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Review of Scientific Instruments

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147700/photon-counting-phosphorescence-lifetime-imaging-with-timepixcam
#1
Liisa M Hirvonen, Merlin Fisher-Levine, Klaus Suhling, Andrei Nomerotski
TimepixCam is a novel fast optical imager based on an optimized silicon pixel sensor with a thin entrance window and read out by a Timepix Application Specific Integrated Circuit. The 256 × 256 pixel sensor has a time resolution of 15 ns at a sustained frame rate of 10 Hz. We used this sensor in combination with an image intensifier for wide-field time-correlated single photon counting imaging. We have characterised the photon detection capabilities of this detector system and employed it on a wide-field epifluorescence microscope to map phosphorescence decays of various iridium complexes with lifetimes of about 1 μs in 200 μm diameter polystyrene beads...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147699/note-a-high-performance-low-cost-laser-shutter-using-a-piezoelectric-cantilever-actuator
#2
W Bowden, I R Hill, P E G Baird, P Gill
We report the design and characterization of an optical shutter based on a piezoelectric cantilever. Compared to conventional electro-magnetic shutters, the device has intrinsically low power and is acoustically quiet. The cantilever position is controlled by a high-voltage op-amp circuit for easy tuning of the range of travel, and mechanical slew rate, which enables a factor of 30 reduction in mechanical noise compared to a rapidly switched device. We achieve shuttering rise and fall times of 11 μs, corresponding to mechanical slew rates of 1...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147698/double-flush-mounted-probe-diagnostics-and-data-analysis-technique-for-argon-glow-discharge-plasma
#3
Pengcheng Yu, Yu Liu, Jinxiang Cao, Liang Xu, Xiao Zhang, Zhongkai Zhang, Pi Wang
In this work, a double flush-mounted probe for measuring plasma parameters was designed and fabricated. The method to determine the plasma density and electron temperature using a floating double flush-mounted probe was characterized. To validate this method, the measurement results in an argon glow discharge plasma, including the electron density and temperature measurements, were compared with those obtained using a single probe and a double probe. Results indicate that the electron density measured using the double flush-mounted probe agrees well with those measured using other probes; the effective electron temperature values are also consistent within the admissible error range...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147697/modular-soft-x-ray-spectrometer-for-applications-in-energy-sciences-and-quantum-materials
#4
Yi-De Chuang, Yu-Cheng Shao, Alejandro Cruz, Kelly Hanzel, Adam Brown, Alex Frano, Ruimin Qiao, Brian Smith, Edward Domning, Shih-Wen Huang, L Andrew Wray, Wei-Sheng Lee, Zhi-Xun Shen, Thomas P Devereaux, Jaw-Wern Chiou, Way-Faung Pong, Valeriy V Yashchuk, Eric Gullikson, Ruben Reininger, Wanli Yang, Jinghua Guo, Robert Duarte, Zahid Hussain
Over the past decade, the advances in grating-based soft X-ray spectrometers have revolutionized the soft X-ray spectroscopies in materials research. However, these novel spectrometers are mostly dedicated designs, which cannot be easily adopted for applications with diverging demands. Here we present a versatile spectrometer design concept based on the Hettrick-Underwood optical scheme that uses modular mechanical components. The spectrometer's optics chamber can be used with gratings operated in either inside or outside orders, and the detector assembly can be reconfigured accordingly...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147696/an-improved-asay-window-technique-for-investigating-the-micro-spall-of-an-explosively-driven-tin
#5
Yongtao Chen, Renkai Hong, Haoyu Chen, Tiegang Tang, Guowu Ren
An improved Asay window technique is employed to experimentally investigate the micro-spalling fragments of a melted tin subjected to high explosive loading. Compared to the traditional Asay window, details of the new design are illustrated, through the use of photonic Doppler velocimetry to record high-quality micro-spall signals. The analytical method is established to convert the measured data into the spatial volume density distribution, being in quantitative agreement with that obtained from the x-ray radiograph...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147695/note-suppression-of-khz-frequency-switching-noise-in-digital-micro-mirror-devices
#6
Klaus Hueck, Anton Mazurenko, Niclas Luick, Thomas Lompe, Henning Moritz
High resolution digital micro-mirror devices (DMDs) make it possible to produce nearly arbitrary light fields with high accuracy, reproducibility, and low optical aberrations. However, using these devices to trap and manipulate ultracold atomic systems for, e.g., quantum simulation is often complicated by the presence of kHz-frequency switching noise. Here we demonstrate a simple hardware extension that solves this problem and makes it possible to produce truly static light fields. This modification leads to a 47 fold increase in the time that we can hold ultracold (6)Li atoms in a dipole potential created with the DMD...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147694/high-sensitive-translational-temperature-measurement-using-characteristic-curve-of-second-harmonic-signal-in-wavelength-modulation-spectroscopy
#7
Makoto Matsui, Tohru Yamada
A high sensitive measurement system of translational temperature of plasma was developed. In this system, which is based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy, a peak value of second harmonic signal was measured as a function of modulation depth. The translational temperature was estimated by fitting the theoretically calculated curve to the measured characteristic curve. The performance of this system was examined using microwave discharge plasma. As a result of comparison with conventional laser absorption spectroscopy, both results show good agreement in the measurable region of the laser absorption spectroscopy...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147693/inverse-collimated-proton-radiography-for-imaging-thin-materials
#8
Matthew S Freeman, Jason Allison, Malcolm Andrews, Eric Ferm, John J Goett, Kris Kwiatkowski, Julian Lopez, Fesseha Mariam, Mark Marr-Lyon, Michael Martinez, Jason Medina, Patrick Medina, Frank E Merrill, Chris L Morris, Matthew M Murray, Paul Nedrow, Levi P Neukirch, Katherine Prestridge, Paolo Rigg, Alexander Saunders, Tamsen Schurman, Amy Tainter, Frans Trouw, Dale Tupa, Josh Tybo, Wendy Vogan-McNeil, Carl Wilde
Relativistic, magnetically focused proton radiography was invented at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the 800 MeV LANSCE beam and is inherently well-suited to imaging dense objects, at areal densities >20 g cm(-2). However, if the unscattered portion of the transmitted beam is removed at the Fourier plane through inverse-collimation, this system becomes highly sensitive to very thin media, of areal densities <100 mg cm(-2). Here, this inverse-collimation scheme is described in detail and demonstrated by imaging Xe gas with a shockwave generated by an aluminum plate compressing the gas at Mach 8...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147692/note-an-inexpensive-square-waveform-ion-funnel-driver
#9
Nathan M Hoffman, Bojana Opačić, Peter T A Reilly
An inexpensive frequency variable square waveform generator (WFG) was developed to use with existing sinusoidal waveform driven ion funnels. The developed WFG was constructed using readily available low voltage DC power supplies and discrete components placed in printed circuit boards. As applied to ion funnels, this WFG represents considerable cost savings over commercially available products without sacrificing performance. Operation of the constructed pulse generator has been demonstrated for a 1 nF ion funnel at an operating frequency of 1 MHz while switching 48 Vp-p...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147691/a-simple-photoacoustic-detector-for-highly-corrosive-gases
#10
J Rakovský, O Votava
In this work, we present a new design of a cantilever-type photoacoustic (PA) detector with high chemical resistance to be used for a broad range of gaseous samples including highly corrosive gasses. A thin mica cantilever used to sense the PA pressure is the only part that comes into direct contact with the sample gas as its deflection is sensed by a probe laser from outside of the gas cell. The design of the detector is simple, compact, and affordable. It can be constructed without any special fabrication procedure in laboratories equipped with a standard mechanical and electronic workshop...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147690/continuous-time-of-flight-measurements-in-a-lissajous-configuration
#11
G Dobos, G Hárs
Short pulses used by traditional time-of-flight mass spectrometers limit their duty cycle, pose space-charge issues, and require high speed detectors and electronics. The motivation behind the invention of continuous time of flight mass spectrometers was to mitigate these problems, by increasing the number of ions reaching the detector and eliminating the need for fast data acquisition systems. The most crucial components of these spectrometers are their modulators: they determine both the maximal modulation frequency and the modulation depth...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147689/compact-low-power-infrared-tube-furnace-for-in-situ-x-ray-powder-diffraction
#12
A Doran, L Schlicker, C M Beavers, S Bhat, M F Bekheet, A Gurlo
We describe the development and implementation of a compact, low power, infrared heated tube furnace for in situ powder X-ray diffraction experiments. Our silicon carbide (SiC) based furnace design exhibits outstanding thermal performance in terms of accuracy control and temperature ramping rates while simultaneously being easy to use, robust to abuse and, due to its small size and low power, producing minimal impact on surrounding equipment. Temperatures in air in excess of 1100 °C can be controlled at an accuracy of better than 1%, with temperature ramping rates up to 100 °C/s...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147688/application-of-ir-imaging-for-free-surface-velocity-measurement-in-liquid-metal-systems
#13
M G Hvasta, E Kolemen, A Fisher
Measuring free-surface, liquid-metal flow velocity is challenging to do in a reliable and accurate manner. This paper presents a non-invasive, easily calibrated method of measuring the surface velocities of open-channel liquid-metal flows using an IR camera. Unlike other spatially limited methods, this IR camera particle tracking technique provides full field-of-view data that can be used to better understand open-channel flows and determine surface boundary conditions. This method could be implemented and automated for a wide range of liquid-metal experiments, even if they operate at high-temperatures or within strong magnetic fields...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147687/characterisation-of-new-gated-optical-image-intensifiers-for-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging
#14
H Sparks, F Görlitz, D J Kelly, S C Warren, P A Kellett, E Garcia, A K L Dymoke-Bradshaw, J D Hares, M A A Neil, C Dunsby, P M W French
We report the characterisation of gated optical image intensifiers for fluorescence lifetime imaging, evaluating the performance of several different prototypes that culminate in a new design that provides improved spatial resolution conferred by the addition of a magnetic field to reduce the lateral spread of photoelectrons on their path between the photocathode and microchannel plate, and higher signal to noise ratio conferred by longer time gates. We also present a methodology to compare these systems and their capabilities, including the quantitative readouts of Förster resonant energy transfer...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147686/center-conductor-diagnostic-for-multipactor-detection-in-inaccessible-geometries
#15
Vernon H Chaplin, Aimee A Hubble, Kathryn A Clements, Timothy P Graves
Electron collecting current probes are the most reliable diagnostic of multipactor and radiofrequency (RF) ionization breakdown; however, stand-alone probes can only be used in test setups where the breakdown region is physically accessible. This paper describes techniques for measuring multipactor current directly on the center conductor of a coaxial RF device (or more generally, on the signal line in any two-conductor RF system) enabling global multipactor detection with improved sensitivity compared to other common diagnostics such as phase null, third harmonic, and reflected power...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147685/multiple-sensors-based-kernel-machine-learning-in-smart-environment
#16
Jun-Bao Li, Jeng-Shyang Pan
Sensor-based monitoring systems use multiple sensors to identify high-level information based on the events that take place in a monitored environment. Identification and health care are important tasks in the smart environment. This paper presents a framework for multisensory multimedia data analysis using a kernel optimization-based principal analysis for identification and health care in a smart environment. Images of faces, palmprints, and fingerprints are used to identify a person, and a wrist pulse signal is used to analyze the person's health condition...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147684/a-new-non-contact-approach-for-the-measurement-and-uniformity-evaluation-of-coating-thickness-for-sheet-metal
#17
Zixue Qiu, Tianchi Zheng, Liping Wan, Guan Lu, Jianxin Shao, Jiang Yuan
To realize the automatic measurement and uniformity evaluation of the coating thickness for sheet metal, a new non-contact detection method for coating thickness was proposed based on a double laser probe and mechanical servo system. Non-contact measurement of coating thickness can be achieved by differential measurement principle of double laser probe, and the influences of sheet metal's Z position changes and platform's vibration on the measurement results can be removed by this method. A new coating thickness evaluation algorithm by integrating the least squares principle and cubic spline interpolation was given, which can fit the discrete thickness data into visual and accurate 3D graphics; and the measurement accuracy was evaluated based on grey theory, solving the problem of low accuracy by using limited measurement data to evaluate the thickness uniformity of an entire sheet metal...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147682/multi-layer-thick-gas-electron-multiplier-m-thgem-a-new-mpgd-structure-for-high-gain-operation-at-low-pressure
#18
M Cortesi, S Rost, W Mittig, Y Ayyad-Limonge, D Bazin, J Yurkon, A Stolz
The operating principle and performances of the Multi-layer Thick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (M-THGEM) are presented. The M-THGEM is a novel hole-type gaseous electron multiplier produced by multi-layer printed circuit board technology; it consists of a densely perforated assembly of multiple insulating substrate sheets (e.g., FR-4), sandwiched between thin metallic-electrode layers. The electron avalanche processes occur along the successive multiplication stages within the M-THGEM holes, under the action of strong dipole fields resulting from the application of suitable potential differences between the electrodes...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147681/retarding-field-energy-analyzer-for-high-energy-pulsed-electron-beam-measurements
#19
Jing Hu, Joshua L Rovey, Wansheng Zhao
A retarding field energy analyzer (RFEA) designed specifically for high energy pulsed electron beam measurements is described in this work. By proper design of the entrance grid, attenuation grid, and beam collector, this RFEA is capable of determining the time-resolved energy distribution of high energy pulsed electron beams normally generated under "soft vacuum" environment. The performance of the RFEA is validated by multiple tests of the leakage current, attenuation coefficient, and response time. The test results show that the retarding potential in the RFEA can go up to the same voltage as the electron beam source, which is 20 kV for the maximum in this work...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147680/miniaturized-two-stack-blumlein-pulser-with-a-variable-repetition-rate-for-non-thermal-irreversible-electroporation-experiments
#20
Sun-Hong Min, Ohjoon Kwon, Matlabjon Sattorov, In-Keun Baek, Seontae Kim, Jin-Young Jeong, Dongpyo Hong, Seunghyuk Park, Gun-Sik Park
Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) to avoid thermal damage to cells during intense DC ns pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) is a recent modality for medical applications. This mechanism, related to bioelectrical dynamics of the cell, is linked to the effect of a DC electric field and a threshold effect with an electrically stimulated membrane for the charge distribution in the cell. To create the NTIRE condition, the pulse width of the nsPEF should be shorter than the charging time constant of the membrane related to the cell radius, membrane capacitance, cytoplasm resistivity, and medium resistivity...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
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