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Journal of Nutrition

Aoife Hayes, Áine Hennessy, Janette Walton, Breige A McNulty, Alice J Lucey, Máiréad Kiely, Albert Flynn, Kevin D Cashman
BACKGROUND: Data from a nationally representative sample of 18- to 64-y-old Irish adults conducted in 1999 highlighted low phylloquinone intakes. That survey, however, did not include older adults (aged ≥65 y), a subgroup that is potentially at higher risk of low phylloquinone intakes, or a biomarker of vitamin K status. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this work were to measure the phylloquinone intake and its adequacy and the serum percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC), a vitamin K status biomarker, in a nationally representative sample of Irish adults aged 18-90 y, and to compare these newer data on dietary phylloquinone in adults aged 18-64 y with those from the previous survey...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Kim Ve Braun, Nicole S Erler, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Vincent Wv Jaddoe, Edith H van den Hooven, Oscar H Franco, Trudy Voortman
BACKGROUND: High protein intake in infancy might lead to a higher body mass index (BMI) in childhood. However, whether these associations differ between different sources of protein is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between the intake of total protein, protein from different sources, and individual amino acids in early childhood and repeatedly measured height, weight, and BMI up to the age of 9 y. METHODS: This study was performed in 3564 children participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, Netherlands...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Justine M Turner, Yves Sauvé, Miyoung Suh, Paul W Wales, Pamela Wizzard, Susan Goruk, Catherine J Field
BACKGROUND: Preterm neonates and those with intestinal failure require prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) during a critical time of early central nervous system maturation. Conventional lipid emulsions fed to preterm neonates lack n-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs; >20 carbon chain in length). Recently, fish oil lipid emulsions have been developed that provide both n-6 (ω-6) and n-3 LC-PUFAs, precursors of very long-chain PUFAs (VLC-PUFAs; >24 carbon chain in length)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Wen Lun Yuan, Christine Lange, Camille Schwartz, Christophe Martin, Claire Chabanet, Blandine de Lauzon-Guillain, Sophie Nicklaus
BACKGROUND: Taste is a strong determinant of food intake. Previous research has suggested that early taste exposures could influence preferences and later eating behavior, but little is known about the factors related to this. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to describe infants' exposure to sweetness and fattiness and to examine whether maternal and infant characteristics and feeding practices are related to these exposures in participants from the OPALINE [Observatoire des Préférences Alimentaires du Nourrisson et de l'Enfant (Observatory of Infant and Child Food Preferences)] cohort study...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Vanessa M Oddo, Parul Christian, Joanne Katz, Li Liu, Naoko Kozuki, Robert E Black, Robert Ntozini, Jean Humphrey
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, one-third of all births are small for gestational age (SGA), and 4.4 million children are stunted; both conditions increase the risk of child mortality. SGA has also been shown to increase the risk of stunting. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether the association between SGA and postneonatal mortality is mediated by stunting. METHODS: We used longitudinal data from children aged 6 wk to 24 mo (n = 12,155) enrolled in the ZVITAMBO (Zimbabwe Vitamin A for Mothers and Babies) trial...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Clélia M Bianchi, Manon Egnell, Jean-François Huneau, François Mariotti
BACKGROUND: Plant protein intake, which is favorably associated with the intake of many nutrients, is a marker of a healthy diet. However, the higher nutrient adequacy of diets rich in plant protein may also originate from overarching factors associated with more healthful dietary behaviors, such as a greater dietary diversity. OBJECTIVE: Our main objective was to determine whether the relation between plant protein intake and nutrient adequacy could be explained, at least in part, by an association with overall dietary diversity...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Sara Moukarzel, Roger A Dyer, Bernd O Keller, Rajavel Elango, Sheila M Innis
BACKGROUND: Human milk contains unique glycerophospholipids, including ethanolamine-containing plasmalogens (Pls-PEs) in the milk fat globule membrane, which have been implicated in infant brain development. Brain Pls-PEs accumulate postnatally and are enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Fatty acid (FA) composition of Pls-PEs in milk is poorly understood because of the analytical challenges in separating Pls-PEs from other phospholipids in the predominating presence of triacylglycerols...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Austin T Mudd, Lindsey S Alexander, Stacey K Johnson, Caitlyn M Getty, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Ryan N Dilger
BACKGROUND: Choline is essential for synthesis of phospholipids, neurodevelopment, and DNA methylation. It is unknown whether dietary perinatal choline deficiency affects maternal milk composition. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether perinatal maternal dietary choline deficiency influences porcine-milk composition. METHODS: Yorkshire sows were fed choline-deficient (CD) or choline-sufficient (CS) gestation diets [544 or 1887 mg choline/kg dry matter (DM), respectively] from 65 d before to 48 h after parturition and then fed lactation diets (517 or 1591 mg choline/kg DM, respectively) through day 19 of lactation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Ammar W Ashor, Shakir Chowdhury, Clio Oggioni, Othman Qadir, Kirsten Brandt, Abbas Ishaq, John C Mathers, Gabriele Saretzki, Mario Siervo
BACKGROUND: Aging and obesity are associated with raised oxidative stress and a reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, with subsequent decline in insulin sensitivity and endothelial function. Inorganic nitrate is converted into NO via a 2-step reduction process and may be an effective nutritional intervention to modify vascular and metabolic functions. OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether inorganic nitrate supplementation improved glucose disposal and attenuated the acute effects of hyperglycemia on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular function in young and old obese participants...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Sarah A Dainty, Shannon L Klingel, Stephanie E Pilkey, Evan McDonald, Bruce McKeown, Michael J Emes, Alison M Duncan
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence continues to rise. Although increasing dietary fiber intake is an established strategy for improved glycemic control, most adults consume insufficient amounts. Fiber-enhanced functional foods can increase fiber intake, and there is particular interest in resistant starch (RS) as a high-fiber ingredient. Studies show that high-amylose maize resistant starch, type 2 (HAM-RS2) improves acute and chronic glycemic responses, but more studies are needed in individuals at high risk of T2D with RS delivered in commonly consumed foods...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Andrew D Jones
BACKGROUND: On-farm crop species richness (CSR) may be important for maintaining the diversity and quality of diets of smallholder farming households. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the association of CSR with the diversity and quality of household diets in Malawi and 2) assess hypothesized mechanisms for this association via both subsistence- and market-oriented pathways. METHODS: Longitudinal data were assessed from nationally representative household surveys in Malawi between 2010 and 2013 (n = 3000 households)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Xinyan Ma, Xiudong Liao, Lin Lu, Sufen Li, Liyang Zhang, Xugang Luo
BACKGROUND: The current dietary iron requirement (80 mg/kg) of broilers is mainly based on growth, hemoglobin concentration, or hematocrit data obtained in a few early studies; however, expressions of iron-containing enzymes might be more sensitive novel criteria to evaluate dietary iron requirements. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine dietary iron requirements of broilers for the full expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), catalase, and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in various tissues...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Russell J de Souza, Michael A Zulyniak, Dipika Desai, Mateen R Shaikh, Natalie C Campbell, Diana L Lefebvre, Milan Gupta, Julie Wilson, Gita Wahi, Stephanie A Atkinson, Koon K Teo, Padmaja Subbarao, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Malcolm R Sears, Sonia S Anand
BACKGROUND: Canada is an ethnically diverse nation, which introduces challenges for health care providers tasked with providing evidence-based dietary advice. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to harmonize food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) across 4 birth cohorts of ethnically diverse pregnant women to derive robust dietary patterns to investigate maternal and newborn outcomes. METHODS: The NutriGen Alliance comprises 4 prospective birth cohorts and includes 4880 Canadian mother-infant pairs of predominantly white European [CHILD (Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development) and FAMILY (Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life)], South Asian [START (SouTh Asian birth cohoRT)-Canada], or Aboriginal [ABC (Aboriginal Birth Cohort)] origins...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Abderrahim Benmoussa, Chan Ho C Lee, Benoit Laffont, Patricia Savard, Jonathan Laugier, Eric Boilard, Caroline Gilbert, Ismail Fliss, Patrick Provost
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are small, gene-regulatory noncoding RNA species present in large amounts in milk, where they seem to be protected against degradative conditions, presumably because of their association with exosomes. OBJECTIVE: We monitored the relative stability of commercial dairy cow milk microRNAs during digestion and examined their associations with extracellular vesicles (EVs). METHODS: We used a computer-controlled, in vitro, gastrointestinal model TNO intestinal model-1 (TIM-1) and analyzed, by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the concentration of 2 microRNAs within gastrointestinal tract compartments at different points in time...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Xiaochen Lin, Isabel Zhang, Alina Li, JoAnn E Manson, Howard D Sesso, Lu Wang, Simin Liu
BACKGROUND: Cocoa flavanols may improve cardiometabolic health. Evidence from small short-term randomized clinical trials (RCTs) remains inconsistent, and large long-term RCTs testing the efficacy of cocoa flavanols are still lacking. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs to quantify the effect of cocoa flavanol intake on cardiometabolic biomarkers. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for RCTs that evaluated the effects of cocoa flavanols on biomarkers relevant to vascular disease pathways among adults...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Chantel L Martin, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Whitney R Robinson, Julie L Daniels, Eliana M Perrin, Alison M Stuebe
BACKGROUND: Child obesity is a major problem in the United States. Identifying early-life risk factors is necessary for prevention. Maternal diet during pregnancy is a primary source of fetal energy and might influence risk of child obesity. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively investigated the influence of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy on child growth in the first 3 y of life in 389 mother-child pairs from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition study. METHODS: Dietary patterns were derived with the use of latent class analysis (LCA) based on maternal diet, collected with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire at 26-29 wk gestation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Judy R Rees, Leila A Mott, Elizabeth L Barry, John A Baron, Roberd M Bostick, Jane C Figueiredo, Robert S Bresalier, Douglas J Robertson, Janet L Peacock
BACKGROUND: Many factors have been associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in observational studies, with variable consistency. However, less information is available on factors affecting the magnitude of changes in serum 25(OH)D resulting from vitamin D supplementation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify factors associated with the serum 25(OH)D response to supplementation with 1000 IU cholecalciferol/d during the first year of a large, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled colorectal adenoma chemoprevention trial...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Caroline Richard, Erin D Lewis, Susan Goruk, Catherine J Field
BACKGROUND: The early postnatal period is critical for immunity, and feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been demonstrated to affect immune development. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the importance of feeding DHA during suckling and/or weaning on immune function and oral tolerance (OT). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 nutritionally adequate diets throughout lactation (21 d): a control (n = 12, 0% DHA) diet or a DHA (n = 8, 0...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Michael H Green, Jennifer Lynn Ford, Joanne Balmer Green
BACKGROUND: Retinol isotope dilution (RID) equations are used to determine vitamin A status and the efficacy of vitamin A intervention programs. Recent work related to RID methods has focused on modifying the "Olson equation" to improve the accuracy of predictions of vitamin A total body stores (TBS) in individual subjects. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the hypothesis that short-term restriction of vitamin A intake would result in accurate RID prediction of vitamin A TBS in individuals...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Rebecca L Rivera, Melissa K Maulding, Angela R Abbott, Bruce A Craig, Heather A Eicher-Miller
BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is negatively associated with US children's dietary intake and health. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) aims to alleviate food insecurity by offering nutrition, budgeting, and healthy lifestyle education to low-income individuals and families. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of the Indiana SNAP-Ed on food security among households with children. METHODS: A randomized, controlled, parallel study design with SNAP-Ed as an intervention was carried out during a 4- to 10-wk intervention period...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
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