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Journal of Comparative Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446088/the-second-visual-system-of-the-tree-shrew
#1
REVIEW
Heywood M Petry, Martha E Bickford
This review provides a historical account of the discovery of secondary visual pathways (from retina to the superior colliculus to the dorsal thalamus and extrastriate cortex), and Vivien Casagrande's pioneering studies of this system using the tree shrew as a model. Subsequent studies of visual pathways in the tree shrew are also reviewed, beginning with a description of the organization and central projections of the tree shrew retina. The organization and connectivity of 2nd visual system components, that include the retino-recipient superior colliculus, tecto-recipient pulvinar nucleus and its projections, and the tecto-recipient dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and its projections are detailed...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441578/cell-type-specific-tracing-of-the-subcortical-input-to-primary-visual-cortex-from-the-basal-forebrain
#2
Georgina A Lean, Yong-Jun Liu, David C Lyon
The basal forebrain provides cholinergic inputs to primary visual cortex (V1) that play a key modulatory role on visual function. While basal forebrain afferents terminate in the infragranular layers of V1, acetylcholine is delivered to more superficial layers through volume transmission. Nevertheless, direct synaptic contact in deep layers 5 and 6 may provide a more immediate effect on V1 modulation. Using helper viruses with cell type specific promoters to target retrograde infection of pseudotyped and genetically modified rabies virus evidence was found for direct synaptic input onto V1 inhibitory neurons...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427506/anatomical-characterization-of-pdf-tri-neurons-and-peptidergic-neurons-associated-with-eclosion-behavior-in-drosophila
#3
Mareike Selcho, Barbara Mühlbauer, Ronja Hensgen, Sakiko Shiga, Christian Wegener, Kouji Yasuyama
The peptidergic PDF-Tri neurons are a group of non-clock neurons that appear transiently around the time of adult ecdysis (=eclosion) in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. This specific developmental pattern points to a function of these neurons in eclosion or other processes that are active around pupal-adult transition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424434/immunolocalization-of-muscarinic-m1-receptor-in-the-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Satoko Oda, Yousuke Tsuneoka, Sachine Yoshida, Satomi Adachi-Akahana, Masanori Ito, Masaru Kuroda, Hiromasa Funato
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been considered to participate in many higher cognitive functions, such as memory formation and spatial navigation. These cognitive functions are modulated by cholinergic afferents via muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Previous pharmacological studies have strongly suggested that the M1 receptor (M1R) is the most important subtype among muscarinic receptors to perform these cognitive functions. Actually, M1R is abundant in mPFC. However, the proportion of somata containing M1R among cortical cellular types, and the precise intracellular localization of M1R remain unclear...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424431/inhibitory-and-modulatory-inputs-to-the-vocal-central-pattern-generator-of-a-teleost-fish
#5
Elisabeth Rosner, Kevin N Rohmann, Andrew H Bass, Boris P Chagnaud
Vocalization is a behavioral feature that is shared among multiple vertebrate lineages, including fish. The temporal patterning of vocal communication signals is set, in part, by central pattern generators (CPGs). Toadfishes are well-established models for CPG coding of vocalization at the hindbrain level. The vocal CPG comprises three topographically separate nuclei: pre-pacemaker, pacemaker, motor. While the connectivity between these nuclei is well understood, their neurochemical profile remains largely unexplored...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424424/adult-specific-insulin-producing-neurons-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Yuya Ohhara, Satoru Kobayashi, Kimiko Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Naoki Yamanaka
Holometabolous insects undergo metamorphosis to reorganize their behavioral and morphological features into adult-specific ones. In the central nervous system (CNS), some larval neurons undergo programmed cell death, whereas others go through remodeling of axonal and dendritic arbors to support functions of re-established adult organs. Although there are multiple neuropeptides that have stage-specific roles in holometabolous insects, the reorganization pattern of the entire neuropeptidergic system through metamorphosis still remains largely unclear...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424420/neuroanatomical-details-of-the-lateral-neurons-of-drosophila-melanogaster-support-their-functional-role-in-the-circadian-system
#7
Frank K Schubert, Nicolas Hagedorn, Taishi Yoshii, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Dirk Rieger
Drosophila melanogaster is a long-standing model organism in the circadian clock research. A major advantage is the relative small numbers of about 150 neurons, which built the circadian clock in Drosophila. In our recent work, we focused on the neuroanatomical properties of the lateral neurons of the clock network. By applying the multicolor-labeling technique Flybow we were able to identify the anatomical similarity of the previously described E2 subunit of the evening oscillator of the clock, which is built by the 5th small ventrolateral neuron (5th s-LNv ) and one ITP positive dorsolateral neuron (LNd )...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424419/neurotransmitter-diversity-in-pre-synaptic-terminals-located-in-the-parvicellular-neuroendocrine-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-rat-and-mouse-hypothalamus
#8
Caroline S Johnson, Jaideep S Bains, Alan G Watts
Virtually all rodent neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH) neurons are in the dorsal medial parvicellular (mpd) part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH). They form the final common pathway for adrenocortical stress responses. Their activity is controlled by sets of GABA-, glutamate-, and catecholamine-containing inputs arranged in an interactive pre-motor network. Defining the nature and arrangement of these inputs can help clarify how stressor type and intensity information is conveyed to neuroendocrine neurons...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405296/comparative-analysis-of-the-transcriptome-of-injured-nerve-segments-reveals-spatiotemporal-responses-to-neural-damage-in-mice
#9
Jung Eun Shin, Hongseok Ha, Eun Hye Cho, Yoon Ki Kim, Yongcheol Cho
Nerves are particularly vulnerable to damage due to their unique structure with meter-long axons. In the peripheral nervous system neurons and Schwann cells can activate the injury-response program that directs axons to either regenerate or degenerate after traumatic nerve injury. However, the differences between the genetic programs driving nerve regeneration and degeneration have not yet been described extensively. To understand these differences, in this study we have compared the injury-induced transcriptomic changes between the regenerating proximal segment and the degenerating distal segment of a transected nerve, at different post-injury time points...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405294/development-of-on-and-off-cholinergic-amacrine-cells-in-the-human-fetal-retina
#10
Chi Zhang, Wan-Qing Yu, Akina Hoshino, Jing Huang, Fred Rieke, Thomas A Reh, Rachel O L Wong
Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expressing retinal amacrine cells are present across vertebrates. These interneurons play important roles in the development of retinal projections to the brain and in motion detection, specifically in generating direction-selective responses to moving stimuli. ChAT amacrine cells typically comprise two spatially segregated populations that form circuits in the 'ON' or 'OFF' synaptic layers of the inner retina. This stereotypic arrangement is also found across the adult human retina, with the notable exception that ChAT expression is evident in the ON but not OFF layer of the fovea, a region specialized for high-acuity vision...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405287/gray-matter-volume-of-the-anterior-insular-cortex-and-social-networking
#11
Alfredo Spagna, Alexander J Dufford, Qiong Wu, Tingting Wu, Weihao Zheng, Edgar E Coons, Patrick R Hof, Bin Hu, Yanhong Wu, Jin Fan
In human life, social context requires the engagement in complex interactions among individuals as the dynamics of social networks. The evolution of the brain as the neurological basis of the mind must be crucial in supporting this process. Although the relationship between social networking and the amygdala, a small but core region for emotion processing, has been reported, other structures supporting sophisticated social interactions must be involved and need to be identified. In this study, we examined the relationship between morphology of the anterior insular cortex (AIC), a structure involved in basic and high-level cognition, and social networking...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405286/highly-segregated-localization-of-the-functionally-related-vps10p-receptors-sortilin-and-sorcs2-during-neurodevelopment
#12
Simon Boggild, Simon Molgaard, Simon Glerup, Jens Randel Nyengaard
Nervous system development is a precisely orchestrated series of events requiring a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Sortilin and SorCS2 are members of the Vps10p receptor family with complementary influence on some of these cues including the neurotrophins. However, the developmental time points where sortilin and SorCS2 exert their activities in conjunction or independently still remain unclear. In this study we present the characterization of the spatiotemporal expression pattern of sortilin and SorCS2 in the developing murine nervous system...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380378/auditory-dum-neurons-in-a-bush-cricket-a-filter-bank-for-carrier-frequency
#13
Paule Chloé Lefebvre, Marvin Seifert, Andreas Stumpner
In bush-crickets the first stage of central auditory processing occurs in the prothoracic ganglion. About 15 to 50 different auditory dorsal unpaired median neurons (DUM neurons) exist but they have not been studied in any detail. These DUM-neurons may be classified into seven different morphological types, although, there is only limited correlation between morphology and physiological responses. 97% of the stained neurons were local, 3% were intersegmental. About 90% project nearly exclusively into the auditory neuropile, and 45% into restricted areas therein...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377111/representation-of-the-stomatopod-s-retinal-midband-in-the-optic-lobes-putative-neural-substrates-for-integrating-chromatic-achromatic-and-polarization-information
#14
Hanne Halkinrud Thoen, Marcel E Sayre, Justin Marshall, Nicholas James Strausfeld
Stomatopods have an elaborate visual system served by a retina that is unique to this class of pancrustaceans. Its upper and lower eye hemispheres encode luminance and linear polarization while an equatorial band of photoreceptors termed the midband detects color, circularly polarized light and linear polarization in the ultraviolet (UV). In common with many malacostracan crustaceans, stomatopods have stalked eyes, but they can move these independently within three degrees of rotational freedom. Both eyes separately use saccadic and scanning movements but they can also move in a coordinated fashion to track selected targets or maintain a forward eyestalk posture during swimming...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355954/comprehensive-analysis-of-area-specific-and-time-dependent-changes-in-gene-expression-in-the-motor-cortex-of-macaque-monkeys-during-recovery-from-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Noriyuki Higo, Akira Sato, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Takao Oishi, Yukio Nishimura, Yumi Murata, Hirotaka Onoe, Tadashi Isa, Toshio Kojima
The present study aimed to assess the molecular bases of cortical compensatory mechanisms following spinal cord injury in primates. To accomplish this, comprehensive changes in gene expression were investigated in the bilateral primary motor cortex (M1), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), and ventral premotor cortex (PMv) after a unilateral lesion of the lateral corticospinal tract (l-CST). At 2 weeks after the lesion, a large number of genes exhibited altered expression levels in the contralesional M1, which is directly linked to the lesioned l-CST...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355945/essential-role-of-hippocampal-noradrenaline-in-the-regulation-of-spatial-working-memory-and-tdp-43-tissue-pathology
#16
Roberta Pintus, Margherita Riggi, Cecilia Cannarozzo, Andrea Valeri, Gioacchino de Leo, Maurizio Romano, Rosario Gulino, Giampiero Leanza
Extensive loss of noradrenaline-containing neurons and fibers is a nearly invariant feature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, the exact noradrenergic contribution to cognitive and histopathological changes in AD is still unclear. Here, this issue was addressed following selective lesioning and intrahippocampal implantation of embryonic noradrenergic progenitors in developing rats. Starting from about 3 months and up to 12 months post-surgery, animals underwent behavioural tests to evaluate sensory-motor, as well as spatial learning and memory, followed by post-mortem morphometric analyses...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341136/phylogeny-and-distribution-of-protein-kinase-c-variants-in-the-zebrafish
#17
Marion F Haug, Matthias Gesemann, Manuela Berger, Stephan C F Neuhauss
Conventional protein kinases - consisting of α, β, and γ family members - play key roles in numerous signal transduction events. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the existence of five prkcs (the genes representing PKCs) in zebrafish, two paralogous forms of prkca and -b and one prkcg variant. mRNA expression analysis showed distinct, mainly nervous system specific expression, for all five prkc genes. For prkca and prkcb paralogs prominent expression can be seen in the telencephalon, in diencephalic regions such as the habenula or the optic tectum, in hypothalamic areas and in distinct cerebellar structures...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322524/a-comprehensive-analysis-of-neurotrophins-and-neurotrophin-tyrosine-kinase-receptors-expression-during-development-of-zebrafish
#18
Valeria Nittoli, Rosa M Sepe, Ugo Coppola, Ylenia D'Agostino, Elena De Felice, Antonio Palladino, Quirino A Vassalli, Annamaria Locascio, Filomena Ristoratore, Antonietta Spagnuolo, Salvatore D'Aniello, Paolo Sordino
Neurotrophins (NTF) are a family of secreted nerve growth factors with affinity for tyrosine kinase (Ntrk) and p75 receptors. To fully understand the variety of developmental roles played by NTFs, it is critical to know when and where genes encoding individual ligands and receptors are transcribed. Identification of ntf and ntrk transcripts in zebrafish development remains to be fully characterized for further uncovering the potential function(s) of the NTF signal transduction pathway. Here, we conducted a systematic analysis of the expression profiles of four ntf and five ntrk genes during zebrafish development using whole-mount in situ hybridization...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322522/eye-specific-segregation-and-differential-fasciculation-of-developing-retinal-ganglion-cell-axons-in-the-mouse-visual-pathway
#19
Austen A Sitko, Takaaki Kuwajima, Carol Mason
Prior to forming and refining synaptic connections, axons of projection neurons navigate long distances to their targets. While much is known about guidance cues for axon navigation through intermediate choice points, whether and how axons are organized within tracts is less clear. Here we analyze the organization of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in the developing mouse retinogeniculate pathway. RGC axons are organized by both eye-specificity and topography in the optic nerve and tract: ipsilateral RGC axons are segregated from contralateral axons and are offset laterally in the tract relative to contralateral axon topographic position...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322527/thalamo-cortical-projections-to-the-macaque-superior-parietal-lobule-areas-pec-and-pe
#20
Daniele Impieri, Michela Gamberini, Lauretta Passarelli, Marcello G P Rosa, Claudio Galletti
The exposed surface of the superior parietal lobule in macaque brain contains two architectonically defined areas named PEc and PE. The aim of the present study is the characterization of thalamic afferents of these two areas. For this purpose, retrograde neuronal tracers were injected, or placed in crystal form, in areas PEc and PE. We found that the two areas show a similar pattern of thalamic inputs, mainly originating from Lateral Posterior (LP), Pulvinar (Pul), Ventral Posterior Lateral (VPL), and Ventral Lateral (VL) nuclei, all structures known to be involved in visual, somatosensory, and/or sensorimotor processing...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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