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Survey of Ophthalmology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428109/why-does-acute-primary-angle-closure-happen-potential-risk-factors-for-acute-primary-angle-closure
#1
REVIEW
Xiulan Zhang, Yaoming Liu, Wei Wang, Shida Chen, Fei Li, Wenbin Huang, Tin Aung, Ningli Wang
Acute primary angle closure (APAC) is an ocular emergency and requires immediate management to avoid blindness. Narrow anterior chamber angle, advanced age, female gender, and Asian ethnic background are considered risk factors for APAC. The predictable power of these factors is, however, relatively poor, and many questions remain unanswered because only a relatively small proportion of anatomically predisposed eyes eventually develop APAC. We summarize the potential roles of various factors in the pathogenesis of APAC...
April 17, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400276/optic-disc-hemorrhage-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
M Reza Razeghinejad, M Hossein Nowroozzadeh
Optic disc hemorrhage occurs in all age groups from neonates to the elderly . Optic disc hemorrhage is best known for its association with visual field loss and progression in patients with glaucoma; however, it may occur in conjunction with other ocular or systemic conditions as well as in otherwise healthy individuals. It may also be the first sign of a sight-threatening condition. Variations in the shape, location, and size of the optic disc hemorrhage, as well as associated ocular and systemic signs or symptoms, may help determine the underlying pathology...
April 8, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390855/diplopia-is-better-than-no-plopia
#3
Hugh E Wright, Michael C Brodsky, Joseph G Chacko, Raghu H Ramakrishnaiah, Paul H Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366683/multifocal-intraocular-lenses-an-overview
#4
REVIEW
Jorge Alio, Ana B Plaza-Puche, Roberto Férnandez-Buenaga, Joseph Pikkel, Miguel Maldonado
Multifocal intraocular lenses (MfIOLs) are increasingly used in the management of pseudophakic presbyopia. After MfIOL implantation, most patients do not need spectacles or contact lenses and are pleased with the result. Complications, however, may affect the patient's quality of life and level of satisfaction. Common problems with multifocal lenses are blurred vision and photic phenomena associated with residual ammetropia, posterior capsule opacification, large pupil size, wavefront anomalies, dry eye, and lens decentration...
March 30, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359704/myopia-among-schoolchildren-in-east-asia-and-singapore
#5
Bo-Yuan Ding, Yung-Feng Shih, Luke Lk Lin, Chuhsing Kate Hsiao, I-Jong Wang
Myopia is highly prevalent among school children in East Asia and Singapore; however, its prevalence has been gradually increasing, and the number of population- and non-population-based studies assessing this trend have increased in the past 10 years. Although the causes of this high prevalence in East Asia and Singapore remain poorly identified, related studies have discussed the associated risk factors. We summarize the data concerning the prevalence rates reported in related studies and discuss the most crucial risk factors among these schoolchildren...
March 27, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343872/orbital-decompression-for-thyroid-eye-disease
#6
Daniel B Rootman
The literature regarding orbital decompression for thyroid eye disease is vast, spanning multiple specialty areas including neurosurgery, head and neck, maxillofacial and ophthalmic plastic surgery. Although techniques have advanced considerably over the more than 100 years during which this procedure has been performed, the four major approaches remain: transorbital, transcranial, transantral and transnasal. The explosion in literature related to orbital decompression has mostly involved minor technical variations on broader surgical themes...
March 23, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336128/retinal-pigment-epithelium-tears-classification-pathogenesis-predictors-and-management
#7
REVIEW
Mehmet Giray Ersoz, Murat Karacorlu, Serra Arf, Isil Sayman Muslubas, Mumin Hocaoglu
Various eye conditions cause tears in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The most common cause of a RPE tear is vascularized retinal pigment epithelial detachment (PED) in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration. Although RPE tears can develop spontaneously in vascularized PEDs, most recent cases have been associated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections. The subretinal fluid within the PED applies hydrostatic pressure to the RPE and stretches it. The PED enlarges as the hydrostatic pressure increases...
March 21, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322870/painless-bilateral-visual-loss-in-a-33-year-old-woman-with-severe-arterial-hypotension
#8
Olaia Subirà, Silvia Muñoz, Juan José Sánchez, Paloma Puyalto, Andrew G Lee
A 32-year-old woman experienced dizziness and headache for 5 months. She also complained of painless, progressive bilateral visual loss for several weeks. Before developing the initial symptoms, she had an uncomplicated pregnancy except for dizziness and systemic hypotension during the first term. Fundus examination disclosed prominent retinal arteries as well diffuse microaneurysms, widespread intraretinal hemorrhages, and hyperemic optic disks. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple supratentorial white-matter lesions suggestive of ischemic strokes...
March 16, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300549/periocular-necrotizing-fasciitis-in-an-infant
#9
REVIEW
Alan D Proia
Periocular necrotizing fasciitis developed in a 12-month-old boy with swelling of both eyes and redness and a discharge from the left eye approximately 36 hours after blunt trauma. Computed tomography revealed preseptal and soft-tissue edema on the left side, but no signs of orbital involvement, orbital fractures, or drainable abscess in the anterior left lower eyelid. The inflammatory signs worsened over the next day, and there was purulent discharge from the left lower eyelid and an abscess and necrosis of the lower eyelid skin...
March 11, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300548/new-insights-into-the-pathoanatomy-of-macular-holes-based-on-features-of-optical-coherence-tomography
#10
REVIEW
Hyewon Chung, Suk Ho Byeon
Various important findings related to the development and progression of idiopathic macular holes (MHs) have been described using optical coherence tomography since Gass first staged MH development using biomicroscopy in 1988 and 1995. We believe that a system for classifying and staging MHs should reflect the degree of disease status and its progression and have value not only from a practical point of view (by predicting the chance of closure or visual recovery), but also provide researchers and clinicians with insights into the pathogenesis and disease progression of MH...
March 11, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263763/combined-endocyclophotocoagulation-and-phacoemulsification-in-the-management-of-moderate-glaucoma
#11
Siddarth Rathi, Nathan M Radcliffe
Cataract and glaucoma are the leading causes of blindness worldwide and commonly coexist in elderly patients. Endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP) is a minimally invasive approach for glaucoma management that is amenable to combination with cataract surgery. We review the literature on ECP and evaluate intraocular pressure reduction efficacy when combined with phacoemulsification. Several studies demonstrate that phacoemulsification and ECP (PECP) successfully reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) and decreases medication burden...
March 2, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254446/necrotic-intraocular-retinoblastoma-associated-with-orbital-cellulitis
#12
Hilal Nalci, Kaan Gündüz, Esra Erden
Orbital cellulitis associated with retinoblastoma is uncommon and is characterised by non-infectious inflammation of the periorbital structures. The underlying mechanism is thought to be necrosis of the intraocular tumor leading to intraocular and periorbital inflammation. We report two retinoblastoma patients who presented with an orbital cellulitis-like picture. and discuss clinical characteristics, histopathologic features, and treatment.
February 27, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232219/umbilical-cord-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-corneal-disease
#13
REVIEW
Mohammed Ziaei, Jie Zhang, Dipika Patel, Charles Nj McGhee
Stem cells are capable of giving rise to progenies with specific functional and morphological traits and, in recent years, extraordinary scientific advances have initiated an era of hope for clinical regenerative strategies and tissue engineering applications. We appraise the potential benefits of human umbilical cord derived stem cell therapy and consider current approaches to utilize these stem cells in corneal epithelial, stromal, and endothelial disorders.
February 20, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193472/we-cannot-see-what-she-cannot-ignore
#14
Francesco Pellegrini, Emanuela Interlandi, Carlos Pavesio, Henry A Ferreyra
A 32-year-old woman presented with the acute onset of a small scotoma in the right visual field. She was initially thought to have optic neuritis, but brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal. A review of her symptoms and medications disclosed recent use of oral contraceptives. Near-infrared imaging was the only objective abnormality, consistent with her Amsler grid changes, leading to the diagnosis of acute macular neuroretinopathy.
February 11, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189495/retinal-angiomatous-proliferation
#15
REVIEW
Andrew S H Tsai, Ning Cheung, Alfred T L Gan, Glenn J Jaffe, Sobha Sivaprasad, Tien Yin Wong, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung
Retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) is a unique variant of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Published studies have estimated that up to 15% of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration have RAP. Clinical features frequently associated with RAP include bilateral disease, presence of pigment epithelial detachments, and reticular pseudodrusen. RAP is more frequently associated with the development of retinal pigment epithelial tears and geographic atrophy that can lead to severe vision loss...
February 9, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188728/trabeculectomy-bleb-associated-infections
#16
REVIEW
M Reza Razeghinejad, Shane J Havens, L Jay Katz
Trabeculectomy with antimetabolites is the most commonly performed surgery worldwide for glaucoma patients with progressive optic nerve head injury and visual field loss despite maximum pharmacologic intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering therapy. Trabeculectomy bleb-associated infections (BAI) remain one of the most feared early and long-term complications of trabeculectomy surgery because of their poor prognosis and variable response to antimicrobial therapy. Several studies have evaluated how surgical technique, conjunctival incision location, comorbid ocular pathology, concurrent medication use, and bleb morphology affect the risk of BAI...
February 7, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159633/ring-melanoma-of-the-anterior-chamber-angle-as-a-mimicker-of-pigmentary-glaucoma
#17
REVIEW
Anni Stadigh, Päivi Puska, Eija Vesti, Ari Ristimäki, Joni A Turunen, Tero T Kivelä
A 19-year-old man noticed blurred vision in his right eye. He had an intraocular pressure of 60 versus 12 mmHg in the fellow eye. He was initially diagnosed with an atypical, advanced pigmentary glaucoma. The intraocular pressure did not respond to maximal medication, deep sclerectomy, goniopuncture, and 2 cyclophotocoagulations. Sixteen months after presentation, malignancy was first suspected, and the eye was enucleated. A ring melanoma of the anterior chamber angle was confirmed by the histopathologic examination...
February 1, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131871/cavernous-venous-malformation-cavernous-hemangioma-of-the-orbit-current-concepts-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Luigi Calandriello, Gabriela Grimaldi, Gianluigi Petrone, Mario Rigante, Sergio Petroni, Monica Riso, Gustavo Savino
The cavernous venous malformation of the orbit, previously called cavernous hemangioma, is the most common primary orbital lesion of adults. Cavernous venous malformation occurs more often in women and typically presents in the fourth and fifth decades of life. It is a benign vascular malformation characterized by a well-defined capsule and numerous large vascular channels. The most common sign of cavernous venous malformation is progressive axial proptosis from the preferential involvement of the intraconal orbital space...
January 26, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131872/atypical-pituitary-adenoma-with-orbital-invasion-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Mina M Naguib, Pia R Mendoza, Supharat Jariyakosol, Hans E Grossniklaus
Pituitary adenoma invasion into the orbit is a rare phenomenon with only 22 cases, including the present case, in the literature. Our case is a 31-year-old man who presented with biopsy-proven atypical pituitary adenoma invading the right orbit after a prior resection. We compare his clinical course with previous cases.and discuss clinical features, radiological features, management considerations, histologic features, and prognosis. Cases are organized by specific pituitary tumor type to aid in determining appropriate management...
January 25, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131870/waiting-to-deliver-a-final-diagnosis
#20
Ali Mokhtarzadeh, Amanda Maltry, Collin McClelland
We report a patient with left eye positional transient visual obscurations, diplopia, a left afferent pupillary defect, and optic disk edema-all occurring during pregnancy. Noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging revealed an orbital mass encasing the optic nerve and extending through the superior orbital fissure into the cavernous sinus. An magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium after parturition and strongly positive somatostatin receptor scintigraphy suggested the diagnosis of meningioma. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis, and she was treated with CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery...
January 25, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
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