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Review of Scientific Instruments

Anton E Efimov, Igor I Agapov, Olga I Agapova, Vladimir A Oleinikov, Alexey V Mezin, Michael Molinari, Igor Nabiev, Konstantin E Mochalov
We present a new concept of a combined scanning probe microscope (SPM)/ultramicrotome apparatus. It enables "slice-and-view" scanning probe nanotomography measurements and 3D reconstruction of the bulk sample nanostructure from series of SPM images after consecutive ultrathin sections. The sample is fixed on a flat XYZ scanning piezostage mounted on the ultramicrotome arm. The SPM measuring head with a cantilever tip and a laser-photodiode tip detection system approaches the sample for SPM measurements of the block-face surface immediately after the ultramicrotome sectioning is performed...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
V Nassisi, D Delle Side
Nowadays, the employment and development of fast current pulses require sophisticated systems to perform measurements. Rogowski coils are used to diagnose cylindrical shaped beams; therefore, they are designed and built with a toroidal structure. Recently, to perform experiments of radiofrequency biophysical stresses, flat transmission lines have been developed. Therefore, in this work we developed a linear Rogowski coil to detect current pulses inside flat conductors. The system is first approached by means of transmission line theory...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
I V Romanchenko, V V Rostov, A V Gunin, V Yu Konev
We demonstrate a source of high power nanosecond RF pulses based on gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line. The source is designed to explore the exposure of different biological objects to strong RF fields in an air filled rectangular waveguide loaded onto ethanol RF load. The RF pulse amplitude can be varied by 52 dB, reaching a maximum value of nearly 40 kV/cm and decreasing to tens of V/cm. The RF pulse amplitude is controlled by decreasing the incident pulse amplitude from the high voltage driver. The duration of RF pulses lies in the range from 4 to 25 ns and the frequency from 0...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
T Islam, J Zechner, M Bernardoni, M Nelhiebel, R Pippan
The curvature evolution of a thin film layer stack containing a top Al layer is measured during temperature cycles with very high heating rates. The temperature cycles are generated by means of programmable electrical power pulses applied to miniaturized polysilicon heater systems embedded inside a semiconductor chip and the curvature is measured by a fast wafer curvature measurement setup. Fast temperature cycles with heating duration of 100 ms are created to heat the specimen up to 270 °C providing an average heating rate of 2500 K/s...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
M C Ovejero, A Pérez Vega-Leal, M I Gallardo, J M Espino, A Selva, M A Cortés-Giraldo, R Arráns
The aim of this work is to present a new data acquisition, control, and analysis software system written in LabVIEW. This system has been designed to obtain the dosimetry of a silicon strip detector in polyethylene. It allows the full automation of the experiments and data analysis required for the dosimetric characterization of silicon detectors. It becomes a useful tool that can be applied in the daily routine check of a beam accelerator.
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
I Tomandl, J Vacík, Y Mora Sierra, C Granja, V Kraus
A method that enables visualization of lateral distribution of Li in thin films is described. The method is based on the simultaneous detection of the reaction products of the (6)Li(n,α)t nuclear reaction with thermal neutrons measured with two multipixel detectors in a sandwich geometry with a sample. Here, the principle and basic methodological parameters of the method, including tests with thin polymers with known Li microstructure, are discussed.
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
J M Vallejos, M E Leonard, C E Sobrero, P M La Roca, A V Druker, J A Malarria
A device was designed to apply the directional recrystallization method to Fe-based alloys in order to obtain bamboo-like microstructures. This microstructure is suitable for improving creep properties and resistance to fatigue in some alloys and for enhancing pseudoelastic properties in shape memory alloys. The design and construction of a flat coil are described in detail. In addition, we developed an electromechanical system to control the movement of a wire within the flat coil. The construction details and system performance are presented...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
P Adámek, J Olejníček, Z Hubička, M Čada, Š Kment, M Kohout, H T Do
This paper deals with the development and construction of an apparatus for time-resolved tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) for the diagnostics of pulsed plasma. A detailed description of the extension of a progressive method of laser absorption spectroscopy in continuous regime to a direct triggering method of the time-resolved laser absorption spectroscopy (TR-LAS) is presented. The main advantage of the developed method is its capability to measure the time evolution of the whole absorption profile with a preset time resolution, which can be less than 1 μs...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Dennis Huang, Stephen Liu, Ilija Zeljkovic, J F Mitchell, Jennifer E Hoffman
We report a detailed three-step roadmap for the fabrication and characterization of bulk Cr tips for spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. Our strategy uniquely circumvents the need for ultra-high vacuum preparation of clean surfaces or films. First, we demonstrate the role of ex situ electrochemical etch parameters on Cr tip apex geometry, using scanning electron micrographs of over 70 etched tips. Second, we describe the suitability of the in situ cleaved surface of the layered antiferromagnet La1...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Bert Voigtländer, Peter Coenen, Vasily Cherepanov, Peter Borgens, Thomas Duden, F Stefan Tautz
The construction and the vibrational performance of a low vibration laboratory for microscopy applications comprising a 100 ton floating foundation supported by passive pneumatic isolators (air springs), which rest themselves on a 200 ton solid base plate, are discussed. The optimization of the air spring system leads to a vibration level on the floating floor below that induced by an acceleration of 10 ng for most frequencies. Additional acoustic and electromagnetic isolation is accomplished by a room-in-room concept...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Sandra Kiese, Esra Kücükpinar, Matthias Reinelt, Oliver Miesbauer, Johann Ewender, Horst-Christian Langowski
Flexible organic electronic devices are often protected from degradation by encapsulation in multilayered films with very high barrier properties against moisture and oxygen. However, metrology must be improved to detect such low quantities of permeants. We therefore developed a modified ultra-low permeation measurement device based on a constant-flow carrier-gas system to measure both the transient and stationary water vapor permeation through high-performance barrier films. The accumulation of permeated water vapor before its transport to the detector allows the measurement of very low water vapor transmission rates (WVTRs) down to 2 × 10(-5) g m(-2) d(-1)...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Simon Martin, Nicolas Baboux, David Albertini, Brice Gautier
In this paper, we propose a new procedure which aims at measuring the polarisation switching current at the nanoscale on ferroelectric thin films with the atomic force microscope tip used as a top electrode. Our technique is an adaptation of the so-called positive up negative down method commonly operated on large electrodes. The main obstacle that must be overcome to implement such measurement is the enhancement of the signal to noise ratio, in a context where the stray capacitance of the sample/tip/lever/lever holder system generates a dielectric displacement current several orders of magnitude higher than the current to be measured...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Kai Xie, Xueyou Shi, Kai Zhao, Lixin Guo, Hanlu Zhang
Temperature stability and noise characteristics often run contradictory in microcurrent (e.g., pA-scale) measurement instruments because low-noise performance requires high-value resistors with relatively poor temperature coefficients. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier with high-temperature stability, which involves an active compensation mechanism to overcome the temperature drift mainly caused by high-value resistors, is presented. The implementation uses a specially designed R-2R compensating network to provide programmable current gain with extra-fine trimming resolution...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Paulo Pedrosa, Jean-Marc Cote, Nicolas Martin, Mohammad Arab Pour Yazdi, Alain Billard
The present study describes a sputtering and in situ vacuum electrical resistivity setup that allows a more efficient sputtering-oxidation coupling process for the fabrication of oxide compounds like vanadium dioxide, VO2. After the sputtering deposition of pure V thin films, the proposed setup enables the sample holder to be transferred from the sputtering to the in situ annealing + resistivity chamber without venting the whole system. The thermal oxidation of the V films was studied by implementing two different temperature cycles up to 550 °C, both in air (using a different resistivity setup) and vacuum conditions...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Achmad Dwitama Karisma, Taishu Hamaba, Tomonori Fukasawa, An-Ni Huang, Tomoomi Segawa, Kunihiro Fukui
The temperature distribution, microwave absorption efficiency, and dielectric properties of a copper (ii) oxide (CuO) pellet heated by microwave irradiation were investigated for use in developing a single-mode-type microwave heating thermogravimetry apparatus. The validity of the apparatus was confirmed by comparing the measured data with the results of numerical simulations. The dielectric properties and error margins of other parameters estimated using the apparatus were also examined. The temperature distribution of the CuO pellet was observed to decrease monotonously on moving from the outlet to the inlet side of the apparatus...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
T D Bennett, V B Silveira, R Valdes
Specimens subject to periodic heating must be probed for a calibrated temperature response if standard measurements of thermal diffusivity are to be extended to determine thermal conductivity. A variation on two-color pyrometry is developed to measure both the offset and harmonic amplitudes of temperature fluctuations caused by periodic heating. The requisite pyrometric formulae are derived for low amplitude heating using an expansion of the nonlinear thermal emission. Well-defined uncertainties in the temperature values are determined from experimental uncertainties in radiometric measurements...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Deblina Biswas, Srivathsan Vasudevan, George C K Chen, Norman Sharma
Formation of blood clots, called thrombus, can happen due to hyper-coagulation of blood. Thrombi, while moving through blood vessels can impede blood flow, an important criterion for many critical diseases like deep vein thrombosis and heart attacks. Understanding mechanical properties of clot formation is vital for assessment of severity of thrombosis and proper treatment. However, biomechanics of thrombus is less known to clinicians and not very well investigated. Photoacoustic (PA) spectral response, a non-invasive technique, is proposed to investigate the mechanism of formation of blood clots through elasticity and also differentiate clots from blood...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Tao Jin, Guizheng Xia, Wenmei Hou, Yanfen Le, Sen Han
A method for high resolution roll angle measurement of linear displacement stages is developed theoretically and tested experimentally. The new optical configuration is based on a special differential plane mirror interferometer, a wedge prism assembly, and a wedge mirror assembly. The wedge prisms assembly is used as a roll angle sensor, which converts roll angle to the changes of optical path. The special interferometer, composed a polarization splitter plane, a half wave plate, a beam splitter, a retro-reflector and a quarter wave plate, is designed for high resolution measurement of the changes of the optical path...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Daniel Arnold, Steven Siegel, Emily Grisanti, Jörg Wrachtrup, Ilja Gerhardt
The detection of environmental magnetic fields is well established by optically pumped atomic magnetometers. Another focus of magnetometry can be the research on magnetic or spin-active solid-state samples. Here we introduce a simple and compact design of a rubidium-based Mx magnetometer, which allows for hosting solid-state samples. The optical, mechanical, and electrical design is reported, as well as simple measurements which introduce the ground-state spin-relaxation time, the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement, and subsequently the overall sensitivity of the magnetometer...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Partha S Sarkar, N K Ray, Manoj K Pal, Ravi Baribaddala, Ashish Agrawal, Y Kashyap, A Sinha, S C Gadkari
Availability of microfocus X-ray sources and high resolution X-ray area detectors has made it possible for high resolution microtomography studies to be performed outside the purview of synchrotron. In this paper, we present the work towards the use of an external shutter on a high resolution microtomography system using X-ray CCD camera as a detector. During micro computed tomography experiments, the X-ray source is continuously ON and owing to the readout mechanism of the CCD detector electronics, the detector registers photons reaching it during the read-out period too...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
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