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Journal of Nutrition

Aurélie Ballon, Manuela Neuenschwander, Sabrina Schlesinger
Background: Epidemiologic studies have indicated that breakfast skipping is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the shape of the dose-response relation and the influence of adiposity on this association have not been reported. Objective: We investigated the association between breakfast skipping and risk of type 2 diabetes by considering the influence of the body mass index (BMI). Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, PubMed and Web of Science were searched up to August 2017...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Rebecca Kofod Vinding, Jakob Stokholm, Astrid Sevelsted, Bo L Chawes, Klaus Bønnelykke, Malin Barman, Bo Jacobsson, Hans Bisgaard
Background: Randomized trials have reported that supplementation with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in pregnancy can prolong pregnancy and thereby increase birth weight. Objective: We aimed to examine the relations of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnancy with duration of pregnancy, birth weight, and size for gestational age (GA). Methods: This was a double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in 736 pregnant women and their offspring, from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010cohort...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Jaehyun Joo, Sinead A Williamson, Ana I Vazquez, Jose R Fernandez, Molly S Bray
Background: Principal components analysis (PCA) has been the most widely used method for deriving dietary patterns to date. However, PCA requires arbitrary ad hoc decisions for selecting food variables in interpreting dietary patterns and does not easily accommodate covariates. Sparse latent factor models can be utilized to address these issues. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare Bayesian sparse latent factor models with PCA for identifying dietary patterns among young adults...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Yichen Jin, Alka M Kanaya, Namratha R Kandula, Luis A Rodriguez, Sameera A Talegawkar
Background: Following a vegetarian diet is considered to be beneficial for overall health and is associated with a lower risk of chronic disease. Objective: This study examined whether South Asians in the United States who consume a vegetarian diet have a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: Data from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study, which included 892 South Asians (47% women), age range 40-83 y with mean ± SD age 55 ± 9...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Sisi Cao, Meryl E Wastney, Pamela J Lachcik, Hui-Hui Xiao, Connie M Weaver, Man-Sau Wong
Background: Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) are major chemical constituents found in Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL), a Chinese herb previously shown to increase bone properties and modulate calcium-vitamin D metabolism in rats. OA and UA have been reported to exert osteoprotective effects in vitro. Objective: The present study was designed to determine whether OA or OA + UA mimicked the effects of FLL on bone and calcium homeostasis using ovariectomized rats...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Mathias D G Van den Eynde, Johanna M Geleijnse, Jean L J M Scheijen, Nordin M J Hanssen, James I Dower, Lydia A Afman, Coen D A Stehouwer, Peter C H Hollman, Casper G Schalkwijk
Background: Methylglyoxal (MGO) is the most potent precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). MGO and AGEs have been associated with diabetes, its complications, and other age-related diseases. Experimental studies have shown that the flavonoids quercetin and epicatechin are able to scavenge MGO and lower AGE formation. Objective: Data on the effects of these flavonoids on MGO and AGE concentrations in humans are not yet available. We therefore investigated the effect of quercetin and epicatechin on the concentrations of MGO and AGEs in a post hoc analysis...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Hee Young Yun, Johanna W Lampe, Lesley F Tinker, Marian L Neuhouser, Shirley A A Beresford, Kristine R Niles, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Linda G Snetselaar, Linda Van Horn, Ross L Prentice, Diane M O'Brien
Background: Natural abundance stable isotope ratios are candidate biomarkers of dietary intake that have not been evaluated in a controlled feeding study in a US population. Objectives: Our goals were to evaluate dietary associations with serum carbon (CIR), nitrogen (NIR), and sulfur (SIR) isotope ratios in postmenopausal women, and to evaluate whether statistical models of dietary intake that include multiple isotopes and participant characteristics meet criteria for biomarker evaluation...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Rik J J van Erp, Hubert M J van Hees, Ruurd T Zijlstra, Theo A T G van Kempen, Jan Bert van Klinken, Walter J J Gerrits
Background: Substantial variation in growth rates exists in normal-birth-weight piglets, possibly due to differences in energy efficiency. Within this population, slow growth rates are associated with reduced insulin sensitivity. Slowly digestible starch (SDS) may improve growth efficiency in slowly growing pigs, because it reduces postprandial blood glucose. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate maintenance energy requirements and efficiency of energy used for growth (incremental energy efficiency) of slow-growing or fast-growing piglets (SG-pigs and FG-pigs, respectively) with equal birth weight that were fed either an SDS or a rapidly digestible-starch (RDS) diet...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Alysse J Kowalski, Andreas Georgiadis, Jere R Behrman, Benjamin T Crookston, Lia C H Fernald, Aryeh D Stein
Background: Whether linear growth through age 12 y is associated with language and math achievement at age 12 y remains unclear. Objective: Our objective was to investigate associations of linear growth through age 12 y with reading skill, receptive vocabulary, and mathematics performance at age 12 y in 4 low- or middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: We analyzed data from the Young Lives Younger Cohort study in Ethiopia (n = 1275), India (n = 1350), Peru (n = 1402), and Vietnam (n = 1594)...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Ping Zheng, Yi Song, Yihang Tian, Hao Zhang, Bing Yu, Jun He, Xiangbing Mao, Jie Yu, Yuheng Luo, Junqiu Luo, Zhiqing Huang, Gang Tian, Hong Chen, Daiwen Chen
Background: Low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates are susceptible to intestinal dysfunction. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of LBW neonates is significantly lower compared with that of normal-birth-weight (NBW) neonates both at birth and at weaning. In LBW neonates, dietary supplementation with arginine has shown beneficial effects on intestinal function. Objective: The present study explored the potential mechanisms of arginine-induced protective effects against intestinal dysfunction in LBW piglets...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Kevin C Maki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Carlos A Montoya, Diana L Cabrera, Maggie Zou, Mike J Boland, Paul J Moughan
Background: Actinidin, a cysteine protease in kiwifruit (KF), increases both the gastric digestion and gastric-emptying rate of beef muscle protein. Objective: This study aimed to determine the relation between the rate of digested nitrogen entering the small intestine (SI; a function of the extent of gastric digestion and gastric-emptying rate) and the disappearance of amino acids (AAs) in different parts of the SI at set times postfeeding. Methods: Male 9-wk-old pigs (n = 90; mean ± SD body weight: 28 ± 2...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Andraea Van Hulst, Gilles Paradis, Soren Harnois-Leblanc, Andrea Benedetti, Vicky Drapeau, Mélanie Henderson
Background: Identifying dietary factors that determine insulin sensitivity and secretion in children entering puberty may provide valuable information for the early prevention of type 2 diabetes. Objectives: We assessed whether macronutrients and food groups are longitudinally associated with insulin sensitivity and secretion over a 2-y period in children with a family history of obesity, and whether associations differ by level of adiposity. Methods: Data were derived from the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) Study, an ongoing prospective cohort including 630 children recruited at ages 8-10 y, with ≥1 obese parent, and followed 2 y later (n = 564)...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Connie M Weaver, Regan L Bailey, Linda D McCabe, Alanna J Moshfegh, Donna G Rhodes, Joseph D Goldman, Andrea J Lobene, George P McCabe
Background: Hypertension contributes substantially to chronic disease and mortality. Mineral intakes can modify blood pressure. Objective: Individual minerals and their intake ratios in US adults and their association with blood pressure were examined. Methods: Regression models were used to examine the associations of sodium, potassium, and calcium intakes and their ratios from food and supplements with blood pressure in 8777 US adults without impaired renal function from the 2011-2014 NHANES...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Michaela C Devries, Arjun Sithamparapillai, K Scott Brimble, Laura Banfield, Robert W Morton, Stuart M Phillips
Background: Higher-protein (HP) diets are advocated for several reasons, including mitigation of sarcopenia, but their effects on kidney function are unclear. Objective: This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of HP intakes on kidney function in healthy adults. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials comparing HP (≥1.5 g/kg body weight or ≥20% energy intake or ≥100 g protein/d) with normal- or lower-protein (NLP; ≥5% less energy intake from protein/d compared with HP group) intakes on kidney function...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Josiemer Mattei, Amanda C McClain, Luis M Falcón, Sabrina E Noel, Katherine L Tucker
Background: The role of acculturation in dietary behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States remains unclear. Discrepancies may be explained by variations in acculturation constructs or ethnicity-specific dynamics. Objective: We aimed to compare relations between 3 different acculturation constructs with dietary quality and patterns among Puerto Ricans in the mainland United States. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data with 1194-1380 Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 y...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Lauren E Au, Klara Gurzo, Courtney Paolicelli, Shannon E Whaley, Nancy S Weinfield, Lorrene D Ritchie
Background: Despite the important implications of childhood dietary intakes on lifelong eating habits and health, data are lacking on the diet quality of low-income infants and toddlers. Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize diet quality in low-income US infants and toddlers. Methods: A national observational study was conducted of 7- to 12-mo-old (n = 1261), 13-mo-old (n = 2515), and 24-mo-old (n = 2179) children enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) prenatally/at birth from 2013 to 2016...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Andrew M Holwerda, Maarten Overkamp, Kevin J M Paulussen, Joey S J Smeets, Janneau van Kranenburg, Evelien M P Backx, Annemie P Gijsen, Joy P B Goessens, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon
Background: The proposed benefits of protein supplementation on the skeletal muscle adaptive response to resistance exercise training in older adults remain unclear. Objective: The present study assessed whether protein supplementation after exercise and before sleep augments muscle mass and strength gains during resistance exercise training in older individuals. Methods: Forty-one older men [mean ± SEM age: 70 ± 1 y; body mass index (kg/m2): 25...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Yuan Ru, Eva K Pressman, Ronnie Guillet, Philip J Katzman, Francoise Vermeylen, Kimberly O O'Brien
Background: Hepcidin is a systemic regulator of iron homeostasis. Little is known about the relative role of maternal compared with cord hepcidin on neonatal iron homeostasis. Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate inter- and intrauterine variance in neonatal iron status, vitamin B-12, folate, and inflammatory markers in a cohort of twins (n = 50), triplets (n = 14), and quadruplets (n = 1) born to 65 women. Methods: Umbilical cord blood was obtained from 144 neonates born at 34...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
John J Miklavcic, Thomas M Badger, Anne K Bowlin, Katelin S Matazel, Mario A Cleves, Tanya LeRoith, Manish K Saraf, Sree V Chintapalli, Brian D Piccolo, Kartik Shankar, Laxmi Yeruva
Background: The benefits of breastfeeding infants are well characterized, including those on the immune system. However, determining the mechanism by which human breast milk (HBM) elicits effects on immune response requires investigation in an appropriate animal model. Objective: The primary aim of this study was to develop a novel porcine model and to determine the differential effects of feeding HBM and a commercial milk formula (MF) on immune response and gastrointestinal microbial colonization in a controlled environment...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
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