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Survey of Ophthalmology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679617/retinopathy-of-prematurity-a-review-of-risk-factors-and-their-clinical-significance
#1
REVIEW
Sang Jin Kim, Alexander D Port, Ryan Swan, J Peter Campbell, R V Paul Chan, Michael F Chiang
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vasoproliferative disease that affects premature infants. Despite improvements in neonatal care and management guidelines, ROP remains a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Current screening guidelines are primarily based on two risk factors: birth weight and gestational age; however, many investigators have suggested other risk factors, including maternal factors, prenatal and perinatal factors, demographics, medical interventions, comorbidities of prematurity, nutrition, and genetic factors...
April 19, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679616/early-detection-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#2
REVIEW
Hamid Safi, Sare Safi, Ali Hafezi-Moghadam, Hamid Ahmadieh
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a primary cause of visual impairment worldwide. Diabetes mellitus may be associated with ophthalmoscopically nonvisible neurovascular damage that progresses before the first clinical signs of DR appear. Reduction of the inner neuroretinal layer thickness on macular optical coherence tomography (OCT), reduced contrast sensitivity primarily at low spatial frequencies, abnormal results in color vision and microperimetry tests, and a prolonged implicit time recorded by multifocal electroretinography have been proposed for detection of early functional and nonvisible structural neuroretinal changes...
April 18, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649485/occult-globe-rupture-diagnostic-and-treatment-challenge
#3
REVIEW
Argyrios Chronopoulos, Jong Min Ong, Gabriele Thumann, James S Schutz
Occult globe rupture is a traumatic dehiscence of the sclera at or posterior to the rectus muscle insertions without a visible eye wall defect on slit lamp examination. Occult scleral ruptures are important because they can be difficult to diagnose, but normally require preoperative protection against external pressure to reduce risk of herniation of ocular contents through the rupture and then urgent surgical repair to restore eye wall structural integrity and achieve optimum prognosis. A deeper than normal anterior chamber with posteriorly retracted plateau iris seen immediately after acute ocular trauma is virtually pathognomonic of posterior globe dehiscence...
April 9, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604391/macular-corneal-dystrophy-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Shruti Aggarwal, Travis Peck, Jeffrey Golen, Zeynel A Karcioglu
Macular corneal dystrophy (MCD) is a corneal stromal dystrophy which leads to progressive vision loss. MCD is an autosomal recessive condition in which there is abnormality of proteoglycan synthesis. Mutations in the carbohydrate sulphotransferase gene (CHST6) prevent normal sulfation of corneal keratan. Different immunophenotypes have been described depending on the presence of keratan sulfate in cornea and or serum. The deposition of abnormal proteoglycans leads to loss of corneal transparency and decreased vision...
March 28, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577954/assessment-of-flow-dynamics-in-retinal-and-choroidal-microcirculation
#5
REVIEW
Xin Wei, Praveen Kumar Balne, Kenith E Meissner, Veluchamy A Barathi, Leopold Schmetterer, Rupesh Agrawal
Alterations in ocular blood flow have been implicated in mechanisms that lead to vision loss in patients with various ocular disorders such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Assessment of retinal and choroidal blood flow is also a window to evaluate systemic diseases that affect microvasculature. Quantification and qualification of the blood flow in the retina and choroid help us understand pathophysiology, stratify disease risk, and monitor disease progression in these disorders...
March 22, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551597/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-pterygium-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Farhad Rezvan, Mehdi Khabazkhoob, Elham Hooshmand, Abbasali Yekta, Mohammad Saatchi, Hassan Hashemi
The present study was conducted to determine the global prevalence and risk factors for pterygium . 3255 articles were identified, of which 68 articles with a total of 415,911 participants in 24 countries were included in the final analysis. The prevalence of pterygium in the total population was 12% (95% CI 11% - 14%). The lowest and highest prevalence rates were respectively 3% (95% CI 0.0% - 9%) in the 10 to 20 year age group and 19.5% (95% CI 14.3% - 24.8%) in those over 80. The prevalence was 13% (95% CI 11% - 15%) in men and 12% (95% CI 9% - 13%) in women...
March 15, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551596/a-review-of-the-immunologic-findings-observed-in-retinitis-pigmentosa
#7
REVIEW
John J McMurtrey, Mark O M Tso
Most patients suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (RP) inherit the disorder; however, the immune-pathologic features associated with this disease have yet to be extensively studied. Six reports correlate anti-retinal immune activity with vision deterioration in RP patients. Some of these patients have sporadic RP that occurs in excess of expected gene segregation during inheritance. The hypothesis that a primary immune-mediated disease process occurs in this sporadic group is supported by significant associations of RP with autoimmune endocrinopathies and other immune related conditions or factors; however, no immunologic difference regarding RP family history is reported in the peripheral blood studies of RP patients...
March 15, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476754/switching-between-ranibizumab-and-aflibercept-for-the-treatment-of-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration-namd
#8
REVIEW
Irmela Mantel, Mark C Gillies, Eric H Souied
The introduction of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents such as ranibizumab and aflibercept has revolutionized the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. A number of randomized clinical trials have shown that ranibizumab and aflibercept produce similar efficacy and safety outcomes. Most of the switching studies published to date that show efficacy benefits are uncontrolled, retrospective trials with limitations in terms of their selection, monitoring, numbers, and assessment criteria...
February 21, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453989/management-of-bacterial-postoperative-endophthalmitis-and-the-role-of-vitrectomy
#9
REVIEW
Ben Clarke, Tom Williamson, Giampaolo Gini, Bhaskar Gupta
Management of postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis was explored in the Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study37 (EVS) in 1995, which has underpinned the core protocols in treatment ever since. While surgical techniques have continued to evolve, little has changed in the overall clinical management as no further large randomized controlled trials have taken place. We review the literature addressing the incidence of endophthalmitis, pathogens, antibiotic therapies, and the role of vitrectomy. We suggest an update to management protocols based on available evidence...
February 14, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452123/we-cannot-see-what-we-cannot-ignore-letter-to-the-editor
#10
LETTER
Michael S Vaphiades, Brendan Grondines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447838/reply-to-dr-vaphiades-letter-to-the-editor-regarding-pellegrini-f-interlandi-e-pavesio-c-ferreyra-ha-we-cannot-see-what-she-cannot-ignore-surv-ophthalmol-2017-62-6-882-5
#11
LETTER
Francesco Pellegrini, Emanuela Interlandi, Carlos Pavesio, Henry A Ferreyra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941765/a-review-of-teaching-methods-and-outcomes-of-resident-phacoemulsification
#12
Kevin Kaplowitz, Mohammad Yazdanie, Azin Abazari
Cataract surgery with phacoemulsification is a challenging procedure for surgeons in training to learn to perform safely, efficiently, and effectively. We review the auxiliary learning tools outside the operating room that residency programs have incorporated into their curriculum to improve surgical skills, including wet laboratory and surgical simulators. We then discuss different methods of teaching cataract surgery in the operating room. Our goal is to define a learning curve for cataract surgery. We demonstrate that complication rates decline significantly after a resident performs an average of 70 cases...
March 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923582/glaucoma-after-corneal-replacement
#13
REVIEW
Monika Baltaziak, Hall F Chew, Dominik W Podbielski, Iqbal Ike K Ahmed
Glaucoma is a well-known complication after corneal transplantation surgery. Traditional corneal transplantation surgery, specifically penetrating keratoplasty, has been slowly replaced by the advent of new corneal transplantation procedures: primarily lamellar keratoplasties. There has also been an emergence of keratoprosthesis implants for eyes that are high risk of failure with penetrating keratoplasty. Consequently, there are different rates of glaucoma, pathogenesis, and potential treatment in the form of medical, laser, or surgical therapy...
March 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739402/graft-detachment-and-rebubbling-rate-in-descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty
#14
Mohit Parekh, Pia Leon, Alessandro Ruzza, Davide Borroni, Stefano Ferrari, Diego Ponzin, Vito Romano
Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) is a selective replacement of dysfunctional endothelium with healthy donor Descemet membrane and endothelium. Although the donor preparation and surgical methods still remain a challenge, DMEK is gaining popularity in terms of early rehabilitation and visual outcomes. New and improved donor preparation techniques like prestripped DMEK tissues are being taken up rapidly because of less manipulation that is required in the surgical theatre. Donor graft delivery in the recipient eye has also been improved because of new products like prestripped and preloaded membranes...
March 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331589/the-iridocorneal-endothelial-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Luis Silva, Ahmad Najafi, Yanin Suwan, Chaiwat Teekhasaenee, Robert Ritch
The iridocorneal endothelial syndrome (ICE) represents a unique group of ocular pathologies (Chandler syndrome, progressive iris atrophy, and Cogan-Reese syndrome) characterized by the proliferation of corneal endothelial cells that migrate toward the iridocorneal angle and iris surface causing, to a degree varying according to the subtype, corneal edema and decompensation, and secondary glaucoma, whether by obstructing the angle or producing peripheral anterior synechiae by contraction of the basement membrane of the migrating cells over the surface of the iris...
January 10, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923585/the-genetics-of-congenital-aniridia-a-guide-for-the-ophthalmologist
#16
Erlend S Landsend, Øygunn A Utheim, Hilde R Pedersen, Neil Lagali, Rigmor C Baraas, Tor P Utheim
Congenital aniridia is a rare panocular disease caused by fundamental disturbances in the development of the eye, characterized primarily by hypoplasia of the iris and macula. Severe secondary complications such as keratopathy, cataract, and glaucoma are common and often lead to considerable visual impairment or blindness. Many complications in aniridia patients are difficult to treat and present a challenge for the ophthalmologist. Increasingly, associated nonocular features of the disease are also being recognized...
January 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860081/clinical-decision-making-heuristics-and-cognitive-biases-for-the-ophthalmologist
#17
REVIEW
Ahsen Hussain, James Oestreicher
Diagnostic errors have a significant impact on health care outcomes and patient care. The underlying causes and development of diagnostic error are complex with flaws in health care systems, as well as human error, playing a role. Cognitive biases and a failure of decision-making shortcuts (heuristics) are human factors that can compromise the diagnostic process. We describe these mechanisms, their role with the clinician, and provide clinical scenarios to highlight the various points at which biases may emerge...
January 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818456/response-to-the-letter-to-the-editor-fresnel-prism-intraocular-lens-and-scharioth-macula-lens
#18
LETTER
Boon Lin Teh, Roly Megaw, Shyamanga Borooah, Baljean Dhillon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807797/fresnel-prism-intraocular-lens-and-scharioth-macula-lens
#19
LETTER
Andrzej Grzybowski, Weronika Wasińska-Borowiec
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739400/intraoperative-and-postoperative-pain-in-cataract-surgery
#20
REVIEW
Jed H Assam, Ashlie Bernhisel, Amy Lin
Technologic improvements in cataract surgery have not only improved visual outcomes, but also have minimized intraoperative and postoperative pain. We review the mechanisms, risk factors, and management of intraoperative and postoperative pain. Summaries of less common sources of physiologic pain have been included to reinforce recognition of when pain represents an expected physiologic reaction to surgery as opposed to signaling a more serious complication. We also discuss various current and emerging anesthetic and analgesic modalities...
January 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
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