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Seminars in Hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088989/rejuvenation-of-aged-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#1
REVIEW
Novella Guidi, Hartmut Geiger
Until recently, there was broad consensus in the stem cell aging field that the phenotype of aged hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is fixed-dominated by cell-intrinsic regulatory mechanisms that cannot be altered by pharmacological or genetic means. The conventional thinking was that HSC aging could not be reverted by therapeutic intervention. This paradigm has started to shift dramatically, primarily because hallmarks of aged HSCs have been successfully reverted by distinct experimental approaches by multiple laboratories...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088988/clonal-hematopoiesis
#2
REVIEW
Max Jan, Benjamin L Ebert, Siddhartha Jaiswal
Cancer results from multistep pathogenesis, yet the pre-malignant states that precede the development of many hematologic malignancies have been difficult to identify. Recent genomic studies of blood DNA from tens of thousands of people have revealed the presence of remarkably common, age-associated somatic mutations in genes associated with hematologic malignancies. These somatic mutations drive the expansion from a single founding cell to a detectable hematopoietic clone. Owing to the admixed nature of blood that provides a sampling of blood cell production throughout the body, clonal hematopoiesis is a rare view into the biology of pre-malignancy and the direct effects of pre-cancerous lesions on organ dysfunction...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088987/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-lineage-bias-in-aging-hematopoiesis
#3
REVIEW
Harold K Elias, David Bryder, Christopher Y Park
Although hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have traditionally been thought to possess the ability to give rise to all the mature cell types in the hematopoietic system, this conception of hematopoiesis was based on evaluation of hematopoietic output from large numbers of HSCs using transplantation models.  More recent studies evaluating HSCs at the clonal or near-clonal level, both in transplantation studies and during in situ hematopoiesis, have established that individual HSCs can exhibit lineage bias, giving rise to myeloid-biased, lymphoid-biased, or more balanced differentiation, with the proportion of myeloid-biased HSCs increasing with age...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088986/age-associated-changes-in-human-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#4
REVIEW
Wendy W Pang, Stanley L Schrier, Irving L Weissman
Aging has a broad impact on the function of the human hematopoietic system. This review will focus primarily on the effect of aging on the human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) population. With age, even though human HSCs increase in number, they have decreased self-renewal capacity and reconstitution potential upon transplantation. As a population, human HSCs become more myeloid-biased in their differentiation potential. This is likely due to the human HSC population becoming more clonal with age, selecting for myeloid-biased HSC clones...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088985/lymphocyte-generation-and-population-homeostasis-throughout-life
#5
REVIEW
Rolando E Yanes, Claire E Gustafson, Cornelia M Weyand, Jörg J Goronzy
Immune aging is a multi-faceted process that manifests as reduced competence to fight infections and malignant cells, as well as diminished tissue repair, unprovoked inflammation, and increased autoreactivity. The aging adaptive immune system, with its high complexity in functional cell subpopulations and diversity of B- and T-cell receptors, has to cope with the challenge of maintaining homeostasis while responding to exogenous stimuli and compensating for reduced generative capacity. With thymic involution, naïve T cells begin to function as quasi-stem cells and maintain the compartment through peripheral homeostatic proliferation that shapes the T-cell repertoire through peripheral selection and the activation of differentiation pathways...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088984/the-aging-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niche-phenotypic-and-functional-changes-and-mechanisms-that-contribute-to-hematopoietic-aging
#6
REVIEW
Sarah E Latchney, Laura M Calvi
The hematopoietic system has the remarkable ability to provide a lifelong supply of mature cells that make up the entire blood and immune system. However, similar to other adult stem cell niches, the hematopoietic system is vulnerable to the detrimental effects of aging. This is a substantial health concern as the trend for population aging continues to increase. Identifying mechanisms that underlie hematopoietic aging is vital for understanding hematopoietic-related diseases. In this review, we first discuss the cellular hierarchy of the hematopoietic system and the components that make up the surrounding hematopoietic niche...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088983/the-epigenetic-basis-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-aging
#7
REVIEW
Ashley Kramer, Grant A Challen
Highly proliferative tissues such as the gut, skin, and bone marrow lose millions of cells each day to normal attrition and challenge from different biological adversities. To achieve a lifespan beyond the longevity of individual cell types, tissue-specific stem cells sustain these tissues throughout the life of a human. For example, the lifespan of erythrocytes is about 100 days and adults make about two million new erythrocytes every second. A small pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow is responsible for the lifetime maintenance of these populations...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088982/accumulation-of-dna-damage-in-the-aged-hematopoietic-stem-cell-compartment
#8
REVIEW
Isabel Beerman
Aging is associated with loss of functional potential of multiple tissue systems, and there has been significant interest in understanding how tissue-specific cells contribute to this decline. DNA damage accumulation has been widely associated with aging in differentiated cell types. However, tissue-specific stem cells were once thought to be a geno-protected population, as damage accrued in a stem cell population has the potential to be inherited by differentiated progeny, as well as propagated within the stem cell compartment through self-renewal divisions...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088981/hematopoiesis-in-aging-current-concepts-and-challenges
#9
EDITORIAL
Christopher Y Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788762/selecting-the-best-haploidentical-donor
#10
REVIEW
Shannon R McCurdy, Ephraim J Fuchs
The substantial evidence of the safety of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical (haplo) blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) has led to its increasing utilization. When prioritizing HLA-matched grafts, patients frequently have few or no donors from whom to choose. However, a given patient may have multiple suitable haplo donors. Therefore factors other than HLA-match become critical for selecting the best donor. We recommend a donor selection algorithm based on the donor-specific antibodies, ABO match, donor age, donor sex, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus match...
October 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788760/mismatched-unrelated-donor-transplantation
#11
REVIEW
Effie W Petersdorf
There are now more than 25 million volunteer donors registered worldwide for patients in need of a life-saving hematopoietic cell transplant to cure blood disorders. Although a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor remains the preferred stem cell source for transplantation, the use of a donor with limited HLA mismatching may be considered. Significant advances in clinical and basic research have been instrumental in furthering the understanding of donor-recipient HLA mismatches that are better tolerated than other mismatches...
October 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788759/matched-unrelated-donor-transplants-state-of-the-art-in-the-21st-century
#12
REVIEW
Syed Y Altaf, Jane F Apperley, Eduardo Olavarria
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the therapy of choice in many hematological malignant and non-malignant diseases by using human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched siblings as stem cell source but only one third of the patients will have HLA-matched siblings. Hence, physicians rely on the availability of matched unrelated donors (URD). The possibility of finding a matched URD is now more than 70% due to continuous expansion of URD registries around the world. The use of URD in adult patients is steadily increasing and in the last 8 years has superseded the numbers of matched sibling donor transplants and has become the most commonly used stem cell source...
October 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496311/nodular-lymphocyte-predominant-hodgkin-lymphoma
#13
REVIEW
Kerry J Savage, Anja Mottok, Michelle Fanale
Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma with distinct clinicopathologic features. It is typified by the presence of lymphocyte predominant (LP) cells, which are CD20(+) but CD15(-) and CD30(-) and are found scattered amongst small B lymphocytes arranged in a nodular pattern. Despite frequent and often late or multiple relapses, the prognosis of NLPHL is very favorable. There is an inherent risk of secondary aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and studies support that risk is highest in those with splenic involvement at presentation...
July 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496310/novel-agents-in-the-treatment-of-hodgkin-lymphoma-biological-basis-and-clinical-results
#14
REVIEW
Anas Younes, Stephen M Ansell
Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder of B cells that commonly has a favorable prognosis when treated with either combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy, or chemotherapy alone. However, the prognosis for patients who relapse, or have evidence for refractory disease, is poor and new treatments are needed for patients with progressive disease. HL has a unique tumor microenvironment consisting of a predominance of inflammatory cells and a minority of malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells...
July 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496308/treatment-of-advanced-stage-hodgkin-lymphoma
#15
REVIEW
Theodoros P Vassilakopoulos, Peter W M Johnson
There is now good evidence that the escalated BEACOPP regimen (bleomycin, etoposide, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone) is more effective in controlling advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) than the widely used ABVD regimen (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine), but the extra efficacy comes at the expense of both short- and long-term toxicity, and there is debate as to whether overall survival is affected. Baseline prognostic factors have proven of limited utility for determining which patients require more intensive therapy and recent studies have sought to use interim fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) evaluation as a means to guide the modulation of treatment, both upwards and downwards in intensity...
July 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496307/treatment-of%C3%A2-early-stage-hodgkin-lymphoma
#16
REVIEW
Andreas Engert, John Raemaekers
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has become one of the best curable malignancies today. This is particularly true for patients with early-stage disease. Today, most patients in this risk group are treated with a combination of chemotherapy followed by small-field radiotherapy. More recent clinical trials such as the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) HD10 study demonstrated, that even two cycles of ABVD followed by 20 Gy involved-field radiation therapy (IF-RT) are sufficient and result in more than 90% of patients being cured...
July 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496306/prognostic-factors-in-hodgkin-lymphoma
#17
REVIEW
Paul J Bröckelmann, Maria K Angelopoulou, Theodoros P Vassilakopoulos
During the last decades, the prognosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has been improved significantly with the introduction of effective chemotherapy and the implementation of risk-adapted treatment approaches. Identification of reliable risk factors is crucial to guide treatment over the course of disease. Both clinical and biological factors have been implicated in the prognosis of HL and are often used in prognostic scores to discriminate risk groups. To prevent under- or overtreatment, patients are usually assigned to one of the three widely established risk groups for first-line treatment, based solely on clinical risk factors...
July 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496305/clinical-presentation-and-staging-of-hodgkin-lymphoma
#18
REVIEW
Andrea Gallamini, Martin Hutchings, Safaa Ramadan
In the present chapter the authors present a brief overview of the diagnostic methods proposed over time for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) spread detection, moving from surgical procedures, through standard radiological and functional imaging techniques to the present state of the art for HL staging. The main body of the review will be dedicated to the recently published guidelines for lymphoma staging (including HL) agreed by the experts during the 12th International Congress for Malignant Lymphoma in Lugano. The recommendations of the panel on how to integrate flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan in the armamentarium of staging procedures will be presented and commented, with a special emphasis on the utility of special procedures, such as bone marrow trephine biopsy, which is deemed no longer needed in the PET era...
July 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496304/hodgkin-lymphoma-pathology-and-biology
#19
REVIEW
Stephan Mathas, Sylvia Hartmann, Ralf Küppers
The Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) tumor cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), as well as the lymphocyte predominant (LP) cells of nodular lymphocyte predominant HL (NLPHL), are derived from mature B cells. However, HRS cells have largely lost their B-cell phenotype and show a very unusual expression of many markers of other hematopoietic cell lineages, which aids in the differential diagnosis between classical HL (cHL) and NLPHL and distinguishes cHL from all other hematopoietic malignancies. The bi- or multinucleated Reed-Sternberg cells most likely derive from the mononuclear Hodgkin cells through a process of incomplete cytokinesis...
July 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312173/viruses-anti-viral-therapy-and-viral-vaccines-in-children-with-immune-thrombocytopenia
#20
Mohsen S Elalfy, Diane Nugent
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) might be preceded by silent or overt viral infections. Similarly, anti-viral drugs and viral vaccines could also trigger ITP and might play a central role in its pathogenesis. The seasonal nature of childhood ITP suggests that viral infections might initiate immune responses that increase the predisposition and occurrence of ITP. Active cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus should be considered in differential diagnosis when thrombocytopenia is associated with lymphadenopathy, especially with splenomegaly...
April 2016: Seminars in Hematology
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