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Scandinavian Journal of Psychology

Kirsten K Roessler, Rikke Holm Bramsen, Ajla Dervisevic, Randi Bilberg
Exercise based treatment for alcohol use disorders have shown an impact on mental health (e.g., depression or anxiety), and alcohol outcomes (e.g., craving or abstinence). However, there is a lack of information on the role of motivational aspects of participation in the process of designing exercise interventions for alcohol use disorder. This study aims to examine: (1) whether motivational aspects are taken into account when the type and delivery method of exercise interventions are chosen; (2) whether motivational aspects are taken into account post intervention; and (3) whether there are different traditions regarding payment for participants...
October 11, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Patrick Mollaret, Delphine Miraucourt
Adopting a social approach to social judgment, we conducted five studies to validate a conceptual distinction between agency and competence traits. Studies 1-3 revealed that competence traits (e.g., skillful) are associated with job performance, whereas agentic traits (e.g., ambitious) are associated with career success. Study 4 showed that only agency predicted the amount of money people are likely to earn: the more a given trait was considered as agentic, the more it was associated with high monetary values...
October 5, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Daniel Maroti, Peter Molander, Indre Bileviciute-Ljungar
Symptoms of Exhaustion Syndrome (ES) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) are overlapping and create difficulties of differential diagnosis. Empirical studies comparing ES and CFS are scarce. This study aims to investigate if there are any emotional differences between ES and CFS. This cross-sectional study compared self-reported alexithymia and observer-rated emotional awareness in patients with ES (n = 31), CFS (n = 38) and healthy controls (HC) (n = 30). Self-reported alexithymia was measured with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20) and emotional awareness with an observer-rated performance test, the Level of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS)...
September 30, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Esperanza García-Sancho, José M Salguero, Pablo Fernández-Berrocal
Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been associated with several indicators of psychosocial adjustment, including aggressive behavior, but the relevant research has been mostly cross-sectional, focused on adults, and limited to trait EI measures (García-Sancho, Salguero & Fernández-Berrocal, 2014; Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, ). The present work explored the relationship between Ability Emotional Intelligence (AEI) and aggression in both adults and adolescents using cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. We conducted two studies...
September 28, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Tao Jiang, Liuna Geng, Yanmei Tang, Lijuan Ye
The present study examined how negative feedback influenced implicit self-evaluations and how individuals' level of relational self-construal (RelSC) moderated these relationships. One hundred Chinese university students completed the relational-interdependent self-construal scale and were randomly assigned into one of three conditions (social exclusion, personal failure, or control). After receiving the manipulation, participants completed two Brief Implicit Association Tests (BIATs) that measured their implicit self-liking and self-competence...
September 26, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Marianne T Krogh, Mette S Vaever
The purpose of this study was to investigate cultural differences between Danish and American children at 2 and 3 years as measured with the developmental test Bayley-III, and to investigate the Bayley-III Language Scale validity. The Danish children (N = 43) were tested with the Bayley-III and their parents completed an additional language questionnaire (the MacArthur-Bates CDI). Results showed that scores from the Danish children did not differ significantly from the American norms on the Cognitive or Motor Scale, but the Danish sample scored significantly higher on the Language Scale...
September 26, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
James J Annesi, Nicole Mareno, Kristin L McEwen
High emotional eating (EE) is prevalent in women with obesity. A previous study's subsample of obese women classified as high emotional eaters participated in either a physical activity-focused experimental (n = 29) or an educationally focused comparison (n = 22) behavioral treatment and was assessed over phases of expected weight loss (baseline-month 6) and short- and long-term regain (months 6-12 and 6-24, respectively). The study's aim was to assess theory-based psychological and behavioral mediation and moderation of changes in nutritional behaviors via emotional eating change in order to inform behavioral weight-loss treatments...
September 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Maria Therese Jensen
By using a two-wave panel design, the present study aimed to study causal, reversed, and reciprocal relations among work-role conflict, work-family conflict, and emotional exhaustion. The Conservation of Resources theory was applied as a theoretical framework. The study was conducted in a large Norwegian oil and gas company (n = 1703). The results demonstrated positive cross-lagged effects of work-role conflict and work-family conflict on emotional exhaustion. In addition, emotional exhaustion predicted work-family conflict over time, and work-family conflict predicted work-role conflict over time, indicating the presence of reciprocal effects...
September 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Katharina Wolff, Svein Larsen
The present investigation is a cross-sectional, multi-national, quantitative, and quasi-experimental comparison of tourists' risk perceptions regarding different destinations throughout the past decade. Over 10,000 tourists to Norway from 89 different countries filled in a questionnaire rating the perceived risk for various destinations. Data were collected during 2004, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2015 and allow for a comparison of perceived risk across time, place and nationality. Results show that while absolute risk judgments for different destinations fluctuate somewhat over the years, relative risk judgments remain constant...
September 16, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Johanne Smith-Nielsen, Anne Tharner, Marianne Thode Krogh, Mette Skovgaard Vaever
This study examined early and long-term effects of maternal postpartum depression on cognitive, language, and motor development in infants of clinically depressed mothers. Participants were 83 mothers and their full-term born children from the urban region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Of this group, 28 mothers were diagnosed with postnatal depression three to four months postpartum in a diagnostic interview. Cognitive, language, and motor development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development third edition, when the infants were 4 and 13 months of age...
September 9, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Sidsel Baastrup, Rikke Schultz, Inger Brødsgaard, Rod Moore, Troels S Jensen, Lene Vase Toft, Flemming W Bach, Raben Rosenberg, Lise Gormsen
Patients suffering from chronic pain may benefit from learning adaptive coping strategies. Consensus on efficient strategies for this group of patients is, however, lacking, and previous studies have shown inconsistent results. The present study has examined coping strategies in two distinctly different groups of chronic pain patients and a group of healthy controls. Thirty neuropathic pain (NP) patients, 28 fibromyalgia (FM) patients, and 26 pain-free healthy controls completed the Coping Strategy Questionnaire (CSQ-48/27) and rated their daily pain...
August 25, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Jorge Javier Ricarte, Laura Ros, Jose Miguel Latorre, Maria Dolores Muñoz, Maria Jose Aguilar, Jose Vicente Hernandez
Overgeneral schemas and lack of autobiographical memory (AM) specificity about our past experiences can predict mood disturbance. Rumination, functional avoidance and executive processes are the main explanatory variables of such overgenerality. However, in non-clinical samples, rumination predicts overgenerality most consistently after the induction of dysphoric mood. Anxiety also activates rumination. Furthermore, anxiety predicts memory performance and has effects on mood which are independent of the effects of rumination...
August 22, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Estíbaliz Aragón, José Ignacio Navarro, Manuel Aguilar, Gamal Cerda, Manuel García-Sedeño
Early math skills are determined by higher cognitive processes that are particularly important for acquiring and developing skills during a child's early education. Such processes could be a critical target for identifying students at risk for math learning difficulties. Few studies have considered the use of a structural equation method to rationalize these relations. Participating in this study were 207 preschool students ages 59 to 72 months, 108 boys and 99 girls. Performance with respect to early math skills, early literacy, general intelligence, working memory, and short-term memory was assessed...
August 22, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Tamara Ambrona, Luis Oceja, Belén López-Pérez, Pilar Carrera
Previous research on the one-among-others effect has shown that inducing empathic concern towards a victim presented among other individuals in need enhances: (1) awareness of these others and (2) the willingness to help them individually. In this work, we test that these outcomes are linked by an additional process: the generalization of empathic concern felt for the victim towards the others in need. Study 1 revealed that inducing empathic concern for a victim presented as one-among-others led to see the others as separate and different individuals, not as a unitary group...
August 22, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
John A Rønning, Hans Petter Fundingsrud, Arild Leknessund, Bjørn Helge Handegård
The purpose of this study is to estimate the percentage of mental health problems in a pediatric outpatient Norwegian clinic. We used the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to screen for mental health problems. Families of children aged 4-11 took part in the study, and 380 out of 982 possible families consented to take part, and 349 families contributed with questionnaire data. The main referral reasons for the patients were asthma, eneuresis and stomach pain. Mothers reported that 17.4% of boys and 17...
August 18, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Mehmet Eskin, Omar Kujan, Martin Voracek, Amira Shaheen, Mauro Giovanni Carta, Jian-Min Sun, Chris Flood, Senel Poyrazli, Mohsen Janghorbani, Kouichi Yoshimasu, Anwar Mechri, Yousef Khader, Khouala Aidoudi, Seifollah Bakhshi, Hacer Harlak, Muna Ahmead, Maria Francesca Moro, Hani Nawafleh, Louise Phillips, Abdulwahab Abuderman, Ulrich S Tran, Kanami Tsuno
This paper reports the results of a comparative investigation of attitudes to suicide and suicidal persons in 5,572 university students from 12 countries. Participants filled out two scales measuring attitudes towards suicide and suicidal persons, a measure of psychological distress together with the questions about suicidal behavior. Results showed that the highest suicide acceptance scores were observed in Austrian, UK, Japanese and Saudi Arabian samples and the lowest scores were noted in Tunisian, Turkish, Iranian and Palestinian samples...
August 18, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
A Michelle Wright, Abir Dhalimi, Mark A Lumley, Hikmet Jamil, Nnamdi Pole, Judith E Arnetz, Bengt B Arnetz
Previous refugee research has been unable to link pre-displacement trauma with unemployment in the host country. The current study assessed the role of pre-displacement trauma, post-displacement trauma, and the interaction of both trauma types to prospectively examine unemployment in a random sample of newly-arrived Iraqi refugees. Participants (N = 286) were interviewed three times over the first two years post-arrival. Refugees were assessed for pre-displacement trauma exposure, post-displacement trauma exposure, a history of unemployment in the country of origin and host country, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression...
August 18, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Thomas Eilertsen, Anders Lillevik Thorsen, Silje Elisabeth Hasmo Holm, Tormod Bøe, Lin Sørensen, Astri J Lundervold
Socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood has been linked to cognitive function and future academic and occupational success in studies from several countries. However, previous Nordic studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the strength of this link. We therefore investigated the association between SES and cognitive functioning in a sample of 255 Norwegian children, including 151 typically developing children and 104 children with a psychiatric diagnosis. The third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) to assess cognitive function was used...
October 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Anna Söderholm, Ann Öhman, Berndt Stenberg, Steven Nordin
Nonspecific building-related symptoms (NBRS) is a combination of general, skin and mucosal symptoms related to certain buildings. Despite high prevalence in the general population and severe symptomatology in certain cases there is no scientific documentation of quality of life in NBRS. The purpose of this study was to illuminate how individuals with NBRS experience daily life. Data were collected through descriptive, written texts and through telephone interviews with 11 individuals diagnosed with NBRS, and qualitative content analysis was conducted...
October 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Girts Dimdins, Maria Sandgren, Henry Montgomery
This study examines in detail the psychological variables underlying ideological political orientation, and structure and contents of this orientation, in Sweden and Latvia. Individual political orientation is conceptualized on two dimensions: acceptance vs. rejection of social change and acceptance vs. rejection of inequality. Swedish (N = 320) and Latvian (N = 264) participants completed measures of political orientation, Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA), self vs. other orientation, tolerance for ambiguity, humanism and normativism, core political values, system justification, as well as moral foundations questionnaire and portrait values questionnaire...
October 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
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