeduncular-pathway
#17
Lely A Quina, Julie Harris, Hongkui Zeng, Eric E Turner
The habenulopeduncular pathway consists of the medial habenula (MHb), its output tract, the fasciculus retroflexus, and its principal target, the interpeduncular nucleus (IP). Several IP subnuclei have been described, but their specific projections and relationship to habenula inputs are not well understood. Here we have used viral, transgenic, and conventional anterograde and retrograde tract-tracing methods to better define the relationship between the dorsal and ventral MHb, the IP, and the secondary efferent targets of this system...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369996/morphological-basis-for-a-tonotopic-design-of-an-insect-ear
#18
Jennifer Hummel, Manfred Kössl, Manuela Nowotny
The tonotopically organized hearing organs of bushcrickets provide the opportunity for a detailed correlation of morphological and structural properties within hearing organs that are needed to establish tonotopic gradients. In the present study of a tonotopic insect hearing organ, we combine mechanical measurements of sound-induced hearing organ motion and detailed anatomical investigations to explore the anatomical basis of tonotopy. We compare mechanical data of frequency responses along the auditory organ to several anatomical parameters...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340511/quantitative-mapping-reveals-age-and-sex-differences-in-vasopressin-but-not-oxytocin-immunoreactivity-in-the-rat-social-behavior-neural-network
#19
Brett T DiBenedictis, Elizabeth R Nussbaum, Harry K Cheung, Alexa H Veenema
The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have been implicated in the regulation of numerous social behaviors in adult and juvenile animals. AVP and OT signaling predominantly occur within a circuit of interconnected brain regions known collectively as the "social behavior neural network" (SBNN). Importantly, AVP and OT signaling within the SBNN has been shown to differentially regulate diverse social behaviors, depending on the age and/or sex of the animal. We hypothesized that variation in the display of these behaviors is due in part to age and sex differences in AVP and OT synthesis within the SBNN...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340505/afferent-and-efferent-connections-of-the-interpeduncular-nucleus-with-special-reference-to-circuits-involving-the-habenula-and-raphe-nuclei
#20
Leandro B Lima, Debora Bueno, Fernanda Leite, Stefani Souza, Luciano Gonçalves, Isadora C Furigo, Jose Donato, Martin Metzger
The habenula is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). Recently, MHb together with its primary target, the interpeduncular nucleus (IP), have been identified as major players in mediating the aversive effects of nicotine. However, structures downstream of the MHb-IP axis, including the median (MnR) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC), may contribute to the behavioral effects of nicotine. The afferent and efferent connections of the IP have hitherto not been systematically investigated with sensitive tracers...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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