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South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629689/seasonal-variations-in-schistosoma-haematobium-egg-excretion-in-school-age-girls-in-rural-kwazulu-natal-province-south-africa
#1
E E Christensen, M Taylor, S G Zulu, K Lillebo, S G Gundersen, S Holmen, E Kleppa, B J Vennervald, P D Ndhlovu, E F Kjetland
BACKGROUND: A predominant feature of Schistosoma haematobium infection is urinary egg excretion, and microscopic egg detection remains the accepted standard field diagnostic tool. Praziquantel is the drug of choice for schistosomiasis, and the World Health Organization recommends that it should be administered to all children >4 years of age living in schistosomiasis-endemic areas. The frequency of mass drug administration depends on the prevalence rate in the community. Urinary schistosome egg output has a day-to-day and hour-to-hour intrasubject variation...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629688/potential-latitudinal-variation-in-orodigestive-tract-cancers-in-africa
#2
H A Adeola, A O Adefuye, S A Jimoh
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have alluded to a causal relationship between pathological entities and geographical variations, but there is a paucity of studies from Africa discussing the effect of latitudinal variation on orodigestive cancers in this region. It seems plausible that the burden of orodigestive cancer would differ as a result of variations in diet, cultural habits, climate and environmental conditions down the length of Africa. OBJECTIVES: To analyse regional variations in prevalence, incidence and mortality data in the global cancer statistics database (GLOBOCAN 2012) curated by the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629687/the-usefulness-of-routine-histological-examination-of-appendicectomy-specimens-in-a-south-african-tertiary-centre
#3
O O Jolayemi, N B Moodley, V Y Kong, B Tlou, J L Bruce, D L Clarke
BACKGROUND: It is accepted surgical practice to send all appendicectomy specimens for histological examination, but the usefulness and cost associated with this practice have not been established in our setting, a tertiary hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To determine the histological diagnoses of appendicectomy specimens in our centre, and the cost of identifying an alternative histological diagnosis requiring further treatment...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629686/an-investigation-of-barriers-to-the-use-of-the-world-health-organization-surgical-safety-checklist-in-theatres
#4
S Verwey, P D Gopalan
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has implemented the Surgical Safety Checklist (SSCL) as part of the Safe Surgery Saves Lives campaign. This is aimed at improving surgical safety worldwide. Despite many perceived benefits of the SSCL, compliance and acceptance in many areas remain poor. OBJECTIVES: To investigate perceptions of theatre staff regarding the checklist and to identify reasons and barriers for poor compliance and implementation. METHODS: Questionnaires were handed out to theatre teams across all surgical disciplines at two large hospitals in Durban, South Africa, over a 2-week period...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629685/evaluating-the-effect-of-ward-based-outreach-teams-on-primary-healthcare-performance-in-north-west-province-south-africa-a-plausibility-design-using-routine-data
#5
T Assegaai, G Reagon, H Schneider
BACKGROUND: North West Province (NWP), South Africa, was an early adopter of the primary healthcare (PHC) ward-based outreach team (WBOT) strategy and has made considerable progress in implementing it. Given the interest in and expectations of greater investment in WBOTs, assessing their impact on and contribution to PHC outputs and health outcomes is becoming increasingly important. OBJECTIVES: To describe the application of a plausibility evaluation design for assessing the contribution of WBOTs to PHC performance in NWP, comparing changes in coverage, utilisation and outcome indicators in facilities with and without WBOTs...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629684/hypertension-as-the-trigger-for-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-paediatric-renal-patients-an-important-diagnosis-that-should-not-be-missed
#6
J K Strong, K L Petersen, U Kala
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a reversible neurological condition presenting with seizures and visual disturbances and diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Little is understood about its pathogenesis, particularly in children, but it is thought to be related to hypertension. OBJECTIVES: To review the presentation, diagnosis and outcome of PRES in paediatric renal patients at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa, between 1 January 2000 and 31 January 2017 and compare these with published case reports to date...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629683/near-real-time-tracking-of-gaps-in-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-three-districts-of-kwazulu-natal-province-south-africa
#7
F Moyo, A Haeri Mazanderani, S Bhardwaj, O B Mhlongo, T Kufa, K Ng'oma, B A Smith, G G Sherman
BACKGROUND: Identifying and addressing gaps in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) is required if South Africa (SA) is to achieve targets for eliminating MTCT (eMTCT). Potential PMTCT gaps that increase MTCT risk include late maternal HIV diagnosis, lack of or delayed antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and lack of effective prophylaxis for HIV-exposed infants. OBJECTIVES: To investigate, in near real time, PMTCT gaps among HIV-infected infants in three districts of KwaZulu-Natal Province, SA...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629682/impact-of-ideal-clinic-implementation-on-patient-waiting-time-in-primary-healthcare-clinics-in-kwazulu-natal-province-south-africa-a-before-and-after-evaluation
#8
B A Egbujie, A Grimwood, E C Mothibi-Wabafor, G Fatti, A M E T Tshabalala, S Allie, G Vilakazi, O Oyebanji
BACKGROUND: Long waiting times are a major source of dissatisfaction for patients attending public healthcare facilities in South Africa (SA). The National Department of Health has identified this as one of six priority areas for improvement. Health system-strengthening (HSS) interventions to improve patient waiting time are being implemented in public health facilities across SA as part of the 'Ideal Clinic' model. The effect of these interventions on patient waiting time needs to be assessed and evidence generated for system improvement...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629681/antibiotic-prescribing-practice-and-adherence-to-guidelines-in-primary-care-in-the-cape-town-metro-district-south-africa
#9
J Gasson, M Blockman, B Willems
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of antibiotic prescribing practice in primary care in South Africa is limited. As 80% of human antibiotic use is in primary care, this knowledge is important in view of the global problem of antibiotic resistance. OBJECTIVES: To assess antibiotic prescribing in primary care facilities in the Cape Town Metro District and compare it with current national guidelines, and to assess the reasons why prescriptions were not adherent to guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was performed in April/May 2016...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629680/understanding-the-types-of-fraud-in-claims-to-south-african-medical-schemes
#10
T G Legotlo, A Mutezo
BACKGROUND: Medical schemes play a significant role in funding private healthcare in South Africa (SA). However, the sector is negatively affected by the high rate of fraudulent claims. OBJECTIVES: To identify the types of fraudulent activities committed in SA medical scheme claims. METHODS: A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted, adopting a case study strategy. A sample of 15 employees was purposively selected from a single medical scheme administration company in SA...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629679/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-conducting-hiv-vaccine-trials-in-adolescents-in-south-africa-going-beyond-willingness-to-participate-towards-implementation
#11
M Wallace, K Middelkoop, P Smith, C Pike, T Bennie, J Chandia, G Churchyard, G Gray, M H Latka, M Mathebula, M Nchabeleng, S Roux, C Slack, A Strode, L-G Bekker
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS remains a leading cause of death in adolescents (aged 15 - 25 years), and in sub-Saharan Africa HIV-related deaths continue to rise in this age group despite a decline in both adult and paediatric populations. This is attributable in part to high adolescent infection rates and supports the urgent need for more efficacious prevention strategies. In particular, an even partially effective HIV vaccine, given prior to sexual debut, is predicted to significantly curb adolescent infection rates...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629678/hereditary-angio-oedema-in-the-western-cape-province-south-africa
#12
K M Coovadia, M-Y Chothia, S G Baker, J G Peter, P C Potter
BACKGROUND: Hereditary angio-oedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by a deficiency in the C1-esterase inhibitor protein, resulting in increased bradykinin release. It presents clinically with recurrent attacks of angio-oedema, commonly affecting the limbs, face, upper airway and gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about this condition in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES: To analyse and report on the clinical presentation and treatment of patients with HAE in the Western Cape Province, South Africa...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629677/blood-and-virus-detection-on-barber-clippers
#13
Z Spengane, S Korsman, K Mkentane, L M Davids, W Zemanay, M Africa, S Mbhele, M Nicol, F Gumedze, D Ngwanya, N P Khumalo
BACKGROUND: Bleeding from the popular clean-shave 'chiskop' haircut was recently reported as prevalent in South Africa (SA), a country with 6.9 million HIV-infected people. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of barber hair clipper contamination with blood and HIV and hepatitis B viruses. METHODS: Fifty barbers from three townships in Cape Town, SA, were invited to participate. One clipper from each barber was collected immediately after it had been used for a clean-shave haircut...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629676/a-proposed-management-algorithm-for-late-onset-efavirenz-neurotoxicity
#14
H M Cross, S Chetty, M T Asukile, H S Hussey, E B Lee Pan, L M Tucker
A high proportion of HIV-positive patients in South Africa receive concomitant efavirenz (EFV) and isoniazid (INH) therapy. EFV is metabolised in the liver via CYP2B6, and genetic polymorphism of CYP2B6 is known to result in slowed metabolism of the drug. INH is also metabolised in the liver, causing inhibition of a pathway that plays an important role in slow EFV metabolisers. Concomitant INH use therefore affects plasma levels of EFV. EFV is well known to cause neuropsychiatric side-effects on initiation, and a recent adult case series described late-onset neurotoxicity in the form of subacute ataxia and encephalopathy in patients treated with EFV for a median of 2 years, in association with toxic plasma levels of the drug...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629675/the-current-aetiology-of-malignant-pleural-effusion-in-the-western-cape-province-south-africa
#15
C F N Koegelenberg, S M Bennji, E Boer, P T Schubert, J A Shaw, B W Allwood, E M Irusen
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) represents a very common cause of pleural exudates, and is one of the most challenging pleural disorders to manage. This could be attributed to the paucity of high-quality experimental evidence, and inconsistent practice worldwide. South Africa (SA) currently has no data regarding the aetiology of MPE. OBJECTIVES: To identify the most common malignancies causing MPE in a population served by a large tertiary hospital in SA, and specifically the relative contribution of mesothelioma...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629674/life-threatening-hereditary-angio-oedema-challenges-of-care-in-south-africa
#16
P Potter, J Peter
The report and description by Coovadia et al.[1] in this issue of SAMJ of a large cohort of patients in the Western Cape Province of South Africa (SA) suffering from type 1 hereditary angio-oedema (HAE) not only documents for the first time a significant presence of this life-threatening condition on the African continent but highlights the challenges of diagnosis and management in the SA socioeconomic and healthcare context.
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629673/pan-drug-resistant-serratia-marcescens-an-emerging-threat
#17
K Moodley, A K C Peer, C N Govind
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629672/considerations-regarding-point-of-care-testing
#18
V Gounden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629671/celebrating-50-years-of-heart-transplant-surgery-a-missed-opportunity-to-honour-hamilton-naki
#19
P Zilla, J Brink, T Pennel
Reply to Mankahla N, Dlamini S, Taunyane IC, Maqungo S, Cairncross L, Chiliza B. Celebrating 50 years of heart transplant surgery: A missed opportunity to honour Hamilton Naki. S Afr Med J 2018;108(3):151. https://doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.2018.v108i3.13114.
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629670/tuberculin-conversion-and-tuberculosis-disease-in-infants-and-young-children-from-the-drakenstein-child-health-study-a-call-to-action
#20
L Martinez, H J Zar
Although tuberculosis (TB) is widely acknowledged as a major driver of global morbidity and mortality in adults, the disease's impact on children has been underappreciated. Global estimates of mortality among children aged <5 years, derived largely from vital registration and verbal autopsy records, have excluded paediatric TB as a contributing cause.
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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