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Scandinavian Journal of Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636271/dietary-patterns-are-associated-with-the-prevalence-of-alexithymia
#1
Kirsi Honkalampi, Anu Ruusunen, Heimo Viinamäki, Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen, Minna Valkonen-Korhonen, Soili M Lehto
Recent evidence supports the association between healthy dietary patterns and a reduced risk of depression. The objective was: (1) to examine the associations between dietary patterns and alexithymic features; and (2) investigate whether these possible associations are explained by depressive symptoms in a cross-sectional study among the Finnish general population aged 25-65 years. The study population was a part of the population-based Kuopio Depression Study (KUDEP) conducted in central-eastern Finland (n = 1747)...
June 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632357/self-control-depletion-impairs-goal-maintenance-a-meta-analysis
#2
Junhua Dang, Fredrik Björklund, Martin Bäckström
Initial exertion of self-control has been suggested to impair subsequent self-regulatory performance. The specific cognitive processes that underlie this ego depletion effect have rarely been examined. Drawing on the dual-process theory of executive control (Engle & Kane, ; Kane & Engle, ), the current meta-analysis revealed that initial self-control exertion impairs participants' capacities of maintaining the task goal but its effect on capacities of resolving response competition is in need of further investigation...
June 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582587/characteristics-of-inner-reading-voices
#3
Ruvanee P Vilhauer
This study examined the phenomenological characteristics of inner speech during silent reading (inner reading voices or IRVs), a type of inner speech that may be particularly amenable to empirical study. A survey was conducted in the general population to assess IRV frequency, location, number, identity, and controllability, and auditory qualities of IRVs. Of 570 survey respondents, 80.7% reported sometimes or always hearing an inner voice during silent reading, and the remaining 19.3% reported always understanding words being read without hearing an inner voice...
June 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574210/using-the-regulation-of-accuracy-to-study-performance-when-the-correct-answer-is-not-known
#4
Karlos Luna, Beatriz Martín-Luengo
We examined memory performance in multiple-choice questions when correct answers were not always present. How do participants answer when they are aware that the correct alternative may not be present? To answer this question we allowed participants to decide on the number of alternatives in their final answer (the plurality option), and whether they wanted to report or withhold their answer (report option). We also studied the memory benefits when both the plurality and the report options were available. In two experiments participants watched a crime and then answered questions with five alternatives...
June 2, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570776/the-personality-basis-of-aggression-the-mediating-role-of-anger-and-the-moderating-role-of-emotional-intelligence
#5
Esperanza García-Sancho, Kristof Dhont, José M Salguero, Pablo Fernández-Berrocal
High neuroticism and low agreeableness have been found to predict higher levels of aggression through an increase of negative emotions such as anger. However, previous research has only investigated these indirect associations for physical aggression, whereas evidence for such indirect effects on other types of aggression (i.e., verbal or indirect aggression) is currently lacking. Moreover, no previous work has investigated the moderating role of Ability Emotional Intelligence (AEI), which may buffer against the effects of anger on aggression...
June 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543322/why-did-adolescents-have-sleep-problems-after-earthquakes-understanding-the-role-of-traumatic-exposure-fear-and-ptsd
#6
Xiao Zhou, Xinchun Wu, Qiuyan Chen, Rui Zhen
To examine the relationships between trauma exposure, fear, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sleep problems in adolescents, 746 adolescent survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China were assessed at 1 year (T1) and 1.5 years (T2) after the earthquake using a trauma exposure questionnaire, a fear questionnaire, a child posttraumatic stress disorder symptom scale, and a subscale on child sleep problems. The results showed that T1 trauma exposure were not directly associated with sleep problems at T1 and T2, but played a positive role in sleep problems at both T1 and T2 indirectly through T1 posttraumatic stress disorder and T1 fear...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543321/conscientiousness-but-not-agreeableness-mediates-females-tendency-toward-being-a-morning-person
#7
Arash Rahafar, Ina Castellana, Christoph Randler, Juan Manuel Antúnez
Individuals differ in their chronotype, and some are identified as morning ones and others as evening ones. Earlier studies showed that women were higher on morningness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. In this study, we aimed at exploring the mediational effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness in the relationship of gender and morningness-eveningness. Participants were 669 university students. Results supported positive relationships between morningness and conscientiousness and agreeableness and between conscientiousness and agreeableness...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543320/processes-in-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-and-the-rehabilitation-of-chronic-fatigue
#8
Henrik Børsting Jacobsen, Håvard Kallestad, Nils Inge Landrø, Petter C Borchgrevink, Tore C Stiles
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has never been tested for patients with chronic fatigue. We aimed to test if a 3.5-week ACT rehabilitation program for patients with chronic fatigue improved quality of life (QoL), fatigue, and psychological flexibility. Further, to test if improvements in QoL and fatigue were associated with improvement in psychological flexibility, and if psychological flexibility explained variance above and beyond maladaptive cognitions typically targeted in CBT for fatigue. Patients (n = 140) who had been on sick leave > 8 weeks due to chronic fatigue received a 3...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440880/-to-be-forgotten-statements-become-less-true-memory-processes-involved-in-selection-and-forgetting-lead-to-truthfulness-changes-of%C3%A2-ambiguous-sentences
#9
Ana Sofia Santos, Tânia Ramos, Leonel Garcia-Marques, Paula Carneiro
What happens when people try to forget something? What are the consequences of instructing people to intentionally forget a sentence? Recent studies employing the item-method directed forgetting paradigm have shown that to-be-forgotten (TBF) items are, in a subsequent task, emotionally devaluated relative to to-be-remembered (TBR) items, an aftereffect of memory selection (Vivas, Marful, Panagiotidou & Bajo, 2016). As such, distractor devaluation by attentional selection generalizes to memory selection. In this study, we use the item-method directed forgetting paradigm to test the effects of memory selection and inhibition on truth judgments of ambiguous sentences...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440873/flashbulb-memories-of-the-paris-attacks
#10
Marie-Charlotte Gandolphe, Mohamad El Haj
Flashbulb memories are vivid autobiographical memories of the circumstances where an individual first learns about emotionally significant public events. Our paper assesses whether these memories were triggered by the attacks of Friday 13 November 2015 in Paris. Two hundred and ninety-one participants answered a web-based questionnaire that assessed their memory of the circumstances in which they first learned of the attacks. The questionnaire also assessed vividness, rehearsal, emotion, surprise and novelty...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436998/swedish-women-s-perceptions-of-and-conformity-to-feminine-norms
#11
Johanna Kling, Kristina Holmqvist Gattario, Ann Frisén
The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419465/assessing-ptsd-in-the-military-validation-of-a-scale-distributed-to-danish-soldiers-after-deployment-since-1998
#12
Karen-Inge Karstoft, Søren B Andersen, Anni B S Nielsen
Since 1998, soldiers deployed to war zones with the Danish Defense (≈31,000) have been invited to fill out a questionnaire on post-mission reactions. This provides a unique data source for studying the psychological toll of war. Here, we validate a measure of PTSD-symptoms from the questionnaire. Soldiers from two cohorts deployed to Afghanistan with the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in 2009 (ISAF7, N = 334) and 2013 (ISAF15, N = 278) filled out a standard questionnaire (Psychological Reactions following International Missions, PRIM) concerning a range of post-deployment reactions including symptoms of PTSD (PRIM-PTSD)...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419457/subscales-of-the-barratt-impulsiveness-scale-differentially-relate-to-the-big-five-factors-of-personality
#13
Florian Lange, Adina Wagner, Astrid Müller, Frank Eggert
The place of impulsiveness in multidimensional personality frameworks is still unclear. In particular, no consensus has yet been reached with regard to the relation of impulsiveness to Neuroticism and Extraversion. We aim to contribute to a clearer understanding of these relationships by accounting for the multidimensional structure of impulsiveness. In three independent studies, we related the subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) to the Big Five factors of personality. Study 1 investigated the associations between the BIS subscales and the Big Five factors as measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in a student sample (N = 113)...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266035/personal-attitudes-toward-time-the-relationship-between-temporal-focus-space-time-mappings-and-real-life-experiences
#14
Heng Li, Yu Cao
What influences how people implicitly associate "past" and "future" with "front" and "back?" Whereas previous research has shown that cultural attitudes toward time play a role in modulating space-time mappings in people's mental models (de la Fuente, Santiago, Román, Dumitrache & Casasanto, 2014), we investigated real life experiences as potential additional influences on these implicit associations. Participants within the same single culture, who are engaged in different intermediate-term educational experiences (Study 1), long-term living experiences (Study 2), and short-term visiting experiences (Study 3), showed their distinct differences in temporal focus, thereby influencing their implicit spatializations of time...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247931/dimensions-of-the-south-oaks-gambling-screen-in-finland-a-cross-sectional-population-study
#15
Anne H Salonen, Tom Rosenström, Robert Edgren, Rachel Volberg, Hannu Alho, Sari Castrén
The underlying structure of problematic gambling behaviors, such as those assessed by the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), remain unknown: Can problem gambling be assessed unidimensionally or should multiple qualitatively different dimensions be taken into account, and if so, what do these qualitative dimensions indicate? How significant are the deviations from unidimensionality in practice? A cross-sectional random sample of Finns aged 15-74 (n = 4,484) was drawn from the Population Information Registry and surveyed in 2011-2012...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252197/death-anxiety-and-visual-oculomotor-processing-of-arousing-stimuli-in-a-free-view-setting
#16
Linda Wendelberg, Frode Volden, Sule Yildirim-Yayilgan
The main goal of this study was to determine how death anxiety (DA) affects visual processing when confronted with arousing stimuli. A total of 26 males and females were primed with either DA or a neutral primer and were given a free view/free choice task where eye movement was measured using an eye tracker. The goal was to identify measurable/observable indicators of whether the subjects were under the influence of DA during the free view. We conducted an eye tracking study because this is an area where we believe it is possible to find observable indicators...
April 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252196/health-relevant-personality-is-associated-with-sensitivity-to-sound-hyperacusis
#17
Karin Villaume, Dan Hasson
Hyperacusis, over-sensitivity to sounds, causes distress and disability and the etiology is not fully understood. The study aims to explore possible associations between health-relevant personality traits and hyperacusis. Hyperacusis was assessed using the Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ), and clinical uncomfortable loudness levels (ULL). Personality was measured with the Health-relevant Personality (HP5i) Inventory. The study sample was 348 (140 men and 208 women; age 23-71 years). Moderate correlations were found between the personality trait negative affectivity (NA; a facet of neuroticism) and dimensions of the HQ and weak correlations were found with the ULLs...
April 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252195/is-positive-thinking-in-anticipation-of-a-performance-situation-better-than-distraction-an-experimental-study-in-preadolescents
#18
Stephanos P Vassilopoulos, Andreas Brouzos, Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis, Olga Tziouma
The current study compares the effects of experimentally induced positive anticipatory thinking and distraction in preadolescents aged 12-13. Eighty-seven participants were instructed to either engage in positive anticipatory thoughts or perform a distraction task while preparing to perform a sporting activity in front of their peers. Results revealed that trait social anxiety was associated with more negative estimates of sport performance and catastrophic thoughts relating to the impending sport activity...
April 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252194/bound-to-remember-infants-show-superior-memory-for-objects-presented-at-event-boundaries
#19
Trine Sonne, Osman S Kingo, Peter Krøjgaard
Following Event Segmentation Theory (EST) adult memory is enhanced at event boundaries (EB). The present study set out to explore this in infancy. Sixty-eight 21-month-olds watched a cartoon with one of two objects (counterbalanced) inserted for 3s either at EB or between EB. Ten minutes later they watched both objects (familiar and novel) in a 10s Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) test while being eye-tracked. Furthermore, they were asked to point to the previous object. Based on EST, we hypothesized that objects inserted at EB would be processed more fully, resulting in improved memory compared to objects inserted between EB...
April 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252193/professional-commitment-does-it-buffer-or-intensify-job-demands
#20
Kjersti Nesje
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether professional commitment can be seen as a moderator in the relationship between job demands and emotional exhaustion among Norwegian nurses. Inspired by the job demands-resources model, this study explores whether having a strong commitment to the nursing profession can be seen as a resource that buffers the effect of job demands on emotional exhaustion or, conversely, intensifies the impact of job demands. A survey that comprised Norwegian nurses who had graduated three years previously (N = 388) was conducted...
April 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
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