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Survey of Ophthalmology

Lindsay A McGrath, Hardeep Singh Mudhar, Sachin M Salvi
Optic nerve hemangioblastoma (ONH) is a rare tumor that is usually unilateral and most commonl occurs in the context of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Differential diagnosis is based on clinical history and imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement is the most useful imaging modality as it can reveal flow voids and an absence of dural attachment, differentiating ONH from other more commonly encountered optic nerve tumors. ONH are usually well-circumscribed vascular lesions composed of stromal cells and vascular endothelial cells...
October 12, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Shuang Gao, Yingming Zhou, Xiaolong Jin, Zhongjing Lin, Yisheng Zhong, Xi Shen
A 50-year-old woman developed recurrent vitreous opacities in her left eye. The first diagnostic vitrectomy revealed no significant abnormality. OCT showed multiple high-density reflective nodules. The ratio of Interleukin 6 to 10 was over 1 in her aqueous humor, and Epstein-Barr virus was present. Conventional immunohistochemistry examination of vitrectomy specimens was diffusely positive for CD2, CD3, Ki67. Highly-metabolic nodules were found in her right breast on PET-CT scan. Immunohistochemistry of the breast biopsy was suggestive of NK/T cell lymphoma...
October 12, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Curtis E Margo, Lynn E Harman
After arriving at the University of Königsberg in 1849, Hermann von Helmholtz started investigating the trichromatic hypothesis of color perception proposed by Thomas Young. Four years later in 1853 he was invited to lecture to the German Society and used the opportunity to criticize harshly Johann Goethe's Theory of Color published in 1810. Offending a revered member of German society was an odd method of introducing the study of color to a learned audience. but the content and tone of the lecture suggested Helmholtz was more concerned about dispelling misconceptions of experimental science than in imparting knowledge on the nature of color...
October 12, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Yanning Ding, Michael S Murri, Orry C Birdsong, Yasmyne Ronquillo, Majid Moshirfar
Terrien marginal degeneration (TMD), a rare disease resulting in peripheral corneal thinning, commonly occurs in middle aged males and usually manifests clinically with decreased visual acuity from increased corneal astigmatism. Although the exact etiology is unknown, hypotheses focus on possible degenerative and inflammatory origin. Histopathologic studies often reveal characteristic findings of innumerable intracellular and extracellular vacuoles in the affected stroma. Distinguishing TMD from other peripheral corneal diseases such as Mooren ulcer and pellucid marginal degeneration is important...
October 11, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Jennifer Adeghate, Kamran Rahmatnejad, Michael Waisbourd, L Jay Katz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
M Reza Razeghinejad, Daniel Lee
Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is a diagnosis assigned when characteristic glaucomatous structural and functional optic nerve defects are present in the setting of intraocular pressures (IOP) measurements below 21 mm Hg. Spot IOP measurements are generally obtained in the office during business hours and often determine who is classified as having "normal",pressures. Reduction of IOP has been the cornerstone of anti-glaucoma treatment in primary open-angle glaucoma and NTG and its therapeutic effect has been well established...
October 6, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Ekaterina Loskutova, Colm O'Brien, Igor Loskutov, James Loughman
Current treatment strategies for glaucoma are limited to halting disease progression and do not restore lost visual function. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main risk factor for glaucoma and IOP-lowering treatment remains the mainstay of glaucoma treatment, but even successful IOP reduction does not stop the progression of glaucoma in all patients. We review the literature to determine whether nutritional interventions intended to prevent or delay the progression of glaucoma can prove to be a valuable addition to the mainstay of glaucoma therapy...
October 5, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
M Wiciński, B J Kałużny, S Liberski, D Marczak, M Seredyka-Burduk, K Pawlak-Osińska
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are widely used antidepressants with a relatively safe profile. One of the complications associated with this group of drugs is acute angle closure (AAC). The mechanisms linking SNRIs and AAC are complex and may be interlinked with the effects of the drug on the inhibition of serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake, as well as pseudo-anticholinergic effects, dopaminergic effects, and idiosyncratic reactions with the drug molecule in the eye. Individual characteristics, such as polymorphisms of the gene encoding the 2D6 subunit of cytochrome P450, may affect the metabolism of the SNRI; while, the combination with other drugs may lead to an increased risk of iridocorneal angle closure, and may further exacerbate other mechanisms...
September 29, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Rahul Kapoor, Stephen P Walters, Lama A Al-Aswad
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that deals with the development of algorithms that seek to simulate human intelligence. We provide an overview of the basic principles in AI that are essential to the understanding of AI and its application to health care. We also present a descriptive analysis of the current state of AI in various fields of medicine, especially ophthalmology. Finally, we review the potential limitations and challenges that come along with the development and implementation of this new technology that will likely play a major role in clinical medicine in the near future...
September 22, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Niroj Kumar Sahoo, Sumit Randhir Singh, Anand Rajendran, Dhananjay Shukla, Jay Chhablani
Central serous chorio-retinopathy (CSCR) is one of the most common chorioretinal pathology affecting middle aged men worldwide. Although it has a self-limiting course, a significant number of patients suffer from chronic and recurrent episodes. This often leaves the patient with various degrees of visual impairment. The situation is further aggravated by the fact that it is one of the most common conditions to be misdiagnosed. Because of overlapping features with other diseases or the atypical presentation of the disease itself, CSCR is a great mimicker and is one of the commonest causes of referral...
September 19, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Clare L Fraser, Owen B White
A 20 year old woman presented with bilateral constant positive visual phenomenon, since she was 9 years old. The symptoms had been worsening and becoming more intrusive in the last 3 years. Recently she has also had a migrainous episode. All ophthalmic and neurological investigations were normal. Her symptoms met the diagnostic criteria for visual snow. The diagnosis was explained and the patient was reassured. Ophthalmologists and neurologists need to be aware of this condition to avoid over investigation and worsening of patient anxiety...
September 7, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Veronica Vargas, Wolfgang Radner, Bruce Allan, Dan Reinstein, Dick Burkhard, Jorge L Alió
PURPOSE: To present an overview of contemporary methods and metrics used to measure near vision, intermediate vision and accommodation. METHODS: A search in Pubmed was performed with the following key phrases: near vision, intermediate vision, objective and subjective methods for the measurement of accommodation. For subjective methods we included only those that are most widely used that had a scientific based evidence of its outcomes and have an easy availability at the doctor's office...
September 3, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Tine Gadegaard Olsen, Steffen Heegaard
Orbital lymphomas constitute 50-60% of ocular adnexal lymphomas. A total of 2211 cases of orbital lymphoma with a known subtype have been reported in the last 24 years (1994-2017). The vast majority of orbital lymphomas are of B-cell origin (97%), of which extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL) (59%) is the most common subtype, followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (23%), follicular lymphoma (9%), and mantle cell lymphoma (5%). Orbital lymphoma is primarily a disease of the elderly. Gender distribution varies according to lymphoma subtype...
August 23, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Jaclyn L Kovach, Hacer Isildak, David Sarraf
Crystalline retinopathies may be associated with different etiologies including genetic, toxic, degenerative, idiopathic, and iatrogenic causes. We outline the various types of crystalline retinopathies and summarize their associated etiologies, pathogenesis, clinical presentations, multimodal imaging findings, and management strategies.
August 22, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Hamid Safi, Hamid Ahmadieh, Sare Safi, Ali Hafezi-Moghadam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Andrzej Grzybowski, Piotr Kanclerz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 6, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Jeffrey W Wang, Shira L Robbins, Mark L Moster
A 51-year-old woman presented with acute diplopia and was found to have ptosis and complete bilateral external and internal ophthalmoplegia. She had normal reflexes and gait. Serological testing showed elevated levels of GQ1b ganglioside autoantibodies, making the diagnosis of Miller Fisher syndrome. This case illustrates an atypical presentation of the Miller Fisher variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome, which should be considered in all patients presenting with bilateral ophthalmoplegia.
November 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Matthew R Denny, Mark Mandel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Luca De Simone, Francesco Pellegrini, Daniele Cirone, Luca Cimino, Julie Falardeau
A 55-year-old man with a history of mantle cell lymphoma reported acute blurred vision in the right eye. Although initially diagnosed with acute retrobulbar optic neuritis, 3 weeks later retinal infiltrates and vitritis developed, but vitrectomy resulted negative for vitreoretinal lymphoma. Further investigation revealed a serology positive for syphilis. This case highlights the role of the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis of syphilis, which is able to mimick multiple eye disorders, optic neuritis, and vitreoretinal lymphoma among others...
November 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
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