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Journal of Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093015/muscle-protein-synthesis-and-muscle-mass-in-healthy-older-men
#1
Daniel Tome
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070713/long-term-intake-of-a-high-protein-diet-affects-body-phenotype-metabolism-and-plasma-hormones-in-mice
#2
John P Vu, Leon Luong, William F Parsons, Suwan Oh, Daniel Sanford, Arielle Gabalski, John Rb Lighton, Joseph R Pisegna, Patrizia M Germano
Background: High-protein diets (HPDs) recently have been used to obtain body weight and fat mass loss and expand muscle mass. Several studies have documented that HPDs reduce appetite and food intake.Objective: Our goal was to determine the long-term effects of an HPD on body weight, energy intake and expenditure, and metabolic hormones.Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice (8 wk old) were fed either an HPD (60% of energy as protein) or a control diet (CD; 20% of energy as protein) for 12 wk. Body composition and food intakes were determined, and plasma hormone concentrations were measured in mice after being fed and after overnight feed deprivation at several time points...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070712/l-serine-enhances-light-induced-circadian-phase-resetting-in-mice-and-humans
#3
Shinobu Yasuo, Ayaka Iwamoto, Sang-Il Lee, Shotaro Ochiai, Rina Hitachi, Satomi Shibata, Nobuo Uotsu, Chie Tarumizu, Sayuri Matsuoka, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Shigekazu Higuchi
Background: The circadian clock is modulated by the timing of ingestion or food composition, but the effects of specific nutrients are poorly understood.Objective: We aimed to identify the amino acids that modulate the circadian clock and reset the light-induced circadian phase in mice and humans.Methods: Male CBA/N mice were orally administered 1 of 20 l-amino acids, and the circadian and light-induced phase shifts of wheel-running activity were analyzed. Antagonists of several neurotransmitter pathways were injected before l-serine administration, and light-induced phase shifts were analyzed...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070711/dietary-b-vitamin-intake-is-associated-with-lower-urinary-monomethyl-arsenic-and-oxidative-stress-marker-15-f2t-isoprostane-among-new-hampshire-adults
#4
Caitlin G Howe, Zhigang Li, Michael S Zens, Thomas Palys, Yu Chen, Jacqueline Y Channon, Margaret R Karagas, Shohreh F Farzan
Background: Arsenic exposure has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Growing evidence suggests that B vitamins facilitate arsenic metabolism and may protect against arsenic toxicity. However, to our knowledge, few studies have evaluated this in US populations.Objective: Our objective was to examine whether higher B vitamin intake is associated with enhanced arsenic metabolism and lower concentrations of preclinical markers of CVD among New Hampshire adults.Methods: We used weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression to evaluate the collective impact of 6 dietary B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, and vitamins B-6 and B-12) on 1) the proportion of arsenic metabolites in urine and 2) 6 CVD-related markers [including urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane (15-F2t-IsoP)] among 418 participants (26-75 y of age) from the New Hampshire Health Study...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070710/carbohydrate-taste-sensitivity-is-associated-with-starch-intake-and-waist-circumference-in-adults
#5
Julia Yq Low, Kathleen E Lacy, Robert L McBride, Russell Sj Keast
Background: Recent studies have proposed that humans may perceive complex carbohydrates and that sensitivity to simple carbohydrates is independent of sensitivity to complex carbohydrates. Variation in oral complex carbohydrate sensitivity may influence food consumption.Objective: This study aimed to investigate the associations between oral complex carbohydrate sensitivity, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults.Methods: We assessed oral sensitivity to complex carbohydrates (maltodextrin and oligofructose) by measuring detection thresholds (DTs) and suprathreshold intensity perceptions (STs) for 34 participants, including 16 men (mean ± SEM age : 26...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070709/increased-protein-consumption-during-the-day-from-an-energy-restricted-diet-augments-satiety-but-does-not-reduce-daily-fat-or-carbohydrate-intake-on-a-free-living-test-day-in-overweight-women
#6
Jess A Gwin, Kevin C Maki, Heather J Leidy
Background: Higher-protein (HP) energy-restriction diets improve weight management to a greater extent than normal-protein (NP) versions. Potential mechanisms of action with regard to assessment of eating behaviors across the day have not been widely examined during energy restriction.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to test whether the consumption of an HP energy-restriction diet reduces carbohydrate and fat intakes through improvements in daily appetite, satiety, and food cravings compared with NP versions and to test whether protein type within the NP diets alters protein-related satiety...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070708/vitamin-a-status-in-children-mathematical-modeling-provides-new-progress-on-an-old-problem
#7
Janet A Novotny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046406/cold-extrusion-but-not-coating-affects-iron-bioavailability-from-fortified-rice-in-young-women-and-is-associated-with-modifications-in-starch-microstructure-and-mineral-retention-during-cooking
#8
Laura Hackl, Cornelia Speich, Christophe Zeder, Antoni Sánchez-Ferrer, Horst Adelmann, Saskia de Pee, Fabian Tay, Michael B Zimmermann, Diego Moretti
Background: Rice can be fortified with the use of hot or cold extrusion or coating, but the nutritional qualities of the resulting rice grains have never been directly compared.Objective: Using fortified rice produced by coating or hot or cold extrusion, we compared 1) iron and zinc absorption with the use of stable isotopes, 2) iron and zinc retention during cooking, and 3) starch microstructure.Methods: We conducted 2 studies in young women: in study 1 [n = 19; mean ± SD age: 26.2 ± 3.4 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 21...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046405/potato-consumption-does-not-increase-blood-pressure-or-incident-hypertension-in-2-cohorts-of-spanish-adults
#9
Emily A Hu, Miguel A Martínez-González, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Dolores Corella, Emilio Ros, Montse Fitó, Antonio Garcia-Rodriguez, Ramon Estruch, Fernando Arós, Miquel Fiol, José Lapetra, Lluís Serra-Majem, Xavier Pintó, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Cristina Razquin, Mònica Bulló, José V Sorlí, Helmut Schröder, Casey M Rebholz, Estefania Toledo
Background: Potatoes have a high glycemic load but also antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals. It is unclear what mechanisms are involved in relation to their effect on blood pressure (BP) and hypertension.Objectives: This study aimed to assess the association between potato consumption, BP changes, and the risk of hypertension in 2 Spanish populations.Methods: Separate analyses were performed in PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea), a multicenter nutrition intervention trial of adults aged 55-80 y, and the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) project, a prospective cohort made up of university graduates and educated adults with ages (means ± SDs) of 42...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046404/cranberry-reduces-the-risk-of-urinary-tract-infection-recurrence-in-otherwise-healthy-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Zhuxuan Fu, DeAnn Liska, David Talan, Mei Chung
Background: Cranberry (Vaccinium spp.) has been advocated for treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI); however, its efficacy is controversial. Women have a 50% risk of UTI over their lifetime, and ∼20-30% experience a subsequent UTI recurrence.Objective: We conducted this meta-analysis to assess the effect of cranberry on the risk of UTI recurrence in otherwise healthy women.Methods: Literature published before January 2011 was obtained from 2 published systematic reviews, and we conducted updated searches in EMBASE and MEDLINE (through July 2017)...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021372/ammonia-nitrogen-added-to-diets-deficient-in-dispensable-amino-acid-nitrogen-is-poorly-utilized-for-urea-production-in-growing-pigs
#11
Wilfredo D Mansilla, Kayla E Silva, Cuilan L Zhu, Charles M Nyachoti, John K Htoo, John P Cant, Cornelis Fm de Lange
Background: Including ammonia in low-crude protein (CP) diets deficient in dispensable amino acid (DAAs) increases nitrogen retention in growing pigs.Objective: We investigated the absorption and metabolism of dietary ammonia nitrogen in the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver of pigs fed a diet deficient in DAA nitrogen.Methods: Eight pigs with an initial mean ± SD body weight (BW) of 26.5 ± 1.4 kg were surgically fitted with 4 catheters each (portal, hepatic and mesenteric veins, and carotid artery)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021371/consumption-of-a-double-fortified-salt-affects-perceptual-attentional-and-mnemonic-functioning-in-women-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-india
#12
Michael J Wenger, Laura E Murray-Kolb, Julie Eh Nevins, Sudha Venkatramanan, Gregory A Reinhart, Annie Wesley, Jere D Haas
Background: Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia have been shown to have negative effects on aspects of perception, attention, and memory.Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to assess the extent to which increases in dietary iron consumption are related to improvements in behavioral measures of perceptual, attentional, and mnemonic function.Methods: Women were selected from a randomized, double-blind, controlled food-fortification trial involving ad libitum consumption of either a double-fortified salt (DFS) containing 47 mg potassium iodate/kg and 3...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021370/integrating-nutrition-interventions-into-an-existing-maternal-neonatal-and-child-health-program-increased-maternal-dietary-diversity-micronutrient-intake-and-exclusive-breastfeeding-practices-in-bangladesh-results-of-a-cluster-randomized-program-evaluation
#13
Phuong Hong Nguyen, Sunny S Kim, Tina Sanghvi, Zeba Mahmud, Lan Mai Tran, Sadia Shabnam, Bachera Aktar, Raisul Haque, Kaosar Afsana, Edward A Frongillo, Marie T Ruel, Purnima Menon
Background: Maternal undernutrition is a major concern globally, contributing to poor birth outcomes. Limited evidence exists on delivering multiple interventions for maternal nutrition simultaneously. Alive & Thrive addressed this gap by integrating nutrition-focused interpersonal counseling, community mobilization, distribution of free micronutrient supplements, and weight-gain monitoring through an existing Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health (MNCH) program in Bangladesh.Objectives: We evaluated the effect of providing nutrition-focused MNCH compared with standard MNCH (antenatal care with standard nutrition counseling) on coverage of nutrition interventions, maternal dietary diversity, micronutrient supplement intake, and early breastfeeding practices...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021369/new-evidence-against-chromium-as-an-essential-trace-element
#14
John B Vincent
Nearly 60 y ago, chromium, as the trivalent ion, was proposed to be an essential element, but the results of new studies indicate that chromium currently can only be considered pharmacologically active and not an essential element. Regardless, articles still continue to appear in the literature claiming chromium is an essential element. Chromium has been marketed as an agent to reduce body mass and develop muscle; however, such marketing claims are no longer allowed in the United States because these claims, similar to claims of essential status, are not supported by experiments...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978680/maternal-and-child-supplementation-with-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements-but-not-child-supplementation-alone-decreases-self-reported-household-food-insecurity-in-some-settings
#15
Katherine P Adams, Emmanuel Ayifah, Thokozani E Phiri, Malay K Mridha, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Mary Arimond, Charles D Arnold, Joseph Cummins, Sohrab Hussain, Chiza Kumwenda, Susana L Matias, Ulla Ashorn, Anna Lartey, Kenneth M Maleta, Stephen A Vosti, Kathryn G Dewey
Background: It is unknown whether self-reported measures of household food insecurity change in response to food-based nutrient supplementation.Objective: We assessed the impacts of providing lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) to women during pregnancy and postpartum and/or to their children on self-reported household food insecurity in Malawi [DOSE and DYAD trial in Malawi (DYAD-M)], Ghana [DYAD trial in Ghana (DYAD-G)], and Bangladesh [Rang-Din Nutrition Study (RDNS) trial].Methods: Longitudinal household food-insecurity data were collected during 3 individually randomized trials and 1 cluster-randomized trial testing the efficacy or effectiveness of LNSs (generally 118 kcal/d)...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978677/rye-bran-modified-with-cell-wall-degrading-enzymes-influences-the-kinetics-of-plant-lignans-but-not-of-enterolignans-in-multicatheterized-pigs
#16
Anne K Bolvig, Natalja P Nørskov, Sophie van Vliet, Leslie Foldager, Mihai V Curtasu, Mette S Hedemann, Jens F Sørensen, Helle N Lærke, Knud E Bach Knudsen
Background: Whole-grain intake is associated with a lower risk of chronic Western-style diseases, possibly brought about by the high concentration of phytochemicals, among them plant lignans (PLs), in the grains.Objective: We studied whether treatment of rye bran with cell wall-degrading enzymes changed the solubility and kinetics of PLs in multicatheterized pigs.Methods: Ten female Duroc × Danish Landrace × Yorkshire pigs (60.3 ± 2.3 kg at surgery) fitted with permanent catheters were included in an incomplete crossover study...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954842/whole-grain-rye-and-wheat-affect-some-markers-of-gut-health-without-altering-the-fecal-microbiota-in-healthy-overweight-adults-a-6-week-randomized-trial
#17
Stine Vuholm, Dennis S Nielsen, Kia Nøhr Iversen, Julie Suhr, Peter Westermann, Lukasz Krych, Jens Rikardt Andersen, Mette Kristensen
Background: Whole grains have shown potential for improving gut health, but evidence comparing different whole-grain types is lacking.Objective: We investigated whether whole-grain wheat (WGW) and whole-grain rye (WGR) improve gut health in different ways compared to refined wheat (RW), with the primary outcomes of microbiota composition and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.Methods: In a randomized parallel trial, 70 healthy adults (in means ± SDs; aged 51.0 ± 9.4 y, body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))] 27.8 ± 1...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954839/young-pigs-consuming-lysozyme-transgenic-goat-milk-are-protected-from-clinical-symptoms-of-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-infection
#18
Lydia C Garas, Caitlin A Cooper, Matthew W Dawson, Jane-Ling Wang, James D Murray, Elizabeth A Maga
Background: Diarrheal diseases in infancy and childhood are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in developing nations. Lysozyme, an antimicrobial component of human milk, is thought to play a role in establishing a healthy intestinal microbiota and immune system. Consumption of breast milk has been shown to prevent intestinal infections and is a recommended treatment for infants with diarrhea.Objective: This study aimed to examine the ability of lysozyme-rich goat milk to prevent intestinal infection...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954838/whole-grain-starch-and-fiber-composition-modifies-ileal-flow-of-nutrients-and-nutrient-availability-in-the-hindgut-shifting-fecal-microbial-profiles-in-pigs
#19
Janelle M Fouhse, Michael G Gänzle, Aaron D Beattie, Thava Vasanthan, Ruurd T Zijlstra
Background: Changes in whole-grain chemical composition can affect the site of nutrient digestion, which may alter substrate availability and gut microbiota composition.Objectives: This study elucidated the function of whole-grain fermentable fiber composition on ileal substrate flow, hindgut substrate availability, and subsequent gut microbial profiles in pigs.Methods: Five whole grains-1) high-fermentability, high-β-glucan hull-less barley (HFB); 2) high-fermentability, high-amylose hull-less barley (HFA); 3) moderate-fermentability hull-less barley (MFB); 4) low-fermentability hulled barley (LFB); or 5) low-fermentability hard red spring wheat (LFW)-were included at 800 g/kg into diets fed to ileal-cannulated growing pigs for 9 d in a 6 (periods) × 5 (diets) Youden square...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931590/leucine-transamination-is-lower-in-middle-aged-compared-with-younger-adults
#20
Paolo Tessari
Background: Insulin and age affect leucine (and protein) kinetics in vivo. However, to our knowledge, leucine transamination and the effects of insulin have not been studied in participants of different ages.Objective: The aims of the study were to measure whole-body leucine deamination to α-ketoisocaproate (KIC) and KIC reamination to leucine in middle-aged and younger healthy adults, both in the postabsorptive state and after hyperinsulinemia.Methods: Younger (mean ± SE age: 26 ± 2 y) and middle-aged (54 ± 3 y) healthy men and women were enrolled...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
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