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Survey of Ophthalmology

Sumit Randhir Singh, Kiran Kumar Vupparaboina, Abhilash Goud, Kunal K Dansingani, Jay Chhablani
The choroid is the vascular coat of the eye,and its role has been studied in multiple chorioretinal disorders. The recent advancements in choroidal imaging techniques including enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), swept source (SS-OCT), enface OCT and OCT angiography have facilitated an in-depth analysis of choroid. The gradual shift from manual to automated segmentation and binarization methods have led to precise and reproducible measurements of choroidal parameters. These qualitative and quantitative parameters, called choroidal imaging biomarkers, have evolved over the past decade from a simple linear subfoveal choroidal thickness to more complex 3 dimensional (3-D) choroidal reconstruction thus widening the spectrum encompassing multiple parameters...
November 26, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Gary C Brown, Melissa M Brown
Perceptions of the quality-of-life (QOL) associated with vision loss vary widely. Herein, we consider the perceptions of patients with vision loss as the criterion for QOL quantification associated with vision loss. With the QOL instrument, time tradeoff utility analysis, the upper anchor of 1.00 is associated with permanent normal vision, while the lower anchor of 0.00 is associated with death. A time tradeoff utility of 0.26 is associated with no light perception bilaterally. Patients with legal blindness in the U...
November 14, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Robert A Fargione, Natchada Tansuebchueasai, Rachel Lee, Tak Yee Tania Tai
Insertion of glaucoma drainage devices has become a mainstay in the surgical management of multiple forms of glaucoma, and the indications for this procedure continue to expand. A unique clinical challenge in the postoperative care of these devices is the hypertensive phase, a period of postoperative intraocular pressure elevation in the first three months after surgery. We discuss the influence of a variety of factors on the development of the hypertensive phase after glaucoma drainage implantation, including type of device, device material, and device surface area...
November 2, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
R Rishi Gupta, Douglas S M Iaboni, Mark E Seamone, David Sarraf
Partial thickness folds of the inner retina and outer retina, as well as full thickness retinal folds, may occur following the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. While these can look similar on clinical examination, imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) facilitates differentiation. With OCT analysis, inner retinal folds exhibit corrugations of the inner retina while outer retinal folds display hyperreflective lesions located just above the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that may extend into the outer nuclear layer...
October 31, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Andrew W Gross, Aroucha Vickers, Andrew G Lee, John J Chen, M Tariq Bhatti
A 74-year-old woman experienced chronic painless progressive binocular horizontal diplopia for two years. Initial examination showed a visual acuity of 20/20 OU. External exam and slit lamp exam was unremarkable. Orthoptic evaluation showed an incomitant esotropia, a small vertical strabismus, and a large degree of excyclotorsion. Investigation revealed a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
October 29, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Jinny J Yoon, Helen V Danesh-Meyer
Caffeine, a popular psychostimulant that acts as an adenosine receptor antagonist, is the most widely used drug in history, consumed daily by people worldwide. Knowledge of the physiological and pathological effects of caffeine is crucial in improving public health because of its widespread use. We provide a summary of the current evidence on the effect of caffeine on the eye. The majority of the research conducted to date is in relation to cataract and glaucoma, two of the most common eye diseases amongst the elderly...
October 23, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Lindsay A McGrath, Hardeep Singh Mudhar, Sachin M Salvi
Optic nerve hemangioblastoma is a rare tumor that is usually unilateral and most commonly occurs in the context of von Hippel-Lindau disease. Differential diagnosis is based on clinical history and imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement is the most useful imaging modality as it can reveal flow voids and an absence of dural attachment, differentiating optic nerve hemangioblastoma from other more commonly encountered optic nerve tumors. Optic nerve hemangioblastoma are usually well-circumscribed vascular lesions composed of stromal cells and vascular endothelial cells...
October 13, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Shuang Gao, Yingming Zhou, Xiaolong Jin, Zhongjing Lin, Yisheng Zhong, Xi Shen
A 50-year-old woman developed recurrent vitreous opacities in her left eye. The first diagnostic vitrectomy revealed no significant abnormality. OCT showed multiple high-density reflective nodules. The ratio of Interleukin 6 to 10 was over 1 in her aqueous humor, and Epstein-Barr virus was present. Conventional immunohistochemistry examination of vitrectomy specimens was diffusely positive for CD2, CD3, Ki67. Highly-metabolic nodules were found in her right breast on PET-CT scan. Immunohistochemistry of the breast biopsy was suggestive of NK/T cell lymphoma...
October 12, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Curtis E Margo, Lynn E Harman
After arriving at the University of Königsberg in 1849, Hermann von Helmholtz started investigating the trichromatic hypothesis of color perception proposed by Thomas Young. Four years later in 1853 he was invited to lecture to the German Society and used the opportunity to criticize harshly Johann Goethe's Theory of Color published in 1810. Offending a revered member of German society was an odd method of introducing the study of color to a learned audience. but the content and tone of the lecture suggested Helmholtz was more concerned about dispelling misconceptions of experimental science than in imparting knowledge on the nature of color...
October 12, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Yanning Ding, Michael S Murri, Orry C Birdsong, Yasmyne Ronquillo, Majid Moshirfar
Terrien marginal degeneration, a rare disease resulting in peripheral corneal thinning, commonly occurs in middle-aged males and usually manifests clinically with decreased visual acuity from increased corneal astigmatism. Although the exact etiology is unknown, hypotheses focus on possible degenerative and inflammatory origins. Histopathologic studies often reveal characteristic findings of innumerable intracellular and extracellular vacuoles in the affected stroma. Distinguishing Terrien marginal degeneration from other peripheral corneal diseases such as Mooren ulcer and pellucid marginal degeneration is important...
October 12, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Jennifer Adeghate, Kamran Rahmatnejad, Michael Waisbourd, L Jay Katz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
M Reza Razeghinejad, Daniel Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Ekaterina Loskutova, Colm O'Brien, Igor Loskutov, James Loughman
Current treatment strategies for glaucoma are limited to halting disease progression and do not restore lost visual function. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main risk factor for glaucoma and IOP-lowering treatment remains the mainstay of glaucoma treatment, but even successful IOP reduction does not stop the progression of glaucoma in all patients. We review the literature to determine whether nutritional interventions intended to prevent or delay the progression of glaucoma can prove to be a valuable addition to the mainstay of glaucoma therapy...
October 5, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
M Wiciński, B J Kałużny, S Liberski, D Marczak, M Seredyka-Burduk, K Pawlak-Osińska
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are widely used antidepressants with a relatively safe profile. One of the complications associated with this group of drugs is acute angle closure (AAC). The mechanisms linking SNRIs and AAC are complex and may be interlinked with the effects of the drug on the inhibition of serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake, as well as pseudo-anticholinergic effects, dopaminergic effects, and idiosyncratic reactions with the drug molecule in the eye. Individual characteristics, such as polymorphisms of the gene encoding the 2D6 subunit of cytochrome P450, may affect the metabolism of the SNRI; while, the combination with other drugs may lead to an increased risk of iridocorneal angle closure, and may further exacerbate other mechanisms...
September 29, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Rahul Kapoor, Stephen P Walters, Lama A Al-Aswad
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that deals with the development of algorithms that seek to simulate human intelligence. We provide an overview of the basic principles in AI that are essential to the understanding of AI and its application to health care. We also present a descriptive analysis of the current state of AI in various fields of medicine, especially ophthalmology. Finally, we review the potential limitations and challenges that come along with the development and implementation of this new technology that will likely play a major role in clinical medicine in the near future...
September 22, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Niroj Kumar Sahoo, Sumit Randhir Singh, Anand Rajendran, Dhananjay Shukla, Jay Chhablani
Central serous chorio-retinopathy (CSCR) is one of the most common chorioretinal pathology affecting middle aged men worldwide. Although it has a self-limiting course, a significant number of patients suffer from chronic and recurrent episodes. This often leaves the patient with various degrees of visual impairment. The situation is further aggravated by the fact that it is one of the most common conditions to be misdiagnosed. Because of overlapping features with other diseases or the atypical presentation of the disease itself, CSCR is a great mimicker and is one of the commonest causes of referral...
September 19, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
John W Gittinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
Jeffrey W Wang, Shira L Robbins, Mark L Moster
A 51-year-old woman presented with acute diplopia and was found to have ptosis and complete bilateral external and internal ophthalmoplegia. She had normal reflexes and gait. Serological testing showed elevated levels of GQ1b ganglioside autoantibodies, making the diagnosis of Miller Fisher syndrome. This case illustrates an atypical presentation of the Miller Fisher variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome, which should be considered in all patients presenting with bilateral ophthalmoplegia.
November 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Matthew R Denny, Mark Mandel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
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