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South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917776/the-future-cost-of-cancer-in-south-africa-an-interdisciplinary-cost-management-strategy
#1
C Naidu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917775/the-mass-miniature-chest-radiography-programme-in-cape-town-south-africa-1948-1994-the-impact-of-active-tuberculosis-case-finding
#2
S M Hermans, J R Andrews, L-G Bekker, R Wood
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) control programmes rely mainly on passive detection of symptomatic individuals. The resurgence of TB has rekindled interest in active case finding. Cape Town (South Africa) had a mass miniature radiography (MMR) screening programme from 1948 to 1994. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate screening coverage, yield and secular trends in TB notifications during the MMR programme. METHODS: We performed an ecological analysis of the MMR programme and TB notification data from the City of Cape Town Medical Officer of Health reports for 1948 - 1994...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917774/screening-for-calreticulin-mutations-in-a-cohort-of-patients-suspected-of-having-a-myeloproliferative-neoplasm
#3
A De Kock, C Booysen
BACKGROUND: The discovery of calreticulin (CALR) has shown it to be the second most frequent mutation after the Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Its structure indicates various functions, of which two are to ensure calcium homeostasis and proper folding of other target proteins. Over 36 types of CALR mutations have been identified, all causing a recurrent frameshift in the C-terminal domain affecting CALR's localisation and calcium-binding function...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917773/mutations-of-mtdna-polymerase-%C3%AE-and-hyperlactataemia-in-the-hiv-infected-zulu-population-of-south-africa
#4
D B A Ojwach, C Aldous, P Kochleff, B Sartorius
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial toxicity, particularly symptomatic hyperlactataemia or lactic acidosis (SHL/LA), has been attributed to the use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), possibly because of their capacity to impede human mitochondrial DNA polymerase-γ (POLG), which is responsible for the replication of mitochondrial DNA. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether known monogenic POLG1 polymorphisms could be linked with the unexpectedly high incidence of SHL/LA observed in HIV-infected Zulu-speaking patients exposed to the NRTIs stavudine or zidovudine in their antiretroviral therapy...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917772/awareness-perceived-risk-and-practices-related-to-cervical-cancer-and-pap-smear-screening-a-cross-sectional-study-among-hiv-positive-women-attending-an-urban-hiv-clinic-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#5
Idah Mokhele, D Evans, K Schnippel, A Swarts, J S Smith, C Firnhaber
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths, especially in the context of the HIV epidemic. OBJECTIVE: To examine awareness, perceived risk and practices related to cervical cancer screening among HIV-positive women. METHODS: Interviewer-administered structured questionnaires were administered to HIV-positive women (aged ≥18 years) enrolled in a cervical cancer screening study at the Themba Lethu Clinic, Johannesburg, South Africa, from November 2009 to December 2011...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917771/socioeconomic-and-modifiable-predictors-of-blood-pressure-control-for-hypertension-in-primary-care-attenders-in-the-western-cape-south-africa
#6
N Folb, M O Bachmann, E D Bateman, K Steyn, N S Levitt, V Timmerman, C Lombard, T A Gaziano, L R Fairall
BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status is associated with the risk of hypertension. There are few reports of the effect of socioeconomic and potentially modifiable factors on the control of hypertension in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between patients' socio-economic status and characteristics of primary healthcare facilities, and control and treatment of blood pressure in hypertensive patients. METHODS: We enrolled hypertensive patients attending 38 public sector primary care clinics in the Western Cape, SA, in 2011, and followed them up 14 months later as part of a randomised controlled trial...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917770/evaluating-point-of-care-testing-for-glycosylated-haemoglobin-in-public-sector-primary-care-facilities-in-the-western-cape-south-africa
#7
R Mash, A Ugoagwu, C Vos, M Rensburg, R Erasmus
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus contributes significantly to the burden of disease in South Africa (SA). Monitoring of glycaemic control with glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is recommended, even though current laboratory-based testing does not support immediate clinical decision-making. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the costs and consequences for quality of care by introducing point-of-care (POC) testing for HbA1c for patients with type 2 diabetes at community health centres in Cape Town, SA...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917769/risk-factors-for-unsuccessful-lumbar-puncture-in-children
#8
C Procter, H Buys, H Carrara, J Thomas
BACKGROUND: This descriptive study provides the first information on an association between the use of sedation and a reduction in the prevalence of unsuccessful lumbar puncture (LP) in African children of all races. OBJECTIVE: Our hypothesis was that children who do not receive any procedural sedation are more likely to have unsuccessful LPs. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study examined LPs performed from February to April 2013, including details of the procedure, sedation or analgesia used, and techniques...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917768/iatrogenic-medication-errors-in-a-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-in-durban-south-africa
#9
A Gokhul, P M Jeena, A Gray
BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic medication errors due to calculation errors are an under-reported concern in children. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and source of iatrogenic medication errors in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in the PICU at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Hospital, Durban, South Africa, over a 3-month period in 2014. Medication-related calculation skills of medical practitioners and nurses were assessed through the voluntary anonymous completion of a questionnaire...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917767/prevalence-and-correlates-of-violence-among-south-african-high-school-learners-in-umgungundlovu-district-municipality-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#10
N Khuzwayo, M Taylor, C Connolly
BACKGROUND: Young people grow up in homes and communities where many are exposed daily to crime and antisocial behaviours. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of violence and the demographic factors associated with such violence among South African (SA)high school learners in the uMgungundlovu District, KwaZulu-Natal, SA. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we used stratified random sampling to select 16 schools in uMgungundlovu District...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917766/psychosocial-risk-and-protective-factors-associated-with-perpetration-of-gender-based-violence-in-a-community-sample-of-men-in-rural-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#11
N Mngoma, S Fergus, A Jeeves, R Jolly
BACKGROUND: Rates of gender-based violence (GBV) in South Africa (SA) are among the highest in the world. In societies where social ideals of masculinity encourage male dominance and control over women, gender power imbalances contribute to male perpetration and women's vulnerability. The drivers that cause men to perpetrate GBV and those that lead to HIV overlap and interact in multiple and complex ways. Multiple risk and protective factors for GBV perpetration by males operate interdependently at a number of levels; at the individual level, these include chronic anxiety and depression, which have been shown to lead to risky sexual behaviours...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917765/safeguarding-maternal-and-child-health-in-south-africa-by-starting-the-child-support-grant-before-birth-design-lessons-from-pregnancy-support-programmes-in-27-countries
#12
M F Chersich, S Luchters, D Blaauw, F Scorgie, E Kern, A Van den Heever, H Rees, E Peach, S Kharadi, S Fonn
BACKGROUND: Deprivation during pregnancy and the neonatal period increases maternal morbidity, reduces birth weight and impairs child development, with lifelong consequences. Many poor countries provide grants to mitigate the impact of poverty during pregnancy. South Africa (SA) offers a post-delivery Child Support Grant (CSG), which could encompass support during pregnancy, informed by lessons learnt from similar grants. OBJECTIVES: To review design and operational features of pregnancy support programmes, highlighting features that promote their effectiveness and efficiency, and implications thereof for SA...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917764/diabetic-cachectic-neuropathy-an-uncommon-neurological-complication-of-diabetes
#13
A Iyagba, A Onwuchekwa
A 40-year-old female patient with diabetes of 12 years' duration, with poor drug compliance, presented with a 4-month history of rapid progressive weight loss, burning sensations in the feet, abdominal swelling, and constipation with occasional episodes of epigastric pain. On examination, she was chronically ill-looking with a body mass index of 17.1 kg/m2, grossly distended abdomen (initially mistaken for gravid abdomen). Blood pressure measurements in the supine and standing positions were 200/130 mmHg and 180/100 mmHg, respectively...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917763/a-case-of-convergence-spasms-do-not-be-caught-off-guard
#14
L Smit
A hypertensive patient presented with complaints of headache and fluctuating double vision and deterioration in vision from 2010. She displayed symptoms associated with convergence spasms, which could be confused with sixth cranial nerve palsies. A few pointers are given to prevent clinicians from being caught off-guard when encountering this clinical condition.
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917762/revisiting-an-old-foe-the-face-of-psychosis-in-neurosyphilis
#15
Y Moolla, J Abdul
A delusional, agitated middle-aged man presented to hospital with a tenacious psychotic episode. Upon appropriate therapy for neurosyphilis, dramatic resolution of this brief episode ensued, prompting a literature review of psychosis associated with neurosyphilis.
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917761/research-competency-and-specialist-registration-quo-vadis
#16
C P Szabo, S Ramlall
The requirement of 'research completion' as necessary for specialist registration with the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) has recently been subject to legal action, with a court order potentially shifting requirements beyond those envisaged by the HPCSA. The research requirement is congruent with National Department of Health strategy in this regard, i.e. the strengthening of research as a stated priority. While the expectation of research competency is not in itself contentious, the capacity of institutions and the ability of registrars to facilitate and complete, respectively, have brought the issue into focus...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917760/the-universities-of-stellenbosch-cape-town-low-carbohydrate-diet-review-mistake-or-mischief
#17
Z Harcombe, T D Noakes
A 2014 meta-analysis from the universities of Stellenbosch and Cape Town reported that diets with a lower-carbohydrate (CHO) content are no more effective for producing weight loss than are high-CHO diets, so-called isoenergetic 'balanced' diets. We have re-examined the article and found numerous errors, many material in nature. Studies were included that failed the authors' own inclusion criteria; invalid and subjective meta-analysis sub-grouping was used; and data extraction was repeatedly inaccurate. All but one error favoured the balanced diet...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917759/south-african-guidelines-excellence-sage-adopt-adapt-or-contextualise
#18
J M Dizon, K Grimmer, Q Louw, T Kredo, T Young, S Machingaidze
Clinical practice guideline (CPG) activities must be planned carefully for efficient use of available resources and evidence-based implementation. De novo development of CPGs may sometimes 'recreate the wheel' and delay implementation. Three innovative alternatives to de novo CPG development (adopt, contextualise or adapt) are outlined, which have greater potential than de novo development to best use the limited available resources, personnel and time in settings such as South Africa.
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917758/addressing-legal-and-policy-barriers-to-male-circumcision-for-adolescent-boys-in-south-africa
#19
A E Strode, J D Toohey, C M Slack
With millions of adolescents becoming infected with HIV globally, it is essential that barriers to much-needed interventions are reduced for at-risk adolescents. In this article we review the legal and policy framework in South Africa for adolescent access to male circumcision. We are of the view that the framework does confer protection for adolescent boys while enabling access to male circumcision; however, we identify ambiguities and tensions that exist between the Children's Act, regulations and national guidelines...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917757/the-dual-burden-of-gender-based-violence-and-hiv-in-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-in-south-africa
#20
Q Abdool Karim, C Baxter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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