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Review of Scientific Instruments

R M McDermott, A Lebschy, B Geiger, C Bruhn, M Cavedon, M Dunne, R Dux, R Fischer, A Kappatou, T Pütterich, E Viezzer
A new core charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostic has been installed in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak that is capable of measuring the impurity ion temperature, toroidal rotation, and density on both the low field side (LFS) and high field side (HFS) of the plasma. The new system features 48 lines-of-sight (LOS) with a radial resolution that varies from ±2 cm on the LFS down to ±0.75 cm on the HFS and has sufficient signal to run routinely at 10 ms and for special circumstances down to 2.5 ms integration time...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
D Brunner, A Q Kuang, B LaBombard, W Burke
A new servomotor drive system has been developed for the horizontal reciprocating probe on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Real-time measurements of plasma temperature and density-through use of a mirror Langmuir probe bias system-combined with a commercial linear servomotor and controller enable self-adaptive position control. Probe surface temperature and its rate of change are computed in real time and used to control probe insertion depth. It is found that a universal trigger threshold can be defined in terms of these two parameters; if the probe is triggered to retract when crossing the trigger threshold, it will reach the same ultimate surface temperature, independent of velocity, acceleration, or scrape-off layer heat flux scale length...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Dang Xuan Dang, Thuy Kieu Truong, Seong Chu Lim, Dongseok Suh
We introduce an experimental setup for the simultaneous measurement of axial and radial strain variations of a hybrid carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn actuator, where a paraffin wax is melt-infiltrated inside the CNT yarn. Such a hybrid yarn system has been known as a Joule-heating-driven tensile/torsional actuator due to a large volume expansion of the infiltrated paraffin upon a solid-to-liquid phase transition. During the operation of this actuator, however, the axial strain variations along the yarn axis and the diameter change of the yarn, which is the radial strain variations perpendicular to the yarn axis, had been measured separately, which prohibits the exact understanding of the whole actuation dynamics...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Ryota Kinjo, Akihiro Kagamihata, Takamitsu Seike, Hikaru Kishimoto, Haruhiko Ohashi, Shigeru Yamamoto, Takashi Tanaka
A lightweight-compact variable-gap undulator (LCVGU) having the force-cancellation system based on the multipole monolithic magnets (MMMs) has been developed. The LCVGU is free from the heavy mechanical frames, which is a fundamental element specific to conventional variable-gap undulators (VGUs) because of a strong attractive force, and thus the cost and time for construction and installation are expected to be significantly reduced; the MMMs counteract the strong attractive force in a cost-effective manner...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Xianfu Yang, Jianyong Cao, He Liu, Huiling Wei, Weicheng Liu, Hong Ma
In order to carry out the long pulse and high power neutral beam injector (NBI) heating experiment on the HL-2M tokamak and satisfy its high vacuum pumping speed in the NBI, two built-in cryopumps with large area and based on a three-stage adsorption structure have been developed. The design idea and size of the three stage structure, the manufacturing technique, and the test experiment for cryopumps have been described in this paper. The experimental result shows that the cooldown time of liquid nitrogen pipes and liquid helium pipes are 1...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
H Valtna-Lukner, F Belli, A Ermolov, F Köttig, K F Mak, F Tani, J C Travers, P St J Russell
A cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) concept, potentially suitable for characterizing few or sub-cycle pulses in a single shot, is described in which a counter-propagating transient grating is used as both the gate and the dispersive element in a FROG spectrometer. An all-reflective setup, which can operate over the whole transmission range of the nonlinear medium, within the sensitivity range of the matrix sensor, is also proposed, and proof-of-principle experiments for the ultraviolet and visible-to-near-infrared spectral ranges are reported...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
M Oszwaldowski, S El-Ahmar
In this paper, we report on the double Hall sensor structure (DHSS) in which the voltage offset can be effectively reduced. The DHSS is composed of two standard Hall sensors that are activated with two currents from electrically independent current sources. The operation principle of the DHSS is explained in detail, and the concluded properties of the DHSS are confirmed in the experimental part of the paper. The measurements are performed on DHSSs based on InSb thin films. The offset is reduced by about three orders of magnitude...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Yusuke Matsuura, Taichi Hirano, Keiji Sakai
In this study, we developed a novel type of rheological measurement system. Here, a spherical probe is driven to rotate periodically by applying torques using quadruple electromagnets in a noncontact manner. Moreover, this system is an enhancement of our electromagnetically spinning (EMS) viscometer, which is widely used for measuring rheological flow curves in various industrial fields. The quadruple EMS method provides the frequency spectrum of viscoelasticity, in addition to shear viscosity, in a steady flow by switching the operation modes of the driving torque...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
S George, N Bruyant, J Béard, S Scotto, E Arimondo, R Battesti, D Ciampini, C Rizzo
We present a new technique to measure pulsed magnetic fields based on the use of rubidium in gas phase as a metrological standard. We have therefore developed an instrument based on laser inducing transitions at about 780 nm (D2 line) in rubidium gas contained in a mini-cell of 3 mm × 3 mm cross section. To be able to insert such a cell in a standard high-field pulsed magnet, we have developed a fibred probe kept at a fixed temperature. Transition frequencies for both the π (light polarization parallel to the magnetic field) and σ (light polarization perpendicular to the magnetic field) configurations are measured by a commercial wavemeter...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
V E Strempel, R Naumann d'Alnoncourt, M Driess, F Rosowski
A modular setup for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on high-surface powder substrates in fixed bed reactors with a gravimetric in situ monitoring was developed. The design and operation are described in detail. An integrated magnetically suspended balance records mass changes during ALD. The highly versatile setup consists of three modular main units: a dosing unit, a reactor unit, and a downstream unit. The reactor unit includes the balance, a large fixed bed reactor, and a quartz crystal microbalance. The dosing unit is equipped with a complex manifold to deliver gases and gaseous reagents including three different ALD precursors, five oxidizing or reducing agents, and two purge gas lines...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Qisheng Wang, Feng Yu, Ying Cui, Kunhao Zhang, Qiangyan Pan, Changyou Zhong, Ke Liu, Huan Zhou, Bo Sun, Jianhua He
The macromolecular crystallography beamlines at third-generation synchrotron facilities play a central role in solving macromolecular crystal structures and also in understanding the biological function at molecular levels. The MX beamline BL17U at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility is a typical standard MX beamline with a focused beam size (H × V) of FWHM around 80 μm × 45 μm. However the protein samples brought to the beamline are down to 5-10 m from the important and challenging science project now...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
M Y Wang, A D Liu, C Zhou, J Q Hu, H Li, T Lan, J L Xie, W X Ding, W D Liu, C X Yu
Doppler backscattering systems (DBSs) have been widely used in magnetic confinement fusion devices to measure the density fluctuations and propagation velocity of turbulence. However, the received signals of a DBS usually include both zero-order reflection and backscattering components, which results in interference in calculating the Doppler shift frequency from the backscattering components. A novel method is introduced here for estimating the Doppler shift frequency by separating the zero-order reflection and backscattering components using the cross-phase spectrum between the I-signal and Q-signal from a quadrature mixer, based on the difference in symmetrical characteristics between the zero-order reflection and backscattering signal spectra...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Robert Seidel, Marvin N Pohl, Hebatallah Ali, Bernd Winter, Emad F Aziz
A state-of-the-art experimental setup for soft X-ray photo- and Auger-electron spectroscopy from liquid phase has been built for operation at the synchrotron-light facility BESSY II, Berlin. The experimental station is named SOL(3), which is derived from solid, solution, and solar, and refers to the aim of studying solid-liquid interfaces, optionally irradiated by photons in the solar spectrum. SOL(3) is equipped with a high-transmission hemispherical electron analyzer for detecting electrons emitted from small molecular aggregates, nanoparticles, or biochemical molecules and their components in (aqueous) solutions, either in vacuum or in an ambient pressure environment...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Wei-Cheng Wang, Cheng-Chi Tai
The aim of this study involved developing a temperature controller for magnetic induction hyperthermia (MIH). A closed-loop controller was applied to track a reference model to guarantee a desired temperature response. The MIH system generated an alternating magnetic field to heat a high magnetic permeability material. This wireless induction heating had few side effects when it was extensively applied to cancer treatment. The effects of hyperthermia strongly depend on the precise control of temperature. However, during the treatment process, the control performance is degraded due to severe perturbations and parameter variations...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Natalia Rinaldi-Montes, Matt Rowberry, Carlos Frontera, Ivo Baroň, Javier Garcés, Jan Blahůt, Raúl Pérez-López, Christos Pennos, Xavi Martí
In this paper, a contactless positioning system is presented which has been designed to monitor the kinematic behavior of mechanical discontinuities in three dimensions. The positioning system comprises a neodymium magnet, fixed on one side of a discontinuity, and a magnetoresistive sensing array, fixed on the opposing side. Each of the anisotropic magnetoresistive sensors in the sensing array records the magnetic field along three orthogonal directions. The positioning system intrinsically generates compact data packages which are transmitted effectively using a range of standard wireless telecommunication technologies...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
J Zhen, R Dykstra, C Eccles, G Gouws, S Obruchkov
A 20 MHz Class D amplifier with an output of 100 W of RF power has been developed. The compact size printed circuit board area of 50 cm(2) and efficiency of 73% make it suitable for mobile nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) systems. Test results show that the rise and ring down times of the amplifier are less than 0.2 μs, and it is capable of producing constant amplitude pulses as short as 2 μs. Experiments using a Carr Purcell Meiboom Gill pulse sequence with a NMR MOUSE sensor confirm that the Class D amplifier is suitable for mobile NMR applications...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Julie Brisset, Joshua Colwell, Adrienne Dove, Doug Maukonen
In an effort to better understand the early stages of planet formation, we have developed a 1.5U payload that flew on the International Space Station (ISS) in the NanoRacks NanoLab facility between September 2014 and March 2016. This payload, named NanoRocks, ran a particle collision experiment under long-term microgravity conditions. The objectives of the experiment were (a) to observe collisions between mm-sized particles at relative velocities of < 1 cm/s and (b) to study the formation and disruption of particle clusters for different particle types and collision velocities...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
A Soltani Ghalehjooghi, S Minaei, N Gholipour Zanjani, B Beheshti
A portable automatic capillary viscometer, equipped with an AVR microcontroller, was designed and developed. The viscometer was calibrated with Certified Reference Material (CRM) s200 and utilized for measurement of kinematic viscosity. A quadratic equation was developed for calibration of the instrument at various temperatures. Also, a model was developed for viscosity determination in terms of the viscometer dimensions. Development of the portable viscometer provides for on-site monitoring of engine oil viscosity...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
K Iwano, A Iwamoto, T Asahina, K Yamanoi, Y Arikawa, H Nagatomo, M Nakai, T Norimatsu, H Azechi
Infrared (IR) heating processes have been studied to form a deuterium layer in an inertial confinement fusion target. To understand the relationship between the IR intensity and the fuel layering time constant, we have developed a new method to assess the IR intensity during irradiation. In our method, a glass flask acting as a dummy target is filled with liquid hydrogen (LH2) and is then irradiated with 2-μm light. The IR intensity is subsequently calculated from the time constant of the LH2 evaporation rate...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Yu He, Yan Wang, Zhi-Xun Shen
We developed a minimum gradient based method to track ridge features in a 2D image plot, which is a typical data representation in many momentum resolved spectroscopy experiments. Through both analytic formulation and numerical simulation, we compare this new method with existing DC (distribution curve) based and higher order derivative based analyses. We find that the new method has good noise resilience and enhanced contrast especially for weak intensity features and meanwhile preserves the quantitative local maxima information from the raw image...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
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