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Survey of Ophthalmology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920248/one-sided-triangle-a-case-of-double-vision
#1
Jeffrey W Wang, Shira L Robbins, Mark L Moster
A 51-year-old woman presented with acute diplopia and was found to have ptosis and complete bilateral external and internal ophthalmoplegia. She had normal reflexes and gait. Serological testing showed elevated levels of GQ1b ganglioside autoantibodies, making the diagnosis of Miller Fisher syndrome. This case illustrates an atypical presentation of the Miller Fisher variant of Guillain Barre syndrome, which should be considered in all patients presenting with bilateral ophthalmoplegia.
June 16, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886127/new-treatment-for-corneal-endothelial-dysfunction-rocks-the-boat
#2
Matthew Denny, Mark Mandel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886126/surgical-management-of-peripheral-corneal-thinning-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Monica Lohchab, Gaurav Prakash, Tarun Arora, Prafulla Maharana, Vishal Jhanji, Namrata Sharma, Rasik B Vajpayee
The peripheral corneal thinning disorders are associated with degenerative, autoimmune, or infective causes. Corneal thinning can subsequently affect the visual acuity either by inducing severe astigmatism or by progressive involvement of the central cornea. In addition to this, the integrity of the eye is at risk. Medical management is necessary to adddress the underlying inflammatory or infectious causes; however, most of the cases require surgical intervention for tectonic support or for visual rehabilitation in patients with severe astigmatism...
June 7, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886125/update-on-the-ophthalmic-management-of-facial-paralysis
#4
REVIEW
Peter W MacIntosh, Aaron M Fay
Bell palsy is the most common neurologic condition affecting the cranial nerves. Lagophthalmos, exposure keratopathy, and corneal ulceration are potential complications. In this review, we evaluate various causes of facial paralysis as well as the level 1 evidence supporting the use of a short course of oral steroids for idiopathic Bell palsy to improve functional outcomes. Various surgical and nonsurgical techniques are also discussed for the management of residual facial dysfunction.
June 7, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859200/the-unfaithful-neuritis
#5
LETTER
Luca De Simone, Francesco Pellegrini, Daniele Cirone, Luca Cimino, Julie Falardeau
A 55 year old man with a history of mantle cell lymphoma reported acute blurred vision in the right eye. Although initially diagnosed with acute retrobulbar optic neuritis, three weeks later retinal infiltrates and vitritis developed, but vitrectomy resulted negative for vitreoretinal lymphoma. Further investigation revealed a serology positive for syphilis. This case highlights the role of the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis of syphilis, which is able to mimick multiple eye disorders, optic neuritis and vitreoretinal lymphoma among others...
May 30, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859199/subretinal-drusenoid-deposits-aka-pseudodrusen
#6
REVIEW
Richard F Spaide, Sotaro Ooto, Christine A Curcio
A distinction between conventional drusen and pseudodrusen was first made in 1990, and more recently knowledge of pseudodrusen, more accurately called subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD), has expanded. Pseudodrusen have a bluish-white appearance by biomicroscopy and color fundus photography. Using optical coherence tomography, pseudodrusen were found to be accumulations of material internal to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that could extend internally through the ellipsoid zone. These deposits are more commonly seen in older eyes with thinner choroids...
May 30, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857022/biomechanics-and-structure-of-the-cornea-implications-and-association-with-corneal-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Jiaonan Ma, Yan Wang, Pinghui Wei, Vishal Jhanji
Recent studies have shown that alterations in corneal biomechanical properties are associated with corneal pathologies, particularly corneal ectasia. Moreover, these alterations may have implications with regard to the outcomes of therapeutic modalities and corneal refractive surgeries. We will address corneal anatomy and its relevance to corneal biomechanical characteristics, as well as ocular and systemic conditions associated with changes in corneal biomechanics. Accumulated knowledge in this field is potentially conducive to gain a better understanding of the structural and biomechanical nature of the cornea and understand the pathogenesis of corneal ectatic disorders...
May 29, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800578/simple-limbal-epithelial-transplantation-slet-a-review-on-current-approach-and-future-directions
#8
Davide Borroni, Bogumil Wowra, Vito Romano, Maria Boyadzhieva, Diego Ponzin, Stefano Ferrari, Sajjad Ahmad, Mohit Parekh
Simple limbal epithelial transplant (SLET) is a recently developed technique for treating limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) caused by ocular burns. A small limbal biopsy from the donor eye, usually from the patient's healthy eye, is excised and dissected into multiple pieces. An amniotic membrane is patched using fibrin glue on the diseased eye after removing the conjunctivalized pannus from the corneal surface. The limbal biopsy pieces are placed onto the amniotic membrane, fixed with fibrin glue followed by bandaging of the ocular surface with a contact lens...
May 22, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778494/povidone-iodine-concentration-and-dosing-in-cataract-surgery
#9
REVIEW
Jagger C Koerner, Mary J George, Dale R Meyer, Michael G Rosco, Matthew M Habib
Iodine has been recognized as an effective bactericide since the 1800's, and povidone-iodine (PI) solution has been applied to the ocular surface and periocular skin since the 1980's to prevent endophthalmitis in cataract surgery. In vitro, PI solution kills bacteria very quickly at dilute concentrations (0.05-1.0%). In many instances, PI kills bacteria more quickly at these dilute concentrations than more conventional (5%-10%) concentrations. This is due to greater availability of diatomic free iodine in dilute solution, the bactericidal component of PI...
May 17, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777727/contemporary-approach-to-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-primary-angle-closure-disease
#10
REVIEW
M Reza Razeghinejad, Jonathan S Myers
Primary angle closure disease spectrum varies from a narrow angle to advanced glaucoma. A variety of imaging technologies may assist the clinician in determining the pathophysiology and diagnosis of primary angle closure, but gonioscopy remains a mainstay of clinical evaluation. Laser iridotomy effectively eliminates the pupillary block component of angle closure; however, studies show that in many patients the iridocorneal angle remains narrow from underlying anatomic issues, and increasing lens size often leads to further narrowing over time...
May 16, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705175/ischemic-retinal-vein-occlusion-characterizing-the-more-severe-spectrum-of-retinal-vein-occlusion
#11
REVIEW
Meiaad Khayat, Michael Williams, Noemi Lois
Retinal vein occlusion (RVO), including central (CRVO), branch (BRVO) and hemicentral and hemispheric RVO, is the second most common vascular cause of visual loss, surpassed only by diabetic retinopathy. The presence and extent of retinal ischemia in RVO is associated with a worse prognosis. On this basis, most previously conducted studies considered iRVO and non-iRVO as separate entities based on set thresholds of existing retinal ischemia, as determined by fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA). Other diagnostic technologies have been used specifically in the differentiation of iCRVO and non-iCRVO...
April 26, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705174/a-sticky-situation
#12
Christina Y Weng, Karima S Khimani, Rod Foroozan, Sidney M Gospe, M Tariq Bhatti
An 81-year-old man with bilateral progressively blurry vision and optic disc swelling was referred for evaluation. Examination and ancillary testing confirmed a diagnosis of bilateral vitreopapillary traction (VPT) accompanied by unilateral tractional retinoschisis in the right eye. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed to release the traction in both eyes. Visual acuity improved in the right eye and stabilized in the left eye. Retinoschisis in the right eye resolved. The visual field improved in both eyes, although the left eye demonstrated a persistent hemifield defect likely attributable to a prior optic neuropathy...
April 26, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705173/ultrasonographic-prenatal-imaging-of-fetal-ocular-and-orbital-abnormalities
#13
REVIEW
Courtney L Ondeck, Dolores Pretorius, Jill McCaulley, Michael Kinori, Theresa Maloney Rdms, Andrew Hull, Shira L Robbins
Technological progress in medicine has provided earlier diagnosis, even in the prenatal period. We address ultrasonographic imaging of the prenatal eye and orbit. During development of these structures, multiple pathologies and diseases can arise. Orbital anomalies can be detected prenatally using ultrasound or MRI. Some of these include congenital cataracts, hypertelorism, hypotelorism, dacryocystocele, microphthalmia, anophthalmia, orbital tumors/masses, and septo-optic dysplasia. We describe characteristic ultrasound findings of these diseases...
April 26, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679617/retinopathy-of-prematurity-a-review-of-risk-factors-and-their-clinical-significance
#14
REVIEW
Sang Jin Kim, Alexander D Port, Ryan Swan, J Peter Campbell, R V Paul Chan, Michael F Chiang
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vasoproliferative disease that affects premature infants. Despite improvements in neonatal care and management guidelines, ROP remains a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Current screening guidelines are primarily based on two risk factors: birth weight and gestational age; however, many investigators have suggested other risk factors, including maternal factors, prenatal and perinatal factors, demographics, medical interventions, comorbidities of prematurity, nutrition, and genetic factors...
April 19, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679616/early-detection-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#15
REVIEW
Hamid Safi, Sare Safi, Ali Hafezi-Moghadam, Hamid Ahmadieh
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a primary cause of visual impairment worldwide. Diabetes mellitus may be associated with ophthalmoscopically nonvisible neurovascular damage that progresses before the first clinical signs of DR appear. Reduction of the inner neuroretinal layer thickness on macular optical coherence tomography (OCT), reduced contrast sensitivity primarily at low spatial frequencies, abnormal results in color vision and microperimetry tests, and a prolonged implicit time recorded by multifocal electroretinography have been proposed for detection of early functional and nonvisible structural neuroretinal changes...
April 18, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649485/occult-globe-rupture-diagnostic-and-treatment-challenge
#16
REVIEW
Argyrios Chronopoulos, Jong Min Ong, Gabriele Thumann, James S Schutz
Occult globe rupture is a traumatic dehiscence of the sclera at or posterior to the rectus muscle insertions without a visible eye wall defect on slit lamp examination. Occult scleral ruptures are important because they can be difficult to diagnose, but normally require preoperative protection against external pressure to reduce risk of herniation of ocular contents through the rupture and then urgent surgical repair to restore eye wall structural integrity and achieve optimum prognosis. A deeper than normal anterior chamber with posteriorly retracted plateau iris seen immediately after acute ocular trauma is virtually pathognomonic of posterior globe dehiscence...
April 9, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604391/macular-corneal-dystrophy-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Shruti Aggarwal, Travis Peck, Jeffrey Golen, Zeynel A Karcioglu
Macular corneal dystrophy (MCD) is a corneal stromal dystrophy which leads to progressive vision loss. MCD is an autosomal recessive condition in which there is abnormality of proteoglycan synthesis. Mutations in the carbohydrate sulphotransferase gene (CHST6) prevent normal sulfation of corneal keratan. Different immunophenotypes have been described depending on the presence of keratan sulfate in cornea and or serum. The deposition of abnormal proteoglycans leads to loss of corneal transparency and decreased vision...
March 28, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097211/infectious-crystalline-keratopathy
#18
REVIEW
Ashley J Porter, Graham A Lee, Albert S Jun
Infectious crystalline keratopathy was first reported by Gorovoy and colleagues in 1983 when they identified bacteria colonizing a cornea after a penetrating keratoplasty. Subsequent cases have elaborated on the organisms responsible and the management outcomes. Patients present with a white or gray branching opacity originating from an epithelial defect, commonly after a penetrating keratoplasty. Local immunosuppression contributes to the quiescent nature and the limited inflammatory response associated with infectious crystalline keratopathy...
July 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452123/we-cannot-see-what-she-cannot-ignore
#19
LETTER
Michael S Vaphiades, Brendan Grondines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447838/authors-response
#20
LETTER
Francesco Pellegrini, Emanuela Interlandi, Carlos Pavesio, Henry A Ferreyra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
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