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Review of Scientific Instruments

R Giles Harrison, Graeme J Marlton, Keri A Nicoll, Martin W Airey, Paul D Williams
Charge is observed in clouds of all forms, which may influence their development and properties. In-cloud charge measurements require a wide dynamic range, extending from charge in aerosols and dusts to that present in thunderstorms. Unexpectedly large charge densities (>200 pC m-3) have recently been detected in layer clouds using balloon-carried linear electrometers. These, however, lead to instrument saturation if sufficient sensitivity for aerosol and droplet charge is maintained. Logarithmic electrometers provide an alternative but suffer strong non-linear thermal effects...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
M T Hartman, A Rivère, R Battesti, C Rizzo
In this work we present data characterizing the sensitivity of the Biréfringence Magnetique du Vide (BMV) instrument. BMV is an experiment attempting to measure vacuum magnetic birefringence (VMB) via the measurement of an ellipticity induced in a linearly polarized laser field propagating through a birefringent region of vacuum in the presence of an external magnetic field. Correlated measurements of laser noise alongside the measurement in the main detection channel allow us to separate measured sensing noise from the inherent birefringence noise of the apparatus...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Kebin Li, Xiaojie Li, Honghao Yan, Xiaohong Wang, Yusong Miao
A new velocity probe which permits recording the time history of detonation and shock waves has been developed by improving the commercial on principle and structure. A method based on the probe is then designed to measure the detonation velocity and near-field shock parameters in a single underwater explosion, by which the oblique shock wave front of cylindrical charges and the peak pressure attenuation curve of spherical explosive are obtained. A further derivation of detonation pressure, adiabatic exponent, and other shock parameters is conducted...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
W Pilz, P Laufer, M Tajmar, R Böttger, L Bischoff
High current liquid metal ion sources are well known and found their first application as field emission electric propulsion thrusters in space technology. The aim of this work is the adaption of such kind of sources in broad ion beam technology. Surface patterning based on self-organized nano-structures on, e.g., semiconductor materials formed by heavy mono- or polyatomic ion irradiation from liquid metal (alloy) ion sources (LMAISs) is a very promising technique. LMAISs are nearly the only type of sources delivering polyatomic ions from about half of the periodic table elements...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Paul S Keatley, Thomas H J Loughran, Euan Hendry, William L Barnes, Robert J Hicken, Jeffrey R Childress, Jordan A Katine
Time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM) is a powerful technique for the investigation of picosecond magnetization dynamics at sub-micron length scales by means of the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). The spatial resolution of conventional (focused) Kerr microscopy using a microscope objective lens is determined by the optical diffraction limit so that the nanoscale character of the magnetization dynamics is lost. Here we present a platform to overcome this limitation by means of a near-field TRSKM that incorporates an atomic force microscope (AFM) with optical access to a metallic AFM probe with a nanoscale aperture at its tip...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Maja Dukic, Vencislav Todorov, Santiago Andany, Adrian P Nievergelt, Chen Yang, Nahid Hosseini, Georg E Fantner
Nearly all scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) contain a feedback controller, which is used to move the scanner in the direction of the z-axis in order to maintain a constant setpoint based on the tip-sample interaction. The most frequently used feedback controller in SPMs is the proportional-integral (PI) controller. The bandwidth of the PI controller presents one of the speed limiting factors in high-speed SPMs, where higher bandwidths enable faster scanning speeds and higher imaging resolution. Most SPM systems use digital signal processor-based PI feedback controllers, which require analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Wonmo Kang, YungChia Chen, Amit Bagchi, Thomas J O'Shaughnessy
The material response of biologically relevant soft materials, e.g., extracellular matrix or cell cytoplasm, at high rate loading conditions is becoming increasingly important for emerging medical implications including the potential of cavitation-induced brain injury or cavitation created by medical devices, whether intentional or not. However, accurately probing soft samples remains challenging due to their delicate nature, which often excludes the use of conventional techniques requiring direct contact with a sample-loading frame...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Qiang Zhang, Boxing Zhu, Deping Zhang, Jingwang Gu, Dongfeng Zhao, Yang Chen
We present a pulsed single longitudinal mode optical parametric oscillator that was recently constructed for sub-Doppler spectroscopic studies of transient species in a supersonic slit jet expansion environment. The system consists of a Littman-type grazing-incidence-grating resonator and a KTP crystal and is pumped at 532 nm. By spatially filtering the pump laser beam and employing an active cavity-length-stabilization scheme, a frequency down-conversion efficiency up to 18% and generation of Fourier-transform limited pulses with a typical pulse duration of ∼5...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
V Protopopov
A prototype of a combined visible-infrared spectrometer with a vertical probe beam is designed and tested. The combined spectral range is 0.4-20 μ with spatial resolution 1 mm. Basic features include the ability to measure both visibly transparent and opaque substances, as well as buried structures, such as in semiconductor industry; horizontal orientation of a sample, including semiconductor wafers; and reflection mode of operation, delivering twice the sensitivity compared to the transmission mode.
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Yea-Seok Park, Juwon Lee, Kyung-Soo Kim, Soohyun Kim
A hybrid actuator for haptic devices is proposed in this paper. The actuator is composed of a DC motor and a magneto-rheological (MR) brake to realize transparency and stable force control. Two piston cylinders are connected with a flexible tube to lighten the weight of the structures on the endpoint that interacts with an operator. Also, the MR brake is designed to be suitable for hydraulic transmission. For the proposed hybrid actuator, a cooperative force control method using a pressure sensor instead of a force sensor is proposed...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Linyue Liu, Jinliang Liu, Jianfu Zhang, Liang Chen, Xianpeng Zhang, Zhongbing Zhang, Jinlu Ruan, Peng Jin, Song Bai, Xiaoping Ouyang
Silicon carbide radiation detectors are attractive in the measurement of the total numbers of pulsed fast neutrons emitted from nuclear fusion and fission devices because of high neutron-gamma discrimination and good radiation resistance. A fast-neutron detection system was developed based on a large-area 4H-SiC Schottky diode detector and a 235U fission target. Excellent pulse-height spectra of fission fragments induced by mono-energy deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion neutrons and continuous energy fission neutrons were obtained...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
V Lopez-Dominguez, M A Garcia, P Marin, A Hernando
We present here a new free space method to measure the magnetic permeability of a single amorphous magnetic microwire (AMM) at microwave frequencies. The technique consists in inducing a high frequency electric current along the AMM axis by illumination with an electromagnetic wave at antenna resonance conditions. Fitting the induced electric current to the Hallen-Pocklington equation allows computing the relative magnetic permeability of the microwire as a function of the wave frequency. The method results particularly useful for the study of the giant magnetoimpedance effect of AMM by measuring the magnetic permeability upon the application of DC magnetic fields...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Esteban A Domené, Drew Schiltz, Dinesh Patel, Travis Day, E Jankowska, Oscar E Martínez, Jorge J Rocca, Carmen S Menoni
A simple, highly sensitive technique for measuring absorbed power in thin film dielectrics based on thermal lensing is demonstrated. Absorption of an amplitude modulated or pulsed incident pump beam by a thin film acts as a heat source that induces thermal lensing in the substrate. A second continuous wave collimated probe beam defocuses after passing through the sample. Determination of absorption is achieved by quantifying the change of the probe beam profile at the focal plane using a four-quadrant detector and cylindrical lenses to generate a focus error signal...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
K F Morcelles, V G Sirtoli, P Bertemes-Filho, V C Vincence
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Haixiao Lin, Jinda Lin, Jianliao Deng, Song Zhang, Yuzhu Wang
By alternatively operating two pulsed optically pumped (POP) atomic clocks, the dead time in a single clock can be eliminated, and the local oscillator can be discriminated continuously. A POP atomic clock with a zero-dead-time (ZDT) method is then insensitive to the microwave phase noise. From τ = 0.01 to 1 s, the Allan deviation of the ZDT-POP clock is reduced as nearly τ-1, which is significantly faster than τ-1/2 of a conventional clock. During 1-40 s, the Allan deviation returns to τ-1/2. Moreover, the frequency stability of the ZDT-POP clock is improved by one order of magnitude compared with that of the conventional POP clock...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
M Shakerian, F Marica, A Afrough, F G Goora, M Li, S Vashaee, B J Balcom
A metallic core holder, fabricated from non-magnetic Hastelloy-C276, has been designed for Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of core plug samples at high pressures and temperatures. Core plug samples, 1.5″ in diameter and 2″ in length, can be tested in the core holder at elevated pressures and temperatures, up to 5000 psi and 80 °C. These are conditions commonly found in petroleum reservoirs. A radio frequency probe, which excites and detects magnetic resonance signals, was placed inside the metal vessel...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
M F Campbell, P E Schrader, A L Catalano, K O Johansson, G A Bohlin, N K Richards-Henderson, C J Kliewer, H A Michelsen
We have developed and built a small porous-plug burner based on the original McKenna burner design. The new burner generates a laminar premixed flat flame for use in studies of combustion chemistry and soot formation. The size is particularly relevant for space-constrained, synchrotron-based X-ray diagnostics. In this paper, we present details of the design, construction, operation, and supporting infrastructure for this burner, including engineering attributes that enable its small size. We also present data for charactering the flames produced by this burner...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Takayuki Muro, Takuo Ohkochi, Yukako Kato, Yudai Izumi, Shun Fukami, Hidenori Fujiwara, Tomohiro Matsushita
Deployments of spherical grids to obtain high energy and angular resolutions for retarding field analyzers (RFAs) having acceptance angles as large as or larger than ±45° were explored under the condition of using commercially available microchannel plates with effective diameters of approximately 100 mm. As a result of electron trajectory simulations, a deployment of three spherical grids with significantly different grid separations instead of conventional equidistant separations showed an energy resolving power (E/ΔE) of 3200 and an angular resolution of 0...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Byungho Yoon, Soohyun Kim
A reconfigurable pelvis mechanism that can change its length for multi-locomotion robot is introduced. From the characteristics of animals that walk in a bipedal or quadrupedal manner, we found that the length of the pelvis for each type of locomotion is related to the efficiency and stability of walking. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this mechanism in biped and quadruped walking through comparison of accumulated power of consumption. We also examined the changes of the supporting polygon according to the length of the pelvis during quadruped walking in terms of stability...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
L N Bai, H D Liu, T T Wang, X X Ge, H Q Zhai, W Zhou
A new method of direct precision frequency measurement is proposed in this paper, which uses the clock cursor effect between the sampling clock signal and input signal and ADC (analog to digital converter) quantization error suppression technique in the background of digital measurement with double ADC. On this basis, a precision frequency corrector is designed. Compared with the traditional frequency synthesizer, this device takes the non-standard frequency signal of the crystal oscillator as the reference to realize the standard frequency signal output through the frequency correction function...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
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