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South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262981/keeping-our-heads-above-water-a-systematic-review-of-fatal-drowning-in-south-africa
#1
C J Saunders, D Sewduth, N Naidoo
BACKGROUND: Drowning is defined as the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid, and can have one of three outcomes - no morbidity, morbidity or mortality. The World Health Organization African region accounts for approximately 20% of global drowning, with a drowning mortality rate of 13.1 per 100 000 population. The strategic implementation of intervention programmes driven by evidence-based decisions is of prime importance in resource-limited settings such as South Africa (SA)...
December 13, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262980/anaemia-renal-dysfunction-and-in-hospital-outcomes-in-patients-with-heart-failure-in-botswana
#2
J C Mwita, M G M D Magafu, B Omech, M J Dewhurst, Y Mashalla
BACKGROUND: Anaemia and renal dysfunction are associated with an increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF) patients. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency and impact of anaemia and renal dysfunction on in-hospital outcomes in patients with HF. METHODS: A total of 193 consecutive patients with HF admitted to Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana, from February 2014 to February 2015, were studied. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin <13 g/dL for men and <12 g/dL for women...
December 13, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262979/good-correlation-between-the-afinion-as100-analyser-and-the-abx-pentra-400-analyser-for-the-measurement-of-glycosylated-haemoglobin-and-lipid-levels-in-older-adults-in-durban-south-africa
#3
N S Abbai, M Nyirenda, T Reddy, G Ramjee
BACKGROUND: The Afinion AS100 analyser is a small bench-top, multi-assay, point-of-care (POC) analyser that is able to measure glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and lipid levels. OBJECTIVE: To assess performance of the Afinion analyser compared with a reference laboratory test for the measurement of HbA1c and lipid levels. METHOD: The study involved men and women enrolled in a cross-sectional study, Sexual health, HIV infection and comorbidity with non-communicable diseases among Older Persons (SHIOP), which was conducted from February to May 2016...
December 13, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262978/predictors-of-treatment-success-in-smoking-cessation-with-varenicline-combined-with-nicotine-replacement-therapy-v-varenicline-alone
#4
F Noor, C F N Koegelenberg, T M Esterhuizen, E M Irusen
BACKGROUND: Identification of the predictors of treatment success in smoking cessation may help healthcare workers to improve the effectiveness of attempts at quitting. OBJECTIVE: To identify the predictors of success in a randomised controlled trial comparing varenicline alone or in combination with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). METHODS: A post-hoc analysis of the data of 435 subjects who participated in a 24-week, multicentre trial in South Africa was performed...
December 13, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262977/prevalence-of-tobacco-use-in-selected-johannesburg-suburbs
#5
J A Teare, N Naicker, P Albers, A Mathee
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is estimated to kill more than 44 000 South Africans every year. Studies have shown that since the introduction of tobacco control measures, national smoking prevalence has declined in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking over a 7-year period in five impoverished neighbourhoods in Johannesburg, SA. METHODS: Data were collected through the annual administration of a prestructured questionnaire to one adult respondent in preselected dwellings from 2006 to 2012...
December 13, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262976/self-reported-alcohol-use-and-binge-drinking-in-south-africa-evidence-from-the-national-income-dynamics-study-2014-2015
#6
N G Vellios, C P Van Walbeek
BACKGROUND:  Although the South African (SA) government has implemented alcohol control measures, alcohol consumption remains high. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the prevalence of self-reported current drinking and binge drinking in SA, and to determine important covariates. METHODS:  We used the 2014 - 2015 National Income Dynamics Study, a nationally representative dataset of just over 20 000 individuals aged ≥15 years. Multiple regression logit analyses were performed separately by gender for self-reported current drinkers (any amount), self-reported bingers as a proportion of drinkers, and self-reported bingers as a proportion of the total population...
December 13, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262975/opportunities-to-optimise-colistin-stewardship-in-hospitalised-patients-in-south-africa-results-of-a-multisite-utilisation-audit
#7
A P Messina, A J Brink, G A Richards, S Van Vuuren
BACKGROUND: Colistin is an old antibiotic that has been reintroduced as salvage therapy in hospitalised patients because it is frequently the only agent active against Gram-negative bacteria. Various guidelines for colistin administration have led to confusion in establishing the appropriate dose, which has potential for adverse consequences including treatment failure or toxicity. The emergence and spread of colistin resistance has been documented in South Africa (SA), but no local information exists on how and why colistin is used in hospitals, and similarly, compliance with current dosing guidelines is unknown...
December 13, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262974/south-african-clinical-practice-guidelines-a-landscape-analysis
#8
M Wilkinson, T Wilkinson, T Kredo, K MacQuilkan, C Mudara, A Winch, Y Pillay, K J Hofman
BACKGROUND: South Africa (SA) is in the process of implementing National Health Insurance (NHI), which will require co-ordination of health provision across sectors and levels of care. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are tools for standardising and implementing care, and are intended to influence clinical decision-making with consequences for patient outcomes, health system costs and resource use. Under NHI, CPGs will be used to guide the provision of healthcare for South Africans...
December 13, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262973/a-cool-ecg
#9
S Lahri
The electrocardiographic changes of hypothermia are discussed in this case of a man who was brought to an emergency centre with altered mental status. The main ECG signs are a shivering artefact baseline, J waves, and PR-, QRS- and QT-interval prolongation.
December 13, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262972/-covering-doctors-standing-in-for-unavailable-colleagues-what-is-the-legal-position
#10
D J McQuoid-Mason
Covering doctors are those who stand in for colleagues when the latter are unable to deal with their patients. Covering doctors who begin to issue telephonic instructions to nurses or other healthcare practitioners regarding the treatment of the patients they are covering are in the same position as any other doctors treating patients. They cannot argue that the patients they are covering only become their patients once an emergency or crisis occurs or when they see the patients for the first time, and that prior to that their function is merely to monitor the patient's progress...
December 13, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262971/nutritional-supplements-for-people-being-treated-for-active-tuberculosis-a-technical-summary
#11
L Grobler, S Durao, S M Van der Merwe, J Wessels, C E Naude
Tuberculosis and nutrition are intrinsically linked in a complex relationship. Altered metabolism and loss of appetite associated with tuberculosis may result in undernutrition, which in turn may worsen the disease or delay recovery. We highlight an updated Cochrane review assessing the effects of oral nutritional supplements in people with active tuberculosis who are receiving antituberculosis drug therapy. The review authors conducted a comprehensive search (February 2016) for all randomised controlled trials comparing any oral nutritional supplement, given for at least 4 weeks, with no nutritional intervention, placebo or dietary advice only in people receiving antituberculosis treatment...
December 13, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262951/the-operation-a-human-cardiac-transplant-an-interim-report-of-a-successful-operation-performed-at-groote-schuur-hospital-cape-town-author-c-n-barnard
#12
Emma Buchanan
Article on the first heart transplant, performed at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, on 3 December 1967. Reprinted from the SAMJ of 30 December 1967 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the transplant.
November 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262950/cardiac-transplantation-the-anaesthetist-s-view-a-case-report-author-j-ozinsky
#13
Emma Buchanan
Article on the first heart transplant, performed at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, on 3 December 1967. Reprinted from the SAMJ of 30 December 1967 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the transplant.
November 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262949/members-of-the-heart-transplant-team-groote-schuur-hospital-3-december-1967
#14
Emma Buchanan
The list of members of the team that performed the first heart transplant at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, on 3 December 1967, reprinted from the SAMJ of 30 December 1967 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the transplant.
November 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262970/gendered-risk-factors-associated-with-self-harm-mortality-among-youth-in-south-africa-2006-2014
#15
N De Wet
BACKGROUND: Despite efforts to reduce self-harm mortality, death rates remain high, with almost 12% of all youth deaths in South Africa (SA) attributed to this cause. There are gendered differences in causes of death among youth, but little is known about the sex-specific risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To identify the levels and sex-specific determinants of self-harm mortality among youth in SA. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of SA death notification forms from 2006 to 2014...
November 27, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262969/obstetric-spinal-hypotension-preoperative-risk-factors-and-the-development-of-a-preliminary-risk-score-the-pram-score
#16
D G Bishop, C Cairns, M Grobbelaar, R N Rodseth
BACKGROUND: Obstetric spinal hypotension is a common and important problem during caesarean delivery. Identifying patients at risk for hypotension may guide clinical decision-making and allow timeous referral. OBJECTIVE: Using preoperative risk factors, to develop a simple scoring system to predict systolic hypotension. METHODS: This prospective, single-centre, observational study of patients undergoing elective or urgent caesarean delivery assessed body mass index, baseline heart rate, baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP), maternal age, urgency of surgery (elective v...
November 27, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262968/auditing-stillbirths-at-lower-umfolozi-war-memorial-regional-hospital-a-12-month-review
#17
I Govender
BACKGROUND: Although the total number of stillbirths worldwide was estimated at 2.6 million in 2009, there is currently a dearth of literature on stillbirths in developing countries and rural settings, where the majority of such births occur. The 'Hands Up' Mortality and Morbidity Extraction Tool (HUMMET), developed at Lower Umfolozi War Memorial Regional Hospital (LUWMRH) in 2010, outlines a systematic approach to summarising individual cases of adverse perinatal outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To depict the HUMMET form by describing the detailed demographic and obstetric profile of patients who delivered a stillborn infant at LUWMRH, as well as risk factors associated with these stillbirths between 1 April 2014 and 31 March 2015...
November 27, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262967/hepatitis-c-a-south-african-literature-review-and-results-from-a-burden-of-disease-study-among-a-cohort-of-drug-using-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-cape-town-south-africa
#18
N P Semugoma, K Rebe, M W Sonderup, M Kamkeumah, G De Swardt, H Struthers, H Eksen, J McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a chronic infection of increasing importance, especially among people living with HIV/AIDS. Co-infection with HIV can accelerate progression of HCV liver disease to cirrhosis and end-stage liver failure and elevate the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) and people who inject drugs are at increased risk of HCV infection compared with the general population. Few studies on HCV in these key populations have been done in South Africa (SA)...
November 27, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262966/multimorbidity-in-a-large-district-hospital-a-descriptive-cross-sectional-study
#19
S Roche, E De Vries
BACKGROUND: There is substantial research documenting the burden of disease globally and in the South African (SA) primary care context. Few studies address the disease profile and its implications in the SA hospital setting. OBJECTIVES: To describe the disease profile in the internal medicine department of a large district hospital, using variables related to comorbidity and patient length of stay. The study included specific exploration into the HIV/tuberculosis (TB) syndemic, the acuity of HIV disease, and lifestyle risk factors...
November 27, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262965/acne-in-south-african-black-adults-a-retrospective-study-in-the-private-sector
#20
T P Zulu, A Mosam, Y Balakrishna, N C Dlova
BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disorder affecting teenagers and young adults, and is becoming increasingly common in middle-aged women. It affects all skin types and ethnic groups, but dark-skinned individuals are burdened by post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) as a sequela. PIH causes distress in acne patients even after the inflammatory lesions have resolved. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of acne in black South African adults in the private health sector in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal Province...
November 27, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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