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Scandinavian Journal of Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816349/effects-of-intergroup-exclusion-on-individual-needs-threat-and-behavior-tendencies
#1
Xiao Li Yang, Li Wei, Qing Hua Zhao, Li Liu
This study explores the effects of intergroup exclusion on need-threat and the behavioral tendencies of excluded individuals. Results show that those excluded by in-group members perceived more threat to relational needs, while participants excluded by out-group members perceived more threat to efficacy needs. In addition, participants excluded by out-group members displayed significantly more aggression intention and less helping intention than those who were excluded by in-group members. This study indicates that the group relationship between excluders and the excluded will directly affect threat perception and behavioral responses...
August 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815619/sluggish-cognitive-tempo-in-children-and-adolescents-with-higher-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorders-social-impairments-and-internalizing-symptoms
#2
Outi Reinvall, Teija Kujala, Arja Voutilainen, Anu-Liisa Moisio, Pekka Lahti-Nuuttila, Marja Laasonen
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) was introduced in 1980s in the field of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies indicate that symptoms of SCT are separate from symptoms of ADHD and independently associated with multiple domains of functioning in clinical groups and in typical development. We assessed whether similar pattern would apply to higher functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with higher functioning ASD (N = 55; 5-15 years) were divided into the ASD+High SCT (n = 17), the ASD+Medium SCT (n = 18) and the ASD+Low SCT (n = 20) groups based on parent-rated daydreaming and slowness on the Five to Fifteen questionnaire (FTF)...
August 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800165/burnout-among-finnish-and-chinese-university-students
#3
Elina Hernesniemi, Hannu Räty, Kati Kasanen, Xuejiao Cheng, Jianzhong Hong, Matti Kuittinen
In this study the levels of experienced burnout of Finnish and Chinese university students are compared using School Burnout Inventory (SBI). This study is motivated by earlier studies, which suggest that the level of student burnout is different in the culturally distinct Finnish and Chinese university systems, but which are based on different research instruments for the two groups. The sample studied consisted of 3,035 Finnish students and 2,309 Chinese students. Because of the cross-cultural nature of this study the level of structural equivalence of SBI between the cultural groups was examined and the effect of different response styles on the results was taken into account...
August 11, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782805/individual-difference-factors-and-beliefs-in-medical-and-political-conspiracy-theories
#4
Natasha Galliford, Adrian Furnham
This study examined the relationship between a series of individual difference measures and belief in political and medical conspiracy theories. Participants (N = 323) rated 20 conspiracy theories (10 medical, 10 political) and completed a set of questionnaires. Belief in political conspiracies was strongly positively correlated with belief in medical conspiracies. Belief in both conspiracy types was correlated with low self-esteem, low Conscientiousness, more right-wing political views, younger age, and greater belief in the benefits of Alternative Medicine...
August 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741702/automatic-thoughts-as-a-predictor-of-internalizing-and-externalizing-problems-in-chinese-adolescents-a-test-of-the-cognitive-content-specificity-hypothesis-with-age-effects
#5
Meng Yu, Wei Xu, Qiuyuan Xie, Yawen Zhu, Gregory S Chasson, Jianping Wang
The main aim of the current study was to test the cognitive content-specificity hypothesis across internalizing and externalizing problems in Chinese adolescents. The participants consisted of 2,158 adolescents aged 11-19 years from three middle schools, and they completed a number of measures assessing a wide range of automatic thoughts and syndromes related to internalizing and externalizing problems. Multivariate regression analyses demonstrated that thoughts about social threats, personal failure and hostility were the strongest predictors of anxiety, depression, and externalizing problems, respectively...
July 25, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670767/age-slowing-down-in-detection-and-visual-discrimination-under-varying-presentation-times
#6
Carmen Moret-Tatay, Lenin-Guillermo Lemus-Zúñiga, Diana Abad Tortosa, Daniel Gamermann, Andrea Vázquez-Martínez, Esperanza Navarro-Pardo, J Alberto Conejero
The reaction time has been described as a measure of perception, decision making, and other cognitive processes. The aim of this work is to examine age-related changes in executive functions in terms of demand load under varying presentation times. Two tasks were employed where a signal detection and a discrimination task were performed by young and older university students. Furthermore, a characterization of the response time distribution by an ex-Gaussian fit was carried out. The results indicated that the older participants were slower than the younger ones in signal detection and discrimination...
July 2, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636271/dietary-patterns-are-associated-with-the-prevalence-of-alexithymia
#7
Kirsi Honkalampi, Anu Ruusunen, Heimo Viinamäki, Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen, Minna Valkonen-Korhonen, Soili M Lehto
Recent evidence supports the association between healthy dietary patterns and a reduced risk of depression. The objective was: (1) to examine the associations between dietary patterns and alexithymic features; and (2) investigate whether these possible associations are explained by depressive symptoms in a cross-sectional study among the Finnish general population aged 25-65 years. The study population was a part of the population-based Kuopio Depression Study (KUDEP) conducted in central-eastern Finland (n = 1747)...
June 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632357/self-control-depletion-impairs-goal-maintenance-a-meta-analysis
#8
Junhua Dang, Fredrik Björklund, Martin Bäckström
Initial exertion of self-control has been suggested to impair subsequent self-regulatory performance. The specific cognitive processes that underlie this ego depletion effect have rarely been examined. Drawing on the dual-process theory of executive control (Engle & Kane, ; Kane & Engle, ), the current meta-analysis revealed that initial self-control exertion impairs participants' capacities of maintaining the task goal but its effect on capacities of resolving response competition is in need of further investigation...
June 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582587/characteristics-of-inner-reading-voices
#9
Ruvanee P Vilhauer
This study examined the phenomenological characteristics of inner speech during silent reading (inner reading voices or IRVs), a type of inner speech that may be particularly amenable to empirical study. A survey was conducted in the general population to assess IRV frequency, location, number, identity, and controllability, and auditory qualities of IRVs. Of 570 survey respondents, 80.7% reported sometimes or always hearing an inner voice during silent reading, and the remaining 19.3% reported always understanding words being read without hearing an inner voice...
June 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574210/using-the-regulation-of-accuracy-to-study-performance-when-the-correct-answer-is-not-known
#10
Karlos Luna, Beatriz Martín-Luengo
We examined memory performance in multiple-choice questions when correct answers were not always present. How do participants answer when they are aware that the correct alternative may not be present? To answer this question we allowed participants to decide on the number of alternatives in their final answer (the plurality option), and whether they wanted to report or withhold their answer (report option). We also studied the memory benefits when both the plurality and the report options were available. In two experiments participants watched a crime and then answered questions with five alternatives...
June 2, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570776/the-personality-basis-of-aggression-the-mediating-role-of-anger-and-the-moderating-role-of-emotional-intelligence
#11
Esperanza García-Sancho, Kristof Dhont, José M Salguero, Pablo Fernández-Berrocal
High neuroticism and low agreeableness have been found to predict higher levels of aggression through an increase of negative emotions such as anger. However, previous research has only investigated these indirect associations for physical aggression, whereas evidence for such indirect effects on other types of aggression (i.e., verbal or indirect aggression) is currently lacking. Moreover, no previous work has investigated the moderating role of Ability Emotional Intelligence (AEI), which may buffer against the effects of anger on aggression...
June 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718970/activation-of-semantic-information-at-the-sublexical-level-during-handwriting-production-evidence-from-inhibition-effects-of-chinese-semantic-radicals-in-the-picture-word-interference-paradigm
#12
Xuqian Chen, Yuanlan Liao, Xianzhe Chen
Using a non-alphabetic language (e.g., Chinese), the present study tested a novel view that semantic information at the sublexical level should be activated during handwriting production. Over 80% of Chinese characters are phonograms, in which semantic radicals represent category information (e.g., 'chair,' 'peach,' 'orange' are related to plants) while phonetic radicals represent phonetic information (e.g., 'wolf,' 'brightness,' 'male,' are all pronounced /lang/). Under different semantic category conditions at the lexical level (semantically related in Experiment 1; semantically unrelated in Experiment 2), the orthographic relatedness and semantic relatedness of semantic radicals in the picture name and its distractor were manipulated under different SOAs (i...
August 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718969/child-and-family-related-predictors-of-psychological-outcomes-in-children-adopted-from-abroad-what-is-the-role-of-caregiver-time
#13
Niina Rita, Marko Elovainio, Hanna Raaska, Pekka Lahti-Nuuttila, Jaakko Matomäki, Jari Sinkkonen, Helena Lapinleimu
International adoptees need to cope with stressful transitions and to develop secure attachment with their caregivers at the same time. Although most children adopted from abroad adjust fine, they are at increased risk of psychological problems. We investigated whether both child and family-related factors are associated with later psychological problems and whether the length of time spent at home after adoption before daycare moderates these associations among internationally adopted children in Finland (FinAdo, Finnish Adoption Study)...
August 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718968/the-design-of-the-mbt-g-adherence-and-quality-scale
#14
Espen J Folmo, Sigmund W Karterud, Kjetil Bremer, Kristoffer L Walther, Elfrida H Kvarstein, Geir A F Pedersen
Few group psychotherapy studies focus on therapists' interventions, and instruments that can measure group psychotherapy treatment fidelity are scarce. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of the Mentalization-based Group Therapy Adherence and Quality Scale (MBT-G-AQS), which is a 19-item scale developed to measure adherence and quality in mentalization-based group therapy (MBT-G). Eight MBT groups and eight psychodynamic groups (a total of 16 videotaped therapy sessions) were rated independently by five raters...
August 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718967/seeing-the-big-picture-broadening-attention-relieves-sadness-and-depressed-mood
#15
Li Gu, Xueling Yang, Liman Man Wai Li, Xinyue Zhou, Ding-Guo Gao
We examined whether the broadened attentional scope would affect people's sad or depressed mood with two experiments, enlightened by the meaning of "seeing the big picture" and the broaden-and-build model. Experiment 1 (n = 164) is a laboratory-based experiment, in which we manipulated the attentional scope by showing participants zoomed-out or zoomed-in scenes. In Experiment 2 (n = 44), we studied how depressed mood and positive and negative emotions were affected when participants watched distant versus proximal scenes for eight weeks in real life...
August 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543322/why-did-adolescents-have-sleep-problems-after-earthquakes-understanding-the-role-of-traumatic-exposure-fear-and-ptsd
#16
Xiao Zhou, Xinchun Wu, Qiuyan Chen, Rui Zhen
To examine the relationships between trauma exposure, fear, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sleep problems in adolescents, 746 adolescent survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China were assessed at 1 year (T1) and 1.5 years (T2) after the earthquake using a trauma exposure questionnaire, a fear questionnaire, a child posttraumatic stress disorder symptom scale, and a subscale on child sleep problems. The results showed that T1 trauma exposure were not directly associated with sleep problems at T1 and T2, but played a positive role in sleep problems at both T1 and T2 indirectly through T1 posttraumatic stress disorder and T1 fear...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543321/conscientiousness-but-not-agreeableness-mediates-females-tendency-toward-being-a-morning-person
#17
Arash Rahafar, Ina Castellana, Christoph Randler, Juan Manuel Antúnez
Individuals differ in their chronotype, and some are identified as morning ones and others as evening ones. Earlier studies showed that women were higher on morningness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. In this study, we aimed at exploring the mediational effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness in the relationship of gender and morningness-eveningness. Participants were 669 university students. Results supported positive relationships between morningness and conscientiousness and agreeableness and between conscientiousness and agreeableness...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543320/processes-in-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-and-the-rehabilitation-of-chronic-fatigue
#18
Henrik Børsting Jacobsen, Håvard Kallestad, Nils Inge Landrø, Petter C Borchgrevink, Tore C Stiles
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has never been tested for patients with chronic fatigue. We aimed to test if a 3.5-week ACT rehabilitation program for patients with chronic fatigue improved quality of life (QoL), fatigue, and psychological flexibility. Further, to test if improvements in QoL and fatigue were associated with improvement in psychological flexibility, and if psychological flexibility explained variance above and beyond maladaptive cognitions typically targeted in CBT for fatigue. Patients (n = 140) who had been on sick leave > 8 weeks due to chronic fatigue received a 3...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440880/-to-be-forgotten-statements-become-less-true-memory-processes-involved-in-selection-and-forgetting-lead-to-truthfulness-changes-of%C3%A2-ambiguous-sentences
#19
Ana Sofia Santos, Tânia Ramos, Leonel Garcia-Marques, Paula Carneiro
What happens when people try to forget something? What are the consequences of instructing people to intentionally forget a sentence? Recent studies employing the item-method directed forgetting paradigm have shown that to-be-forgotten (TBF) items are, in a subsequent task, emotionally devaluated relative to to-be-remembered (TBR) items, an aftereffect of memory selection (Vivas, Marful, Panagiotidou & Bajo, 2016). As such, distractor devaluation by attentional selection generalizes to memory selection. In this study, we use the item-method directed forgetting paradigm to test the effects of memory selection and inhibition on truth judgments of ambiguous sentences...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440873/flashbulb-memories-of-the-paris-attacks
#20
Marie-Charlotte Gandolphe, Mohamad El Haj
Flashbulb memories are vivid autobiographical memories of the circumstances where an individual first learns about emotionally significant public events. Our paper assesses whether these memories were triggered by the attacks of Friday 13 November 2015 in Paris. Two hundred and ninety-one participants answered a web-based questionnaire that assessed their memory of the circumstances in which they first learned of the attacks. The questionnaire also assessed vividness, rehearsal, emotion, surprise and novelty...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
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