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Survey of Ophthalmology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146208/glaucoma-associated-corneal-endothelial-cell-damage-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Ben J Janson, Wallace L Alward, Young H Kwon, Daniel I Bettis, John H Fingert, Lorraine M Provencher, Kenneth M Goins, Michael D Wagoner, Mark A Greiner
The corneal endothelium is critical in maintaining a healthy and clear cornea. Corneal endothelial cells have a significant reserve function, but preservation of these cells is paramount as they have limited regenerative capacity. Glaucoma is a prevalent disease, and damage to the corneal endothelium may be caused by the disease process itself as well as by its treatment. The mechanisms involved in glaucoma-associated damage to the corneal endothelium need further investigation. Understanding how glaucoma and glaucoma surgery impact the endothelium is important for protecting corneal clarity and visual acuity in all glaucoma patients, including those undergoing corneal transplant...
November 13, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129651/dendritic-cells-in-the-cornea-during-herpes-simplex-viral-infection-and-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Min S Kwon, Nicole A Carnt, Naomi R Truong, Ushasree Pattamatta, Andrew J White, Chameen Samarawickrama, Anthony L Cunningham
Herpes simplex keratitis is commonly caused by Herpes simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1), which primarily infects eyelids, corneas or conjunctiva. HSV-1- through sophisticated interactions with dendritic cells (DCs), a type of antigen-presenting cell)-initiates pro-inflammatory responses in the cornea. Corneas were once thought to be an immune privileged region; however, with the recent discovery of DCs that reside in the cornea, this long held conjecture has been overturned. Therefore, evaluating the clinical, preclinical, and cell-based studies that investigate the roles of DCs in corneas infected with HSV is critical...
November 9, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128574/conjunctivochalasis-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Anna Marmalidou, Ahmad Kheirkhah, Reza Dana
Conjunctivochalasis (CCH) is a conjunctival condition characterized by loose, redundant conjunctival folds, most typically in the inferior bulbar conjunctiva of both eyes. Although CCH is a common cause of ocular irritation and discomfort, especially in the elderly, it is often overlooked in clinical practice. Conjunctivochalasis may be associated with various ocular and non-ocular conditions; however, the most important risk factor is aging. Although often asymptomatic, CCH may cause symptoms related to tear film instability and/or delayed tear clearance...
November 8, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100897/multiple-deprivation-vision-loss-and-ophthalmic-disease-in-adults-global-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
M Lane, V Lane, J Abbott, T Braithwaite, P Shah, A K Denniston
The association between socio-economic position and morbidity and mortality has long been recognised. We evaluate the evidence for an association between multiple aspects of deprivation and ocular health in a global context. This is a systematic review of studies that evaluated deprivation in the adult population in the context of the major acquired causes of visual loss such as cataract, diabetic eye disease, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and ocular trauma. The search strategy identified relevant studies reported between 1946 to August 2016, with randomized control trials, case control, cohort and cross-sectional study designs being selected for inclusion...
October 31, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097211/infectious-crystalline-keratopathy
#5
REVIEW
Ashley J Porter, Graham A Lee, Albert S Jun
Infectious crystalline keratopathy was first reported by Gorovoy and colleagues in 1983 when they identified bacteria colonizing a cornea after a penetrating keratoplasty. Subsequent cases have elaborated on the organisms responsible and the management outcomes. Patients present with a white or gray branching opacity originating from an epithelial defect, commonly after a penetrating keratoplasty. Local immunosuppression contributes to the quiescent nature and the limited inflammatory response associated with infectious crystalline keratopathy...
October 31, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080632/gene-based-antiangiogenic-applications-for-corneal-neovascularization
#6
REVIEW
Siyin Liu, Vito Romano, Bernhard Steger, Stephen B Kaye, Kevin J Hamill, Colin E Willoughby
Corneal avascularity is maintained by angiogenic privilege, an active process involving the production of higher level of angiostatic factors to offset the effect of angiogenic factors. A wide range of pathological insults to the cornea can disrupt this intricate equilibrium and promote angiogenesis and corneal neovascularization with resultant visual impairment. Corneal neovascularization is also a major risk factor for graft failure post-keratoplasty. Current treatment options for corneal neovascularization are restricted by limited efficacy, adverse effects, and a short duration of action...
October 25, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080631/ophthalmic-manifestations-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#7
REVIEW
Michael Kinori, Nickisa Hodgson, Janice Lasky Zeid
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a relatively common multisystemic inherited disease and has been extensively studied by multiple disciplines. While genetic testing and confirmation are available, NF1 remains a clinical diagnosis. Many manifestations of NF1 involve the eye and orbit, and the ophthalmologist, therefore, plays a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of NF1 patients. Improvements in diagnostic and imaging instruments have provided new insight to study the ophthalmic manifestations of the disease...
October 25, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056504/superior-oblique-myokymia
#8
REVIEW
Mia Zhang, Aubrey Gilbert, David G Hunter
Superior oblique myokymia (SOM) is a rare condition of unclear etiology. We discuss the history, etiology, clinical features, differential diagnoses, management, and prognosis of SOM. We conducted a meta-analysis of all 116 cases published since SOM was first described in 1906. The age at examination was 17-72 years (mean: 42 years.) There was a right-sided preponderance in 61% of cases (P < 0.02) that was statistically significant in females (63%, P < 0.04) but not in males (59%, P = 0.18). The pathophysiology of SOM may be neurovascular compression and/or ephaptic transmission...
October 19, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056503/charles-dickens-trachoma-and-blindness-in-pre-victorian-england
#9
REVIEW
Curtis E Margo, Lynn E Harman
In the early 1820s a Yorkshire boarding school was devastated by an outbreak of blinding ophthalmia. The cause of the epidemic was - in all likelihood - trachoma, then known as Egyptian ophthalmia. The headmaster of the Yorkshire school, William Shaw, was sued for gross negligence by two families whose sons went blind during the outbreak. The epidemic and trial would play a role in creating one of literatures most notorious fictional characters. Eighteen years after the trial, Charles Dickens modeled the vile schoolmaster Wackford Squeers in Nicholas Nickleby after Shaw, whose reputation and career would later be ruined by his thinly disguised portrayal in the novel...
October 19, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024675/tempo-ral-was-the-heart-of-the-matter
#10
Francesco Pellegrini, Daniele Cirone, Piernicola Machin, Rod Foroozan
A 71-year-old woman was admitted with fever, headache, and weight loss associated with elevated inflammatory markers. She developed acute bilateral ophthalmoplegia and asymmetrical ptosis, rapidly followed by anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Although the first temporal artery biopsy was negative, contralateral temporal artery biopsy revealed features consistent with giant cell arteritis. Even while under steroid therapy, she died a few days later from myocardial infarction. Acute bilateral complete ophthalmoplegia is a rare presentation of a limited number of possible diseases...
October 10, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024674/optic-nerve-head-problem
#11
Rohan Verma, Kevin C Chen, Hema L Ramkumar, Michael H Goldbaum, Carol L Shields
A 68-year-old woman with a recent history of blurring in the left eye had undergone mastectomy for breast cancer twenty years ago. A series of bone metastases started five years after her diagnosis. Examination of the optic nerve head of the left eye revealed an isolated epipapillary mass. Indocyanine green angiography displayed vessels within the mass, and fluorescein angiography demonstrated hyperfluorescence of the mass from vascular leakage plus lobular spots of blocked fluorescence. B-scan ultrasound revealed a hyperechoic elevated nodular mass on the optic disc...
October 9, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024673/not-the-usual-suspect
#12
Andrew G Lee, Jonathan D Shader, Aroucha Vickers, Orlando M Diaz, Jurij R Bilyk
An 82-year-old woman presented with right-sided proptosis, chemosis, and a supraorbital bruit. A dural carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) was suspected, but catheter angiography revealed an intraorbital inferior ophthalmic vein arteriovenous fistula (AVF) supplied by the right ophthalmic artery and infraorbital branch of the internal maxillary artery. A primary orbital AVF can mimic the clinical and radiographic features of the more common CCF.
October 9, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987613/treatment-of-cystoid-macular-edema-secondary-to-retinitis-pigmentosa-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Malini Bakthavatchalam, Frank H P Lai, Shi Song Rong, Danny S Ng, Marten E Brelen
There are various treatments for cystoid macular edema (CME) secondary to retinitis pigmentosa; however, the evidence for these treatments has not been previously systematically reviewed. Our review that includes 23 studies shows that oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (including acetazolamide and methazolamide) and topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (dorzolamide and brinzolamide) are effective first-line treatments. In patients unresponsive to carbonic anhydrase inhibitor treatment, intravitreal steroids (triamcinolone acetonide and sustained-release dexamethasone implants), oral corticosteroid (deflazacort), intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor agents (ranibizumab and bevacizumab), grid laser photocoagulation, pars plana vitrectomy, or ketorolac were also effective in improving CME secondary to retinitis pigmentosa...
October 5, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987614/restorative-retinal-laser-therapy-present-state-and-future-directions
#14
REVIEW
Jay Chhablani, Young Jung Roh, Andrew I Jobling, Erica L Fletcher, Jia Jia Lek, Pooja Bansal, Robyn Guymer, Jeffrey K Luttrull
Because of complications and side effects, conventional laser therapy has taken a back seat to drugs in the treatment of macular diseases. Despite this, research on new laser modalities remains active. In particular, various approaches are being pursued to preserve and improve retinal structure and function. These include micropulsing, various exposure titration algorithms and real-time temperature feedback control of short pulse continuous wave lasers, and ultra-short pulse nanosecond lasers. Some of these approaches are at the pre-clinical stage of development, while others are available for clinical use...
October 4, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986312/bilateral-upper-and-lower-eyelid-margin-swelling-and-madarosis-due-to-lymphoma
#15
Huy V Nguyen, Frederick A Jakobiec, Fouad R Zakka, Michael K Yoon
Over a 2 year period a 32-year-old woman developed swellings of all 4 eyelid margins accompanied by complete loss of eyelashes. An inflammatory dermatologic condition was considered the most likely cause. A full thickness right lower eyelid biopsy revealed a multinodular lymphoid tumor at the eyelid margin which immunophenotypically and genetically was diagnosed as an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma. The mode of presentation of the disease was considered to be most unusual, as was its B cell lineage, since the majority of primary cutaneous lymphomas are of T-cell origin...
October 3, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986311/glaucoma-and-the-brain-trans-synaptic-degeneration-structural-change-and-implications-for-neuroprotection
#16
REVIEW
Mitchell Lawlor, Helen Danesh-Meyer, Leonard A Levin, Indran Davagnanam, Enrico De Vita, Gordon T Plant
A recent hypothesis to enter the literature suggests that glaucoma is a neuro-degenerative disease. The basis for this has been the finding of central nervous system (CNS) changes in glaucoma patients on histology and neuro-imaging. It is known that retinal ganglion cell (RGC) pathology of any cause leads to anterograde and retrograde RGC degeneration, as well as trans-synaptic (trans-neuronal) anterograde degeneration. Trans-synaptic degeneration has been demonstrated in a range of optic neuropathies including optic nerve transection, optic neuritis, and hereditary optic neuropathies...
October 3, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941765/a-review-of-teaching-methods-and-outcomes-of-resident-phacoemulsification
#17
Kevin Kaplowitz, Mohammad Yazdanie, Azin Abazari
Cataract surgery with phacoemulsification is a challenging procedure for surgeons in training to learn to perform safely, efficiently, and effectively. We review the auxiliary learning tools outside the operating room that residency programs have incorporated into their curriculum to improve surgical skills, including wet laboratory and surgical simulators. We then discuss different methods of teaching cataract surgery in the operating room. Our goal is to define a learning curve for cataract surgery. We demonstrate that complication rates decline significantly after a resident performs an average of 70 cases...
September 21, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673727/central-serous-chorioretinopathy-and-glucocorticoids-an-update-on-evidence-for-association
#18
REVIEW
Benjamin P Nicholson, Elizabeth Atchison, Amrou Ali Idris, Sophie J Bakri
Central serous chorioretinopathy is a common idiopathic retinal disease characterized by central vision loss from serous detachment of the neurosensory retina, serous pigment epithelial detachments, and leakage of fluid through the retinal pigment epithelium into the subretinal space. The concept of an association between exogenous glucocorticoid use and central serous chorioretinopathy is widely accepted among ophthalmologists. Here, we review the evidence for and against such an association. This evidence includes 2 large, case-control studies that found strong associations, and a smaller, population-based study that found no association...
January 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688894/a-review-of-keratoconus-diagnosis-pathophysiology-and-genetics
#19
REVIEW
Veronica Mas Tur, Cheryl MacGregor, Rakesh Jayaswal, David O'Brart, Nicholas Maycock
We discuss new approaches to the early detection of keratoconus and recent investigations regarding the nature of its pathophysiology. We review the current evidence for its complex genetics and evaluate the presently identified genes/loci and potential candidate gene/loci. In addition, we highlight current research methodologies that may be used to further elucidate the pathogenesis of keratoconus.
November 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624250/reply-to-lee-and-colleagues-viral-posterior-uveitis
#20
LETTER
Paul J Steptoe, Janet T Scott, Malcolm G Semple
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
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