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Scandinavian Journal of Psychology

Francisca M Vera, Juan M Manzaneque, Francisco M Rodríguez, Miguel Vadillo, Federico Navajas, Ana I Heiniger, Vidal Pérez, M José Blanca
Qigong is an ancient form of health maintenance, which is part of Traditional China Medicine. Numerous beneficial mental and physical effects have been classically ascribed to this traditional psychosomatic method. The purpose of this work has been to assess the effects of Taoist qigong practice on several hormonal parameters of the Hipotalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis and specific measures of psychological well-being in healthy subjects. Forty-three healthy volunteers participated in the study, of whom 22 were randomly allocated to the experimental group, and 21 were assigned to the control group...
November 14, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Tatiana Pozolotina, Svein Ottar Olsen
We investigated the temporal profiles of a Norwegian general population sample and their relation to health behaviors and intentions. The profiles were based on variables from the present and future dimensions of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS), and the combination of both scales. The analysis revealed that there were only two stable clusters that corresponded to the present and the future profiles. Generally, CFCS-based present and future profiles were more effective at predicting health behaviors and intentions than ZTPI-based profiles...
November 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Karin Thorslund, Elin Alfredsson, Ulf Axberg
Parenting a child through adolescence can be a challenge for many parents; adolescents go through notable developmental, physical, and psychological changes that affect the relationships around them. Most parents find parental support during these years important. These young people's relationships with their parents are important to their mental health, but although parental support is universally available to parents of younger children, it is still scarce for parents of adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore what factors are associated with interest in universal parental support through telephone interviews and questionnaires with 223 parents of 13- to 17-year-olds...
November 9, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Junko Maezono, Shoko Hamada, Lauri Sillanmäki, Hitoshi Kaneko, Masayoshi Ogura, Lotta Lempinen, Andre Sourander
This cross-sectional population-based survey compares the prevalence of self-reported body image and eating distress symptoms among adolescents in Japan and Finland, and associations between emotional/behavioral problems, body image and eating distress from a cross-cultural perspective. The study included 1,840 Japanese and 1,135 Finnish 8th grade students. The self-reported questionnaire included the Body Image and Eating Distress Scale and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The female adolescents from both Finland and Japan reported much greater dissatisfaction with, and concern about, their bodies than the males and Japanese females expressed even higher distress than Finnish females...
November 5, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Jordan P Davis, Katherine M Ingram, Gabriel J Merrin, Dorothy L Espelage
This study examined heterogeneity in parental and community violence exposure during middle school and its association with bullying perpetration and victimization in high school. Youth (N = 1,611) in four Midwestern middle schools participated. Parallel process growth mixture latent transition analysis was used to understand how trajectory profiles of middle school violence exposure was associated with high school bullying profiles. Impulsivity, depression, school belonging, and delinquency were assessed as moderators of the transition probabilities...
October 2, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Dan Olweus, Mona E Solberg, Kyrre Breivik
In agreement with two predictions, this somewhat unusual study documented that 70 elementary schools (A-schools) with continued and repeated use of the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire (OBQ) in a four-year follow-up period of 2007-2010, two to eight years after original implementation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP), had a clearly more favorable long-term development in terms of being-bullied problems, as measured with a completely independent data source, the National Pupil Survey than 102 comparable schools (B-schools) that had not conducted any OBQ-surveys in the same period...
October 2, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Irene K Hong, Weijun Wang, Debra J Pepler, Wendy M Craig
Peer victimization is a chronic stressor that occurs within the context of peer interactions and has been robustly associated with numerous negative psychological and social adjustment problems. Although increased frequency of peer victimization has been linked to psychosocial problems, few researchers have studied the role of duration and pervasiveness of victimization (i.e., number of places it occurs). The objective of this study was to examine how frequency, duration, and pervasiveness of peer victimization are associated with youth adjustment...
September 27, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Sergio Mérida-López, Natalio Extremera, Cirenia Quintana-Orts, Lourdes Rey
The present study focuses on the interplay of emotion-regulation ability and perceived workplace social support as predictors of job satisfaction and happiness in a Spanish multi-occupational sample. A total of 494 working adults (39.4% females) took part in this study. Emotion-regulation ability and perceived support from colleagues and supervisors were positively associated. In addition, emotion-regulation ability and perceived support from colleagues and supervisors showed positive associations with job satisfaction and happiness...
September 21, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Miia Sainio, Sanna Herkama, Tiina Turunen, Mikko Rönkkö, Mari Kontio, Elisa Poskiparta, Christina Salmivalli
We examined the sustainability of the KiVa antibullying program in Finland from its nationwide roll-out in 2009 to 2016. Using latent class analyses, we identified four different patterns of implementation. The persistent schools (43%) maintained a high likelihood of participation throughout the study period. The awakened (14%) had a decreasing trend during the first years, but then increased the likelihood of program participation. The tail-offs (20%) decreased in the likelihood of participating after the third year, and the drop-offs (23%) already after the first year...
September 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Heidi Frølund Pedersen, Marit Handegard Birkeland, Jens Søndergaard Jensen, Tatjana Schnell, Niels Christian Hvidt, Torgeir Sørensen, Peter la Cour
This study presents psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Scale (SoMe-Da) and associations to socio-demographic and religious characteristics. Participants were 554 Danes, 66% women ranging in age between 15 and 91 years. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) suggested a five factor structure for the 26 sources if meaning. Construct validity within the SoMe-Da and between mental health variables were established. Generativity associated most strongly with meaningfulness followed by spirituality, attentiveness, and explicit religiosity...
December 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Mikael Rubin, Michael J Telch
Attention bias is associated with a broad range of emotional disorders. Because of its transportability, attention bias modification (ABM) training can be administered outside of the laboratory; however, some evidence suggests that ABM training may be less effective when conducted in the individual's natural environment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that might account for the attenuated effects of attentional bias (AB) when assessed remotely. One hundred fifty-eight undergraduate psychology students completed the Emotional Stroop Task on two occasions - once in the laboratory and once remotely...
December 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Yee-San Teoh, Teng-Fang Chang
The present study compared the amount and accuracy of information Taiwanese children reported about a staged event in verbal-only and drawing-assisted interviews. We also tested further whether verbosity was a valid indicator of the accuracy of children's memory reports (Koriat & Goldsmith, , ) in a non-Western sample. Eighty-four first-grade elementary school children participated in a staged event involving a novel interactive puppet show followed by a drawing activity (drawing of the target event or the school), and were subsequently given a 10-minute memory interview...
December 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Ana Cláudia Magalhães, Josefa N S Pandeirada, Natália Lisandra Fernandes, Sandra C Soares
The behavioral immune system (BIS) is characterized by affective, cognitive and behavioral processes that work in an articulated manner to prevent the occurrence of infections. Attention and memory evolved to enhance the organism's chances of survival and have been proposed to play an important role in the BIS. The present study investigated the effects of attention and memory for neutral faces after a contextual activation of the BIS. Participants were primed, by the use of film clips, either with infectious disease concerns or non-infectious disease concerns...
December 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Christina G L Nerstad, Astrid M Richardsen, Glyn C Roberts
The purpose of this study was to respond to the call for research on goal orientation (mastery and performance orientation) profiles in work contexts. Among 8,282 engineers and technologists, Latent profile analyses indicated that four different goal orientation profiles existed - primarily mastery oriented, indifferent, moderate multiple goals, and success oriented. Both success oriented employees and employees who are primarily mastery oriented indicated the highest individual work performance. Further, mastery and performance climates were found to be relevant antecedents of employees' goal orientation profiles...
December 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Pei-Chun Liao, Ssu-Kuang Chen, Sunny S J Lin
As noted in previously published literature, college students frequently experience academic stress, financial stress, and the stresses caused by intimate, peer, and parent-adolescent relationships. The present study uses latent profile analysis to identify stress profiles based on the aforementioned five stressors among 430 college freshmen. Thereafter, we compare the levels of depression and problematic Internet use (PIU) among the different profile groups and investigate whether background variables could predict each latent stress group...
December 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Simon Ozer, Preben Bertelsen
Violent radicalization has emerged as an important topic of theoretical and empirical investigation motivated by the devastating face of terrorism and by the aim of preventing such expressions of extremism. One central aspect of such research inquiries is the foundation of solid measurement. In this article, we develop and validate two generic scales pertaining to (1) endorsement of extremism and (2) acceptance of violent and/or illegal means. In conclusion, the scales yielded sound psychometric properties and cross-cultural equivalence, providing a solid measure of the important aspects of extremism which can be empirically employed in elucidating generic mechanisms of violent radicalization processes...
December 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Félix Arbinaga, Eduardo Fernández-Ozcorta, Pedro Sáenz-López, José Carmona
The research on well-being and physical exercise point to the possibility of a placebo effect. This study analyzes the effect of expectancy manipulation on psychological (well-being and self-esteem) and physical (agility and cardiorespiratory fitness) outcomes after a seven-week program of aerobic training. 114 undergraduate students (age M = 19.81, SD = 1.75; 86.1% women) were randomized into G1 - No Exercise (n = 13), G2 - Exercise only (n = 15), G3 - Exercise + Manipulation of expectations: No psychological effect (n = 17) and G4 - Exercise + Manipulation of expectations: Psychological effect (n = 21)...
December 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Anne M P Michalek, Ivan Ash, Kathryn Schwartz
This study examined the effect of levels of working memory capacity, levels of background noise, and audiovisual cues on adults' ability to process speech when listening in noise. A mixed design was used to examine the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, 6 levels), audiovisual condition (audio vs. audiovisual), and working memory capacity on speech recognition. Ninety-six participants between the ages of 18 35 without a history of hearing loss or cognitive impairment were recruited for this research project...
December 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Elisabet Rondung, Johanna Ekdahl, Ingegerd Hildingsson, Christine Rubertsson, Örjan Sundin
Many pregnant women experience fear, worry or anxiety relating to the upcoming childbirth. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate possible subgroups in a sample of 206 pregnant women (mean age 29.4 years), reporting fear of birth in mid-pregnancy. Comparisons were made between nulliparous and parous women. In a series of cluster analyses, validated psychological instruments were used to cluster women based on their psychological profiles. A five-cluster solution was suggested, with the clusters characterized by: overall low symptom load, general high symptom load, medium symptom load with high performance-based self-esteem, blood- and injection phobic anxiety, and specific anxiety symptoms...
December 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Douglas MacCutcheon, Florian Pausch, Janina Fels, Robert Ljung
This study considers whether bilingual children listening in a second language are among those on which higher processing and cognitive demands are placed when noise is present. Forty-four Swedish sequential bilingual 15 year-olds were given memory span and vocabulary assessments in their first and second language (Swedish and English). First and second language speech reception thresholds (SRTs) at 50% intelligibility for numbers and colors presented in noise were obtained using an adaptive procedure. The target sentences were presented in simulated, virtual classroom acoustics, masked by either 16-talker multi-talker babble noise (MTBN) or speech shaped noise (SSN), positioned either directly in front of the listener (collocated with the target speech), or spatially separated from the target speech by 90° to either side...
December 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
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