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Survey of Ophthalmology

Hamid Safi, Sare Safi, Ali Hafezi-Moghadam, Hamid Ahmadieh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Andrzej Grzybowski, Piotr Kanclerz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 6, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Jennifer Lira, Sidney M Gospe, M Tariq Bhatti, DonRaphael P Wynn, Judith E A Warner
A 52-year-old woman developed binocular diplopia and right hemifacial numbness following resection of a right temporal lobe glioblastoma. Based on the Parks-Bielschowsky three-step test she was diagnosed with a right cranial nerve (CN) IV palsy in addition to right CN V dysfunction. Iatrogenic diplopia may result from temporal lobe surgery due to the intimate relationship of CN IV and CN III to the mesial temporal lobe. In addition, injury to CN V within Meckel cave is believed to be the cause of facial numbness in some patients following temporal lobe surgery...
June 27, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Jeffrey W Wang, Shira L Robbins, Mark L Moster
A 51-year-old woman presented with acute diplopia and was found to have ptosis and complete bilateral external and internal ophthalmoplegia. She had normal reflexes and gait. Serological testing showed elevated levels of GQ1b ganglioside autoantibodies, making the diagnosis of Miller Fisher syndrome. This case illustrates an atypical presentation of the Miller Fisher variant of Guillain Barre syndrome, which should be considered in all patients presenting with bilateral ophthalmoplegia.
June 16, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Monica Lohchab, Gaurav Prakash, Tarun Arora, Prafulla Maharana, Vishal Jhanji, Namrata Sharma, Rasik B Vajpayee
The peripheral corneal thinning disorders are associated with degenerative, autoimmune, or infective causes. Corneal thinning can subsequently affect the visual acuity either by inducing severe astigmatism or by progressive involvement of the central cornea. In addition to this, the integrity of the eye is at risk. Medical management is necessary to address the underlying inflammatory or infectious causes; however, most of the cases require surgical intervention for tectonic support or for visual rehabilitation in patients with severe astigmatism...
June 8, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Matthew Denny, Mark Mandel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Peter W MacIntosh, Aaron M Fay
Bell palsy is the most common neurologic condition affecting the cranial nerves. Lagophthalmos, exposure keratopathy, and corneal ulceration are potential complications. In this review, we evaluate various causes of facial paralysis as well as the level 1 evidence supporting the use of a short course of oral steroids for idiopathic Bell palsy to improve functional outcomes. Various surgical and nonsurgical techniques are also discussed for the management of residual facial dysfunction.
June 7, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Luca De Simone, Francesco Pellegrini, Daniele Cirone, Luca Cimino, Julie Falardeau
A 55-year-old man with a history of mantle cell lymphoma reported acute blurred vision in the right eye. Although initially diagnosed with acute retrobulbar optic neuritis, 3 weeks later retinal infiltrates and vitritis developed, but vitrectomy resulted negative for vitreoretinal lymphoma. Further investigation revealed a serology positive for syphilis. This case highlights the role of the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis of syphilis, which is able to mimick multiple eye disorders, optic neuritis, and vitreoretinal lymphoma among others...
May 31, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Richard F Spaide, Sotaro Ooto, Christine A Curcio
A distinction between conventional drusen and pseudodrusen was first made in 1990, and more recently knowledge of pseudodrusen, more accurately called subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD), has expanded. Pseudodrusen have a bluish-white appearance by biomicroscopy and color fundus photography. Using optical coherence tomography, pseudodrusen were found to be accumulations of material internal to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that could extend internally through the ellipsoid zone. These deposits are more commonly seen in older eyes with thinner choroids...
May 30, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Jiaonan Ma, Yan Wang, Pinghui Wei, Vishal Jhanji
Recent studies have shown that alterations in corneal biomechanical properties are associated with corneal pathologies, particularly corneal ectasia. Moreover, these alterations may have implications with regard to the outcomes of therapeutic modalities and corneal refractive surgeries. We address corneal anatomy and its relevance to corneal biomechanical characteristics, as well as ocular and systemic conditions associated with changes in corneal biomechanics.
May 30, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Davide Borroni, Bogumil Wowra, Vito Romano, Maria Boyadzhieva, Diego Ponzin, Stefano Ferrari, Sajjad Ahmad, Mohit Parekh
Simple limbal epithelial transplantation is a recently developed technique for treating limbal stem cell deficiency caused by ocular burns. A small limbal biopsy from the donor eye, usually from the patient's healthy eye, is excised and dissected into multiple pieces. An amniotic membrane is atttached using fibrin glue on the diseased eye after removing the conjunctivalized pannus from the corneal surface. The limbal biopsy pieces are placed onto the amniotic membrane, fixed with fibrin glue, followed by bandaging of the ocular surface with a contact lens...
May 22, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Wei Zhong, Mario Montana, Samuel M Santosa, Irene D Isjwara, Yu-Hui Huang, Kyu-Yeon Han, Christopher O'Neil, Ashley Wang, Maria Soledad Cortina, Jose de la Cruz, Qiang Zhou, Mark I Rosenblatt, Jin-Hong Chang, Dimitri T Azar
Corneal transplantation has been proven effective for returning the gift of sight to those affected by corneal disorders such as opacity, injury, and infections that are a leading cause of blindness. Immune privilege plays an important role in the success of corneal transplantation procedures; however, immune rejection reactions do occur, and they, in conjunction with a shortage of corneal donor tissue, continue to pose major challenges. Corneal immune privilege is important to the success of corneal transplantation and closely related to the avascular nature of the cornea...
July 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Theodora Tsirouki, Anna I Dastiridou, Nuria Ibánez Flores, Johnny Castellar Cerpa, Marilita M Moschos, Periklis Brazitikos, Sofia Androudi
Orbital cellulitis (OC) is an inflammatory process that involves the tissues located posterior to the orbital septum within the bony orbit, but the term generally is used to describe infectious inflammation. It manifests with erythema and edema of the eyelids, vision loss, fever, headache, proptosis, chemosis, and diplopia. OC usually originates from sinus infection, infection of the eyelids or face, and even hematogenous spread from distant locations. OC is an uncommon condition that can affect all age groups but is more frequent in the pediatric population...
July 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Ben J Janson, Wallace L Alward, Young H Kwon, Daniel I Bettis, John H Fingert, Lorraine M Provencher, Kenneth M Goins, Michael D Wagoner, Mark A Greiner
The corneal endothelium is critical in maintaining a healthy and clear cornea. Corneal endothelial cells have a significant reserve function, but preservation of these cells is paramount as they have limited regenerative capacity. Glaucoma is a prevalent disease, and damage to the corneal endothelium may be caused by the disease process itself as well as by its treatment. The mechanisms involved in glaucoma-associated damage to the corneal endothelium need further investigation. Understanding how glaucoma and glaucoma surgery impact the endothelium is important for protecting corneal clarity and visual acuity in all glaucoma patients, including those undergoing corneal transplant...
July 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Min S Kwon, Nicole A Carnt, Naomi R Truong, Ushasree Pattamatta, Andrew J White, Chameen Samarawickrama, Anthony L Cunningham
Herpes simplex keratitis is commonly caused by Herpes simplex virus type 1, which primarily infects eyelids, corneas, or conjunctiva. Herpes simplex virus type 1-through sophisticated interactions with dendritic cells (DCs), a type of antigen-presenting cell)-initiates proinflammatory responses in the cornea. Corneas were once thought to be an immune-privileged region; however, with the recent discovery of DCs that reside in the cornea, this long-held conjecture has been overturned. Therefore, evaluating the clinical, preclinical, and cell-based studies that investigate the roles of DCs in corneas infected with Herpes simplex virus is critical...
July 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Anna Marmalidou, Ahmad Kheirkhah, Reza Dana
Conjunctivochalasis (CCH) is a conjunctival condition characterized by loose, redundant conjunctival folds, most typically in the inferior bulbar conjunctiva of both eyes. Although CCH is a common cause of ocular irritation and discomfort, especially in the elderly, it is often overlooked in clinical practice. CCH may be associated with various ocular and nonocular conditions; however, the most important risk factor is aging. Although often asymptomatic, CCH may cause symptoms related to tear film instability and/or delayed tear clearance...
July 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Ashley J Porter, Graham A Lee, Albert S Jun
Infectious crystalline keratopathy was first reported by Gorovoy and colleagues in 1983 when they identified bacteria colonizing a cornea after a penetrating keratoplasty. Subsequent cases have elaborated on the organisms responsible and the management outcomes. Patients present with a white or gray branching opacity originating from an epithelial defect, commonly after a penetrating keratoplasty. Local immunosuppression contributes to the quiescent nature and the limited inflammatory response associated with infectious crystalline keratopathy...
July 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Michael Kinori, Nickisa Hodgson, Janice Lasky Zeid
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a relatively common multisystemic inherited disease and has been extensively studied by multiple disciplines. Although genetic testing and confirmation are available, NF1 remains a clinical diagnosis. Many manifestations of NF1 involve the eye and orbit, and the ophthalmologist, therefore, plays a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of NF1 patients. Improvements in diagnostic and imaging instruments have provided new insight to study the ophthalmic manifestations of the disease...
July 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Mia Zhang, Aubrey Gilbert, David G Hunter
Superior oblique myokymia (SOM) is a rare condition of unclear etiology. We discuss the history, etiology, clinical features, differential diagnoses, management, and prognosis of SOM. We conducted a meta-analysis of all 116 cases published since SOM was first described in 1906. The age at examination was 17-72 years (mean: 42 years.) There was a right-sided preponderance in 61% of cases (P < 0.02) that was statistically significant in females (63%, P < 0.04) but not in males (59%, P = 0.18). The pathophysiology of SOM may be neurovascular compression and/or ephaptic transmission...
July 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Huy V Nguyen, Frederick A Jakobiec, Fouad R Zakka, Michael K Yoon
Over a 2-year period, swellings of all 4 eyelid margins developed in a 32-year-old woman and was accompanied by complete loss of eyelashes. An inflammatory dermatologic condition was considered the most likely cause. A full-thickness right lower eyelid biopsy revealed a multinodular lymphoid tumor at the eyelid margin which immunophenotypically and genetically was diagnosed as an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma. The mode of presentation of the disease was considered to be most unusual, as was its B cell lineage, since the majority of primary cutaneous lymphomas are of T-cell origin...
July 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
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