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Scandinavian Journal of Psychology

Miia Sainio, Sanna Herkama, Tiina Turunen, Mikko Rönkkö, Mari Kontio, Elisa Poskiparta, Christina Salmivalli
We examined the sustainability of the KiVa antibullying program in Finland from its nationwide roll-out in 2009 to 2016. Using latent class analyses, we identified four different patterns of implementation. The persistent schools (43%) maintained a high likelihood of participation throughout the study period. The awakened (14%) had a decreasing trend during the first years, but then increased the likelihood of program participation. The tail-offs (20%) decreased in the likelihood of participating after the third year, and the drop-offs (23%) already after the first year...
September 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Félix Arbinaga, Eduardo Fernández-Ozcorta, Pedro Sáenz-López, José Carmona
The research on well-being and physical exercise point to the possibility of a placebo effect. This study analyzes the effect of expectancy manipulation on psychological (well-being and self-esteem) and physical (agility and cardiorespiratory fitness) outcomes after a seven-week program of aerobic training. 114 undergraduate students (age M = 19.81, SD = 1.75; 86.1% women) were randomized into G1 - No Exercise (n = 13), G2 - Exercise only (n = 15), G3 - Exercise + Manipulation of expectations: No psychological effect (n = 17) and G4 - Exercise + Manipulation of expectations: Psychological effect (n = 21)...
September 4, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Anne M P Michalek, Ivan Ash, Kathryn Schwartz
This study examined the effect of levels of working memory capacity, levels of background noise, and audiovisual cues on adults' ability to process speech when listening in noise. A mixed design was used to examine the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, 6 levels), audiovisual condition (audio vs. audiovisual), and working memory capacity on speech recognition. Ninety-six participants between the ages of 18 35 without a history of hearing loss or cognitive impairment were recruited for this research project...
September 4, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Elisabet Rondung, Johanna Ekdahl, Ingegerd Hildingsson, Christine Rubertsson, Örjan Sundin
Many pregnant women experience fear, worry or anxiety relating to the upcoming childbirth. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate possible subgroups in a sample of 206 pregnant women (mean age 29.4 years), reporting fear of birth in mid-pregnancy. Comparisons were made between nulliparous and parous women. In a series of cluster analyses, validated psychological instruments were used to cluster women based on their psychological profiles. A five-cluster solution was suggested, with the clusters characterized by: overall low symptom load, general high symptom load, medium symptom load with high performance-based self-esteem, blood- and injection phobic anxiety, and specific anxiety symptoms...
September 3, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Douglas MacCutcheon, Florian Pausch, Janina Fels, Robert Ljung
This study considers whether bilingual children listening in a second language are among those on which higher processing and cognitive demands are placed when noise is present. Forty-four Swedish sequential bilingual 15 year-olds were given memory span and vocabulary assessments in their first and second language (Swedish and English). First and second language speech reception thresholds (SRTs) at 50% intelligibility for numbers and colors presented in noise were obtained using an adaptive procedure. The target sentences were presented in simulated, virtual classroom acoustics, masked by either 16-talker multi-talker babble noise (MTBN) or speech shaped noise (SSN), positioned either directly in front of the listener (collocated with the target speech), or spatially separated from the target speech by 90° to either side...
August 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Pollyana de Lucena Moreira, Júlio Rique Neto, José Manuel Sabucedo, Cleonice Pereira Dos Santos Camino
This study aimed to further the understanding of the processes involved in activism, as a form of collective action, based on differences in the quality of moral judgment and political ideology. It began with the assumption that differences in the quality of moral judgment can lead individuals to engage in different forms of collective action: activism or radicalism. Therefore, the associations among the variables political ideology, social identity, perception of social justice, activist identity and commitment, personal political salience, perception of efficacy and life purpose were analyzed...
August 9, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Suvi Saikkonen, Max Karukivi, Tero Vahlberg, Simo Saarijärvi
The positive influence of social support on psychological wellbeing is well documented but the research among young adults is scarce. Additionally, it is still unclear what type of social support explains the positive influence in this age group. Alexithymia has been linked to lacking social support and higher levels of psychological distress, but the underlying mechanisms are not well known. We aimed to assess the association of social support and alexithymia with psychological distress in a sample of young adults...
August 7, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Jorge Javier Ricarte, Laura Ros, Dolores Fernández, Marta Nieto, José Miguel Latorre
Repetitive thought may have adaptive and functional consequences, depending on, among other things, the interpretation of the content: analytical or abstract (general and decontextualized) and experiential or concrete (specific, contextual and incidental). Studies experimentally manipulating repetitive thought have shown both the constructive consequences of the experiential mode and the dysfunctional consequences of the analytical mode. The aim of the current study is to observe the effect of analytical and experiential rumination of negative self-defining memories on schizotypic symptoms...
July 4, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Jia Yuin Fam
The inclusion of "Internet gaming disorder (IGD)" in the fifth edition of Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) creates a possible line of research. Despite the fact that adolescents are vulnerable to IGD, studies had reported wide array of prevalence estimates in this population. The aim of this paper is to review the published studies on prevalence of IGD among adolescents. Relevant studies prior to March 2017 were identified through databases. A total of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria...
October 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Kati Rantanen, Elina Vierikko, Pirkko Nieminen
This is a clinical intervention study of children with executive function (EF) deficits. A neuropsychological multimodal group intervention called EXAT (rehabilitation of EXecutive function and ATtention) was developed at the Psychology Clinic of the University of Tampere. Based on the principles of neuropsychological rehabilitation and behavioral modification, EXAT combines child group training, parent training, and teacher consultations. The aims of this study were to investigate behavior problems before and after the intervention in children attending EXAT and in controls, and to compare intervention effects in hyperactive, inattentive, and EF subgroups based on the primary deficit described in the referral...
October 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Asmus Vogel, Jette Stokholm, Rikke Andreasen, Bodil Dahl Henriksen, Vibeke Brønniche, Gry J Madsen, Moa Gustafsson, Susanne Overgaard, Anne-Mette Guldberg, Kasper Jørgensen
Memory assessment is a key element in neuropsychological testing. Gold standard evaluation is based on updated normative data, but in many small countries (e.g. in Scandinavia) such data are sparse. In Denmark, reference data exist for non-verbal memory tests and list-learning tests but there is no normative data for memory tests which capture narrative recall and cued recall. In a nation-wide study, Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), WMS-III Logical Memory (LM) and a newly developed test Category Cued Memory Test (CCMT-48) were applied in 131 cognitively intact persons (aged 60-96 years)...
October 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Silje Skaug, Kjellrun T Englund, Lars Wichstrøm
Television is one of the most commonly viewed forms of media by children throughout the world. Excessive television viewing can influence the quality of children's relationships and interactions with their parents. We examined the emotional availability (EA) of children toward their parents by assessing child responsiveness and child involvement, using a cross-sectional and longitudinal design. We employed a large and representative community sample of Norwegian 4-year-olds (n = 995) who were followed up at 6 years old (n = 795)...
October 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Lucas de Francisco Carvalho, Ariela Raissa Lima Costa
The Clinical Dimensional Personality Inventory 2 (IDCP-2) is a 206-item self-report tool developed for the assessment of 12 dimensions (divided into 47 factors) of personality pathology. One of the scales comprising the instrument, the Distrust scale, is intended to provide psychometric information on traits closely related to the Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD). In the present research, we used the Item Response Theory and the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis to establish a clinical meaningful cutoff for the Distrust scale...
October 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Grazia Isabella Continisio, Amalia Mattiello, Silvia Toscano, Paola Continisio, Mariano Paternoster, Alfredo Guarino, Francesca Maria Cuomo, Tiziana Cristiani, Stefania Manetti, Antonietta Giannattasio, Elio Marciano
The "born to read" initiative entails a dialogic reading to children in poor socio-economical conditions aimed at fostering cognitive and relational skills. Reading is professionally delivered by experts to promote psycho-social development of children and their parents. In this study the project was extended to include children positive at early screening for hearing impairment. A total of 26 children were included and 14 parents were taught to read aloud and emphatically. Reading session were delivered for at least 10 minutes at least 3 times/week, usually at bedtime, for one year...
October 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Rebecca Nowland, Sarita J Robinson, Belinda F Bradley, Vikki Summers, Pamela Qualter
Loneliness has been linked to poor health through an increased activation of threat surveillance mechanisms, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). The socio-cognitive model (Cacioppo & Hawley) proposes that lonely people have an increased social threat sensitivity which activates the HPA axis. The current study examined the impact of loneliness on HPA stress reactivity and social threat sensitivity in response to naturally occurring social challenges. Participants (N = 45) were prospective undergraduates attending a 3-day university preparation programme over the summer, prior to commencing their university studies...
October 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Katherine E Christensen, Rebecca A Lundwall
Previous reports have found increased error rate for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on response time (RT) computer tasks. Here we attempt the conceptual replication and extension of two studies that examined error rate in a general population of children (N = 203). Study 1 followed Johnstone and Galletta but considered associations between scores on a dimensional measure of ADHD symptoms (rather than comparing those with or without an ADHD diagnosis) and the frequency of commission and omission errors...
October 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Magnus Lindén, Fredrik Björklund, Martin Bäckström
Self-reported level of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), the two facets of social dominance orientation (SDO-Dominance and SDO-Egalitarianism) and pro-torture attitudes were measured both in the immediate aftermath (terror salience, N = 152) of the terror attacks in Paris and Brussels and when terrorism was not salient (non-salience, N = 140). Results showed that RWA and pro-torture attitudes, but not SDO-Dominance and SDO-Egalitarianism, were significantly higher immediately after. Furthermore, RWA and SDO both predicted pro-torture attitudes more strongly under terror salience...
October 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Renzo Bianchi, Irvin Sam Schonfeld
Burnout has been defined as a condition in which individuals are left exhausted by a long-term confrontation with unmanageable job stressors. The question of whether burnout reflects anything other than depressive responses to unresolvable stress remains an object of debate. In this 911-participant study (83% female; mean age: 42.36), we further addressed the issue of burnout-depression overlap. Burnout was assessed with the exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and depression with the PHQ-8...
October 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Carlos Freire, María Del Mar Ferradás, José Carlos Núñez, Antonio Valle
Despite the growing interest in the relationship between coping strategies and eudaimonic well-being, few studies have examined this issue from the perspective of coping flexibility. Therefore, the present study aimed to: (1) identify approach coping profiles in the university context and (2) analyze the differences between these profiles in terms of eudaimonic well-being. A prospective ex post facto design was used and 1,402 university students were selected through convenience sampling. Data were collected using validated self-reported instruments...
August 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Serap Keles, Asgeir Røyrhus Olseth, Thormod Idsøe, Mari-Anne Sørlie
The aim of this study was to explore the longitudinal relation between internalizing symptoms and academic achievement, as two processes of children and youth development, among children in Norway, and whether having an immigrant background moderated this association. Data collected from 4,458 students in Norway in four waves over three years were analyzed with multi-group latent growth curve modeling (LGM). Results showed that internalizing symptoms level remained unchanged over time both for immigrant and non-immigrant children, while levels of academic achievement increased only for children of immigrants with both parents born outside of Norway...
August 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
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