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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120570/early-referral-improves-long-term-outcomes-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
REVIEW
Jobie Evans, Andra Negoescu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common, chronic systemic inflammatory disease of unclear aetiology leading to synovial hypertrophy and joint inflammation. It typically presents with symmetrical polyarthritis of small joints of the hands or feet, but can also involve larger joints, and have associated extra-articular manifestations. Diagnosis is based on duration of symptoms, joint distribution, level of inflammatory markers and autoantibodies i.e. rheumatoid factor(RhF) and anty-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies...
May 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120563/diagnosing-and-managing-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
REVIEW
Sophie Behrman, Vyara Valkanova, Charlotte L Allan
There has been a rapid rise in the number of people diagnosed with dementia in England from 232,000 in 2008 to 850,000 in 2014. Currently, it is estimated that the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in adults aged 65 and over is 10-20%. It is likely that this figure will increase in line with trends in dementia diagnosis. In some cases, mild cognitive impairment may be a prodrome for dementia, and my be caused by any of the dementia pathology subtypes. The relationship between depression in the elderly and mild cognitive impairment is difficult to tease out as they are frequently comorbid conditions and both have been found to be independent risk factors for subsequent dementia: about 10% convert to dementia each year, compared with 1-2% of the general elderly population...
May 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120562/be-vigilant-for-dementia-in-parkinson%C3%A2-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Flavia Niccolini, Konstantinos Diamantopoulos, Stelios Kiosses, Marios Politis
It is estimated that up to 80% of patients with Parkinson's disease will eventually develop cognitive impairment over the course of their illness. Even at the time of diagnosis, cognitive impairment has been reported in 20-25% of patients. Commonly affected cognitive domains are executive function, visuospatial ability and attention control. In addition, patients with Parkinson's disease dementia may present with deficits in language function and verbal memory. Psychosis may occur in approximately 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease, and is associated with an increased risk of developing cognitive impairment...
May 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120558/job-strain-may-precipitate-clinical-depression
#4
EDITORIAL
Phillip Bland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020730/palpitations-when-you-hear-hoof-beats-don-t-forget-to-think-zebras
#5
Ralf E Harskamp, Odile B Thole, Izaäk Moggré
In general practice palpitations are reported in around 8 per 1,000 persons per year. The differential diagnosis includes cardiac and psychiatric causes, as well as numerous others e.g. anaemia, hyperthyroidism, prescribed medication, caffeine and recreational drugs. Factors that point towards a cardiac aetiology are male sex, irregular heartbeat, history of heart disease, event duration > 5 minutes, frequent palpitations, and palpitations which occur at work or disturb sleep. Other clues suggesting a cardiac origin are abrupt onset and termination of palpitations, positional palpitations, and accompanying symptoms such as dizziness and presyncope...
April 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020729/diagnosing-and-managing-androgen-deficiency-in-men
#6
REVIEW
Raveen Kaur Sandher, Jonathan Aning
Androgens play a crucial role in bone, muscle and fat metabolism, erythropoiesis and cognitive health. In men aged 40-79 years the incidence of biochemical deficiency and symptomatic hypogonadism is 2.1-5.7%. Decreased libido or reduced frequency and quality of erections, fatigue, irritability, infertility or a diminished feeling of wellbeing may be presenting complaints. However, a significant proportion of men with androgen deficiency will be identified when they present for unrelated concerns. Important factors to elicit from the history in addition to the presenting complaint include: a medical history of obesity, type 2 diabetes, systemic diseases or metabolic syndrome which all impact on testosterone physiology...
April 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020728/diagnosing-testicular-lumps-in-primary-care
#7
Tom Stonier, Nick Simson, Ben Challacombe
Although the incidence of testicular cancer has increased over the past few decades, testicular tumours are still rare and many GPs will only see one or two new diagnoses in their career. In one UK study, out of 845 patients who had been referred with testicular lumps or pain, only 33 (4%) were diagnosed with testicular cancer. Epididymal cysts, or spermatoceles when containing sperm, were the most common finding, and were found in 228 patients (27%). The second most common finding was hydrocele, a fluid collection between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis, which was found in 96 patients (11%)...
April 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020727/practice-nurses-can-improve-insulin-uptake-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
EDITORIAL
Matthew Lockyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139278/improving-pain-control-in-diabetic-neuropathy
#9
REVIEW
Peter Paisley, Mick Serpell
Diabetic neuropathy is thought to affect 1.9% of the world’s population and 50% of patients with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus which would equate to 2.25 million people in the UK. The term diabetic neuropathy includes multiple distinct clinical entities that have been classified under the broad headings of focal and multifocal neuropathies and symmetrical neuropathies. Peripheral diabetic neuropathy, a chronic distal symmetrical predominantly sensory neuropathy, is the most common form of diabetic neuropathy...
March 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139277/tailor-management-to-the-patient-with-fibroids
#10
REVIEW
Marie O'Sullivan, Caroline Overton
Fibroids are benign, hormone-dependent tumours of uterine smooth muscle and connective tissue. They are commonly asymptomatic, but can cause symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding and pelvic pressure symptoms. Between 20 to 30% of women with heavy menstrual bleeding have fibroids. Fibroids are most prevalent in women aged 30-50 years and there may be a genetic predisposition. They are more common in black women than white women. Other risk factors include obesity and nulliparity. Asymptomatic women should only be referred if their uterus is palpable abdominally, if fibroids distort the uterine cavity or the uterus is larger than 12 cm in length...
March 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139276/preventing-stroke-and-assessing-risk-in-women
#11
REVIEW
Tracey Keteepe-Arachi, Sanjay Sharma
Ischaemic stroke is rare in premenopausal women but risk increases with advancing age and doubles in the ten years following the menopause. Up to the age of 75 years men have a 25% higher risk of suffering a stroke compared with women. However, the increased life expectancy of women ultimately results in a higher overall incidence. Twice as many women die from stroke compare with breast cancer. Women with cerebrovascular disease are more likely to present with atypical symptoms than men. Altered mental status (including unresponsiveness, confusion and behavioural change) is the most common nonconventional symptom, and is reported by 23% of women compared with 15% of men...
March 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139275/depression-in-adults-linked-to-maltreatment-in-childhood
#12
EDITORIAL
Phillip Bland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020721/artefact-mimicking-torsades-treat-the-patient-not-the-ecg
#13
Una Bergin, Richard M Lynch
ECG interpretation is an essential skill in the management of the acutely unwell patient and in addition to history taking and physical examination has been shown to have a significant effect on referral patterns to cardiologists. One of the basic initial steps in ECG interpretation is assessment for the presence of artefact which if present can dramatically influence the diagnosis. The most common sources of artefact are tremor e.g. in Parkinson’s disease, loose skin electrodes and electromagnetic interference from other medical devices and mobile phones...
February 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020720/pyelonephritis-can-lead-to-life-threatening-complications
#14
Declan B Keenan, Declan M O'Rourke, Aisling E Courtney
Acute pyelonephritis is suggested by the constellation of fever (temperature ≥ 38.5° C), flank pain (typically unilateral), nausea and vomiting, and costovertebral angle tenderness. Complaints typical of lower UTI are variably present. The severity of symptoms ranges from a mild pyrexial illness to life-threatening sepsis. The diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis should be suspected on the basis of the history and clinical examination. If the urine dipstick is negative for nitrites and leukocyte esterase this does not exclude the diagnosis, but it should prompt a re-evaluation of the clinical features and consideration of other potential diagnoses...
February 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020719/diagnosis-and-management-of-nephrotic-syndrome
#15
Oonagh McCloskey, Alexander P Maxwell
Nephrotic syndrome is defined by a triad of clinical features: oedema, substantial proteinuria (> 3.5 g/24 hours) and hypoalbuminaemia (< 30 g/L). It is often associated with hyperlipidaemia, thromboembolism and an increased risk of infection. Nephrotic syndrome develops following pathological injury to renal glomeruli. This may be a primary problem, with a disease specific to the kidneys, or secondary to a systemic disorder such as diabetes mellitus. The most common cause in children is minimal change glomerulonephritis...
February 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020718/mp-mri-could-improve-the-diagnosis-of-prostate-cancer
#16
EDITORIAL
Jonathan Rees
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023082/be-vigilant-for-skin-manifestations-of-inherited-cancer-syndromes
#17
Alice SM Tidman
More than 200 hereditary cancer susceptibility syndromes have been described, and it is thought that they account for 5-10% of all cancers. Many have dermatological manifestations (usually lesions, occasionally rashes) which frequently precede other systemic pathology. Dermatological signs are usually non-specific and often trivial in appearance, making their significance easy to overlook and a clinical diagnosis challenging. Histological examination is often required to differentiate lesions. They are usually benign and pathologically unrelated to the primary tumours, with the exception of the atypical moles of the dysplastic naevus syndrome, and may present simply as a cosmetic problem for the patient...
January 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023081/frailty-predicts-adverse-outcomes-in-older-people-with-diabetes
#18
Joanna Ulley, Ahmed H Abdelhafiz
The greatest proportional increase in the number of people with diabetes by age group is predicted to occur in those aged 60 to 79. In older people living with diabetes, geriatric syndromes, which indicate frailty, are emerging as a third category of complications in addition to the traditional microvascular and macrovascular sequelae. Frailty is defined by the presence of three or more phenotypes (weight loss, weakness, decreased physical activity, exhaustion and slow gait speed). The presence of one or two phenotypes describes a pre-frail state, and the absence of phenotypes describes a non-frail person...
January 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023080/depression-is-linked-to-dementia-in-older-adults
#19
COMMENT
Vyara Valkanova, Klaus P Ebmeier, Charlotte L Allan
Depression and dementia are both common conditions in older people, and they frequently occur together. Late life depression affects about 3.0-4.5% of adults aged 65 and older. Depression occurs in up to 20% of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and up to 45% of patients with vascular dementia. Rather than a risk factor, depression with onset in later life is more likely to be either prodromal to dementia or a condition that unmasks pre-existing cognitive impairment by compromising cognitive reserve. Depression can be a psychological response to receiving a diagnosis of dementia...
January 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023079/risk-of-acute-stemi-significantly-increased-in-younger-smokers
#20
EDITORIAL
Jez Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Practitioner
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