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Journal of Comparative Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097654/melanopsin-expressing-ganglion-cells-in-human-retina-morphology-distribution-and-synaptic-connections
#1
Subha Nasir-Ahmad, Sammy C S Lee, Paul R Martin, Ulrike Grünert
Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells are intrinsically photosensitive cells that are involved in non-image forming visual processes such as the pupillary light reflex and circadian entrainment but also contribute to visual perception. Here we used immunohistochemistry to study the morphology, density, distribution and synaptic connectivity of melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in four post mortem human donor retinas. Two types of melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells were distinguished based on their dendritic stratification near either the outer or the inner border of the inner plexiform layer...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078786/v1-connections-reveal-a-series-of-elongated-higher-visual-areas-in-the-california-ground-squirrel-otospermophilus-beecheyi
#2
Moritz Negwer, Yong-Jun Liu, Dirk Schubert, David C Lyon
For studies of visual cortex organization, mouse is becoming an increasingly more often used model. In addition to its genetic tractability, the relatively small area of cortical surface devoted to visual processing simplifies efforts in relating the structure of visual cortex to visual function. However, the nature of this compact organization can make some comparisons to the much larger non-human primate visual cortex difficult. The squirrel, as a highly visual rodent offers a useful means for better understanding how mouse and monkey cortical organization compares...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078738/dorsal-pallidal-neurons-directly-link-the-nidopallium-and-midbrain-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#3
J Martin Wild
The dorsal pallidum in birds is considered similar, if not homologous, to the globus pallidus (GP) of mammals. The dorsal pallidum projects to both thalamic and midbrain targets similar to the direct and indirect pathways arising from the internal and external segments of the GP. In the present study retrograde and anterograde tracing studies revealed a previously undescribed projection of the avian dorsal pallidum. This arises from a specific dorsomedial component, which terminates in the intercollicular nucleus and partly surrounds the avian equivalent of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078709/expression-of-transcription-factors-divide-retinal-ganglion-cells-into-distinct-classes
#4
Neal T Sweeney, Kiely N James, Andreea Nistorica, Ryan M Lorig-Roach, David A Feldheim
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are tasked with transmitting all light information from the eye to the retinal recipient areas of the brain. RGCs can be classified into many different types by morphology, gene expression, axonal projections, and functional responses to different light stimuli. Ultimately, these classification systems should be unified into an all-encompassing taxonomy. Toward that end, we show here that nearly all RGCs express either Islet-2, Tbr2 or a combination of Satb1and Satb2. We present gene expression data supporting the hypothesis that Satb1 and Satb2 are expressed in ON-OFF direction-selective (DS) RGCs, complementing our previous work demonstrating that RGCs that express Islet-2 and Tbr2 are non-DS and non-image-forming, respectively...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074478/ultrastructural-analysis-of-parvalbumin-synapses-in-human-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#5
Jill R Glausier, Rosalinda C Roberts, David A Lewis
Coordinated activity of neural circuitry in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) supports a range of cognitive functions. Altered DLPFC activation is implicated in a number of human psychiatric and neurological illnesses. Proper DLPFC activity is, in part, maintained by two populations of neurons containing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV): local inhibitory interneurons that form Type II synapses, and long-range glutamatergic inputs from the thalamus that form Type I synapses. Understanding the contributions of each PV neuronal population to human DLPFC function requires a detailed examination of their anatomical properties...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074469/development-of-cone-photoreceptors-and-their-synapses-in-the-human-and-monkey-fovea
#6
Anita Hendrickson, Chi Zhang
During retinal development, ribbon synapse assembly in the photoreceptors is a crucial step involving numerous molecules. While the developmental sequence of plexiform layers in human retina has been characterized, the molecular steps of synaptogenesis remain largely unknown. In the present study, we focused on the central rod-free region of primate retina, the fovea, to specifically investigate the development of cone photoreceptor ribbon synapses. Immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy were utilized to track the expression of photoreceptor transduction proteins and ribbon and synaptic markers in fetal human and Macaca retina...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074466/anatomical-organization-of-the-brain-of-a-diurnal-and-a-nocturnal-dung-beetle
#7
Esa-Ville Immonen, Marie Dacke, Stanley Heinze, Basil El Jundi
To avoid the fierce competition for food, South African ball-rolling dung beetles carve a piece of dung off a dung-pile, shape it into a ball and roll it away along a straight line path. For this unidirectional exit from the busy dung pile, at night and day, the beetles use a wide repertoire of celestial compass cues. This robust and relatively easily measurable orientation behavior has made ball-rolling dung beetles an attractive model organism for the study of the neuroethology behind insect orientation and sensory ecology...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054342/diversity-of-photoreceptor-arrangements-in-nocturnal-cathemeral-and-diurnal-malagasy-lemurs
#8
Leo Peichl, Alexander Kaiser, Felix Rakotondraparany, Richard R Dubielzig, Steven M Goodman, And Peter M Kappeler
The lemurs of Madagascar (Primates: Lemuriformes) are a monophyletic group that has lived in isolation from other primates for about 50 million years. Lemurs have diversified into species with diverse daily activity patterns and correspondingly different visual adaptations. We assessed the arrangements of retinal cone and rod photoreceptors in six nocturnal, three cathemeral and two diurnal lemur species and quantified different parameters in six of the species. The analysis revealed lower cone densities and higher rod densities in the nocturnal than in the cathemeral and diurnal species...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035673/somatic-and-neuritic-spines-on-tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunopositive-cells-of-rat-retina
#9
Anna Fasoli, James Dang, Aaron H Gouw, Jeffrey S Johnson, Alex Fogli Iseppe, Andrew T Ishida
Dopamine- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive cells (TH cells) modulate visually driven signals as they flow through retinal photoreceptor, bipolar, and ganglion cells. Previous studies suggested that TH cells release dopamine from varicose axons arborizing in the inner and outer plexiform layers after glutamatergic synapses depolarize TH cell dendrites in the inner plexiform layer and these depolarizations propagate to the varicosities. Although it has been proposed that these excitatory synapses are formed onto appendages resembling dendritic spines, spines have not been found on TH cells of most species examined to date or on TH cell somata which release dopamine when exposed to glutamate receptor agonists...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032634/k%C3%A3-lliker-fuse-gabaergic-and-glutamatergic-neurons-project-to-distinct-targets
#10
Joel Geerling, Shigefumi Yokota, Irma Rukhadze, Dan Roe, Nancy L Chamberlin
The Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KF) is known primarily for its respiratory function as the "pneumotaxic center" or "pontine respiratory group." Considered part of the parabrachial (PB) complex, KF contains glutamatergic neurons that project to respiratory-related targets in the medulla and spinal cord (Yokota et al., 2007). Here we describe an unexpected population of neurons in the caudal KF and adjacent lateral crescent subnucleus (PBlc), which are GABAergic and have an entirely different pattern of projections than glutamatergic KF neurons...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001299/organization-of-the-antennal-lobes-in-the-praying-mantis-tenodera-aridifolia
#11
Thomas Carle, Hidehiro Watanabe, Yoshifumi Yamawaki, Fumio Yokohari
Olfaction in insects plays pivotal roles in searching for food and/or for sexual partners. Although many studies have focused on the olfactory processes of non-predatory insect species, little is known about those in predatory insects. Here, we investigated the anatomical features of the primary olfactory center (antennal lobes) in an insect predator whose visual system is well developed, the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia. Both sexes of T. aridifolia were found to possess 54 glomeruli, and each glomerulus was identified based on its location and size...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001296/spatial-distribution-of-intermingling-pools-of-projection-neurons-with-distinct-targets-a-3-dimensional-analysis-of-the-commissural-ganglia-in-cancer-borealis
#12
Rosangela Follmann, Christopher John Goldsmith, Wolfgang Stein
Projection neurons play a key role in carrying long-distance information between spatially distant areas of the nervous system and in controlling motor circuits. Little is known about how projection neurons with distinct anatomical targets are organized, and few studies have addressed their spatial organization at the level of individual cells. In the paired commissural ganglia (CoGs) of the stomatogastric nervous system of the crab Cancer borealis, projection neurons convey sensory, motor, and modulatory information to several distinct anatomical regions...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001295/gradients-in-cytoarchitectural-landscapes-of-the-isocortex-diprotodont-marsupials-in-comparison-to-eutherian-mammals
#13
Christine J Charvet, Cheryl D Stimpson, Young Do Kim, Mary Ann Raghanti, Albert H Lewandowski, Patrick R Hof, Aida Gómez-Robles, Fenna M Krienen, Chet C Sherwood
Although it has been claimed that marsupials possess a lower density of isocortical neurons compared with other mammals, little is known about cross-cortical variation in neuron distributions in this diverse taxonomic group. We quantified upper layer (layers II-IV) and lower layer (layers V-VI) neuron numbers per unit of cortical surface area in three diprotodont marsupial species (two macropodiformes, the red kangaroo and the parma wallaby, and a vombatiform, the koala) and compared these results to eutherian mammals (e...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997986/anatomy-and-spatial-organization-of-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-in-mouse-retina
#14
Jingjing Wang, Matthew L O'Sullivan, Dibyendu Mukherjee, Vanessa M Puñal, Sina Farsiu, Jeremy N Kay
Müller glia, the most abundant glia of vertebrate retina, have an elaborate morphology characterized by a vertical stalk that spans the retina and branches in each retinal layer. Müller glia play diverse, critical roles in retinal homeostasis, which are presumably enabled by their complex anatomy. However, much remains unknown, particularly in mouse, about the anatomical arrangement of Müller cells and their arbors, and how these features arise in development. Here we use membrane-targeted fluorescent proteins to reveal the fine structure of mouse Müller arbors...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997696/the-organization-of-frequency-and-binaural-cues-in-the-gerbil-inferior-colliculus
#15
Gilberto David Graña, Kendall A Hutson, Alexandra Badea, Andrew Pappa, William Scott, Douglas C Fitzpatrick
The inferior colliculus (IC) is the common target of separate pathways that transmit different types of auditory information. Beyond tonotopy, little is known about the organization of response properties within the 3-dimensional layout of the auditory midbrain in most species. A case where the functional properties of neurons can be readily characterized and related to specific pathways is ITD processing. To characterize the representation of ITDs relative to the frequency and hodological organization of the IC, the properties of neurons were recorded and the sites recovered histologically...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997694/spatial-patterning-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neuropil-territories-during-spinal-circuit-development
#16
Qing Yan, Lu Zhai, Bo Zhang, Julia E Dallman
To generate rhythmic motor behaviors, both single neurons and neural circuits require a balance between excitatory inputs that trigger action potentials and inhibitory inputs that promote a stable resting potential (E/I balance). Previous studies have focused on individual neurons and have shown that, over a short spatial scale, excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) synapses tend to form structured territories with inhibitory inputs enriched on cell bodies and proximal dendrites and excitatory inputs on distal dendrites...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997691/survey-of-retinal-ganglion-cell-morphology-in-marmoset
#17
Rania A Masri, Kumiko A Percival, Amane Koizumi, Paul R Martin, Ulrike Grünert
In primate retina, the midget, parasol, and small bistratified cell populations form the large majority of ganglion cells. In addition, there is a variety of low-density wide-field ganglion cell types, which are less well characterized. Here we studied retinal ganglion cells in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, using particle-mediated gene-transfer. Ganglion cells were transfected with an expression plasmid for the postsynaptic density 95-green fluorescent protein. The retinas were processed with established immunohistochemical markers for bipolar and/or amacrine cells in order to determine ganglion cell dendritic stratification...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997038/inflammation-of-peripheral-tissues-and-injury-to-peripheral-nerves-induce-diferring-effects-in-the-expression-of-the-calcium-sensitive-anandamide-synthesising-enzyme-and-related-molecules-in-rat-primary-sensory-neurons
#18
João Sousa-Valente, Angelika Varga, Jose Vicente Torres Perez, Agnes Jenes, John Wahba, Ken Mackie, Benjamin Cravatt, Natsuo Ueda, Kazuhito Tsuboi, Peter Santha, Gabor Jancso, Hiren Tailor, António Avelino, Istvan Nagy
Elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration induces the synthesis of N-arachydonoylethanolamine (anandamide) in a sub-population of primary sensory neurons. N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) is the only known enzyme, which synthesises anandamide in a Ca(2+) -dependent manner. NAPE-PLD mRNA, as well as anandamide's main targets, the excitatory transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel (TRPV1) and the inhibitory cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and the main anandamide-hydrolysing enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are all expressed by sub-populations of nociceptive primary sensory neurons...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997037/descending-projections-from-the-basal-forebrain-to-the-orexin-neurons-in-mice
#19
Lindsay J Agostinelli, Loris L Ferrari, Carrie E Mahoney, Takatoshi Mochizuki, Bradford B Lowell, Elda Arrigoni, Thomas E Scammell
The orexin (hypocretin) neurons play an essential role in promoting arousal, and loss of the orexin neurons results in narcolepsy, a condition characterized by chronic sleepiness and cataplexy. The orexin neurons excite wake-promoting neurons in the basal forebrain (BF), and a reciprocal projection from the BF back to the orexin neurons may help promote arousal and motivation. The BF contains at least three different cell types (cholinergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurons) across its different regions (medial septum, diagonal band, magnocellular preoptic area, and substantia innominata)...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987205/mid-life-environmental-enrichment-increases-synaptic-density-in-ca1-in-a-mouse-model-of-a%C3%AE-associated-pathology-and-positively-influences-synaptic-and-cognitive-health-in-healthy-ageing
#20
Kimberley E Stuart, Anna E King, Carmen M Fernandez-Martos, Justin Dittmann, Mathew J Summers, James C Vickers
Early-life cognitive enrichment may reduce the risk of experiencing cognitive deterioration and dementia in later-life. However, an intervention to prevent or delay dementia is likely to be taken up in mid to later-life. Hence, we investigated the effects of environmental enrichment in wildtype mice and in a mouse model of Aβ neuropathology (APPSWE /PS1dE9 ) from 6 months of age. After 6 months of housing in standard laboratory cages, APPSWE /PS1dE9 (n = 27) and healthy wildtype (n = 21) mice were randomly assigned to either enriched or standard housing...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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