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Journal of Comparative Neurology

Heng Zhang, Xiao He, Yufei Mei, Qingzhou Ling
Parvalbumin (PV) positive interneurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ) can regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. ErbB4 is mainly expressed in PV neurons in the hippocampus and is crucial for keeping normal function of PV neurons. However, whether ErbB4 in PV interneurons affects the adult hippocampal neurogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, we deleted ErbB4 specifically in PV neurons by crossing PV-Cre mice with ErbB4f/f mice. Results of BrdU labeling and NeuN staining revealed that the proliferation of neural progenitors was increased but the survival and maturation of newborn neurons were decreased in the hippocampus of mice after deleting ErbB4 in PV neurons, suggesting that ErbB4 in PV neurons is closely associated with the process of adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Afrida Rahman, Janet Weber, Edward Labin, Cary Lai, Anne L Prieto
Neuregulin-3 (Nrg3) is a member of the Nrg family of growth factors identified as risk factors for schizophrenia. There are three Nrgs expressed in the nervous system (Nrg1-3) and of these Nrg1 has been the best characterized. To set the groundwork for elucidating neural roles for Nrg3, we studied its expression in the rat brain at both the RNA and protein levels. Using an antibody developed against Nrg3, we observed a developmental increase of Nrg3 protein expression from embryonic stages to adulthood and determined that it carries O-linked carbohydrates...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
G Allan Johnson, Nian Wang, Robert J Anderson, Min Chen, Gary P Cofer, James C Gee, Forrest Pratson, Nicholas Tustison, Leonard E White
Methods have been developed to allow quantitative connectivity of the whole fixed mouse brain by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We have translated what we have learned in clinical imaging to the very special domain of the mouse brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of perfusion fixed specimens can now be performed with spatial resolution of 45 um3 , i.e. voxels that are 21,000 times smaller than the human connectome protocol. Specimen preparation has been optimized through an active staining protocol using a Gd chelate...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Pei-Ju Chen, Atsuko Matsushita, Motohiro Wakakuwa, Kentaro Arikawa
Spectrally opponent responses, i.e. wavelength-dependent inversions of response polarity, have been observed at the level of photoreceptors in butterflies. Since inter-photoreceptor connections have been found in the butterfly Papilio xuthus, and histamine is the only neurotransmitter so far identified in insect photoreceptors, we hypothesize that histaminergic sign-inverting synapses exist in the lamina between different spectral receptors as a mechanism for spectral opponency as in the medulla of Drosophila...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Jennifer D Whitesell, Alex R Buckley, Joseph E Knox, Leonard Kuan, Nile Graddis, Andrew Pelos, Alice Mukora, Wayne Wakeman, Phillip Bohn, Anh Ho, Karla E Hirokawa, Julie A Harris
A variety of Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models overexpress mutant forms of human amyloid precursor protein (APP), producing high levels of amyloid β (Aβ) and forming plaques. However, the degree to which these models mimic spatiotemporal patterns of Aβ deposition in brains of AD patients is unknown. Here, we mapped the spatial distribution of Aβ plaques across ages in three APP-overexpression mouse lines (APP/PS1, Tg2576, hAPP-J20) using in vivo labeling with methoxy-X04, high throughput whole brain imaging, and an automated informatics pipeline...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Alon Amir, Jean-Francois Paré, Yoland Smith, Denis Paré
One of the main subcortical inputs to the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BL) originates from a group of dorsal thalamic nuclei located at or near the midline, mainly from the central medial (CMT) and paraventricular (PVT) nuclei. Although similarities between the responsiveness of BL, CMT, and PVT neurons to emotionally arousing stimuli suggest that these thalamic inputs exert a significant influence over BL activity, little is known about the synaptic relationships that mediate these effects. Thus, the present study used Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHAL) anterograde tracing and electron microscopy to shed light on the ultrastructural properties and synaptic targets of CMT and PVT axon terminals in the rat BL...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Lauren E Quattrochi, Maureen E Stabio, Inkyu Kim, Marissa C Ilardi, P Michelle Fogerson, Megan L Leyrer, David M Berson
We have identified a novel, sixth type of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell (ipRGC) in the mouse - the M6 cell. Its spiny, highly branched dendritic arbor is bistratified, with dendrites restricted to the inner and outer margins of the inner plexiform layer, co-stratifying with the processes of other ipRGC types. We show that M6 cells are by far the most abundant ganglion cell type labeled in adult pigmented Cdh3-GFP BAC transgenic mice. A few M5 ipRGCs are also labeled, but no other RGC types were encountered...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Manuel F Casanova, Emily L Casanova
The recognition of discernible anatomical regularities that appear to self-organize during development makes apparent the modular organization of the cerebral cortex. The metabolic cost engendered in sustaining interneuronal communications has emphasized the viability of short connections among neighboring neurons. This pattern of connectivity establishes a microcircuit which is repeated in parallel throughout the cerebral cortex. This canonical circuit is contained within the smallest module of information processing of the cerebral cortex; one which Vernon Mountcastle called the minicolumn...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Erica Barry, Sofia Cerda-Gonzalez, Wenming Luh, Richard E Daws, Ashish Raj, Philippa J Johnson
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides useful information about neuroanatomy and improves detection of neuropathology. As yet a comprehensive evaluation of the diffusivity parameters within the feline brain has not been documented. In this study, we anesthetized and performed in vivo MRI on the brain of eight neurologically normal felines. A T1-weighted structural sequence with a resolution of 0.5mm3 and a parallel diffusion weighted sequence with 61 directions and a resolution of 1.5mm3 was obtained...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Rino Saiga, Masato Hoshino, Akihisa Takeuchi, Kentaro Uesugi, Katsuko Naitou, Akemi Kamijo, Noboru Kawabe, Masato Ohtsuka, Shunya Takizawa, Ryuta Mizutani
Multiple sclerosis is a neurological disorder in which the myelin sheaths of axons are damaged by the immune response. We report here a three-dimensional structural analysis of brain and spinal cord tissues of a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, known as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE-induced mice were raised with or without administration of fingolimod, which is used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Brains and spinal cords dissected from the EAE mice were lyophilized so as to reconstitute the intrinsic contrast of tissue elements, such as axons, in X-ray images...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Tracy A Larson, Nivretta M Thatra, Daren Hou, Rachael A Hu, Eliot A Brenowitz
Neuronal death and replacement, or neuronal turnover, in the adult brain is one of many fundamental processes of neural plasticity. The adult avian song control circuit provides an excellent model for exploring mature neuronal death and replacement by new neurons. In the song control nucleus HVC of adult male Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelli) nearly 68,000 neurons are added each breeding season and die during the subsequent nonbreeding season. To accommodate large seasonal differences in HVC neuron number, the balance between neuronal addition and death in HVC must differ between seasons...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Joseph L Bundy, Cynthia Vied, Crystal Badger, Richard S Nowakowski
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. Like many neurological disorders, Alzheimer's disease has a sex-biased epidemiological profile, affecting approximately twice as many women as men. The cause of this sex difference has yet to be elucidated. To identify molecular correlates of this sex bias, we investigated molecular pathology in females and males using the 5XFAD genetic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. We profiled the transcriptome and proteome of the mouse hippocampus during early stages of disease development (one, two, and four months of age)...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Jesús M López, Daniel Lozano, Ruth Morona, Agustín González
Cladistians are a group of basal non-teleost actinopterygian fishes that represent an interesting group for the study of primitive brain features, most likely present in the ancestral Osteichthyes. We have investigated the catecholaminergic (CA) systems in the brain of two representative cladistian species, the bichir Polypterus senegalus and the reedfish Erpetoichthys calabaricus, by means of antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the first enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines) and dopamine (DA)...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Jean-Marie Graïc, Livio Corain, Antonella Peruffo, Bruno Cozzi, Dick F Swaab
In an effort to systematically describe the neurochemical anatomy of the bovine anterior hypothalamus, we used a series of immunocytochemical markers such as Acetylcholine Esterase (AChE), Arginine-Vasopressin (AVP), Calbindin (Calb), Galanin (Gal), Neuropeptide-Y (NPY), Oxytocin (OXT), Somatostatin (SST) and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP). We also investigated the potential sex difference present in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the vasopressin-oxytocin containing nucleus (VON) of 6 males and 6 female Bos taurus...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Roger L Albin, Nicolaas I Bohnen, Martijn Lt Muller, William T Dauer, Martin Sarter, Kirk A Frey, Robert A Koeppe
Prior efforts to image cholinergic projections in human brain in vivo had significant technical limitations. We used the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) ligand [18 F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol ([18 F]FEOBV) and positron emission tomography to determine the regional distribution of VAChT binding sites in normal human brain. We studied 29 subjects (mean age 47 [range 20-81] years; 18 men; 11 women). [18 F]FEOBV binding was highest in striatum, intermediate in the amygdala, hippocampal formation, thalamus, rostral brainstem, some cerebellar regions, and lower in other regions...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
S P Masterson, N Zhou, B K Akers, W Dang, M E Bickford
The superior colliculus (SC) is a major site of sensorimotor integration in which sensory inputs are processed to initiate appropriate motor responses. Projections from the primary visual cortex (V1) to the SC have been shown to exert a substantial influence on visually-induced behavior, including "freezing". However, it is unclear how V1 corticotectal terminals affect SC circuits to mediate these effects. To investigate this, we used anatomical and optogenetic techniques to examine the synaptic properties of V1 corticotectal terminals...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Vázquez-Borsetti Pablo, Peña Elena, Yanina Rojo, Andrés Acuña, Loidl C Fabián
The consequences of perinatal asphyxia include alterations which may manifest as schizophrenia. Characteristic features of this disease include a decrease in specific subpopulations of GABAergic cells and deterioration of social interaction. The purpose of this work is to assess if a deep and short hypothermic treatment can ameliorate this damage in a model of perinatal asphyxia. Rats offsprings were exposed to 19 min of asphyxia by immersing the uterus horns in water at 37° followed by 30min in air at 10°C that resulted in 15° body temperature...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Alfonso Deichler, Denisse Carrasco, Cristian Gonzalez-Cabrera, Juan Carlos Letelier, Gonzalo Marín, Jorge Mpodozis
A defining feature of the amniote tecto-fugal visual pathway is a massive bilateral projection to the thalamus originating from a distinct neuronal population, tectal ganglion cells (TGCs), of the optic tectum/superior colliculus (TeO/SC). In sauropsids, the thalamic target of the tecto-fugal pathway is the nucleus rotundus thalami (Rt). TGCs axons collateralize en route to Rt to target the nucleus pretectalis principalis (PT), which in turn gives rise to bilateral projection to the TeO. In rodents, the thalamic target of these TGCs afferents is the caudal division of the pulvinar complex (PulC)...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Brian Zingg, Hong-Wei Dong, Huizhong Whit Tao, Li I Zhang
Progress in determining the precise organization and function of the claustrum (CLA) has been hindered by the difficulty in reliably targeting these neurons. To overcome this, we used a projection-based targeting strategy to selectively label CLA principal neurons. Combined with adeno-associated virus (AAV) and monosynaptic rabies tracing techniques, we systematically examined the pre-synaptic input and axonal output of this structure. We found that CLA neurons projecting to retrosplenial cortex (RSP) collateralize extensively to innervate a variety of higher-order cortical regions...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
María P Ibañez Rodriguez, María D Galiana, Jorge A Rásmussen, Carlos L Freites, Stephen C Noctor, Estela M Muñoz
Microglial cells are one of the interstitial elements of the pineal gland (PG). We recently reported the pattern of microglia colonization and activation, and microglia-Pax6+ cell interactions during normal pineal ontogeny. Here, we describe the dynamics of microglia-Pax6+ cell associations and interactions after surgical or pharmacological manipulation. In adult rats, the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) were exposed, and either bilaterally excised (SCGx) or decentralized (SCGd). In the SCGx PGs, the density of Iba1+ microglia increased after surgery and returned to sham baseline levels 13 days later...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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