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Scandinavian Journal of Psychology

Marialaura Di Tella, Valentina Tesio, Ada Ghiggia, Annunziata Romeo, Fabrizio Colonna, Enrico Fusaro, Giuliano Carlo Geminiani, Maria Bruzzone, Riccardo Torta, Lorys Castelli
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by high levels of psychological distress and alexithymia, a personality disposition affecting emotional self-awareness. The main aim of the present study was to investigate for the first time the relationship between alexithymia and coping strategies on the one hand, and alexithymia and perceived social support on the other, in a sample of FM patients. To reach this aim, 153 FM patients completed a battery of tests assessing coping strategies, perceived social support, alexithymia, psychological distress and pain intensity...
November 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow, Connie Suk-Han Ho, Simpson W L Wong, Mary M Y Waye, Mo Zheng
This twin study examined how family socioeconomic status (SES) and home literacy environment (HLE) contributes to Chinese language and reading skills. It included 312 Chinese twin pairs aged 3 to 11. Children were individually administered tasks of Chinese word reading, receptive vocabulary and reading-related cognitive skills, and nonverbal reasoning ability. Information on home environment was collected through parent-reported questionnaires. Results showed that SES and HLE mediated shared environmental influences but did not moderate genetic influences on general language and reading abilities...
October 25, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Elia Psouni, Johan Agebjörn, Hanne Linder
Methods for detecting depression in fathers after the birth of their child are scarce. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), used to screen mothers for postpartum depression (PPD), lacks somatization and externalizing items. This potentially decreases its sensitivity in detecting depression in fathers, as many men actually express depression with somatization or externalizing symptoms. The present study assessed depressive symptoms in fathers of children 0-18 months old, and evaluated whether addressing both typical depression and externalizing, so-called "depressive equivalent" symptoms, might be more suitable for such assessment...
October 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Ingibjörg H Jonsdottir, Arto Nordlund, Susanne Ellbin, Thomas Ljung, Kristina Glise, Peter Währborg, Anna Sjörs, Anders Wallin
Cognitive impairment is one of the most pronounced symptoms reported by patients with stress-related mental health problems. Impairments related to executive function and to some extent speed and attention are therefore common in patients with stress-related burnout/exhaustion. In this paper we present a follow-up of cognitive performance in patients with stress-related exhaustion several years after they initially sought medical care. Thirty patients and 27 healthy controls, mean age 49 years (SD 6.5) and 55 years (SD 6...
October 10, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Mons Bendixen, Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair
This paper reports on the development and the psychometric properties of short forms of Ambivalent Sexism Scales toward women (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996) and men (AMI; Glick & Fiske, 1999), and a scale measuring rape stereotypes (IRMA; McMahon & Farmer, 2011). The short form AMI/ASI were applied for examining gender and educational differences in university students (N = 512) and in high school students (N = 1381), and for predicting individual differences in rape stereotypes in the latter. The short forms demonstrated good to excellent psychometric properties across samples of emerging adults...
October 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Beatrice Nystrom, Hans Bengtsson
Personality is generally considered to be biologically founded in temperament, and temperamental qualities have proven to be relatively stable across childhood and into adulthood (Caspi, Roberts & Shiner, ). Temperament predicts important developmental outcomes such as academic performance (Muris, ), and social functioning (Eisenberg, Fabes, Guthrie & Reiser, ), and it has also been found to be strongly related to the etiology and maintenance of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children (Muris, Meesters & Blijlevens, ; Nigg, )...
October 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Ingrid Dundas, Per-Einar Binder, Tia G B Hansen, Signe Hjelen Stige
The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of a two-week self-compassion course on healthy self-regulation (personal growth self-efficacy and healthy impulse control) and unhealthy self-regulation (self-judgment and habitual negative self-directed thinking) in university students. We also examined the effects on self-compassion, anxiety and depression. Students (N = 158, 85% women, mean age = 25 years) were randomized to an intervention group and a waiting-list control group in a multi-baseline randomized control trial...
August 28, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Rute Pires, Ana Sousa Ferreira, David Guedes
The DSM-5 Section III proposes a hybrid dimensional-categorical model of conceptualizing personality and its disorders that includes assessment of impairments in personality functioning (criterion A) and maladaptive personality traits (criterion B). The Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 is a new dimensional tool, composed of 220 items organized into 25 facets that delineate five higher order domains of clinically relevant personality differences, and was developed to operationalize the DSM-5 model of pathological personality traits...
August 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Małgorzata M Puchalska-Wasyl
Interest in confrontational and integrative internal dialogues (IDs) has been growing, as they perform numerous important functions. This study aimed to identify the personality-related determinants of integration and confrontation processes in ID that simulates social relationships. The test group comprised 125 students (62 men). Participants were given a description of a fictional problem facing a young married couple and they were to imagine a dialogue between the characters. Additionally three instruments were administered: the NEO Five Factor Inventory, the Experiences in Close Relationships - Revised Questionnaire and the Integration-Confrontation Questionnaire...
August 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
John E Marsh, Jessica C Crawford, Lea K Pilgrim, Patrik Sörqvist, Robert W Hughes
It is widely held that single-word lexical access is a competitive process, a view based largely on the observation that naming a picture is slowed in the presence of a distractor-word. However, problematic for this view is that a low-frequency distractor-word slows the naming of a picture more than does a high-frequency word. This supports an alternative, response-exclusion, account in which a distractor-word interferes because it must be excluded from an articulatory output buffer before the right word can be articulated (the picture name): A high, compared to low, frequency word accesses the buffer more quickly and, as such, can also be excluded more quickly...
August 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Tinna Elfstrand Corlin, Ali Kazemi
In the present study, we investigate the interplay of personality traits (i.e., person) in frontline care staff in nursing homes and the way they relate to the residents (i.e., situation) to account for their job satisfaction. Participants completed a survey including Mini-IPIP tapping the five-factor model of personality, Individualized Care Inventory tapping four aspects of person-centered care and job satisfaction. The results revealed that staff scoring high on neuroticism experienced less job satisfaction...
August 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Katharina Nymo Engelstad, Kjetil S Sundet, Ole A Andreassen, Anja Vaskinn
Our aim was to explore how body language reading of emotion relates to neurocognition, symptoms and functional outcome in schizophrenia. Fifty-four individuals with schizophrenia and eighty-four healthy controls participated in the study. Emotion perception was assessed with a point-light display (PLD) task, the Emotion in Biological Motion (EmoBio) test, neurocognition was measured with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), and functioning was indexed by one measure of functional capacity and by one self-report questionnaire...
August 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Liv Thalén, Katarina Heimann Mühlenbock, Ove Almkvist, Maria Eriksdotter, Erik Sundström, Ing-Mari Tallberg
Medical decision-making capacity (MDC) is known to decline in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The vignette method uses hypothetical information as a prerequisite for measuring the capacity to make well-informed decisions to clinical trials. Our aim was to investigate if adapted vignettes can help individuals with mild AD to assimilate information, make decisions and express them in an understandable way, compared to corresponding decisions based on linguistically more demanding vignettes, as measured by the Swedish Linguistic Instrument for Medical Decision-making (LIMD)...
December 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Olga Perski, Giorgio Grossi, Aleksander Perski, Maria Niemi
Clinical burnout is one of the leading causes of work absenteeism in high- and middle-income countries. There is hence a great need for the identification of effective intervention strategies to increase return-to-work (RTW) in this population. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness of tertiary interventions for individuals with clinically significant burnout on RTW and psychological symptoms of exhaustion, depression and anxiety. Four electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, PsychINFO, PubMed and CINAHL Plus) were searched in April 2016 for randomized and non-randomized controlled trials of tertiary interventions in clinical burnout...
December 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Einar Baldvin Thorsteinsson, Natasha M Loi, Sigrun Sveinbjornsdottir, Arsaell Arnarsson
Minority sexual orientation may add additional stresses to the period of adolescence thus affecting mental health and wellbeing. The whole population of year 10 students in 2006, 2010, and 2014 in Iceland were surveyed as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey. Sexual orientation could be identified in 1,994 participants from 2006 (43.8% of population; 988 girls), 3,777 from 2010 (78.6%; 1,863 girls) and 3,526 in 2014 (80.1%; 1,731 girls). About 3.1%, 3.6%, and 4.4% were identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) in 2006, 2010, and 2014, respectively...
December 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Dominic Sagoe, Ståle Pallesen, Cecilie Schou Andreassen
To our knowledge, no previous large-scale study has examined the prevalences and correlates of having only easily concealed tattoos, or readily visible tattoos. We conducted an exploratory online survey in Norway asking 15,654 (6,151 females) persons aged 16-91 (m = 33.65 ± 12.27) about various demographic, sports, substance use, mental health, personality, and tattooing questions. The estimated prevalence of tattooing was 20.8% (females: 23.8%, males: 17.9%), of which 13.3% had readily visible tattoos. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that females, being older than 19 years, higher body mass index, lifetime anabolic-androgenic steroid use (AAS), and higher scores on extraversion were associated with higher odds of having a tattoo...
December 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Melinda A Meyer DeMott, Marianne Jakobsen, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Trond Heir
This is the first controlled study of an expressive arts group intervention with unaccompanied minor asylum seeking children. The aim of the study was to examine whether such an intervention may alleviate symptoms of trauma and enhance life satisfaction and hope. One hundred forty five unaccompanied minor refugee boys with their stated age between 15 and 18 were allocated into a 10 session 5 weeks manualized expressive arts intervention (EXIT) or a life as usual (LAU) control group. The participants were assessed at onset and 4 times over a period of 25 months with a battery of instruments measuring post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), general psychological distress (HSCL-25A), current life satisfaction (CLS) and expected life satisfaction (ELS)...
December 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Jasmijn Slootjes, Saskia Keuzenkamp, Sawitri Saharso
Considering how much we know about the impact of the Sense of Coherence (SOC) on different health-related outcomes, we know surprisingly little about how a strong SOC actually develops. In this study we examine the mechanisms behind the formation of a strong SOC and study the role of migration, integration and general resistance resources (GRRs) in this process. We held 46 life-story interviews with women of Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese descent. We divided the respondents in a relatively strong and weak SOC group in order to discern patterns of life experiences associated with SOC development...
December 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Gennady G Knyazev, Daria V Bazovkina, Alexander N Savostyanov, Vladimir S Naumenko, Valeriya B Kuznetsova, Ekaterina A Proshina
A number of studies have shown that the presence of short (S), as opposed to long (L), allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is associated with a higher risk for depression following exposure to stressful life events. However, many other studies failed to confirm this association. One reason for this inconsistency might be the fact that the interaction of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with stress may relate not to depression per se, but rather to adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Jan Stubberud
This article investigates emotion recognition ability, a central aspect of Theory of Mind (ToM), in a group of individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) experiencing executive function deficits, and examine associations between emotion recognition, and intellectual and executive functioning. A total of 38 adult subjects with SBM were included in this study, participating in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of a cognitive rehabilitation intervention for executive dysfunction. Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) was used as a measure of emotion recognition, and neuropsychological tests and questionnaires were utilized as executive function measures...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
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