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Journal of Comparative Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815599/the-reduction-of-intraepidermal-p2x3-nerve-fiber-density-correlates-with-behavioral-hyperalgesia-in-a-rat-model-of-nerve-injury-induced-pain
#1
Malik Bechakra, Barthold N Schüttenhelm, Tiziana Pederzani, Pieter A van Doorn, Chris I de Zeeuw, Joost L M Jongen
Skin biopsies from patients with neuropathic pain often show changes in epidermal innervation, although it remains to be elucidated to what extent such changes can be linked to a particular subgroup of nerve fibers and how these changes are correlated with pain intensity. Here, we investigated to what extent behavioral signs of hyperalgesia are correlated with immunohistochemical changes of peptidergic and non-peptidergic epidermal nerve fibers in a rat model of nerve injury-induced pain. Rats subjected to unilateral partial ligation of the sciatic nerve developed significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia as tested by the withdrawal responses of the ipsilateral footpad to von Frey hairs and hotplate stimulation...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815590/juxtanodin-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-expression-and-biological-activities-in-regulating-cell-morphology-and-actin-cytoskeleton-organization
#2
Fengyi Liang, Ji Hyun Hwang, Nicholas Weiwei Tang, Walter Hunziker
Juxtanodin (also known as ermin) was initially identified as an actin cytoskeleton-related oligodendroglial protein in the rat central nervous system. It was subsequently also found in the rat olfactory neuroepithelium, especially at the apical junctional belt of the sustentacular cells. We further examined juxtanodin expression and functional roles in the retina using fluorescence histochemistry, confocal microscopy, immuno-electron microscopy, molecular biology and cell culture. Prominent juxtanodin expression was found in the photoreceptor-supporting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), especially in a zone corresponding to the apices of RPE cells, at the roots of the RPE microvilli, and at the base of RPE cells next to the Bruch's membrane...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815589/tight-temporal-coupling-between-synaptic-rewiring-of-olfactory-glomeruli-and-the-emergence-of-odor-guided-behavior-in-xenopus-tadpoles
#3
Beatrice Terni, Paolo Pacciolla, Helena Masanas, Pau Gorostiza, Artur Llobet
Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are chemoreceptors that establish excitatory synapses within glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. OSNs undergo continuous turnover throughout life, causing the constant replacement of their synaptic contacts. Using Xenopus tadpoles as an experimental system to investigate rewiring of glomerular connectivity, we show that novel OSN synapses can transfer information immediately after formation, mediating an olfactory-guided behavior. Tadpoles recover the ability to detect amino acids four days after bilateral olfactory nerve transection...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786102/modular-extramodular-organization-in-developing-multisensory-shell-regions-of-the-mouse-inferior-colliculus
#4
Christopher H Dillingham, Sean M Gay, Roxana Behrooz, Mark L Gabriele
The complex neuroanatomical connections of the inferior colliculus (IC) and its major subdivisions offer a juxtaposition of segregated processing streams with distinct organizational features. While the tonotopically layered central nucleus (CNIC) is well-documented, less is known about functional compartments in the neighboring lateral cortex (LCIC). In addition to a laminar framework, LCIC afferent-efferent patterns suggest a multimodal mosaic, consisting of a patchy modular network with surrounding extramodular domains...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771717/organizational-connectivity-among-the-ca1-subiculum-presubiculum-and-entorhinal-cortex-in-the-rabbit
#5
Yoshiko Honda, Hideshi Shibata
The laminar and topographical organization of connections between the hippocampal formation and parahippocampal regions was investigated in the rabbit following in vivo injection of cholera toxin B subunit as a retro- and anterograde tracer and biotinylated dextran amine as an anterograde tracer. We confirmed several connectional features different from those of the rat, i.e., the rabbit presubiculum received abundant afferents from CA1 and had many reciprocal connections with the entorhinal cortex. On the other hand, we identified many similarities with the rat: both the CA1 and subicular afferents that originated from the entorhinal cortex were abundant; moreover, the presubiculum received many inputs from the subiculum and sent massive projections to the entorhinal cortex...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771712/organization-of-alpha-transducin-immunoreactive-system-in-the-brain-and-retina-of-larval-and-young-adult-sea-lamprey-petromyzon-marinus-and-their-relationship-with-other-neural-systems
#6
Antón Barreiro-Iglesias, Blanca Fernández-López, Daniel Sobrido-Cameán, Ramón Anadón
We employed an anti-transducin antibody (Gαt-S), in combination with other markers, to characterize the Gαt-S-immunoreactive (ir) system in the CNS of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. Gαt-S immunoreactivity was observed in some neuronal populations and numerous fibers distributed throughout the brain. Double Gαt-S- and opsin-ir neurons (putative photoreceptors) are distributed in the hypothalamus (postoptic commissure nucleus, dorsal and ventral hypothalamus) and caudal diencephalon, confirming results of García-Fernández et al...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758220/distribution-and-chemical-composition-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-neurons-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-female-and-male-mouse-hypothalamus
#7
Mario G Oyola, Maranda K Thompson, Aaron Z Handa, Robert J Handa
Activation of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ)-expressing neurons regulates the mammalian stress response via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These neurons densely populate the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Recent research has revealed striking differences between rat and mouse PVN cytochemistry, but careful exploration of PVN ERβ neurons in mice has been hindered by a lack of specific ERβ antisera. Therefore, we used male and female transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of the mouse ERβ promoter (ERβ-EGFP) to examine the chemical architecture of PVN ERβ cells...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758209/distinct-projection-targets-define-subpopulations-of-mouse-brainstem-vagal-neurons-that-express-the-autism-associated-met-receptor-tyrosine-kinase
#8
Anna Kamitakahara, Hsiao-Huei Wu, Pat Levitt
Detailed anatomical tracing and mapping of the viscerotopic organization of the vagal motor nuclei has provided insight into autonomic function in health and disease. To further define specific cellular identities, we paired information based on visceral connectivity with a cell-type specific marker of a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and nucleus ambiguus (nAmb) that express the autism-associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase. As gastrointestinal disturbances are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we sought to define the relationship between MET-expressing (MET+) neurons in the DMV and nAmb, and the gastrointestinal tract...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758205/clustered-organization-and-region-specific-identities-of-estrogen-producing-neurons-in-the-forebrain-of-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#9
Maaya Z Ikeda, Amanda A Krentzel, Tessa J Oliver, Garrett B Scarpa, Luke Remage-Healey
A fast, neuromodulatory role for estrogen signaling has been reported in many regions of the vertebrate brain. Regional differences in the cellular distribution of aromatase (estrogen synthase) in several species suggest that mechanisms for neuroestrogen signaling differ between and even within brain regions. A more comprehensive understanding of neuroestrogen signaling depends on characterizing the cellular identities of neurons that express aromatase. Calcium-binding proteins such as parvalbumin and calbindin are molecular markers for interneuron subtypes, and are co-expressed with aromatase in human temporal cortex...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758202/sodium-channel-subtypes-are-differentially-localized-to-pre-and-post-synaptic-sites-in-rat-hippocampus
#10
Kenneth W Johnson, Karl F Herold, Teresa A Milner, Hugh C Hemmings, Jimcy Platholi
Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav ) modulate neuronal excitability, but the roles of the various Nav subtypes in specific neuronal functions such as synaptic transmission are unclear. We investigated expression of the three major brain Nav subtypes (Nav 1.1, Nav 1.2, Nav 1.6) in area CA1 and dentate gyrus of rat hippocampus. Using light and electron microscopy, we found labeling for all three Nav subtypes on dendrites, dendritic spines, and axon terminals, but the proportion of pre- and post-synaptic labeling for each subtype varied within and between subregions of CA1 and dentate gyrus...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758193/melanopsin-ganglion-cell-outer-retinal-dendrites-morphologically-distinct-and-asymmetrically-distributed-in-the-mouse-retina
#11
Katelyn B Sondereker, Jessica R Onyak, Shakib W Islam, Christopher L Ross, Jordan M Renna
A small population of retinal ganglion cells express the photopigment melanopsin and function as autonomous photoreceptors. They encode global luminance levels critical for light-mediated non-image forming visual processes including circadian rhythms and the pupillary light reflex. There are five melanopsin ganglion cell subtypes (M1-M5). M1 and displaced M1 (M1d) cells have dendrites that ramify within the outermost layer of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). It was recently discovered that some melanopsin ganglion cells extend dendrites into the outer retina...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744909/high-diversity-in-neuropeptide-immunoreactivity-patterns-among-three-closely-related-species-of-dinophilidae-annelida
#12
Alexandra Kerbl, Markus Conzelmann, Gáspár Jékely, Katrine Worsaae
Neuropeptides are conserved metazoan signaling molecules, and represent useful markers for comparative investigations on the morphology and function of the nervous system. However, little is known about the variation of neuropeptide expression patterns across closely related species in invertebrate groups other than insects. In this study, we compare the immunoreactivity patterns of 14 neuropeptides in three closely related microscopic dinophilid annelids (Dinophilus gyrociliatus, D. taeniatus and Trilobodrilus axi)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744893/tonotopic-alterations-in-inhibitory-input-to-the-medial-nucleus-of-the-trapezoid-body-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#13
Elizabeth A McCullagh, Ernesto Salcedo, Molly M Huntsman, Achim Klug
Hyperexcitability and the imbalance of excitation/inhibition are one of the leading causes of abnormal sensory processing in Fragile X syndrome (FXS). The precise timing and distribution of excitation and inhibition is crucial for auditory processing at the level of the auditory brainstem, which is responsible for sound localization ability. Sound localization is one of the sensory abilities disrupted by loss of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (Fmr1) gene. Using triple immunofluorescence staining we tested whether there were alterations in the number and size of presynaptic structures for the three primary neurotransmitters (glutamate, glycine, and GABA) in the auditory brainstem of Fmr1 knockout mice...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734032/characterization-of-the-axon-initial-segment-of-mice-substantia-nigra-dopaminergic-neurons
#14
Cristian González-Cabrera, Rodrigo Meza, Lorena Ulloa, Paulina Merino-Sepúlveda, Valentina Luco, Ana Sanhueza, Alejandro Oñate-Ponce, J Paul Bolam, Pablo Henny
The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of initiation of action potentials and also influences action potential waveform, firing pattern and rate. In view of the fundamental aspects of motor function and behavior that depend on the firing of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons, we identified and characterized their AIS in the mouse. Immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), sodium channels (Nav ) and ankyrin-G (Ank-G) was used to visualize the AIS of dopaminergic neurons. Reconstructions of sampled AIS of dopaminergic neurons revealed variable lengths (12 - 60 μm) and diameters (0...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730682/structure-and-development-of-the-subesophageal-zone-of-the-drosophila-brain-i-segmental-architecture-compartmentalization-and-lineage-anatomy
#15
Volker Hartenstein, Jaison J Omoto, Kathy T Ngo, Darren Wong, Philipp A Kuert, Heinrich Reichert, Jennifer K Lovick, Amelia Younossi-Hartenstein
The subesophageal zone (SEZ) of the Drosophila brain houses the circuitry underlying feeding behavior and is involved in many other aspects of sensory processing and locomotor control. Formed by the merging of four neuromeres, the internal architecture of the SEZ can be best understood by identifying segmentally reiterated landmarks emerging in the embryo and larva, and following the gradual changes by which these landmarks become integrated into the mature SEZ during metamorphosis. In previous works, the system of longitudinal fibers (connectives) and transverse axons (commissures) has been utilized as a scaffold that provides internal landmarks for the neuromeres of the larval ventral nerve cord...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726311/gaba-histamine-and-fmrfamide-immunoreactivity-in-the-visual-vestibular-and-central-nervous-systems-of-hermissenda-crassicornis
#16
Marissa P Webber, James W S Thomson, Johnny Buckland-Nicks, Roger P Croll, Russell C Wyeth
Hermissenda crassicornis is a model for studying the molecular and cellular basis for classical conditioning, based on its ability to associate light with vestibular stimulation. We used confocal microscopy to map histamine, FMRF-amide, and GABA immunoreactivity in the central nervous system (CNS), eyes, optic ganglia and statocysts of the nudibranchs. For histamine immunoreactivity, we documented both consistently and variably labelled CNS structures across individuals. We also noted minor differences in GABA immunoreactivity in the CNS compared to previous work on Hermissenda...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714144/cerebellins-are-differentially-expressed-in-selective-subsets-of-neurons-throughout-the-brain
#17
Erica Seigneur, Thomas C Südhof
Cerebellins are secreted hexameric proteins that form tripartite complexes with the presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules neurexins or 'deleted-in-colorectal-cancer', and the postsynaptic glutamate-receptor-related proteins GluD1 and GluD2. These tripartite complexes are thought to regulate synapses. However, cerebellins are expressed in multiple isoforms whose relative distributions and overall functions are not understood. Three of the four cerebellins, Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4, autonomously assemble into homohexamers, whereas the Cbln3 requires Cbln1 for assembly and secretion...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685837/proteomic-analyses-of-nucleus-laminaris-identified-candidate-targets-of-the-fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein
#18
Hitomi Sakano, Diego A R Zorio, Xiaoyu Wang, Ying S Ting, William S Noble, Michael J MacCoss, Edwin W Rubel, Yuan Wang
The avian nucleus laminaris (NL) is a brainstem nucleus necessary for binaural processing, analogous in structure and function to the mammalian medial superior olive. In chickens (Gallus gallus), NL is a well-studied model system for activity-dependent neural plasticity. Its neurons have bipolar extension of dendrites, which receive segregated inputs from two ears and display rapid and compartment-specific reorganization in response to unilateral changes in auditory input. More recently, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein that regulates local protein translation, has been shown to be enriched in NL dendrites, suggesting its potential role in the structural dynamics of these dendrites...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685836/the-stability-of-the-transcriptome-during-the-estrous-cycle-in-four-regions-of-the-mouse-brain
#19
Lisa M DiCarlo, Cynthia Vied, Richard S Nowakowski
We analyzed the transcriptome of the C57BL/6J mouse hypothalamus, hippocampus, neocortex, and cerebellum to determine estrous cycle-specific changes in these four brain regions. We found almost 16,000 genes are present in one or more of the brain areas but only 210 genes, ∼1.3%, are significantly changed as a result of the estrous cycle. The hippocampus has the largest number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (82), followed by the neocortex (76), hypothalamus (63), and cerebellum (26). Most of these DEGs (186/210) are differentially expressed in only one of the four brain regions...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685822/thalamic-connections-of-the-core-auditory-cortex-and-rostral-supratemporal-plane-in-the-macaque-monkey
#20
Brian H Scott, Kadharbatcha S Saleem, Yukiko Kikuchi, Makoto Fukushima, Mortimer Mishkin, Richard C Saunders
In the primate auditory cortex, information flows serially in the mediolateral dimension from core, to belt, to parabelt. In the caudorostral dimension, stepwise serial projections convey information through the primary, rostral, and rostrotemporal (AI, R, and RT) core areas on the supratemporal plane, continuing to the rostrotemporal polar area (RTp) and adjacent auditory-related areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STGr) and temporal pole. In addition to this cascade of corticocortical connections, the auditory cortex receives parallel thalamocortical projections from the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN)...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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