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Survey of Ophthalmology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533131/don-t-get-off-the-track
#1
Rod Foroozan, Andrew G Lee
A 43 year-old man noted decreased vision after head trauma, with normal neuroimaging acutely. He had a left homonymous hemianopia, confirmed with hemifield visual evoked potentials, from trauma to the right optic tract. Four months after trauma an MRI of the brain showed atrophy of the right optic tract, and funduscopy revealed optic disc pallor with decreased retinal nerve fiber layer measures consistent with an optic tract syndrome.
May 19, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527856/a-bloody-mess
#2
Michael C Brodsky, Valérie Biousse
A 15-year-old girl presented with a unilateral sixth nerve palsy and papilledema following a severe headache. MR imaging showed thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus and proximal right transverse sinus that were attributed to oral contraceptive use after a coagulation workup was negative. Systemic anticoagulation caused a hemorrhagic papillopathy in both eyes, raising the question as to whether anticoagulation should be discontinued. Diagnostic and management issues regarding cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with secondary intracranial hypertension are discussed...
May 17, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522341/systemic-and-ocular-fluid-compounds-as-potential-biomarkers-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#3
REVIEW
Eveline Kersten, Constantin C Paun, Rosa L Schellevis, Carel B Hoyng, Cécile Delcourt, Imre Lengyel, Tunde Peto, Marius Ueffing, Caroline C W Klaver, Sascha Dammeier, Anneke I den Hollander, Eiko K de Jong
Biomarkers can help unravel mechanisms of disease and identify new targets for therapy. They can also be useful in clinical practice for monitoring disease progression, evaluation of treatment efficacy and risk assessment in multifactorial diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is a highly prevalent progressive retinal disorder for which multiple genetic and environmental risk factors have been described, but the exact etiology is not yet fully understood. Many compounds have been evaluated for their association with AMD...
May 15, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506604/the-supraciliary-space-as-a-suitable-pathway-for-glaucoma-surgery-ho-hum-or-home-run
#4
REVIEW
Michele Figus, Chiara Posarelli, Andrea Passani, Timothy G Albert, Francesco Oddone, Angela Tindara Sframeli, Marco Nardi
The supraciliary space is a physiological route for aqueous humor outflow located anteriorly between the outer surface of the ciliary body and the internal surface of the sclera. Posteriorly, the suprachoroidal space is located between the choroid and the internal surface of the sclera. These spaces have been targeted as suitable and helpful pathways for glaucoma treatment, alternatives to the traditional subconjunctival space. The subconjunctival surgical pathway is affected by several limitations such as poor cosmesis, a lifetime risk for endophthalmitis, and an unpredictable wound healing response...
May 12, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506603/exudative-retinal-detachment
#5
REVIEW
Radgonde Amer, Hilal Nalcı, Nilüfer Yalçındağ
Exudative retinal detachment (ERD) develops when fluid collects in the subretinal space. The subretinal space between the photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium is the remnant of the embryonic optic vesicle. In the developed eye the subretinal space is of minimal size, but it can re-open under pathological conditions that disrupt the integrity of blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Inflammatory, infectious, infiltrative, neoplastic, vascular and degenerative conditions may be associated with BRB breakdown and the sequential development of ERD...
May 12, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438591/effect-of-anesthesia-on-intraocular-pressure-measurement-in-children
#6
REVIEW
Mikel Mikhail, Kourosh Sabri, Alex V Levin
Measurement of the intraocular pressure (IOP) is central to the diagnosis and management of pediatric glaucoma. An examination under anesthesia is often necessary in pediatric patients. Different agents used for sedation or general anesthesia have varied effects on IOP. Hemodynamic factors, methods of airway management, tonometry technique, and body positioning can all affect IOP measurements. The most accurate technique is one that reflects the awake IOP. We review factors affecting IOP measurements in the pediatric population and provide recommendations on the most accurate means to measure IOP under anesthesia based on the current literature...
April 21, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438590/antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-cataract-surgery-in-the-setting-of-penicillin-allergy-a-decision-making-algorithm
#7
REVIEW
Benjamin R LaHood, Nicholas Andrew, Michael Goggin
Cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in many developed countries. Post-operative endophthalmitis is a rare complication with potentially devastating visual outcomes. Currently, there is no global consensus regarding antibiotic prophylaxis in cataract surgery despite growing evidence of the benefits of prophylactic intracameral cefuroxime at the conclusion of surgery. The decision about which antibiotic regimen to use is further complicated in patients reporting penicillin allergy...
April 21, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428109/why-does-acute-primary-angle-closure-happen-potential-risk-factors-for-acute-primary-angle-closure
#8
REVIEW
Xiulan Zhang, Yaoming Liu, Wei Wang, Shida Chen, Fei Li, Wenbin Huang, Tin Aung, Ningli Wang
Acute primary angle closure (APAC) is an ocular emergency and requires immediate management to avoid blindness. Narrow anterior chamber angle, advanced age, female gender, and Asian ethnic background are considered risk factors for APAC. The predictable power of these factors is, however, relatively poor, and many questions remain unanswered because only a relatively small proportion of anatomically predisposed eyes eventually develop APAC. We summarize the potential roles of various factors in the pathogenesis of APAC...
April 17, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400276/optic-disc-hemorrhage-in-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
M Reza Razeghinejad, M Hossein Nowroozzadeh
Optic disc hemorrhage occurs in all age groups from neonates to the elderly . Optic disc hemorrhage is best known for its association with visual field loss and progression in patients with glaucoma; however, it may occur in conjunction with other ocular or systemic conditions as well as in otherwise healthy individuals. It may also be the first sign of a sight-threatening condition. Variations in the shape, location, and size of the optic disc hemorrhage, as well as associated ocular and systemic signs or symptoms, may help determine the underlying pathology...
April 8, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390855/diplopia-is-better-than-no-plopia
#10
Hugh E Wright, Michael C Brodsky, Joseph G Chacko, Raghu H Ramakrishnaiah, Paul H Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366683/multifocal-intraocular-lenses-an-overview
#11
REVIEW
Jorge Alio, Ana B Plaza-Puche, Roberto Férnandez-Buenaga, Joseph Pikkel, Miguel Maldonado
Multifocal intraocular lenses (MfIOLs) are increasingly used in the management of pseudophakic presbyopia. After MfIOL implantation, most patients do not need spectacles or contact lenses and are pleased with the result. Complications, however, may affect the patient's quality of life and level of satisfaction. Common problems with multifocal lenses are blurred vision and photic phenomena associated with residual ammetropia, posterior capsule opacification, large pupil size, wavefront anomalies, dry eye, and lens decentration...
March 30, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359704/myopia-among-schoolchildren-in-east-asia-and-singapore
#12
Bo-Yuan Ding, Yung-Feng Shih, Luke Lk Lin, Chuhsing Kate Hsiao, I-Jong Wang
Myopia is highly prevalent among school children in East Asia and Singapore; however, its prevalence has been gradually increasing, and the number of population- and non-population-based studies assessing this trend have increased in the past 10 years. Although the causes of this high prevalence in East Asia and Singapore remain poorly identified, related studies have discussed the associated risk factors. We summarize the data concerning the prevalence rates reported in related studies and discuss the most crucial risk factors among these schoolchildren...
March 27, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343872/orbital-decompression-for-thyroid-eye-disease
#13
Daniel B Rootman
The literature regarding orbital decompression for thyroid eye disease is vast, spanning multiple specialty areas including neurosurgery, head and neck, maxillofacial and ophthalmic plastic surgery. Although techniques have advanced considerably over the more than 100 years during which this procedure has been performed, the four major approaches remain: transorbital, transcranial, transantral and transnasal. The explosion in literature related to orbital decompression has mostly involved minor technical variations on broader surgical themes...
March 23, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336128/retinal-pigment-epithelium-tears-classification-pathogenesis-predictors-and-management
#14
REVIEW
Mehmet Giray Ersoz, Murat Karacorlu, Serra Arf, Isil Sayman Muslubas, Mumin Hocaoglu
Various eye conditions cause tears in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The most common cause of a RPE tear is vascularized retinal pigment epithelial detachment (PED) in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration. Although RPE tears can develop spontaneously in vascularized PEDs, most recent cases have been associated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections. The subretinal fluid within the PED applies hydrostatic pressure to the RPE and stretches it. The PED enlarges as the hydrostatic pressure increases...
March 21, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322870/painless-bilateral-visual-loss-in-a-33-year-old-woman-with-severe-arterial-hypotension
#15
Olaia Subirà, Silvia Muñoz, Juan José Sánchez, Paloma Puyalto, Andrew G Lee
A 32-year-old woman experienced dizziness and headache for 5 months. She also complained of painless, progressive bilateral visual loss for several weeks. Before developing the initial symptoms, she had an uncomplicated pregnancy except for dizziness and systemic hypotension during the first term. Fundus examination disclosed prominent retinal arteries as well diffuse microaneurysms, widespread intraretinal hemorrhages, and hyperemic optic disks. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple supratentorial white-matter lesions suggestive of ischemic strokes...
March 16, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300549/periocular-necrotizing-fasciitis-in-an-infant
#16
REVIEW
Alan D Proia
Periocular necrotizing fasciitis developed in a 12-month-old boy with swelling of both eyes and redness and a discharge from the left eye approximately 36 hours after blunt trauma. Computed tomography revealed preseptal and soft-tissue edema on the left side, but no signs of orbital involvement, orbital fractures, or drainable abscess in the anterior left lower eyelid. The inflammatory signs worsened over the next day, and there was purulent discharge from the left lower eyelid and an abscess and necrosis of the lower eyelid skin...
March 11, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300548/new-insights-into-the-pathoanatomy-of-macular-holes-based-on-features-of-optical-coherence-tomography
#17
REVIEW
Hyewon Chung, Suk Ho Byeon
Various important findings related to the development and progression of idiopathic macular holes (MHs) have been described using optical coherence tomography since Gass first staged MH development using biomicroscopy in 1988 and 1995. We believe that a system for classifying and staging MHs should reflect the degree of disease status and its progression and have value not only from a practical point of view (by predicting the chance of closure or visual recovery), but also provide researchers and clinicians with insights into the pathogenesis and disease progression of MH...
March 11, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263763/combined-endocyclophotocoagulation-and-phacoemulsification-in-the-management-of-moderate-glaucoma
#18
Siddarth Rathi, Nathan M Radcliffe
Cataract and glaucoma are the leading causes of blindness worldwide and commonly coexist in elderly patients. Endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP) is a minimally invasive approach for glaucoma management that is amenable to combination with cataract surgery. We review the literature on ECP and evaluate intraocular pressure reduction efficacy when combined with phacoemulsification. Several studies demonstrate that phacoemulsification and ECP (PECP) successfully reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) and decreases medication burden...
March 2, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254446/necrotic-intraocular-retinoblastoma-associated-with-orbital-cellulitis
#19
Hilal Nalci, Kaan Gündüz, Esra Erden
Orbital cellulitis associated with retinoblastoma is uncommon and is characterised by non-infectious inflammation of the periorbital structures. The underlying mechanism is thought to be necrosis of the intraocular tumor leading to intraocular and periorbital inflammation. We report two retinoblastoma patients who presented with an orbital cellulitis-like picture. and discuss clinical characteristics, histopathologic features, and treatment.
February 27, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104385/an-evidence-based-approach-to-surgical-teaching-in-ophthalmology
#20
Alice C Lorch, Carolyn E Kloek
An apprenticeship model has traditionally been used in procedural and surgical teaching. As the pressures of work hours and patient outcome monitoring increase, surgical teachers need a more flexible plan for teaching procedural skills. We attempt to delineate a program of preprocedural, intraprocedural, and postprocedural teaching that can be used in the field of ophthalmology to maximize a resident's skill acquisition in a constructive learning environment. We review the literature on surgical teaching from within ophthalmology as well as other surgical fields and combine this with teaching experience in an ophthalmic surgical training program to produce a collection of procedural teaching guidelines...
May 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
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