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Journal of Comparative Neurology

Maria Ángeles Martínez-Martínez, Gabriele Ciceri, Alexandre Espinós, Virginia Fernández, Oscar Marín, Víctor Borrell
Excitatory neurons of the cerebral cortex migrate radially from their place of birth to their final position in the cortical plate during development. Radially-migrating neurons display a single leading process that establishes the direction of movement. This leading process has been described as being unbranched, and the occurrence of branches proposed to impair radial migration. Here we have analyzed the detailed morphology of leading process in radially-migrating pyramidal neurons and its impact on radial migration...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Kaoru Odagaki, Hiroshi Kameda, Toshihiro Hayashi, Masaki Sakurai
The central projection patterns of cutaneous afferents from the forelimb and shoulder of mice were studied in the spinal dorsal horn after intracutaneous injection of AlexaFluor 488-conjugated and/or 594-conjugated cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). Based on their dermatomes, the following eight skin regions are thought to be innervated by spinal nerves from the sixth to eighth cervical spinal nerve roots: the dorsal surface of the shoulder, brachium, proximal forearm, distal forearm, hand, palmar surface of the second and third digits, and palm...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
D J Smolilo, M Costa, T J Hibberd, S J H Brookes, D A Wattchow, N J Spencer
Normal gut function relies on the activity of the enteric nervous system (ENS) found within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. The structural and functional organisation of the ENS has been extensively studied in the guinea pig small intestine, but less is known about colonic circuitry. Given that there are significant differences between these regions in function, observed motor patterns and pathology, it would be valuable to have a better understanding of the colonic ENS. Furthermore, disorders of colonic motor function, such as irritable bowel syndrome, are much more common...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Mercurio Silvia, Gattoni Giacomo, Messinetti Silvia, Sugni Michela, Pennati Roberta
Neural development of echinoderms has always been difficult to interpret, as larval neurons degenerate at metamorphosis and a tripartite nervous system differentiates in the adult. Despite their key phylogenetic position as basal echinoderms, crinoids have been scarcely studied in developmental research. However, since they are the only extant echinoderms retaining the ancestral body plan of the group, crinoids are extremely valuable models to clarify neural evolution in deuterostomes. Antedon mediterranea is a feather star, endemic to the Mediterranean Sea...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
M Katie Scott, Jia Yue, Deborah J Biesemeier, Joo Won Lee, Donna M Fekete
Class III Semaphorin (Sema) secreted ligands are known to repel neurites expressing Neuropilin (Nrp) and/or Plexin (Plxn) receptors. There is, however, a growing body of literature supporting that Sema signaling also has alternative roles in development such as synaptogenesis, boundary formation and vasculogenesis. To evaluate these options during inner ear development, we used in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry to map the expression of Sema3D, Sema3F, Nrp1, Nrp2, and PlxnA1 in the chicken (Gallus gallus) inner ear from embryonic day (E)5 to E10...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Jacqueline Boon, Emma Clarke, Nicoletta Kessaris, Andre Goffinet, Zoltán Molnár, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen
The murine subplate contains some of the earliest generated populations of neurons in the cerebral cortex, which play an important role in the maturation of cortical inhibition. Here we present multiple lines of evidence, that the subplate itself is only very sparsely populated with GABAergic neurons at postnatal day (P)8. We used three different transgenic mouse lines, each of which labels a subset of GABAergic, ganglionic eminence derived neurons. Dlx5/6-eGFP labels the most neurons in cortex (on average 11% of NEUN+ cells across all layers at P8) whereas CGE-derived Lhx6-Cre::Dlx1-Venusfl cells are the sparsest (2% of NEUN+ cells across all layers at P8)...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Alexandra Petiet, Isaac Adanyeguh, Marie-Stéphane Aigrot, Emilie Poirion, Brahim Nait-Oumesmar, Mathieu Santin, Bruno Stankoff
Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) markers of myelin are critical for the evaluation and development of regenerative therapies for demyelinating diseases. Several MRI methods have been developed for myelin imaging, based either on acquisition schemes or on mathematical modeling of the signal. They generally showed good sensitivity but validation for specificity towards myelin is still warranted to allow a reliable interpretation in an in vivo complex pathological environment. Experimental models of dys-/demyelination are characterized by various levels of myelin disorders, axonal damage, gliosis and inflammation, and offer the opportunity for powerful correlative studies between imaging metrics and histology...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Juliane Krueger, Anita A Disney
Behavioral states such as arousal and attention have profound effects on sensory processing, determining how - even whether - a stimulus is perceived. This state-dependence is believed to arise, at least in part, in response to inputs from subcortical structures that release neuromodulators such as acetylcholine, often non-synaptically. The mechanisms that underlie the interaction between these non-synaptic signals and the more point-to-point synaptic cortical circuitry are not well understood. This review highlights the state of the field, with a focus on cholinergic action in early visual processing...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Emiliano Bruner
Evolutionary neuroanatomy must integrate two different sources of information, namely from fossil and from living species. Fossils supply information concerning the process of evolution, while living species supply information on the product of evolution. Unfortunately, the fossil record is partial and fragmented, and often cannot support validations for specific evolutionary hypotheses. Living species can provide more comprehensive indications, but they do not represent ancestral groups or primitive forms...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Masahumi Kawaguchi, Hanako Hagio, Naoyuki Yamamoto, Koji Matsumoto, Kei Nakayama, Yasuhisa Akazome, Hironori Izumi, Yousuke Tsuneoka, Fumikazu Suto, Yasunori Murakami, Hiroyuki Ichijo
Gobiida is a basal subseries of percomorphs in teleost fishes, holding a useful position for comparisons with other orders of Percomorpha as well as other cohort of teleosts. Here, we describe a telencephalic atlas of a Gobiida species Rhinogobius flumineus (Mizuno, Memoirs of the College of Science, University of Kyoto, Series B: Biology, 1960; 27, 3), based on cytoarchitectural observations, combined with analyses of the distribution patterns of neurochemical markers and transcription factors. The telencephalon of R...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Kyria M Webster, Mujun Sun, Peter J Crack, Terence J O'Brien, Sandy R Shultz, Bridgette D Semple
Accumulating research suggests that children may be more vulnerable to poor long-term outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to adults. The neuroinflammatory response, known to contribute to neuropathology after TBI, appears to differ depending upon age-at-insult, though this response has not been well-characterized. Elevated levels of a key initiator of inflammation, high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), have been associated with worsened outcomes after TBI in young patients. This study therefore aimed to characterize the acute time course of key mediators of the inflammatory cascade, including HMGB1, after pediatric and adult TBI...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Zachary J Rosinger, Jason S Jacobskind, Nicole Bulanchuk, Margaret Malone, Danielle Fico, Nicholas J Justice, Damian G Zuloaga
Corticotropin-releasing factor binds with high affinity to CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) and is implicated in stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. Using a validated CRFR1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter mouse, our laboratory recently discovered a nucleus of CRFR1 expressing cells that is prominent in the female rostral anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV/PeN), but largely absent in males. This sex difference is present in the early postnatal period and remains dimorphic into adulthood...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Ramin M Farahani, Saba Rezaei-Lotfi, Mary Simonian, Munira Xaymardan, Neil Hunter
Consistent adult neurogenic activity in humans is observed in specific niches within the central nervous system. However, the notion of an adult neurogenic niche is challenged by accumulating evidence for ectopic neurogenic activity in other cerebral locations. Herein we interface precision of ultrastructural resolution and anatomical simplicity of accessible human dental pulp neurogenic zone to address this conflict. We disclose a basal level of adult neurogenic activity characterized by glial invasion of terminal microvasculature followed by release of individual platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β mural pericytes and subsequent reprogramming into NeuN+ local interneurons...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Takashi Nagata, Kentaro Arikawa, Michiyo Kinoshita
Jumping spiders have four pairs of eyes (ocelli) of which only the principal eyes (PEs) are used to detect features of objects. Photoreceptors in the retina of the PEs form four layers (PL1-4) and terminate in the first optic ganglion (FOG). Here we focus on Hasarius adansoni because it has unique depth vision besides color vision and its FOG appears to contribute to the initial processing of these visual modalities. We first investigated the neuroanatomical organization of the FOG. The three-dimensional structure of the FOG revealed by synapsin immunostaining is horseshoe-shaped and consists of four terminal zones (TZ1-4)...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Tigran P Norekian, Leonid L Moroz
Ctenophores are descendants of one of the earliest branching metazoan lineage with enigmatic nervous systems. The lack of convenient neurogenic molecules and neurotransmitters suggests an extensive parallel evolution and independent origins of neurons and synapses. However, the field lags due to the lack of microanatomical data about the neuro-muscular systems in this group of animals. Here, using immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy, we describe the organization of both muscular and nervous systems in the sea gooseberry, Pleurobrachia bachei, from North Pacific...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
James C Dooley, Leah A Krubitzer
Early loss of vision produces dramatic changes in the functional organization and connectivity of the neocortex in cortical areas that normally process visual inputs, such as the primary and second visual area. This loss also results in alterations in the size, functional organization and neural response properties of the primary somatosensory area, S1. However, the anatomical substrate for these functional changes in S1 have never been described. In the present investigation, we quantified the cortical and subcortical connections of S1 in animals that were bilaterally enucleated very early in development, prior to the formation of retino-geniculate and thalamocortical pathways...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Natalia L Kononenko, Sergej Hartfil, Julia Willer, Jessica Ferch, Heike Wolfenberg, Hans-Joachim Pflüger
In this study we describe a cluster of tyraminergic/octopaminergic neurons in the lateral dorsal deutocerebrum of desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) with descending axons to the abdominal ganglia. In the locust these neurons synthesize octopamine from tyramine stress-dependently. Electrophysiological recordings in locusts reveal that they respond to mechanosensory touch stimuli delivered to various parts of the body including the antennae. A similar cluster of tyraminergic/octopaminergic neurons was also identified in the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and the pink winged stick insect (Sipyloidea sipylus)...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Florian Bastin, Antoine Couto, Virginie Larcher, Mananya Phiancharoen, Gudrun Koeniger, Nikolaus Koeniger, Jean-Christophe Sandoz
All honey bee species (genus Apis) display a striking mating behavior with the formation of male (drone) congregations, in which virgin queens mate with many drones. Bees' mating behavior relies on olfactory communication involving queen-but also drone pheromones. To explore the evolution of olfactory communication in Apis, we analyzed the neuroanatomical organization of the antennal lobe (primary olfactory center) in the drones of five species from the three main lineages (open-air nesting species: dwarf honey bees Apis florea and giant honey bees Apis dorsata; cavity-nesting species: Apis mellifera, Apis kochevnikovi, and Apis cerana) and from three populations of A...
November 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Austin R Shepard, Jennifer L Scheffel, Wei-Ming Yu
Tonotopy is a key anatomical feature of the vertebrate auditory system, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying its development. Since date of birth of a neuron correlates with tonotopic position in the cochlea, we investigated if it also correlates with tonotopic position in the cochlear nucleus. In the cochlea, spiral ganglion neurons are organized in a basal to apical progression along the length of the cochlea based on birthdates, with neurons in the base (responding to high-frequency sounds) born early around mouse embryonic day (E) 9...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Carlos B Mantilla, Wen-Zhi Zhan, Heather M Gransee, Y S Prakash, Gary C Sieck
Structural plasticity in motoneurons may be influenced by activation history and motoneuron-muscle fiber interactions. The goal of this study was to examine the morphological adaptations of phrenic motoneurons following imposed motoneuron inactivity while controlling for diaphragm muscle inactivity. Well-characterized rat models were used including unilateral C2 spinal hemisection (SH; ipsilateral phrenic motoneurons and diaphragm muscle are inactive) and tetrodotoxin phrenic nerve blockade (TTX; ipsilateral diaphragm muscle is paralyzed while phrenic motoneuron activity is preserved)...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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