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Journal of Comparative Neurology

Philipp Brand, Virginie Larcher, Antoine Couto, Jean-Christophe Sandoz, Santiago R Ramírez
Insect mating behavior is controlled by a diverse array of sex-specific traits and strategies that evolved to maximize mating success. Orchid bees exhibit a unique suite of perfume-mediated mating behaviors. Male bees collect volatile compounds from their environment to concoct species-specific perfume mixtures that are presumably used to attract conspecific females. Despite a growing understanding of the ecology and evolution of chemical signaling in orchid bees, many aspects of the functional adaptations involved, in particular regarding sensory systems, remain unknown...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Tanya Wolff, Gerald M Rubin
The central complex, a set of neuropils in the center of the insect brain, plays a crucial role in spatial aspects of sensory integration and motor control. Stereotyped neurons interconnect these neuropils with one another and with accessory structures. We screened over 5000 Drosophila melanogaster GAL4 lines for expression in two neuropils, the noduli (NO) of the central complex and the asymmetrical body (AB), and used multicolor stochastic labelling to analyze the morphology, polarity and organization of individual cells in a subset of the GAL4 lines that showed expression in these neuropils...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Nuria García-Magro, Yasmina B Martin, Pilar Negredo, Carlos Avendaño
The neuromodulation of the greater occipital nerve (GON) has proved effective to treat chronic refractory neurovascular headaches, in particular migraine and cluster headache. Moreover, animal studies have shown convergence of cervical and trigeminal afferents on the same territories of the upper cervical and lower medullary dorsal horn (DH), the so-called trigeminocervical complex (TCC), and recent studies in rat models of migraine and craniofacial neuropathy have shown that GON block or stimulation alter nociceptive processing in TCC...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
F C Shenton, S Pyner
Changes in plasma osmolality can drive changes in the output from brain centres known to control cardiovascular homeostasis, such as the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Within the PVN hypotonicity reduces the firing rate of parvocellular neurons, a neuronal pool known to be involved in modulating sympathetic vasomotor tone. Also present in the PVN is the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) ion channel. Activation of TRPV4 within the PVN mimics the reduction in firing rate of the parvocellular neurons but it is unknown if these neurons express the channel...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Brandon Moore, Keji Li, Jon H Kaas, Chia-Chi Liao, Andrew M Boal, Julia Mavity-Hudson, Vivien Casagrande
Comprised of at least five distinct nuclei, the pulvinar complex of primates includes two large visually driven nuclei; one in the dorsal (lateral) pulvinar and one in the ventral (inferior) pulvinar, that contain similar retinotopic representations of the contralateral visual hemifield. Both nuclei also appear to have similar connections with areas of visual cortex. Here we determined the cortical connections of these two nuclei in galagos, members of the stepsirrhine primate radiation, to see if the nuclei differed in ways that could support differences in function...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Aminu Imam, Adhil Bhagwandin, Moyosore S Ajao, Muhammed A Spocter, Amadi O Ihunwo, Paul R Manger
This study employed a range of neuroanatomical stains to determine the organization of the main and accessory olfactory systems within the brain of the tree pangolin. The tree pangolin has a typically mammalian olfactory system, but minor variations were observed. The main olfactory system is comprised of the layered main olfactory bulb (MOB), the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), the rostral olfactory cortex (including the taenia tecta, anterior hippocampal continuation and induseum griseum), the olfactory tubercle (Tu), the lateral olfactory tract (lot) and the olfactory limb of the anterior commissure, the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract (NLOT), the piriform cortex (PIR) and a typically mammalian rostral migratory stream (RMS)...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Brendan N Lilley, Shai Sabbah, John L Hunyara, Katherine D Gribble, Timour Al-Khindi, Jiali Xiong, Zhuhao Wu, David M Berson, Alex L Kolodkin
The accessory optic system (AOS) detects retinal image slip and reports it to the oculomotor system for reflexive image stabilization. Here, we characterize two Cre lines that permit genetic access to AOS circuits responding to vertical motion. The first (Pcdh9-Cre) labels only one of the four subtypes of ON direction-selective retinal ganglion cells (ON-DS RGCs), those preferring ventral retinal motion. Their axons diverge from the optic tract just behind the chiasm and selectively innervate the medial terminal nucleus (MTN) of the AOS...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Matthew J Farrar, Kristine E Kolkman, Joseph R Fetcho
The noradrenergic (NA) system of vertebrates is implicated in learning, memory, arousal, and neuroinflammatory responses, but is difficult to access experimentally. Small and optically transparent, larval zebrafish offer the prospect of exploration of NA structure and function in an intact animal. We made multiple transgenic zebrafish lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to insert fluorescent reporters upstream of slc6a2, the Norepinephrine Transporter gene. These lines faithfully express reporters in NA cell populations, including the locus coeruleus (LC), which contains only about 14 total neurons...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Safa Shehab, Sumisha Rehmathulla, Hayate Javed
GAD67-EGFP mice were used in a series of experiments to provide anatomical evidence for the role of the reduction in myelinated primary afferent input to GABA spinal neurons in the production of neuropathic pain following peripheral L5 nerve injury. First, we confirmed that L5 injury in these mice produced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral foot. Secondly, we injected a mixture of cholera toxin subunit-B (CTb) and isolectin B4 (IB4) in the sciatic nerve to selectively label its myelinated and unmyelinated primary afferents...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Melissa K Edler, Chet C Sherwood, Richard S Meindl, Emily Munger, William D Hopkins, John J Ely, Joseph M Erwin, Daniel P Perl, Elliott J Mufson, Patrick R Hof, Mary Ann Raghanti
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the brain's primary immune cells microglia become activated and are found in close apposition to amyloid beta (Aβ) protein plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). The present study evaluated microglia density and morphology in a large group of aged chimpanzees (n = 20, ages 37-62 years) with varying degrees of AD-like pathology. Using immunohistochemical and stereological techniques, we quantified the density of activated microglia and morphological variants (ramified, intermediate, and amoeboid) in postmortem chimpanzee brain samples from prefrontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and hippocampus, areas that show a high degree of AD pathology in humans...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Minzi Chang, Nobuko Suzuki, Hideki Derek Kawai
Proper formation of laminar structures in sensory cortexes is critical for sensory information processing. Previous studies suggested that the timing of neuronal migration and the laminar position of cortical neurons differ among sensory cortexes. How they differ during postnatal development has not been systematically investigated. Here, identifying laminas using transcription factors, we examined postnatal changes in neuronal density and distribution in presumptive primary auditory (ACx), visual (VCx) and somatosensory cortexes (SCx) in a strain of mice using immunofluorescence techniques...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Andrew J Newell, Diana Lalitsasivimol, Jari Willing, Keith Gonzales, Elizabeth M Waters, Teresa A Milner, Bruce S McEwen, Christine K Wagner
The development of medial temporal lobe circuits is critical for subsequent learning and memory functions later in life. The present study reports the expression of progesterone receptor (PR), a powerful transcription factor of the nuclear steroid receptor superfamily, in Cajal-Retzius cells of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus of rats. PR was transiently expressed from the day of birth through postnatal day 21, but was absent thereafter. Although PR immunoreactive (PRir) cells did not clearly express typical markers of mature neurons, they possessed an ultrastructural morphology consistent with neurons...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Muhammad A Spocter, Ashraf Uddin, Johnny C Ng, Edmund Wong, Victoria X Wang, Cheuk Tang, Bridget Wicinski, Jordan Haas, Kathleen Bitterman, Mary Ann Raghanti, Rachel Dunn, Patrick R Hof, Chet C Sherwood, Jelena Jovanovik, Clare Rusbridge, Paul R Manger
All domesticated mammals exhibit marked reductions in overall brain size, however, it is unknown whether the corpus callosum, an integral white matter fiber pathway for interhemispheric cortical communication, is affected by domestication differentially or strictly in coordination with changes in brain size. To answer this question, we used quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to compare the mid-sagittal cross-sectional areas of the corpus callosum in 35 carnivore species, including eight wild canids and 13 domestic dogs...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Manasi Iyer, Rachel A Essner, Bernhard Klingenberg, Matthew E Carter
Neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area that express hypocretin (Hcrt) neuropeptides help regulate many behaviors including wakefulness and reward seeking. These neurons project throughout the brain, including to neural populations that regulate wakefulness, such as the locus coeruleus (LC) and tuberomammilary nucleus (TMN), as well as to populations that regulate reward, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). To address the roles of Hcrt neurons in seemingly disparate behaviors, it has been proposed that Hcrt neurons can be anatomically subdivided into at least two distinct subpopulations: a "medial group" that projects to the LC and TMN, and a "lateral group" that projects to the NAc and VTA...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
J Patrick Card, Aaron L Johnson, Ida J Llewellyn-Smith, Huiyuan Zheng, Rishi Anand, Daniel I Brierley, Stefan Trapp, Linda Rinaman
Glutamatergic neurons that express pre-proglucagon (PPG) and are immunopositive (+) for glucagon-like peptide-1 (i.e., GLP-1+ neurons) are located within the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS) and medullary reticular formation in rats and mice. GLP-1 neurons give rise to an extensive central network in which GLP-1 receptor (R) signaling suppresses food intake, attenuates rewarding, increases avoidance, and stimulates stress responses, partly via . GLP-1R signaling within the cNTS. In mice, noradrenergic (A2) cNTS neurons express GLP-1R, whereas PPG neurons do not...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Shyam Srinivasan, Charles F Stevens
Distributed circuits wherein connections between subcircuit components seem to be randomly distributed are common to the olfactory circuit, hippocampus, and cerebellum. In such circuits, activation patterns seem random too, showing no detectable spatial preference, and contrast with regions that have topographic connections between sub-circuits and topographic activation patterns. Quantitative studies of topographic circuits in the neocortex have yielded common principles of organization. Whether distributed circuits share similar principles of organization is unknown because similar quantitative information is missing and the way they encode information remains a challenge...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Yuto Ueda, Yuki Shimizu, Nobuyuki Shimizu, Tohru Ishitani, Toshio Ohshima
Unlike humans and other mammals, adult zebrafish have the superior capability to recover from central nervous system (CNS) injury. We previously found that proliferation of radial glia (RG) is induced in response to stab injury in optic tectum and that new neurons are generated from RG after stab injury. However, molecular mechanisms which regulate proliferation and differentiation of RG are not well known. In the present study, we investigated Shh and Notch signaling as potential mechanisms regulating regeneration in the optic tectum of adult zebrafish...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Karen M Fisher, Alayna Lilak, Joseph Garner, Corinna Darian-Smith
The corticospinal tract (CST) forms the major descending pathway mediating voluntary hand movements in primates, and originates from nine cortical subdivisions in the macaque. While the terminals of spared motor CST axons are known to sprout locally within the cord in response to spinal injury, little is known about the response of the other CST subcomponents. We previously reported, that following a cervical dorsal root lesion (DRL), the primary somatosensory (S1) CST terminal projection retracts to 60% of its original terminal domain, while the primary motor (M1) projection remains robust (Darian-Smith et al...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Tiago Cardoso, Andrew F Adler, Bengt Mattsson, Deirdre B Hoban, Sara Nolbrant, Jenny Nelander Wahlestedt, Agnete Kirkeby, Shane Grealish, Anders Björklund, Malin Parmar
Dopamine (DA) neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a promising unlimited source of cells for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). A number of studies have demonstrated functionality of DA neurons originating from hESCs when grafted to the striatum of rodent and non-human primate models of PD. However, several questions remain in regard to their axonal outgrowth potential and capacity to integrate into host circuitry. Here, ventral midbrain (VM) patterned hESC-derived progenitors were grafted into the midbrain of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, and analyzed at 6, 18, and 24 weeks for a time-course evaluation of specificity and extent of graft-derived fiber outgrowth as well as potential for functional recovery...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Uwe Homberg, Tim-Henning Humberg, Jutta Seyfarth, Katharina Bode, Manuel Quintero Pérez
The central complex is a group of midline-crossing neuropils in the insect brain involved in head direction coding, sky compass navigation, and spatial visual memory. To compare the neuroarchitecture and neurochemistry of the central complex in insects that differ in locomotion, ways of orientation, time of activity (diurnal, nocturnal), and evolutionary history, we studied the distribution of GABA immunostaining in the central complex of 29 species, ranging from Zygentoma to Diptera. In all species the lower division of the central body was densely innervated by GABA-immunoreactive tangential neurons...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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