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Journal of Comparative Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911000/enlightening-the-pretectum
#1
Ramón Anadón
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864939/gabaergic-innervation-of-the-ciliary-ganglion-in-macaque-monkeys-a-light-and-electron-microscopic-study
#2
Miriam Barnerssoi, Paul J May, Anja K E Horn
The vertebrate ciliary ganglion (CG) is a relay station in the parasympathetic pathway activating the iris sphincter and ciliary muscle to mediate pupillary constriction and lens accommodation, respectively. While the postganglionic motoneurons in the CG are cholinergic, as are their inputs, there is evidence from avian studies that GABA may also be involved. Here, we used light and electron microscopic methods to examine the GABAergic innervation of the CG in Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Immunohistochemistry for the gamma aminobutyric acid synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) revealed that all CG neurons are contacted by ChAT-positive terminals...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864937/pax3-overexpression-induces-cell-aggregation-and-perturbs-commissural-axon-projection-during-embryonic-spinal-cord-development
#3
Juntang Lin, Sulei Fu, Ciqing Yang, Christoph Redies
Pax3 is a transcription factor that belongs to the paired box family. In the developing spinal cord, it is expressed in the dorsal commissural neurons, which project ascending axons contralaterally to form proper spinal cord-brain circuitry. While it has been shown that Pax3 induces cell aggregation in vitro, little is known about the role of Pax3 in cell aggregation and spinal circuit formation in vivo. We have reported that Pax3 is involved in neuron differentiation and that its overexpression induces ectopic cadherin-7 expression...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864931/spatial-distribution-of-synapses-on-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expressing-juxtaglomerular-cells-in-the-mouse-olfactory-glomerulus
#4
Emi Kiyokage, Kazuto Kobayashi, Kazunori Toida
Olfactory sensory axons converge in specific glomeruli where they form excitatory synapses onto dendrites of mitral/tufted (M/T) and juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, including periglomerular (PG), external tufted (ET), and superficial-short axon cells. JG cells consist of heterogeneous subpopulations with different neurochemical, physiological, and morphological properties. Among JG cells, previous electron microscopic (EM) studies showed that the majority of synaptic inputs to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive neurons were asymmetrical synapses from olfactory nerve (ON) terminals...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864926/synaptic-distribution-of-individually-labeled-mitral-cells-in-the-external-plexiform-layer-of-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#5
Takeshi Matsuno, Emi Kiyokage, Kazunori Toida
Mitral cells are the major projection neurons of the olfactory bulb. They receive olfactory inputs, regulate information, and project their axons to the olfactory cortex. To better understand output regulation of mitral cells, we established a method to visualize individual projection neurons and quantitatively examined their synaptic distribution. Individual mitral cells were labeled by viral injection, 3D-reconstructed with light microscopy, and serial-sectioned for electron microscopy. Synaptic distributions were analyzed in electron microscopically reconstructed cell bodies, two regions of secondary dendrites (near the somata and ≈ 200 µm from the somata), and primary dendrites...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806429/cellular-localization-of-relaxin-like-gonad-stimulating-peptide-expression-in-asterias-rubens-new-insights-into-neurohormonal-control-of-spawning-in-starfish
#6
Ming Lin, Masatoshi Mita, Michaela Egertová, Cleidiane G Zampronio, Alexandra M Jones, Maurice R Elphick
Gamete maturation and spawning in starfish is triggered by a gonad-stimulating substance (GSS), which is present in extracts of the radial nerve cords. Purification of GSS from the starfish Patiria pectinifera identified GSS as a relaxin-like polypeptide, which is now known as relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP). Cells expressing RGP in the radial nerve cord of P. pectinifera have been visualized, but the presence of RGP-expressing cells in other parts of the starfish body has not been investigated...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804143/retinal-ganglion-cell-topography-and-spatial-resolving-power-in-the-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum
#7
João Paulo Coimbra, Paul R Manger
This study sought to determine whether the retinal organization of the white rhinoceros, a large African herbivore with lips specialized for grazing in open savannahs, relates to its foraging ecology and habitat. Using stereology and retinal wholemounts, we estimated a total of 353,000 retinal ganglion cells. Their density distribution reveals an unusual topographic organization of a temporal (2,000 cells/mm(2) ) and a nasal (1,800 cells/mm(2) ) area embedded within a well-defined horizontal visual streak (800 cells/mm(2) ), which is remarkably similar to the retinal organization in the black rhinoceros...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804142/in-vivo-transgenic-expression-of-collybistin-in-neurons-of-the-rat-cerebral-cortex
#8
Christopher D Fekete, Roman U Goz, Sean Dinallo, Celia P Miralles, Tzu-Ting Chiou, John Bear, Christopher G Fiondella, Joseph J LoTurco, Angel L De Blas
Collybistin (CB) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor selectively localized to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and glycinergic postsynapses. Active CB interacts with gephyrin, inducing the submembranous clustering and the postsynaptic accumulation of gephyrin, which is a scaffold protein that recruits GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs) at the postsynapse. CB is expressed with or without a src homology 3 (SH3) domain. We have previously reported the effects on GABAergic synapses of the acute overexpression of CBSH3- or CBSH3+ in cultured hippocampal (HP) neurons...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804131/identification-of-the-sexually-dimorphic-gastrin-releasing-peptide-system-in-the-lumbosacral-spinal-cord-that-controls-male-reproductive-function-in-the-mouse-and-asian-house-musk-shrew-suncus-murinus
#9
Kei Tamura, Yasuhisa Kobayashi, Asuka Hirooka, Keiko Takanami, Takumi Oti, Takamichi Jogahara, Sen-Ichi Oda, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Hirotaka Sakamoto
Several regions of the brain and spinal cord control male reproductive function. We previously demonstrated that the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system, located in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats, controls spinal centers to promote penile reflexes during male copulatory behavior. However, little information exists on the male-specific spinal GRP system in animals other than rats. The objective of this study was to examine the functional generality of the spinal GRP system in mammals using the Asian house musk shrew (Suncus murinus; suncus named as the laboratory strain), a specialized placental mammal model...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778378/morphology-of-visual-sector-thalamic-reticular-neurons-in-the-macaque-monkey-suggests-retinotopically-specialized-parallel-stream-mixed-input-to-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#10
Elise M Bragg, Elizabeth A Fairless, Shiyuan Liu, Farran Briggs
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a unique brain structure at the interface between the thalamus and the cortex. Because the TRN receives bottom-up sensory input and top-down cortical input, it could serve as an integration hub for sensory and cognitive signals. Functional evidence supports broad roles for the TRN in arousal, attention, and sensory selection. How specific circuits connecting the TRN with sensory thalamic structures implement these functions is not known. The structural organization and function of the TRN is particularly interesting in the context of highly organized sensory systems, such as the primate visual system, where neurons in the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (dLGN) are morphologically and physiologically distinct and also specialized for processing particular features of the visual environment...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766649/functions-of-corazonin-and-histamine-in-light-entrainment-of-the-circadian-pacemaker-in-the-madeira-cockroach-rhyparobia-maderae
#11
Andreas Arendt, El-Sayed Baz, Monika Stengl
The circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach, Rhyparobia (Leucophaea) maderae, is located in the accessory medulla (AME). Ipsi- and contralateral histaminergic compound eyes are required for photic entrainment. Light pulses delay locomotor activity rhythm during the early night and advance it during the late night. Thus, different neuronal pathways might relay either light-dependent delays or advances to the clock. Injections of neuroactive substances combined with running-wheel assays suggested that GABA, pigment-dispersing factor, myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs), and orcokinins (ORCs) were part of both entrainment pathways, whereas allatotropin (AT) only delayed locomotor rhythms at the early night...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718229/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-regulate-vestibular-afferent-gain-and-activation-timing
#12
Barbara J Morley, Anna Lysakowski, Sarath Vijayakumar, Deanna Menapace, Timothy A Jones
Little is known about the function of the cholinergic efferents innervating peripheral vestibular hair cells. We measured vestibular sensory evoked potentials (VsEPs) in α9 knockout (KO) mice, α10 KO mice, α7 KO mice, α9/10 and α7/9 double KO mice, and wild-type (WT) controls. We also studied the morphology and ultrastructure of efferent terminals on vestibular hair cells in α9, α10, and α9/10 KOs. Both type I and type ll vestibular hair cells express the α9 and α10 subunits. The efferent boutons on vestibular cells in α9, α10, and α9/10 KOs appeared normal, but a quantitative analysis was not performed...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718219/molecular-heterogeneity-of-aggrecan-based-perineuronal-nets-around-five-subclasses-of-parvalbumin-expressing-neurons-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#13
Jun Yamada, Shozo Jinno
Subsets of GABAergic neurons are surrounded by perineuronal nets (PNNs), which play a critical role in the regulation of neural plasticity and neuroprotection. Although the plant lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) has been commonly used to label PNNs, WFA only detects N-acetyl-d-galactosamine on aggrecan, a member of the lectican family. In this study, we used WFA and the antibody against the core protein of aggrecan (ACAN) to investigate the molecular heterogeneity of aggrecan-based PNNs around five subclasses of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the mouse hippocampus...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616630/nogo-a-does-not-inhibit-retinal-axon-regeneration-in-the-lizard-gallotia-galloti
#14
Dirk M Lang, Maria Del Mar Romero-Alemán, Bryony Dobson, Elena Santos, Maximina Monzón-Mayor
The myelin-associated protein Nogo-A contributes to the failure of axon regeneration in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Inhibition of axon growth by Nogo-A is mediated by the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR). Nonmammalian vertebrates, however, are capable of spontaneous CNS axon regeneration, and we have shown that retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons regenerate in the lizard Gallotia galloti. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed spatiotemporal regulation of Nogo-A and NgR in cell bodies and axons of RGCs during ontogeny...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670950/should-we-redefine-the-classic-lateral-pallium
#15
Mario F Wullimann
The quadripartite model of the telencephalic pallium of amniotes offered by the Puelles school includes a medial,dorsal, lateral and ventral pallium. Watson and Puelles (2016; this issue) now newly propose that the mammalian ventral pallium gives rise to not only all of the pallial amygdala but also the olfactory cortex which hitherto was considered to arise from lateral pallium. Thus, the region of the lateral pallium was misidentified in the quadripartite model since the designated histogenetic unit gives rise to the insular cortex/claustrum and should therefore be considered a most ventrolateral part of the dorsal pallium (its ventrolateral subdivision)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696410/adult-ciliary-neurotrophic-factor-receptors-help-maintain-facial-motor-neuron-choline-acetyltransferase-expression-in-vivo-following-nerve-crush
#16
Nancy Lee, Carolyn E Rydyznski, Matthew S Rasch, Dennis S Trinh, A John MacLennan
Exogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration promotes the survival of motor neurons in a wide range of models. It also increases the expression of the critical neurotransmitter enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), by in vitro motor neurons, likely independent of its effects on their survival. We have used the adult mouse facial nerve crush model and adult onset conditional disruption of the CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα) gene to directly examine the in vivo roles played by endogenous CNTF receptors in adult motor neuron survival and ChAT maintenance, independent of developmental functions...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650492/motoneuron-glutamatergic-receptor-expression-following-recovery-from-cervical-spinal-hemisection
#17
Heather M Gransee, Maria A Gonzalez Porras, Wen-Zhi Zhan, Gary C Sieck, Carlos B Mantilla
Cervical spinal hemisection at C2 (SH) removes premotor drive to phrenic motoneurons located in segments C3-C5 in rats. Spontaneous recovery of ipsilateral diaphragm muscle activity is associated with increased phrenic motoneuron expression of glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and decreased expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid (AMPA) receptors. Glutamatergic receptor expression is regulated by tropomyosin-related kinase receptor subtype B (TrkB) signaling in various neuronal systems, and increased TrkB receptor expression in phrenic motoneurons enhances recovery post-SH...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650422/central-neural-alterations-predominate-in-an-insect-model-of-nociceptive-sensitization
#18
Dennis R Tabuena, Allan Solis, Ken Geraldi, Christopher A Moffatt, Megumi Fuse
Many organisms respond to noxious stimuli with defensive maneuvers. This is noted in the hornworm, Manduca sexta, as a defensive strike response. After tissue damage, organisms typically display sensitized responses to both noxious or normally innocuous stimuli. To further understand this phenomenon, we used novel in situ and in vitro preparations based on paired extracellular nerve recordings and videography to identify central and peripheral nerves responsible for nociception and sensitization of the defensive behavior in M...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650319/hoxa5-localization-in-postnatal-and-adult-mouse-brain-is-suggestive-of-regulatory-roles-in-post-mitotic-neurons
#19
Lizen Benoit, Hutlet Bertrand, Bissen Diane, Sauvegarde Deborah, Hermant Maryse, Ahn Marie-Thérèse, Gofflot Françoise
Hoxa5 is a member of the Hox gene family that plays critical roles in successive steps of the central nervous system formation during embryonic and fetal development. Hoxa5 expression in the adult mouse brain has been reported suggesting that this gene may be functionally required in the brain after birth. To provide further insight into the Hoxa5 expression pattern and potential functions in the brain, we have characterized its neuroanatomical profile from embryonic stages to adulthood. While most Hox mapping studies have been based solely on transcript analysis, we extended our analysis to HOXA5 protein localization in adulthood using specific antibodies...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650259/expression-of-cys-loop-receptor-subunits-and-acetylcholine-binding-protein-in-the-mechanosensory-neurons-glial-cells-and-muscle-tissue-of-the-spider-cupiennius-salei
#20
Hongxia Liu, Andrew S French, Päivi H Torkkeli
The spider, Cupiennius salei, central and peripheral nervous system transcriptomes have 15 Cys-loop receptor subunits and an acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP). Twelve subunits are predicted to form anion channels gated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, histamine or changes in pH, and three are putative ACh gated cation channels. Spiders have a variety of mechanosensilla and proprioceptive organs that are innervated by efferents in their peripherally located parts, and efferents also innervate muscle fibers...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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