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Survey of Ophthalmology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232219/umbilical-cord-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-corneal-disease
#1
REVIEW
Mohammed Ziaei, Jie Zhang, Dipika Patel, Charles Nj McGhee
Stem cells are capable of giving rise to progenies with specific functional and morphological traits and, in recent years, extraordinary scientific advances have initiated an era of hope for clinical regenerative strategies and tissue engineering applications. We appraise the potential benefits of human umbilical cord derived stem cell therapy and consider current approaches to utilize these stem cells in corneal epithelial, stromal, and endothelial disorders.
February 20, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193472/we-cannot-see-what-she-cannot-ignore
#2
Francesco Pellegrini, Emanuela Interlandi, Carlos Pavesio, Henry A Ferreyra
A 32-year-old woman presented with the acute onset of a small scotoma in the right visual field. She was initially thought to have optic neuritis, but brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal. A review of her symptoms and medications disclosed recent use of oral contraceptives. Near infrared imaging was the only objective abnormality, consistent with her Amsler grid changes, leading to the diagnosis of acute macular neuroretinopathy.
February 10, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189495/retinal-angiomatous-proliferation
#3
REVIEW
Andrew S H Tsai, Ning Cheung, Alfred T L Gan, Glenn J Jaffe, Sobha Sivaprasad, Tien Yin Wong, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung
Retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) is a unique variant of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Published studies have estimated that up to 15% of patients with nAMD have RAP. Clinical features frequently associated with RAP include bilateral disease, presence of pigment epithelial detachments and reticular pseudodrusen. RAP is more frequently associated with the development of retinal pigment epithelial tears and geographic atrophy that can lead to severe vision loss. Recent advances in retinal and choroidal imaging technology have furthered our understanding of RAP...
February 8, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188728/trabeculectomy-bleb-associated-infections
#4
REVIEW
M Reza Razeghinejad, Shane J Havens, L Jay Katz
Trabeculectomy with antimetabolites is the most commonly performed surgery worldwide for glaucoma patients with progressive optic nerve head injury and visual field loss despite maximum pharmacologic intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering therapy. Trabeculectomy bleb-associated infections (BAI) remain one of the most feared early and long-term complications of trabeculectomy surgery because of their poor prognosis and variable response to antimicrobial therapy. Several studies have evaluated how surgical technique, conjunctival incision location, comorbid ocular pathology, concurrent medication use, and bleb morphology affect the risk of BAI...
February 7, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159633/ring-melanoma-of-the-anterior-chamber-angle-as-a-mimicker-of-pigmentary-glaucoma
#5
Anni Stadigh, Päivi Puska, Eija Vesti, Ari Ristimäki, Joni A Turunen, Tero T Kivelä
A 19-year-old man noticed blurred vision in his right eye. He had an intraocular pressure (IOP) of 60 mmHg, versus 12 mmHg in the fellow eye. He was initially diagnosed with an atypical, advanced pigmentary glaucoma. The IOP did not respond to maximal medication, deep sclerectomy, goniopuncture, and two cyclophotocoagulations. Sixteen months after presentation, malignancy was first suspected, and the eye was enucleated. A ring melanoma of the anterior chamber angle was confirmed by the histopathological examination...
January 31, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131871/cavernous-venous-malformation-cavernous-hemangioma-of-the-orbit-current-concepts-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Luigi Calandriello, Gabriela Grimaldi, Gianluigi Petrone, Mario Rigante, Sergio Petroni, Monica Riso, Gustavo Savino
The cavernous venous malformation of the orbit, previously called cavernous hemangioma, is the most common primary orbital lesion of adults. Cavernous venous malformation occurs more often in women and typically presents in the fourth and fifth decades of life. It is a benign vascular malformation characterized by a well-defined capsule and numerous large vascular channels. The most common sign of cavernous venous malformation is progressive axial proptosis from the preferential involvement of the intraconal orbital space...
January 26, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131872/atypical-pituitary-adenoma-with-orbital-invasion-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
Mina M Naguib, Pia R Mendoza, Supharat Jariyakosol, Hans E Grossniklaus
Pituitary adenoma invasion into the orbit is a rare phenomenon with only 22 cases, including the present case, in the literature. Our case is a 31-year-old man who presented with biopsy-proven atypical pituitary adenoma invading the right orbit after a prior resection. We compare his clinical course with previous cases.and discuss clinical features, radiological features, management considerations, histologic features, and prognosis. Cases are organized by specific pituitary tumor type to aid in determining appropriate management...
January 25, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131870/waiting-to-deliver-a-final-diagnosis
#8
Ali Mokhtarzadeh, Amanda Maltry, Collin McClelland
We report a patient with left eye positional transient visual obscurations, diplopia, a left afferent pupillary defect, and optic disk edema-all occurring during pregnancy. Noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging revealed an orbital mass encasing the optic nerve and extending through the superior orbital fissure into the cavernous sinus. An magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium after parturition and strongly positive somatostatin receptor scintigraphy suggested the diagnosis of meningioma. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis, and she was treated with CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery...
January 25, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104385/an-evidence-based-approach-to-surgical-teaching-in-ophthalmology
#9
Alice C Lorch, Carolyn E Kloek
An apprenticeship model has traditionally been used in procedural and surgical teaching. As the pressures of work hours and patient outcome monitoring increase, surgical teachers need a more flexible plan for teaching procedural skills. We attempt to delineate a program of preprocedural, intraprocedural, and postprocedural teaching that can be used in the field of ophthalmology to maximize a resident's skill acquisition in a constructive learning environment. We review the literature on surgical teaching from within ophthalmology as well as other surgical fields and combine this with teaching experience in an ophthalmic surgical training program to produce a collection of procedural teaching guidelines...
January 17, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093287/diagnostic-accuracy-of-imaging-devices-in-glaucoma-a-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Monica Fallon, Oliver Valero, Marta Pazos, Alfonso Antón
Imaging devices such as the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT3), scanning laser polarimetry (GDx), and optical coherence tomography (OCT), play an important role in glaucoma diagnosis. A systematic search for evidence-based data was performed for prospective studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of HRT3, GDx and OCT. The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was calculated. To compare the accuracy among instruments and parameters, a meta-analysis considering the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (H-SROC) model was performed...
January 13, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069494/intraocular-inflammatory-mass-associated-with-lens-induced-uveitis
#11
REVIEW
Jean Guffey Johnson, Curtis E Margo
Intraocular inflammatory tumefactions large enough to simulate neoplasms are uncommon. We report a patient with a large intraocular inflammatory mass composed of cells with features of histiocytes and myofibroblasts that was associated with lens-induced uveitis. The spindle cell mass appears to have arisen as an exaggerated response to exposed lens fibers. Although information from immunohistochemistry and cytogenetics has advanced the classification of inflammatory tumefactions, this case highlights the challenges in establishing the nature of these lesions...
January 7, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062197/assessment-of-patient-reported-outcomes-in-retinal-diseases-a-systematic-review
#12
Mallika Prem Senthil, Jyoti Khadka, Konrad Pesudovs
Advances in the understanding of the genetic, molecular and cellular biology of retinal diseases have led to the development of new treatments. These expanding treatment options demand appropriate outcome measures for studies of treatment benefit including patient-reported outcomes (PRO). A plethora of PRO instruments assess impacts of retinal diseases from the patients' perspectives. We review all of the studies that implemented PRO assessment in retinal diseases and also discuss quality assessment of the PRO instruments...
January 3, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062196/radiotherapeutic-and-surgical-management-of-iris-melanoma-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Marko Popovic, Iqbal Ike K Ahmed, Julia DiGiovanni, Carol L Shields
We compare outcomes following radiotherapeutic and surgical management of iris melanoma. End points included local tumor recurrence, metastases, and common complications. From an initial search that yielded 231 articles, we found 17 relevant studies with 761 eyes. The gender distribution was balanced with a mean age of 52 years. Most studies focused on either proton beam (49.4%) or plaque (31.4%) radiotherapy. Rates of local recurrence (range: 0%-8%) and metastatic development (0%-5%) were favorable following radiotherapy; however, common complications included cataract (36%-73%), glaucoma (3%-92%), and corneal conditions (0%-33%)...
January 3, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012877/optimizing-cataract-surgery-in-patients-with-age-related-macular-degeneration
#14
Boon Lin Teh, Roly Megaw, Shyamanga Borooah, Baljean Dhillon
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of visual impairment. The development of cataract in AMD patients poses challenges in assessing timing of surgery, predicting potential benefit to the patient of surgery, and predicting short- and long-term effects of surgery on progression of their AMD. Although traditional cataract surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, recently several devices have been developed to address the specific needs of AMD patients with cataract. We look at the associations between cataract and AMD and outline the treatment approaches to cataract surgery in AMD, looking at the potential benefits and risks of both traditional approaches and newer devices...
December 22, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012876/in-search-of-a-disease
#15
Gustavo Savino Md, Andrea Campana Md, Gianluigi Petrone Md, Gabriela Grimaldi Md, Ann P Murchison
A 10-year-old child presented with right eyelid swelling and a palpable orbital mass. Diagnostic evaluation with the aid of excisional biopsy revealed a pseudoencapsulated mass associated with high levels of serum perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Family history of rheumatic diseases, response to treatment with corticosteroids and immunosuppressant drugs, and clinical and histopathologic features suggested an orbital autoimmune response in which perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were detected, and a diagnosis of probable IgG4-related disease was made...
December 22, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012875/advances-in-understanding-and-management-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#16
REVIEW
Mary Elizabeth Hartnett
The understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity have changed in the 70 years since the original description of retrolental fibroplasia associated with high oxygenation. It is now recognized that retinopathy of prematurity differs in appearance worldwide and as ever smaller and younger premature infants survive. New methods are being evaluated to image the retina, diagnose severe retinopathy of prematurity, and determine windows of time for treatment to save eyes and improve visual and neural outcomes...
December 22, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012873/posner-schlossman-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Roly Megaw, Pankaj Kumar Agarwal
Posner-Schlossman syndrome, or glaucomatocyclitic crisis, is a unilateral ocular condition characterized by recurrent attacks of nongranulomatous anterior uveitis and raised intraocular pressure that can result in chronic secondary glaucoma. This relatively rare disease is most likely the result of recurrent cytomegalovirus infection and affects predominantly middle-aged males. Diagnosis is largely clinical, with aqueous and blood sampling aiding the identification of any underlying infectious cause. Successful disease management is often achieved by topical treatment, although systemic therapy and even surgical intervention may be required...
December 22, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012879/dermatofibroma-of-the-eyelid-with-monster-cells
#18
Frederick A Jakobiec, Yufei Tu, Fouad R Zakka, Arthur K F Tong
Dermatofibromas are most frequently encountered in women on the lower extremities, often after minor trauma. A 64-year-old woman developed a recurrent lesion of the right lower eyelid. It harbored "monster cells" that were large, with either multiple nuclei or a single, large, convoluted and hyperchromatic nucleus. The presence of these cells does not signify a malignant transformation. The background cells were either histiocytoid (many were adipophilin-positive), spindled cells, or dendritiform cells without mitoses...
December 21, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012878/viral-posterior-uveitis
#19
REVIEW
Joanne H Lee, Aniruddha Agarwal, Padmamalini Mahendradas, Cecilia S Lee, Vishali Gupta, Carlos E Pavesio, Rupesh Agrawal
The causes of posterior uveitis can be divided into infectious, autoimmune, or masquerade syndromes. Viral infections. a significant cause of sight-threatening ocular diseases in the posterior segment,, include human herpesviruses, measles, rubella, and arboviruses such as dengue, West Nile, and chikungunya virus. Viral posterior uveitis may occur as an isolated ocular disease in congenital or acquired infections or as part of a systemic viral illness. Many viruses remain latent in the infected host with a risk of reactivation that depends on various factors, including virulence and host immunity, age, and comorbidities...
December 21, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012874/management-of-high-risk-corneal-transplantation
#20
REVIEW
Antonio Di Zazzo, Ahmad Kheirkhah, Tulio B Abud, Sunali Goyal, Reza Dana
The cornea is the most commonly transplanted tissue in medicine. The main cause of corneal graft failure is allograft rejection. The incidence of graft rejection depends on the presence of high-risk characteristics, most notably corneal neovascularization. Although corneal grafting has a high success rates in the absence of these risk factors, high-risk keratoplasty is associated with low success rates because of a high incidence of immune-mediated graft rejection. To improve the survival of high-risk corneal transplantation, various preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative measures can be considered...
December 21, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
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