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Seminars in Hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088989/rejuvenation-of-aged-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#1
REVIEW
Novella Guidi, Hartmut Geiger
Until recently, there was broad consensus in the stem cell aging field that the phenotype of aged hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is fixed-dominated by cell-intrinsic regulatory mechanisms that cannot be altered by pharmacological or genetic means. The conventional thinking was that HSC aging could not be reverted by therapeutic intervention. This paradigm has started to shift dramatically, primarily because hallmarks of aged HSCs have been successfully reverted by distinct experimental approaches by multiple laboratories...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088988/clonal-hematopoiesis
#2
REVIEW
Max Jan, Benjamin L Ebert, Siddhartha Jaiswal
Cancer results from multistep pathogenesis, yet the pre-malignant states that precede the development of many hematologic malignancies have been difficult to identify. Recent genomic studies of blood DNA from tens of thousands of people have revealed the presence of remarkably common, age-associated somatic mutations in genes associated with hematologic malignancies. These somatic mutations drive the expansion from a single founding cell to a detectable hematopoietic clone. Owing to the admixed nature of blood that provides a sampling of blood cell production throughout the body, clonal hematopoiesis is a rare view into the biology of pre-malignancy and the direct effects of pre-cancerous lesions on organ dysfunction...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088987/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-lineage-bias-in-aging-hematopoiesis
#3
REVIEW
Harold K Elias, David Bryder, Christopher Y Park
Although hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have traditionally been thought to possess the ability to give rise to all the mature cell types in the hematopoietic system, this conception of hematopoiesis was based on evaluation of hematopoietic output from large numbers of HSCs using transplantation models.  More recent studies evaluating HSCs at the clonal or near-clonal level, both in transplantation studies and during in situ hematopoiesis, have established that individual HSCs can exhibit lineage bias, giving rise to myeloid-biased, lymphoid-biased, or more balanced differentiation, with the proportion of myeloid-biased HSCs increasing with age...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088986/age-associated-changes-in-human-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#4
REVIEW
Wendy W Pang, Stanley L Schrier, Irving L Weissman
Aging has a broad impact on the function of the human hematopoietic system. This review will focus primarily on the effect of aging on the human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) population. With age, even though human HSCs increase in number, they have decreased self-renewal capacity and reconstitution potential upon transplantation. As a population, human HSCs become more myeloid-biased in their differentiation potential. This is likely due to the human HSC population becoming more clonal with age, selecting for myeloid-biased HSC clones...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088985/lymphocyte-generation-and-population-homeostasis-throughout-life
#5
REVIEW
Rolando E Yanes, Claire E Gustafson, Cornelia M Weyand, Jörg J Goronzy
Immune aging is a multi-faceted process that manifests as reduced competence to fight infections and malignant cells, as well as diminished tissue repair, unprovoked inflammation, and increased autoreactivity. The aging adaptive immune system, with its high complexity in functional cell subpopulations and diversity of B- and T-cell receptors, has to cope with the challenge of maintaining homeostasis while responding to exogenous stimuli and compensating for reduced generative capacity. With thymic involution, naïve T cells begin to function as quasi-stem cells and maintain the compartment through peripheral homeostatic proliferation that shapes the T-cell repertoire through peripheral selection and the activation of differentiation pathways...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088984/the-aging-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niche-phenotypic-and-functional-changes-and-mechanisms-that-contribute-to-hematopoietic-aging
#6
REVIEW
Sarah E Latchney, Laura M Calvi
The hematopoietic system has the remarkable ability to provide a lifelong supply of mature cells that make up the entire blood and immune system. However, similar to other adult stem cell niches, the hematopoietic system is vulnerable to the detrimental effects of aging. This is a substantial health concern as the trend for population aging continues to increase. Identifying mechanisms that underlie hematopoietic aging is vital for understanding hematopoietic-related diseases. In this review, we first discuss the cellular hierarchy of the hematopoietic system and the components that make up the surrounding hematopoietic niche...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088983/the-epigenetic-basis-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-aging
#7
REVIEW
Ashley Kramer, Grant A Challen
Highly proliferative tissues such as the gut, skin, and bone marrow lose millions of cells each day to normal attrition and challenge from different biological adversities. To achieve a lifespan beyond the longevity of individual cell types, tissue-specific stem cells sustain these tissues throughout the life of a human. For example, the lifespan of erythrocytes is about 100 days and adults make about two million new erythrocytes every second. A small pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow is responsible for the lifetime maintenance of these populations...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088982/accumulation-of-dna-damage-in-the-aged-hematopoietic-stem-cell-compartment
#8
REVIEW
Isabel Beerman
Aging is associated with loss of functional potential of multiple tissue systems, and there has been significant interest in understanding how tissue-specific cells contribute to this decline. DNA damage accumulation has been widely associated with aging in differentiated cell types. However, tissue-specific stem cells were once thought to be a geno-protected population, as damage accrued in a stem cell population has the potential to be inherited by differentiated progeny, as well as propagated within the stem cell compartment through self-renewal divisions...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088981/hematopoiesis-in-aging-current-concepts-and-challenges
#9
EDITORIAL
Christopher Y Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788764/haploidentical-cord-transplantation-the-best-of-both-worlds
#10
REVIEW
Koen van Besien, Richard Childs
Haploidentical (haplo)-cord transplantation combines infusion of an umbilical cord blood (UCB) unit with CD34-selected cells usually from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatched donors. Initial rapid count recovery from the haplo-hematopoietic progenitors, is gradually replaced by durable engraftment from UCB progenitors. UCB grafts used for haplo-cord are smaller, but better matched than those required for single or double UCB stem cell transplant (SCT). More than 200 patients with hematological malignancies have been transplanted...
October 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788763/haploidentical-transplants-using-ex-vivo-t-cell-depletion
#11
REVIEW
Massimo F Martelli, Franco Aversa
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the best post-remission therapy for patients with acute leukemia (AL) at high risk of relapse. Advantages of having a family member as donor include: no undue delay in obtaining the graft; choice of best donor with regards to natural killer (NK) alloreactivity and cytomegalovirus (CMV) status from a panel of candidate family members; easy access to post-transplant cellular therapies like donor lymphocyte infusions and opportunity for a second graft from the original donor, or another family member in case of graft failure...
October 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788762/selecting-the-best-haploidentical-donor
#12
REVIEW
Shannon R McCurdy, Ephraim J Fuchs
The substantial evidence of the safety of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical (haplo) blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) has led to its increasing utilization. When prioritizing HLA-matched grafts, patients frequently have few or no donors from whom to choose. However, a given patient may have multiple suitable haplo donors. Therefore factors other than HLA-match become critical for selecting the best donor. We recommend a donor selection algorithm based on the donor-specific antibodies, ABO match, donor age, donor sex, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus match...
October 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788761/umbilical-cord-blood-cells-from-unrelated-donor-as-an-alternative-source-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-for-transplantation-in-children-and-adults
#13
REVIEW
Vanderson Rocha
Umbilical cord blood (CB) is an alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for patients requiring allogeneic HSC transplantation but lacking a suitable human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor. Using CB has many advantages, including lower HLA-matching requirements, increased donor availability, and low rates of graft-versus-host disease. Furthermore, with over 630,000 cryopreserved volunteer CB units currently stored in international CB banks worldwide, CB is rapidly available for those patients requiring urgent transplantation...
October 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788760/mismatched-unrelated-donor-transplantation
#14
REVIEW
Effie W Petersdorf
There are now more than 25 million volunteer donors registered worldwide for patients in need of a life-saving hematopoietic cell transplant to cure blood disorders. Although a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor remains the preferred stem cell source for transplantation, the use of a donor with limited HLA mismatching may be considered. Significant advances in clinical and basic research have been instrumental in furthering the understanding of donor-recipient HLA mismatches that are better tolerated than other mismatches...
October 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788759/matched-unrelated-donor-transplants-state-of-the-art-in-the-21st-century
#15
REVIEW
Syed Y Altaf, Jane F Apperley, Eduardo Olavarria
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the therapy of choice in many hematological malignant and non-malignant diseases by using human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched siblings as stem cell source but only one third of the patients will have HLA-matched siblings. Hence, physicians rely on the availability of matched unrelated donors (URD). The possibility of finding a matched URD is now more than 70% due to continuous expansion of URD registries around the world. The use of URD in adult patients is steadily increasing and in the last 8 years has superseded the numbers of matched sibling donor transplants and has become the most commonly used stem cell source...
October 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788758/alternative-donor-allogeneic-transplants-introduction
#16
EDITORIAL
Richard Childs, Didier Blaise
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496314/similarity-of-fractionated-versus-single-dose-s-of-gemtuzumab-ozogamicin-as-part-of-the-midam-salvage-regimen-in-relapsed-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients
#17
LETTER
Pierre Peterlin, Thierry Guillaume, Jacques Delaunay, Mohamad Mohty, Alice Garnier, Beatrice Mahe, Viviane Dubruille, Nicolas Blin, Maud Voldoire, Cyrille Touzeau, Cecile Chauvin, Thomas Gastinne, Marie C Béné, Steven Le Gouill, Philippe Moreau, Patrice Chevallier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496313/hodgkin-lymphoma-late-effects-of-treatment-and-guidelines-for-surveillance
#18
REVIEW
Andrea K Ng, Flora E van Leeuwen
Long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are at risk for a range of late effects, with second malignant neoplasm and cardiovascular diseases being the leading causes of death in these patients. The excess risks remain significantly elevated decades after treatment, and are clearly associated with extent of treatment exposures. Other late effects have also been identified, such as pulmonary dysfunction, endocrinopathies, muscle atrophy, and persistent fatigue. Systemic documentation of late effects and recognition of treatment- and patient-related risk factors are important, as they inform optimal surveillance and risk-reduction strategies, as well as guide therapeutic modifications in newly diagnosed patients to minimize treatment-related complications...
July 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496312/hodgkin-lymphoma-in-the-elderly-pregnant-and-hiv-infected
#19
REVIEW
Veronika Bachanova, Joseph M Connors
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) presenting in patients with co-incidental advanced age, pregnancy, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is uniquely challenging to manage. In this article we integrate recent evidence and clinical expertise to present recommendations for diagnosis and therapeutic management. Older patients with HL need to be carefully evaluated for comorbidies after which judicious choice of chemotherapy should minimize functional compromise. A pregnant patient with concurrent HL should be staged with minimal use of imaging requiring ionizing radiation and treated in an individualized manner optimally combining the strategies of treatment deferral when appropriate, use of single-agent vinblastine for symptomatic disease and reservation of multi-agent chemotherapy for the small minority of patients with aggressive clinical presentation...
July 2016: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496311/nodular-lymphocyte-predominant-hodgkin-lymphoma
#20
REVIEW
Kerry J Savage, Anja Mottok, Michelle Fanale
Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma with distinct clinicopathologic features. It is typified by the presence of lymphocyte predominant (LP) cells, which are CD20(+) but CD15(-) and CD30(-) and are found scattered amongst small B lymphocytes arranged in a nodular pattern. Despite frequent and often late or multiple relapses, the prognosis of NLPHL is very favorable. There is an inherent risk of secondary aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and studies support that risk is highest in those with splenic involvement at presentation...
July 2016: Seminars in Hematology
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