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Journal of Comparative Neurology

Elise M Bragg, Elizabeth A Fairless, Shiyuan Liu, Farran Briggs
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a unique brain structure at the interface between the thalamus and the cortex. Because the TRN receives bottom-up sensory input and top-down cortical input, it could serve as an integration hub for sensory and cognitive signals. Functional evidence supports broad roles for the TRN in arousal, attention, and sensory selection. How specific circuits connecting the TRN with sensory thalamic structures implement these functions is not known. The structural organization and function of the TRN is particularly interesting in the context of highly organized sensory systems, such as the primate visual system, where neurons in the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (dLGN) are morphologically and physiologically distinct and also specialized for processing particular features of the visual environment...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Andreas Arendt, El-Sayed Baz, Monika Stengl
The circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia (Leucophaea) maderae is located in the accessory medulla (AME). Ipsi- and contralateral histaminergic compound eyes are required for photic entrainment. Light pulses delayed locomotor activity rhythms during the early night and advanced during the late night. Thus, different neuronal pathways might relay either light-dependent delays or advances to the clock. Injections of neuroactive substances combined with running-wheel assays suggested that GABA, PDF, myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs), and orcokinins (ORCs) are part of both entrainment pathways, while allatotropin (AT) only delayed locomotor rhythms at the early night...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Barbara J Morley, Anna Lysakowski, Sarath Vijayakumar, Deanna Menapace, Timothy A Jones
Little is known about the function of the cholinergic efferents innervating peripheral vestibular hair cells. We measured vestibular sensory evoked potentials (VsEPs) in α9 knockout mice, α10 knockout mice, α7 knockout mice, α9/10 and α7/9 double knockouts, and wild type controls. We also studied the morphology and ultrastructure of efferent terminals on vestibular hair cells in α9, α10 and α9/10 knockouts. Both type I and type ll vestibular hair cells express the α9 and α10 subunits. The efferent boutons on vestibular cells in α9, α10 and α9/10 knockouts appeared normal, but a quantitative analysis was not performed...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Jun Yamada, Shozo Jinno
Subsets of GABAergic neurons are surrounded by perineuronal nets (PNNs), which play a critical role in regulation of neural plasticity and neuroprotection. Although the plant lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) has been commonly used to label PNNs, WFA just detects N-acetyl-D -galactosamine on aggrecan, a member of the lectican family. In this study, we used WFA and the antibody against the core protein of aggrecan (ACAN) to investigate the molecular heterogeneity of aggrecan-based PNNs around five subclasses of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) GABAergic neurons in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the mouse hippocampus...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Dirk M Lang, Maria Del Mar Romero-Alemán, Bryony Dobson, Elena Santos, Maximina Monzón-Mayor
The myelin-associated protein Nogo-A contributes to the failure of axon regeneration in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Inhibition of axon growth by Nogo-A is mediated by the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR). Nonmammalian vertebrates, however, are capable of spontaneous CNS axon regeneration, and we have shown that retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons regenerate in the lizard Gallotia galloti. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed spatiotemporal regulation of Nogo-A and NgR in cell bodies and axons of RGCs during ontogeny...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Mario F Wullimann
The quadripartite model of the telencephalic pallium of amniotes offered by the Puelles school includes a medial,dorsal, lateral and ventral pallium. Watson and Puelles (2016; this issue) now newly propose that the mammalian ventral pallium gives rise to not only all of the pallial amygdala but also the olfactory cortex which hitherto was considered to arise from lateral pallium. Thus, the region of the lateral pallium was misidentified in the quadripartite model since the designated histogenetic unit gives rise to the insular cortex/claustrum and should therefore be considered a most ventrolateral part of the dorsal pallium (its ventrolateral subdivision)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Nancy Lee, Carolyn E Rydyznski, Matthew S Rasch, Dennis S Trinh, A John MacLennan
Exogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration promotes the survival of motor neurons in a wide range of models. It also increases the expression of the critical neurotransmitter enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), by in vitro motor neurons, likely independent of its effects on their survival. We have used the adult mouse facial nerve crush model and adult onset conditional disruption of the CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα) gene to directly examine the in vivo roles played by endogenous CNTF receptors in adult motor neuron survival and ChAT maintenance, independent of developmental functions...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Heather M Gransee, Maria A Gonzalez Porras, Wen-Zhi Zhan, Gary C Sieck, Carlos B Mantilla
Cervical spinal hemisection at C2 (SH) removes premotor drive to phrenic motoneurons located in segments C3-C5 in rats. Spontaneous recovery of ipsilateral diaphragm muscle activity is associated with increased phrenic motoneuron expression of glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and decreased expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid (AMPA) receptors. Glutamatergic receptor expression is regulated by tropomyosin related kinase receptor subtype B (TrkB) signaling in various neuronal systems and increased TrkB receptor expression in phrenic motoneurons enhances recovery post-SH...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Dennis R Tabuena, Allan Solis, Ken Geraldi, Christopher A Moffatt, Megumi Fuse
Many organisms respond to noxious stimuli with defensive maneuvers. This is noted in the hornworm, Manduca sexta, as a defensive strike response. After tissue damage, organisms typically display sensitized responses to both noxious or normally innocuous stimuli. To further understand this phenomenon, we used novel in situ and in vitro preparations based on paired extracellular nerve recordings and videography to identify central and peripheral nerves responsible for nociception and sensitization of the defensive behavior in M...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Lizen Benoit, Hutlet Bertrand, Bissen Diane, Sauvegarde Deborah, Hermant Maryse, Ahn Marie-Thérèse, Gofflot Françoise
Hoxa5 is a member of the Hox gene family that plays critical roles in successive steps of the central nervous system formation during embryonic and fetal development. Hoxa5 expression in the adult mouse brain has been reported suggesting that this gene may be functionally required in the brain after birth. To provide further insight into the Hoxa5 expression pattern and potential functions in the brain, we have characterized its neuroanatomical profile from embryonic stages to adulthood. While most Hox mapping studies have been based solely on transcript analysis, we extended our analysis to HOXA5 protein localization in adulthood using specific antibodies...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Hongxia Liu, Andrew S French, Päivi H Torkkeli
The spider, Cupiennius salei, central and peripheral nervous system transcriptomes have 15 Cys-loop receptor subunits and an acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP). Twelve subunits are predicted to form anion channels gated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, histamine or changes in pH, and three are putative ACh gated cation channels. Spiders have a variety of mechanosensilla and proprioceptive organs that are innervated by efferents in their peripherally located parts, and efferents also innervate muscle fibers...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Igor Pushchin
We studied the morphology and diversity of retinal ganglion cells in Steller's sculpin Myoxocephalus stelleri. The cells were retrogradely labeled with horseradish peroxidase and examined in retinal wholemounts. A sample of 123 cells were camera lucida-drawn and digitized. A total of 18 structural parameters were estimated for each cell. The cells were classified using 10 clustering algorithms. The optimum solution was determined using silhouette analysis. It contained eight clusters and was based on three variables: dendritic field area, vitread stratification boundary, and stratification range...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Merve Kasap, Kendra Bonnett, Eric J Aamodt, Donard S Dwyer
The Na(+) leak-current channel (NALCN) regulates locomotion, respiration and intellectual development. Previous work highlighted striking similarities between characteristic movement phenotypes of NALCN-deficient animals (Drosophila and C. elegans) and the major symptoms of Parkinson's disease and primary progressive freezing gait. We have discovered novel physiological connections between the NALCN, K(+) channels and gap junctions that mediate regulation of locomotion in C. elegans. Drugs that block K(+) channels and gap junctions or that activate Ca(++) channels significantly improve movement of NALCN-deficient animals...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Ana Milosevic, Thomas Liebmann, Margarete Knudsen, Nicoletta Schintu, Per Svenningsson, Paul Greengard
P11 (S100a10), a member of the S100 family of proteins, has widespread distribution in the vertebrate body, including in the brain, where it has a key role in membrane trafficking, vesicle secretion and endocytosis. Recently, our laboratory has shown that a constitutive knockout of p11 (p11 KO) in mice results in a depressive-like phenotype. Furthermore, p11 has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) and in the actions of antidepressants. Since depression affects multiple brain regions, and the role of p11 has only been determined in a few of these areas, a detailed analysis of p11 expression in the brain is warranted...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Joanna Peris, Kaley MacFadyen, Justin A Smith, Annette D de Kloet, Lei Wang, Eric G Krause
The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) circuitry determines which behaviors are positively reinforcing and therefore should be encoded in the memory to become a part of the behavioral repertoire. Natural reinforcers, like food and sex, activate this pathway, thereby increasing the likelihood of further consummatory, social, and sexual behaviors. Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in mediating natural reward and OT-synthesizing neurons project to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc); however, direct neuroanatomical evidence of OT regulation of DA neurons within the VTA is sparse...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Christine J Charvet, Patrick R Hof, Mary Ann Raghanti, Andre J van der Kouwe, Chet C Sherwood, Emi Takahashi
The isocortex of primates is disproportionately expanded relative to many other mammals. Yet, little is known about what the expansion of the isocortex entails for differences in cellular composition and connectivity patterns in primates. Across the depth of the isocortex, neurons exhibit stereotypical patterns of projections. Upper layer neurons (i.e., layers II-IV) project within and across cortical areas whereas many lower layer pyramidal neurons (i.e., layers V-VI) favor connections to subcortical regions...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Miki Takeuchi, Shingo Yamaguchi, Masayoshi Sakakibara, Takuto Hayashi, Koji Matsuda, Yuichiro Hara, Chiharu Tanegashima, Takashi Shimizu, Shigehiro Kuraku, Masahiko Hibi
The structure of the neural circuitry of the cerebellum, which functions in some types of motor learning and coordination, is generally conserved among vertebrates. However, some cerebellar features are species-specific. It is not clear which genes are involved in forming these conserved and species-specific structures and functions. Here, using zebrafish transgenic larvae expressing fluorescent proteins in granule cells, Purkinje cells, or other cerebellar neurons and glial cells, we isolated each type of cerebellar cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and profiled their gene expressions by RNA sequencing and in situ hybridization...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Martin O Bohlen, Susan Warren, Michael J Mustari, Paul J May
In this study, two points related to the pattern of innervation of the extraocular muscles were explored. 1. Species differences exist in the location of the motoneurons supplying multiply innervated fibers (MIFs) and singly innervated fibers (SIFs) in eye muscles. MIF motoneurons are located outside the extraocular nuclei in primates, but are intermixed with SIF motoneurons within rat extraocular nuclei. To test whether this difference is related to visual capacity and frontal placement of eyes, we injected retrograde tracers into the medial rectus muscle of the cat, a highly visual, non-primate with frontally placed eyes...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Marie Barbier, Christophe Houdayer, Gabrielle Franchi, Fabrice Poncet, Pierre-Yves Risold
The claustrum is a small, elongated nucleus close to the external capsule and deep in the insular cortex. In rodents, this nucleus is characterized by a dense cluster of parvalbumin labeling. The claustrum is connected with the cerebral cortex. It does not project to the brainstem, but brainstem structures can influence this nucleus. To identify some specific projections from the lateral hypothalamus and midbrain, we analyzed the distribution of projections labeled with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), and hypocretin (Hcrt) in the region of the claustrum...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Franziska Schmitt, Jens T Vanselow, Andreas Schlosser, Christian Wegener, Wolfgang Rössler
Cataglyphis desert ants exhibit an age-related polyethism with ants performing tasks in the dark nest for the first ∼4 weeks of their adult life before they switch to visually based long-distance navigation to forage. While behavioral and sensory aspects of this transition have been studied, the internal factors triggering the behavioral changes are largely unknown. We suggest the neuropeptide families Allatostatin A (AstA), Allatotropin (AT), short neuropeptide F (sNPF), and Tachykinin (TK) as potential candidates...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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