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Journal of Comparative Neurology

Rana N El-Danaf, Andrew D Huberman
In many species, neurons are unevenly distributed across the retina, leading to nonuniform analysis of specific visual features at certain locations in visual space. In recent years, the mouse has emerged as a premiere model for probing visual system function, development and disease. Thus, achieving a detailed understanding of mouse visual circuit architecture is of paramount importance. The general belief is that mice possess a relatively even topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)- the output neurons of the eye...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Ji-Jie Pang, Zhuo Yang, Roy A Jacoby, Samuel M Wu
Some mammalian rod bipolar cells (RBCs) can receive excitatory chemical synaptic inputs from both rods and cones (DBCR2 ), but anatomical evidence for mammalian cone-RBC contacts has been sparse. We examined anatomical cone-RBC contacts using neurobiotin (NB) to visualize individual mouse cones and standard immuno-markers to identify RBCs, cone pedicles and synapses in mouse and baboon retinas. Peanut agglutinin (PNA) stained the basal membrane of all cone pedicles, and mouse cones were positive for red/green (R/G)-opsin, whereas baboon cones were positive for calbindin D-28k...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
George S Prounis, Kyle Thomas, Alexander G Ophir
Nonapeptide receptors, like oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR), modulate a variety of functions across taxa, and mediate phenotypic variation within and between species. Despite the popularity of studying nonapeptides in adults, developmental perspectives on properties of OTR and V1aR expression are lacking. Study of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) has facilitated an understanding of mechanisms of social behavior, and provides great potential to inform how early life experiences alter phenotype...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Anders Tolstrup Christiansen, Jens Folke Kiilgaard, Kristian Klemp, David Paul Drucker Woldbye, Jens Hannibal
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a peptide neurotransmitter abundantly expressed in the mammalian retina. Since its discovery, NPY has been studied in retinas of several species, but detailed characterization of morphology, cell-type, and connectivity has never been conducted in larger mammals including humans and pigs. As the pig due to size and cellular composition is a well-suited animal for retinal research, we chose to compare the endogenous NPY system of the human retina to that of pigs to support future research in this field...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
L N Collins, D L Hill, P C Brunjes
Both the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) and anterior limb of the anterior commissure (AC) carry olfactory information. The LOT forms the projection from the olfactory bulb to the ipsilateral olfactory cortices, while the AC carries odor information across the midline to the contralateral olfactory cortex and bulb. The LOT and AC differ on a number of dimensions, including early development and functional onset. The present work, examining their myelination in mice, reveals additional important differences. For example, the LOT initiates myelination 3-4 days earlier than the AC, evidenced by both an earlier increase in myelin basic protein staining seen with immunohistochemistry and an earlier appearance of myelinated fibers using electron microscopy...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
J Michael Hasse, Elise M Bragg, Allison J Murphy, Farran Briggs
The corticogeniculate (CG) pathway links the visual cortex with the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus and is the first feedback connection in the mammalian visual system. Whether functional connections between CG neurons and LGN relay neurons obey or ignore the separation of feedforward visual signals into parallel processing streams is not known. Accordingly, there is some debate about whether CG neurons are morphologically heterogeneous or homogenous. Here we characterized the morphology of CG neurons in the ferret, a visual carnivore with distinct feedforward parallel processing streams, and compared the morphology of ferret CG neurons with CG neuronal morphology previously described in macaque monkeys (Briggs et al, 2016)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Ignacio Alcalde, Almudena Íñigo-Portugués, Omar González-González, Laura Almaraz, Enol Artime, Cruz Morenilla-Palao, Juana Gallar, Félix Viana, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Carlos Belmonte
Morphological and functional alterations of peripheral somatosensory neurons during the aging process lead to a decline of somatosensory perception. Here, we analyze the changes occurring with aging in trigeminal ganglion (TG), TRPM8-expressing cold thermoreceptor neurons innervating the mouse cornea, which participate in the regulation of basal tearing and blinking and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of dry eye disease (DED). TG cell bodies and axonal branches were examined in a mouse line (TRPM8BAC -EYFP) expressing a fluorescent reporter...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Mehwish Anwer, Tamuna Bolkvadze, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Noora Puhakka, Tuomas Rauramaa, Ville Leinonen, Erwin A van Vliet, Dick F Swaab, Annakaisa Haapasalo, Stina Leskelä, Nea Bister, Tarja Malm, Synnöve Carlson, Eleonora Aronica, Asla Pitkänen
Sushi repeat-containing protein X-linked 2 (SRPX2) is a novel protein associated with language development, synaptic plasticity, tissue remodeling, and angiogenesis. We investigated the expression and spatial localization of SRPX2 in normal mouse, rat, monkey, and human brain using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Antibody specificity was determined using in vitro siRNA based silencing of SRPX2. Cell type-specific expression was verified by double-labeling with oxytocin or vasopressin. Western blot was used to detect SRPX2 protein in rat and human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Jeffrey Padberg, Dylan F Cooke, Christina M Cerkevich, Jon H Kaas, Leah Krubitzer
The overarching goal of the current investigation was to examine the connections of anterior parietal area 2 and the medial portion of posterior parietal area 5 in macaque monkeys; two areas that are part of a network involved reaching and grasping in primates. We injected neuroanatomical tracers into specified locations in each field and directly related labeled cells to histologically identified cortical field boundaries. Labeled cells were counted so that the relative density of projections to areas 2 and 5 from other cortical fields could be determined...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Mary Kl Baldwin, Leah Krubitzer
Titi monkeys are arboreal, diurnal New World monkeys whose ancestors were the first surviving branch of the New World radiation. In the current study, we use cytoarchtectonic and immunohistochemical characteristics to compare subcortical structures associated with visual processing with those of other well-studied primates. Our goal was to appreciate features that are similar across all New World monkeys, and primates in general, versus those features that are unique to titi monkeys and other primate taxa. We examined tissue stained for Nissl substance, cytochrome oxidase (CO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), calbindin (Cb), parvalbumin (Pv), and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) to characterize the superior colliculus, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual pulvinar...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Hanako Hagio, Moe Sato, Naoyuki Yamamoto
Dual visual pathways reaching the telencephalon appear to be an ancient vertebrate trait, but some teleost fish seem to possess only one pathway via the optic tectum. We undertook the present study to determine if and when this loss occurred during evolution. Tracer injection experiments to the optic nerve, the optic tectum, and the dorsal telencephalon were performed in the present study, to investigate ascending visual pathways to the dorsal telencephalon in an acanthopterygian teleost, the yellowfin goby Acanthogobius flavimanus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Maureen E Stabio, Katelyn B Sondereker, Sean D Haghgou, Brittany L Day, Berrien Chidsey, Shai Sabbah, Jordan M Renna
Functionally distinct retinal ganglion cells have density and size gradients across the mouse retina, and some degenerative eye diseases follow topographic-specific gradients of cell death. Hence, the anatomical orientation of the retina with respect to the orbit and head is important for understanding the functional anatomy of the retina in both health and disease. However, different research groups use different anatomical landmarks to determine retinal orientation (dorsal, ventral, temporal, nasal poles); variations in the accuracy and reliability in marking these landmarks during dissection may lead to discrepancies in the identification and reporting of retinal topography...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Lee O Vaasjo, Alexandra M Quintana, Mohamed R Habib, Paola A Mendez de Jesus, Roger P Croll, Mark W Miller
The simpler nervous systems of certain invertebrates provide opportunities to examine colocalized classical neurotransmitters in the context of identified neurons and well defined neural circuits. This study examined the distribution of γ-aminobutyric acid-like immunoreactivity (GABAli) in the nervous system of the panpulmonates Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria alexandrina, major intermediate hosts for intestinal schistosomiasis. GABAli neurons were localized in the cerebral, pedal, and buccal ganglia of each species...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Bernadeta Valachova, Veronika Brezovakova, Ondrej Bugos, Santosh Jadhav, Tomas Smolek, Petr Novak, Zilka Norbert
Human tauopathies represent a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterised by distinct clinical features, typical histopathological structures, and defined ratio/s of 3-repeat and 4-repeat tau isoforms within pathological aggregates. How the optional microtubule-binding repeat of tau influences this differentiation of pathologies is understudied. We have previously generated and characterised transgenic rodent models expressing human truncated tau aa151-391 with either three (SHR24) or four microtubule-binding repeats (SHR72)...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Sonjoy Sarkar, Yasuro Atoji
The distribution of glutamatergic neurons has been extensively studied in mammalian and avian brains, but its distribution in a reptilian brain remains unknown. In the present study, the distribution of subpopulations of glutamatergic neurons in the turtle brain was examined by in situ hybridization using probes for vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1-3. Strong VGLUT1 expression was observed in the telencephalic pallium; the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, the medial, dorsomedial, dorsal, and lateral parts of the cerebral cortex, pallial thickening, and dorsal ventricular ridge; and also in granule cells of the cerebellar cortex...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Jeffery L Dunning, Sarah E Maze, Ethan J Atwood, Jonathan F Prather
Female songbirds use male song as an indicator of fitness and use that information to select their mate. Investigations of the female auditory system have provided evidence that the neurons within the caudal mesopallium (CM) are involved in the processing of songs that a female finds attractive, however, it is not clear how CM may exert its influence on behavioral indicators of mate choice. In the present study, anterograde tracing revealed the efferent connections of the female songbird CM. The results demonstrate connections to other auditory regions previously described in males, as well as novel connections to brain regions implicated in motor control...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Gabriela Edwards-Faret, Arantxa Cebrián-Silla, Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Karina González-Pinto, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Juan Larraín
Studying the cellular composition and morphological changes of cells lining the central canal during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis could contribute to understand postnatal development and spinal cord regeneration. Here we report the analysis of central canal cells at different stages during metamorphosis using immunofluorescence for protein markers expression, transmission and scanning electron microscopy and cell proliferation assays. The central canal was regionalized according to expression of glial markers, ultrastructure and proliferation in dorsal, lateral and ventral domains with differences between larvae and froglets...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Sam E Benezra, Rajeevan T Narayanan, Robert Egger, Marcel Oberlaender, Michael A Long
Singing behavior in the adult male zebra finch is dependent upon the activity of a cortical region known as HVC (proper name). The vast majority of HVC projection neurons send primary axons to either the downstream premotor nucleus RA (primary motor cortex) or Area X (basal ganglia), which play important roles in song production or song learning, respectively. In addition to these long-range outputs, HVC neurons also send local axon collaterals throughout that nucleus. Despite their implications for a range of circuit models, these local processes have never been completely reconstructed...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Otavio Sc Mariani, Bruss Lima, Juliana Gm Soares, Andrei Mayer, João G Franca, Ricardo Gattass
We propose a partitioning of the primate intraparietal sulcus (IPS) using immunoarchitectural and connectivity criteria. We studied the immunoarchitecture of the IPS areas in the capuchin monkey using Cat-301 and SMI-32 immunohistochemistry. In addition, we investigated the IPS projections to areas V4, TEO, PO and MT using retrograde tracer injections in nine hemispheres of seven animals. The pattern and distribution of Cat-301 and SMI-32 immunostaining revealed multiple areas in the IPS, in the adjoining PO cleft and in the annectant gyrus, with differential staining patterns found for areas V3d, DM, V3A, DI, PO, POd, CIP-1, CIP-2, VIPa, VIPp, LIPva, LIPvp, LIPda, LIPdp, PIPv, PIPd, MIPv, MIPd, AIPda, AIPdp and AIPv...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Charlene Gillet, David Goyer, Stefanie Kurth, Hannah Griebel, Thomas Kuenzel
Principal neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) receive powerful ascending excitation and pass on the auditory information with exquisite temporal fidelity. Despite being dominated by ascending inputs, the VCN also receives descending cholinergic connections from olivocochlear neurons and from higher regions in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum. In Mongolian gerbils acetylcholine acts as an excitatory and modulatory neurotransmitter on VCN neurons, but the anatomical structure of cholinergic innervation of gerbil VCN is not well described...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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