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Journal of Comparative Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714144/cerebellins-are-differentially-expressed-in-selective-subsets-of-neurons-throughout-the-brain
#1
Erica Seigneur, Thomas C Südhof
Cerebellins are secreted hexameric proteins that form tripartite complexes with the presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules neurexins or 'deleted-in-colorectal-cancer' (DCC), and the postsynaptic glutamate-receptor-related proteins GluD1 and GluD2. These tripartite complexes are thought to regulate synapses. However, cerebellins are expressed in multiple isoforms whose relative distributions and overall functions are not understood. Three of the four cerebellins, Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4, autonomously assemble into homohexamers, whereas the Cbln3 requires Cbln1 for assembly and secretion...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685837/proteomic-analyses-of-nucleus-laminaris-identified-candidate-targets-of-the-fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein
#2
Hitomi Sakano, Diego A R Zorio, Xiaoyu Wang, Ying S Ting, William S Noble, Michael J MacCoss, Edwin W Rubel, Yuan Wang
The avian nucleus laminaris (NL) is a brainstem nucleus necessary for binaural processing, analogous in structure and function to the mammalian medial superior olive. In chickens (Gallus gallus), NL is a well-studied model system for activity-dependent neural plasticity. Its neurons have bipolar extension of dendrites, which receive segregated inputs from two ears and display rapid and compartment-specific reorganization in response to unilateral changes in auditory input. More recently, FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein), an RNA-binding protein that regulates local protein translation, has been shown to be enriched in NL dendrites, suggesting its potential role in the structural dynamics of these dendrites...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685836/the-stability-of-the-transcriptome-during-the-estrous-cycle-in-four-regions-of-the-mouse-brain
#3
Lisa M DiCarlo, Cynthia Vied, Richard S Nowakowski
We analyzed the transcriptome of the C57BL/6J mouse hypothalamus, hippocampus, neocortex, and cerebellum to determine estrous cycle-specific changes in these four brain regions. We found almost 16,000 genes are present in one or more of the brain areas but only 210 genes, ∼1.3%, are significantly changed as a result of the estrous cycle. The hippocampus has the largest number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (82), followed by the neocortex (76), hypothalamus (63), and cerebellum (26). Most of these DEGs (186/210) are differentially expressed in only one of the four brain regions...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685822/thalamic-connections-of-the-core-auditory-cortex-and-rostral-supratemporal-plane-in-the-macaque-monkey
#4
Brian H Scott, Kadharbatcha S Saleem, Yukiko Kikuchi, Makoto Fukushima, Mortimer Mishkin, Richard C Saunders
In the primate auditory cortex, information flows serially in the mediolateral dimension from core, to belt, to parabelt. In the caudorostral dimension, stepwise serial projections convey information through the primary, rostral, and rostrotemporal (AI, R, and RT) core areas on the supratemporal plane (STP), continuing to the rostrotemporal polar area (RTp) and adjacent auditory-related areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STGr) and temporal pole. In addition to this cascade of corticocortical connections, the auditory cortex receives parallel thalamocortical projections from the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN)...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681514/behavioral-and-stereological-characterization-of-hdc-ko-mice-relation-to-tourette-syndrome
#5
Shamsiiat Abdurakhmanova, Karthik Chary, Mikko Kettunen, Alejandra Sierra, Pertti Panula
A premature termination codon in the human histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) gene has been identified in a family suffering from Guilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). In the current study we investigated if mice lacking the histamine producing enzyme HDC share the morphological and cytological phenotype with GTS patients by using magnetic resonance (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), unbiased stereology and immunohistochemistry. Behavior of Hdc knock-out (Hdc KO) mice was assessed in an open field test. The results of stereological, volumetric and DTI analysis measurements showed no significant differences between control and Hdc KO mice...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681379/cortical-inter-hemispheric-circuits-for-multimodal-vocal-learning-in-songbirds
#6
Amy K Paterson, Sarah W Bottjer
Vocal learning in songbirds and humans is strongly influenced by social interactions based on sensory inputs from several modalities. Songbird vocal learning is mediated by cortico-basal ganglia circuits that include the SHELL region of LMAN (lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium), but little is known concerning neural pathways that could integrate multimodal sensory information with SHELL circuitry. In addition, cortical pathways that mediate the precise coordination between hemispheres required for song production have been little studied...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675490/the-significance-of-negative-correlations-in-brain-connectivity
#7
Liang Zhan, Lisanne M Jenkins, Ouri E Wolfson, Johnson Jonaris GadElkarim, Kevin Nocito, Paul M Thompson, Olusola A Ajilore, Moo K Chung, Alex D Leow
Understanding the modularity of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-derived brain networks or "connectomes" can inform the study of brain function organization. However, fMRI connectomes additionally involve negative edges, which may not be optimally accounted for by existing approaches to modularity that variably threshold, binarize, or arbitrarily weight these connections. Consequently, many existing Q maximization-based modularity algorithms yield variable modular structures. Here, we present an alternative complementary approach that exploits how frequent the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal correlation between two nodes is negative...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675473/localization-of-orofacial-representation-in-the-corona-radiata-internal-capsule-and-cerebral-peduncle-in-macaca-mulatta
#8
R J Morecraft, A Binneboese, K S Stilwell-Morecraft, J Ge
Subcortical white matter injury is often accompanied by orofacial motor dysfunction, but little is known about the structural substrates accounting for these common neurological deficits. We studied the trajectory of the corticobulbar projection from the orofacial region of the primary (M1), ventrolateral (LPMCv), supplementary (M2), rostral cingulate (M3) and caudal cingulate (M4) motor regions through the corona radiata (CR), internal capsule (IC) and crus cerebri of the cerebral peduncle (ccCP). In the CR each pathway was segregated...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675433/development-of-the-anterior-visual-input-pathway-to-the-drosophila-central-complex
#9
Jennifer K Lovick, Jaison J Omoto, Kathy T Ngo, Volker Hartenstein
The anterior visual pathway (AVP) conducts visual information from the medulla of the optic lobe via the anterior optic tubercle (AOTU) and bulb (BU) to the ellipsoid body (EB) of the central complex. The anatomically defined neuron classes connecting the AOTU, BU, and EB represent discrete lineages, genetically and developmentally specified sets of cells derived from common progenitors (Omoto et al., 2017). In this paper, we have analyzed the formation of the AVP from early larval to adult stages. The immature fiber tracts of the AVP, formed by secondary neurons of lineages DALcl1/2 and DALv2, assemble into structurally distinct primordia of the AOTU, BU, and EB within the late larval brain...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675430/parvalbumin-expressing-ependymal-cells-in-rostral-lateral-ventricle-wall-adhesions-contribute-to-aging-related-ventricle-stenosis-in-mice
#10
Federica Filice, Marco R Celio, Alexandre Babalian, Walter Blum, Viktoria Szabolcsi
Aging-associated ependymal-cell pathologies can manifest as ventricular gliosis, ventricle enlargement or ventricle stenosis. Ventricle stenosis and fusion of the lateral ventricle (LV) walls is associated with a massive decline of the proliferative capacities of the stem cell niche in the affected subventricular zone (SVZ) in aging mice. We examined the brains of adult C57BL/6 mice and found that ependymal cells located in the adhesions of the medial and lateral walls of the rostral LVs upregulated parvalbumin (PV) and displayed reactive phenotype, similarly to injury-reactive ependymal cells...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657115/monosynaptic-retrograde-tracing-of-neurons-expressing-the-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpr151-in-the-mouse-brain
#11
Jonas Broms, Matilda Grahm, Lea Haugegaard, Thomas Blom, Konstantinos Meletis, Anders Tingström
GPR151 is a G-protein coupled receptor for which the endogenous ligand remains unknown. In the nervous system of vertebrates, its expression is enriched in specific diencephalic structures, where the highest levels are observed in the habenular area. The habenula has been implicated in a range of different functions including behavioral flexibility, decision making, inhibitory control and pain processing, which makes it a promising target for treating psychiatric and neurological disease. This study aimed to further characterize neurons expressing the Gpr151 gene, by tracing the afferent connectivity of this diencephalic cell population...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653446/the-evolution-and-functions-of-nuclei-of-the-visual-pulvinar-in-primates
#12
REVIEW
Mary K L Baldwin, Pooja Balaram, Jon H Kaas
In this review, we outline the history of our current understanding of the organization of the pulvinar complex of mammals. We include more recent evidence from our own studies of both New and Old World monkeys, prosimian galagos, and close relatives of primates, including tree shrews and rodents. Based on cumulative evidence, we provide insights into the possible evolution of the visual pulvinar complex, as well as the possible co-evolution of the inferior pulvinar nuclei and temporal cortical visual areas within the MT complex...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653335/catlas-an-magnetic-resonance-imaging-based-three-dimensional-cortical-atlas-and-tissue-probability-maps-for-the-domestic-cat-felis-catus
#13
Daniel Stolzberg, Carmen Wong, Blake E Butler, Stephen G Lomber
Brain atlases play an important role in effectively communicating results from neuroimaging studies in a standardized coordinate system. Furthermore, brain atlases extend analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data by delineating regions of interest over which to evaluate the extent of functional activation as well as measures of inter-regional connectivity. Here, we introduce a three-dimensional atlas of the cat cerebral cortex based on established cytoarchitectonic and electrophysiological findings...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649777/organization-of-the-catecholaminergic-systems-in-the-brain-of-lungfishes-the-closest-living-relatives-of-terrestrial-vertebrates
#14
Jesús M López, Agustín González
Lungfishes are a group of sarcopterygian fishes currently considered the closest living relatives of tetrapods, and represent an interesting group for the study of evolutionary traits in the transition from fishes to tetrapods. Catecholaminergic systems in the brain are among the most carefully analyzed neurotransmitter systems in the brain of most vertebrate groups. Their organization shows major shared characteristics, although traits particular to each vertebrate class have also been found, primarily between anamniotes and amniotes...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649766/inferior-olivary-projection-to-the-zebrin-ii-stripes-in-lobule-ixcd-of-the-pigeon-flocculus-a-retrograde-tracing-study
#15
Douglas R Wylie, Cristian Gutierrez-Ibanez, Jeremy R Corfield, Iulia Craciun, David J Graham, Peter L Hurd
Zebrin II (ZII; a.k.a. aldolase C) is expressed heterogeneously in Purkinje cells (PCs) such that there are sagittal stripes of high expression (ZII+) interdigitated with stripes of little or no expression (ZII-). The pigeon flocculus receives visual-optokinetic information and is important for generating compensatory eye movements. It consists of 4 sagittal zones based on PC complex spike activity (CSA) in response to rotational optokinetic stimuli. There are two zones where CSA responds best to rotation about the vertical axis (VA), interdigitated with two zones where CSA responds best to rotation about an horizontal axis (HA)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649723/distribution-and-female-reproductive-state-differences-in-orexigenic-and-anorexigenic-neurons-in-the-brain-of-the-mouth-brooding-african-cichlid-fish-astatotilapia-burtoni
#16
Danielle T Porter, David A Roberts, Karen P Maruska
Integration of reproduction and metabolism is necessary for species survival. While the neural circuits controlling energy homeostasis are well-characterized, the signals controlling the relay of nutritional information to the reproductive axis are less understood. The cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni is ideal for studying the neural regulation of feeding and reproduction because females cycle between a feeding gravid state and a period of forced starvation while they brood developing young inside their mouths...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649695/neuronal-aromatase-expression-in-pain-processing-regions-of-the-medullary-and-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn
#17
May Tran, Julia A Kuhn, João M Bráz, Allan I Basbaum
In both acute and chronic pain conditions, women tend to be more sensitive than men. This sex difference may be regulated by estrogens, such as estradiol, that are synthesized in the spinal cord and brainstem and act locally to influence pain processing. To identify a potential cellular source of local estrogen, here we examined the expression of aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to estradiol. Our studies focused on primary afferent neurons and on their central targets in the spinal cord and medulla as well as in the nucleus of the solitary tract, the target of nodose ganglion-derived visceral afferents...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643417/congenital-deafness-affects-deep-layers-in-primary-and-secondary-auditory-cortex
#18
Christoph Berger, Daniela Kühne, Verena Scheper, A Kral
Congenital deafness leads to functional deficits in the auditory cortex for which early cochlear implantation can effectively compensate. Most of these deficits have been demonstrated functionally. Furthermore, the majority of previous studies on deafness have involved the primary auditory cortex; knowledge of higher-order areas is limited to effects of cross-modal reorganization. In this study, we compared the cortical cytoarchitecture of four cortical areas in adult hearing and congenitally deaf cats (CDCs): the primary auditory field A1, two secondary auditory fields, namely the dorsal zone (DZ) and second auditory field (A2); and a reference visual association field (area 7) in the same section stained either using Nissl or SMI-32 antibodies...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617951/altered-expression-of-igf-i-system-in-neurons-of-the-inflamed-spinal-cord-during-acute-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#19
Azita Parvaneh Tafreshi, Farideh Talebi, Samira Ghorbani, Claude Bernard, Farshid Noorbakhsh
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that the impaired IGF-I system contributes to neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined the spinal cords of the EAE, the animal model of multiple sclerosis, to see if the expression of the IGF-I system is altered. METHODS: To induce EAE, C57/BL6 mice were immunized with the Hooke lab MOG kit, sacrificed at the peak of the disease and their spinal cords were examined for the immunoreactivities (ir) of the IGF-I, IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), as one major downstream molecule in the IGF-I signaling...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614906/heterogeneous-organization-and-connectivity-of-the-chicken-auditory-thalamus-gallus-gallus
#20
Yuan Wang, Diego A R Zorio, Harvey J Karten
The auditory ascending system contains parallel pathways in vertebrate brains. In chickens (Gallus gallus), three pathways arise from nucleus laminaris (NL), nucleus angularis (NA), and regio intermedius (RI) in the brainstem, innervating three subdivisions of the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd) in the midbrain. The current study reveals the segregation of these pathways in their subsequent projections to the nucleus ovoidalis (Ov) in the thalamus. Based on cytoarchitecture and myelin distribution, we identified seven Ov subregions, including five neuronal clusters within the Ov proper, the nucleus semilunaris parovoidalis (SPO), and the circum-ovoidalis (cOv)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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