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Review of Scientific Instruments

Valerio Biancalana, Giuseppe Bevilacqua, Piero Chessa, Yordanka Dancheva, Roberto Cecchi, Leonardo Stiaccini
A low cost, stable, programmable, unipolar current source is described. The circuit is designed in view of a modular arrangement, suitable for applications where several DC sources must be controlled at once. A hybrid switching/linear design helps in improving the stability and in reducing the power dissipation and cross-talking. Multiple units can be supplied by a single DC power supply, while allowing for a variety of maximal current values and compliance voltages at the outputs. The circuit is analogically controlled by a unipolar voltage, enabling current programmability and control through commercial digital-to-analogue conversion cards...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
M Lorenzi, N Mitroglou, M Santini, M Gavaises
An experimental technique for the estimation of the temporal-averaged vapour volume fraction within high-speed cavitating flow orifices is presented. The scientific instrument is designed to employ X-ray micro computed tomography (microCT) as a quantitative 3D measuring technique applied to custom designed, large-scale, orifice-type flow channels made from Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK). The attenuation of the ionising electromagnetic radiation by the fluid under examination depends on its local density; the transmitted radiation through the cavitation volume is compared to the incident radiation, and combination of radiographies from sufficient number of angles leads to the reconstruction of attenuation coefficients versus the spatial position...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Christopher S A Musgrave, Takehiro Murakami, Teruyuki Ugomori, Kensuke Yoshida, Shinsuke Fujioka, Hiroaki Nishimura, Hironori Atarashi, Tomokazu Iyoda, Keiji Nagai
With the advent of high volume manufacturing capabilities by extreme ultraviolet lithography, constant improvements in light source design and cost-efficiency are required. Currently, light intensity and conversion efficiency (CE) measurments are obtained by charged couple devices, faraday cups etc, but also phoshpor imaging plates (IPs) (BaFBr:Eu). IPs are sensitive to light and high-energy species, which is ideal for studying extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from laser produced plasmas (LPPs). In this work, we used IPs to observe a large angular distribution (10°-90°)...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Y Nakano, Y Enomoto, T Masunaga, S Menk, P Bertier, T Azuma
A new electrostatic ion storage ring, the RIKEN cryogenic electrostatic ring, has been commissioned with a 15-keV ion beam under cryogenic conditions. The ring was designed with a closed ion beam orbit of about 2.9 m, where the ion beam is guided entirely by electrostatic components. The vacuum chamber of the ring is cooled using a liquid-He-free cooling system to 4.2 K with a temperature difference of 0.4 K at most within all the positions measured by calibrated silicon diode sensors. The first cryogenic operation with a 15-keV Ne(+) beam was successfully performed in August 2014...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Dong Hwi Kim, Wahab Mohyuddin, Dong Sik Woo, Hyun Chul Choi, Kang Wook Kim
A new high-performing PCB (Printed Circuit Board) dichroic filter, which can be used for the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) electron cyclotron emission imaging system, is proposed. The current dichroic filter consists of a triangular lattice array of circular holes on the 6-mm thick metal plate, while circular hole spacing limitation caused relatively narrow passband (∼20 GHz). On the other hand, the proposed PCB dichroic filter utilizes the inexpensive commercial PCB fabrication process with a flexible adjustment of circular hole spacing...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Xiao-Gang Luo, Xin Yi, Xiang-Nan Bu, Chang-Jun Hou, Dan-Qun Huo, Mei Yang, Huan-Bao Fa, Jin-Can Lei
In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
T Koutecký, T Zikmund, D Glittová, D Paloušek, J Živčák, J Kaiser
At present, the automotive industry, along with other industries, has increasing demands on accuracy of produced parts and assemblies. Besides the regular dimensional and geometrical inspection, in some cases, also a verification at very low temperatures is required. X-ray computed tomography (CT), as a tool for non-destructive testing, is able to examine samples and then determine dimensions for strictly stable temperature conditions necessary for the stability of the CT system. Until now, no system that allows scanning of samples larger than a few millimeters at temperatures much below 0 °C has been presented...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Ashif Reza, Kumardeb Banerjee, Parnika Das, Kalyankumar Ray, Subhankar Bandyopadhyay, Bivas Dam
This paper presents the design and implementation of an in situ measurement setup for the capacitance of a five electrode Penning ion trap (PIT) facility at room temperature. For implementing a high Q resonant circuit for the detection of trapped electrons/ions in a PIT, the value of the capacitance of the trap assembly is of prime importance. A tunable Colpitts oscillator followed by a unity gain buffer and a low pass filter is designed and successfully implemented for a two-fold purpose: in situ measurement of the trap capacitance when the electric and magnetic fields are turned off and also providing RF power at the desired frequency to the PIT for exciting the trapped ions and subsequent detection...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
C C Yuan, D Zhang, Y Gan
Engineering atomic force microscopy tips for reliable tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) and colloidal probe technique are becoming routine practices in many labs. In this 10 year update review, various new tip modification methods developed over the past decade are briefly reviewed to help researchers select the appropriate method. The perspective is put in a large context to discuss the opportunities and challenges in this area, including novel combinations of seemingly different methods, potential applications of some methods which were not originally intended for TERS tip fabrication, and the problems of high cost and poor reproducibility of tip fabrication...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Alexander Prehn, Rosa Glöckner, Gerhard Rempe, Martin Zeppenfeld
Optical frequency combs (OFCs) provide a convenient reference for the frequency stabilization of continuous-wave lasers. We demonstrate a frequency control method relying on tracking over a wide range and stabilizing the beat note between the laser and the OFC. The approach combines fast frequency ramps on a millisecond timescale in the entire mode-hop free tuning range of the laser and precise stabilization to single frequencies. We apply it to a commercially available optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and demonstrate tuning over more than 60 GHz with a ramping speed up to 3 GHz/ms...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Yu Lei, Qing Tong, Zhaowei Xin, Dong Wei, Xinyu Zhang, Jing Liao, Haiwei Wang, Changsheng Xie
A liquid crystal microlens array (LCMLA) with an arrayed microhole pattern electrode based on nematic liquid crystal materials using a fabrication method including traditional UV-photolithography and wet etching is presented. Its focusing performance is measured under different voltage signals applied between the electrodes of the LCMLA. The experimental outcome shows that the focal length of the LCMLA can be tuned easily by only changing the root mean square value of the voltage signal applied. The developed LCMLA is further integrated with a main lens and an imaging sensor to construct a LCMLA-based focused plenoptic camera (LCFPC) prototype...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
T Vecchione, P Denes, R K Jobe, I J Johnson, J M Joseph, R K Li, A Perazzo, X Shen, X J Wang, S P Weathersby, J Yang, D Zhang
The introduction of direct electron detectors enabled the structural biology revolution of cryogenic electron microscopy. Direct electron detectors are now expected to have a similarly dramatic impact on time-resolved MeV electron microscopy, particularly by enabling both spatial and temporal jitter correction. Here we report on the commissioning of a direct electron detector for time-resolved MeV electron microscopy. The direct electron detector demonstrated MeV single electron sensitivity and is capable of recording megapixel images at 180 Hz...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
C Arcos Carrasco, D Ramírez Muñoz, S I Ravelo Arias, J Sánchez Moreno, E Maset Sancho, A Garrigós Sirvent
In this work, an electronic system is presented to measure the force applied by a solenoid. The originality of the work is focused on the use of a magnetoresistive current sensor to provide the isolation barrier needed in the actual industrial plant where the solenoids are working. The design of the electronic system is presented as well as experimental measurements as a result of a calibration process showing a negligible hysteresis with that specific sensor. The magnetoresistive current sensor is used to develop transmission functions rather than playing its usual sensing roles...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Mario A Chavarria, Alessandro V Matheoud, Philippe Marmillod, Youjiang Liu, Deyi Kong, Jürgen Brugger, Giovanni Boero
A high sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer (FAIMS) was designed, fabricated, and tested. The main components of the system are a 10.6 eV UV photoionization source, an ion filter driven by a high voltage/high frequency n-MOS inverter circuit, and a low noise ion detector. The ion filter electronics are capable to generate square waveforms with peak-to-peak voltages up to 1000 V at frequencies up to 1 MHz with adjustable duty cycles. The ion detector current amplifier has a gain up to 10(12) V/A with an effective equivalent input noise level down to about 1 fA/Hz(1/2) during operation with the ion filter at the maximum voltage and frequency...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
H Sasao, H Arakawa, R Imazawa, Y Kawano, K Itami, H Kubo
Magnification of a polarization angle with Littrow layout gratings has been developed. High magnification with a factor of 7.7 using two gratings in Littrow layout was experimentally proved. The magnification range was investigated by calculation at a wavelength of 10.6 μm. The method can be applied for a high magnification factor >30. Larger groove numbers and smaller blaze angles are suitable for the large magnification. Statistical fluctuation of the diffracted polarization angle is compared with that of the incident polarization angle...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
F Nording, S Weber, F Ludwig, M Schilling
Magnetoresistive (MR) sensors and sensor systems are used in a large variety of applications in the field of industrial automation, automotive business, aeronautic industries, and instrumentation. Different MR sensor technologies like anisotropic magnetoresistive, giant magnetoresistive, and tunnel magnetoresistive sensors show strongly varying properties in terms of magnetoresistive effect, response to magnetic fields, achievable element miniaturization, manufacturing effort, and signal-to-noise ratio. Very few data have been reported so far on the comparison of noise performance for different sensor models and technologies, especially including the temperature dependence of their characteristics...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Greg E Collins, Michael P Malito, Cy R Tamanaha, Mark H Hammond, Braden C Giordano, Adam L Lubrano, Christopher R Field, Duane A Rogers, Russell A Jeffries, Richard J Colton, Susan L Rose-Pehrsson
A novel vapor delivery testbed, referred to as the Trace Explosives Sensor Testbed, or TESTbed, is demonstrated that is amenable to both high- and low-volatility explosives vapors including nitromethane, nitroglycerine, ethylene glycol dinitrate, triacetone triperoxide, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine. The TESTbed incorporates a six-port dual-line manifold system allowing for rapid actuation between a dedicated clean air source and a trace explosives vapor source...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Tae-Heon Yang, Jeong-Hoi Koo, Sang-Youn Kim, Dong-Soo Kwon
Haptic display units have been widely used for conveying button sensations to users, primarily employing vibrotactile actuators. However, the human feeling for pressing buttons mainly relies on kinaesthetic sensations (rather than vibrotactile sensations), and little studies exist on small-scale kinaesthetic haptic units. Thus, the primary goals of this paper are to design a miniature kinaesthetic actuator based on Magneto-Rheological (MR) fluid that can convey various button-clicking sensations and to experimentally evaluate its haptic performance...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Matthew L Whitaker, Kenneth J Baldwin, William R Huebsch
A new experimental system to measure elastic wave velocities in samples in situ under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature in a multi-anvil apparatus has been installed at Beamline 6-BM-B of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. This system allows for measurement of acoustic velocities via ultrasonic interferometry, and makes use of the synchrotron beam to measure sample densities via X-ray diffraction and sample lengths using X-radiographic imaging. This system is fully integrated into the automated software controls of the beamline and is capable of collecting robust data on elastic wave travel times in less than 1 s, which is an improvement of more than one to two orders of magnitude over existing systems...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Shengzhao Zhang, Linna Zhang, Gang Li, Ling Lin
Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a useful tool for obtaining quantitative information in turbid media, which is always achieved by developing a multivariate regression model that links the spectral signal to the component concentrations. However, in most cases, variations between the actual measurement and the modeling process of the device may cause errors in predicting a component's concentration. In this paper, we propose a data-processing method to resist these variations. The method involves performing a curve fitting of the multiple-position diffuse reflectance spectral data...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
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