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Journal of Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615384/yogurt-and-diabetes-overview-of-recent-observational-studies
#1
REVIEW
Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Andrés Díaz-López, Nancy Babio
The effects of dairy consumption on the prevention of type 2 diabetes remain controversial and depend on the dairy subtype. Yogurt intake has received special attention because its association with health benefits is more consistent than that of other types of dairy products. In the present article, we review those observational studies that evaluated the association between yogurt consumption and type 2 diabetes. We also discuss the possible mechanisms involved in these associations. We found that 13 prospective studies evaluated the association between yogurt intake and type 2 diabetes, most of which showed an inverse association between the frequency of yogurt consumption and the risk of diabetes...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615383/introduction-to-the-fourth-global-summit-on-the-health-effects-of-yogurt
#2
REVIEW
Sharon M Donovan, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615382/factors-influencing-the-gut-microbiota-inflammation-and-type-2-diabetes
#3
REVIEW
Li Wen, Andrew Duffy
The gut microbiota is a complex community of bacteria residing in the intestine. Animal models have demonstrated that several factors contribute to and can significantly alter the composition of the gut microbiota, including genetics; the mode of delivery at birth; the method of infant feeding; the use of medications, especially antibiotics; and the diet. There may exist a gut microbiota signature that promotes intestinal inflammation and subsequent systemic low-grade inflammation, which in turn promotes the development of type 2 diabetes...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615381/yogurt-is-a-low-glycemic-index-food
#4
REVIEW
Thomas Ms Wolever
High yogurt intake is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although several mechanisms could explain this association, this paper addresses the glycemic and insulinemic impact of yogurt. There is evidence that low-glycemic index (GI) and low-glycemic load (GL) diets are associated with a reduced risk of T2DM. The 93 GI values for yogurt in the University of Sydney's GI database have a mean ± SD of 34 ± 13, and 92% of the yogurts are low-GI (≤55). The 43 plain yogurts in the database have a lower GI than the 50 sweetened yogurts, 27 ± 11 compared with 41 ± 11 (P < 0...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615380/leucine-differentially-regulates-gene-specific-translation-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#5
Micah J Drummond, Paul T Reidy, Lisa M Baird, Brian K Dalley, Michael T Howard
Background: Amino acids, especially leucine, are particularly effective in promoting protein synthesis. Leucine is known to increase the rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1-dependent, as well as -independent, signaling pathways. However, the overall translation program is poorly defined, and it is unknown how the activation of these pathways differentially controls the translation of specific mRNAs.Objective: Ribosome profiling and RNA sequencing were used to precisely define the translational program activated by an acute oral dose of leucine...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615379/daily-consumption-of-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements-containing-250-%C3%AE-g-iodine-does-not-increase-urinary-iodine-concentrations-in-pregnant-and-postpartum-women-in-bangladesh
#6
Malay K Mridha, Susana L Matias, Rina Rani Paul, Sohrab Hussain, Md Showkat Ali Khan, Zakia Siddiqui, Barkat Ullah, Mostofa Sarker, Mokbul Hossain, Rebecca T Young, Charles D Arnold, Kathryn G Dewey
Background: Maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation is common in Bangladesh.Objective: We evaluated the effect of lipid-based nutrient supplements for pregnant and lactating women (LNS-PL) on urinary iodine concentration (UIC).Methods: We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness trial in which we enrolled 4011 pregnant women at ≤20 gestational weeks. Women in 48 clusters received iron and folic acid (IFA; 60 mg Fe/d + 400 μg folic acid/d) and women in 16 clusters received LNS-PL (20 g/d, 118 kcal) containing 22 vitamins and minerals (including 250 μg I)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615378/amino-acid-absorption-in-the-large-intestine-of-humans-and-porcine-models
#7
REVIEW
Nikkie van der Wielen, Paul J Moughan, Marco Mensink
Dietary protein quality has been recognized as a critical issue by international authorities because it can affect important functions of the body. To predict protein quality, the FAO introduced the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score. This score depends on ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility; therefore, the assumption is made that AAs are not absorbed in nutritionally relevant amounts from the large intestine. This article reviews the evidence for this assumption by considering the role of the mammalian large intestine in dietary protein and AA digestion and absorption, with particular reference to adult humans...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615377/after-mexico-implemented-a-tax-purchases-of-sugar-sweetened-beverages-decreased-and-of-water-increased-difference-by-place-of-residence-household-composition-and-income-level
#8
M Arantxa Colchero, Mariana Molina, Carlos M Guerrero-López
Background: In January 2014, Mexico implemented a tax on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) purchases of 1 peso/L.Objective: We examined the heterogeneity of changes in nonalcoholic beverage (SSB and bottled water) purchases after the tax was implemented by household income, urban and rural strata, and household composition.Methods: We used 4 rounds of the National Income and Expenditure Surveys: 2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014. Changes in purchases in per capita liters per week were estimated with the use of 2-part models to adjust for nonpurchases...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615376/smell-and-taste-dysfunction-is-associated-with-higher-serum-total-cholesterol-concentrations-in-chinese-adults
#9
Zhe Huang, Shue Huang, Hongliang Cong, Zheng Li, Junjuan Li, Kathleen L Keller, Gregory C Shearer, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Shouling Wu, Xiang Gao
Background: Several lipid-related hormones and peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 and leptin, are involved in the regulation of taste and smell function. However, to our knowledge, it remains unknown whether these chemosensory functions are associated with lipid profiles.Objective: We examined the cross-sectional association between taste and smell dysfunction and blood cholesterol concentrations.Methods: With the use of a questionnaire, we assessed chronic smell and taste dysfunction in 12,627 Chinese participants (10,418 men and 2209 women; mean age: 54...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615375/inclusion-of-almonds-in-a-cholesterol-lowering-diet-improves-plasma-hdl-subspecies-and-cholesterol-efflux-to-serum-in-normal-weight-individuals-with-elevated-ldl-cholesterol
#10
Claire E Berryman, Jennifer A Fleming, Penny M Kris-Etherton
Background: Almonds may increase circulating HDL cholesterol when substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack in an isocaloric diet, yet little is known about the effects on HDL biology and function.Objective: The objective was to determine whether incorporating 43 g almonds/d in a cholesterol-lowering diet would improve HDL subspecies and function, which were secondary study outcomes.Methods: In a randomized, 2-period, crossover, controlled-feeding study, a diet with 43 g almonds/d (percentage of total energy: 51% carbohydrate, 16% protein, and 32% total and 8% saturated fat) was compared with a similar diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (58% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 26% total and 8% saturated fat) in men and women with elevated LDL cholesterol...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615374/a-cross-sectional-survey-in-rural-bihar-india-indicates-that-nutritional-status-diet-and-stimulation-are-associated-with-motor-and-mental-development-in-young-children
#11
Leila M Larson, Melissa F Young, Usha Ramakrishnan, Amy Webb Girard, Pankaj Verma, Indrajit Chaudhuri, Sridhar Srikantiah, Reynaldo Martorell
Background: Many malnourished children in resource-poor settings fail to fulfill their developmental potential.Objectives: The objectives of this analysis were to examine the nutritional, psychosocial, environmental, and household correlates of child development in Bihar, India, and identify mediators between dietary diversity and mental development.Methods: Using 2-stage cluster randomized sampling, we surveyed 4360 households with children 6-18 mo of age in the West Champaran district of Bihar. We measured motor and mental development with the use of the Developmental Milestones Checklist II...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615373/yogurt-consumption-as-a-signature-of-a-healthy-diet-and-lifestyle
#12
REVIEW
Angelo Tremblay, Shirin Panahi
Yogurt is considered to be a nutrient-dense food that significantly contributes to the intake of several nutrients, including calcium and protein. As described in this paper, yogurt consumers have a higher nutrient intake than do nonconsumers. Yogurt consumers are also characterized by healthier dietary habits than nonconsumers, which partly explains their reduced incidence of overweight and obesity. Recent studies also suggest that yogurt consumers exhibit healthier nonnutritional behaviors, such as reduced smoking and greater participation in physical activity, than do nonconsumers...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615372/preconception-micronutrient-supplementation-with-iron-and-folic-acid-compared-with-folic-acid-alone-affects-linear-growth-and-fine-motor-development-at-2-years-of-age-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-vietnam
#13
Phuong H Nguyen, Ines Gonzalez-Casanova, Melissa F Young, Truong Viet Truong, Hue Hoang, Huong Nguyen, Son Nguyen, Ann M DiGirolamo, Reynaldo Martorell, Usha Ramakrishnan
Background: Maternal health and nutrition play a crucial role in early child growth and development. However, little is known about the benefits of preconception micronutrient interventions beyond the role of folic acid (FA) and neural tube defects.Objective: We evaluated the impact of weekly preconception multiple micronutrient (MM) or iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child growth and development through the age of 2 y compared with FA alone.Methods: We followed 1599 offspring born to women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of preconception supplementation in Vietnam...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592519/mtor-is-a-novel-molecular-mechanism-linking-folate-availability-and-cell-function
#14
REVIEW
Elena Silva, Fredrick J Rosario, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson
Folate deficiency has been linked to a wide range of disorders, including cancer, neural tube defects, and fetal growth restriction. Folate regulates cellular function mediated by its involvement in the synthesis of nucleotides, which are needed for DNA synthesis, and its function as a methyl donor, which is critical for DNA methylation. Here we review current data showing that folate sensing by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) constitutes a novel and distinct pathway by which folate modulates cell functions such as nutrient transport, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial respiration...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592518/zinc-supplementation-does-not-alter-indicators-of-insulin-secretion-and-sensitivity-in-black-and-white-female-adolescents
#15
Andrea J Lobene, Joseph M Kindler, Nathan T Jenkins, Norman K Pollock, Emma M Laing, Arthur Grider, Richard D Lewis
Background: Zinc is a micronutrient involved in the production of, and peripheral sensitivity to, pancreatic β cell-derived insulin. To our knowledge, the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes, and potential risk of diabetes, in otherwise healthy children in the United States has not been investigated.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes in black and white girls in the early stages of adolescence. A secondary objective was to determine relations between baseline zinc concentrations and insulin outcomes...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592517/consumption-of-fish-is-not-associated-with-risk-of-differentiated-thyroid-carcinoma-in-the-european-prospective-investigation-into-cancer-and-nutrition-epic-study
#16
Raul Zamora-Ros, Jazmín Castañeda, Sabina Rinaldi, Valerie Cayssials, Nadia Slimani, Elisabete Weiderpass, Konstantinos K Tsilidis, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Kim Overvad, Anne K Eriksen, Anne Tjønneland, Tilman Kühn, Verena Katzke, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou, Carlo La Vecchia, Anastasia Kotanidou, Domenico Palli, Sara Grioni, Amalia Mattiello, Rosario Tumino, Veronica Sciannameo, Eiliv Lund, Susana Merino, Elena Salamanca-Fernández, Pilar Amiano, José María Huerta, Aurelio Barricarte, Ulrika Ericson, Martin Almquist, Joakim Hennings, Maria Sandström, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Petra H Peeters, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nicholas J Wareham, Julie A Schmidt, Amanda J Cross, Elio Riboli, Augustin Scalbert, Isabelle Romieu, Antonio Agudo, Silvia Franceschi
Background: Differentiated thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common endocrine cancer. Fish can be an important source of iodine and other micronutrients and contaminants that may affect the thyroid gland and TC risk.Objective: We prospectively evaluated the relations between the consumption of total fish and different fish types and shellfish and TC risk in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study.Methods: EPIC is a cohort of >500,000 men and women, mostly aged 35-70 y, who were recruited in 10 European countries...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592516/maternal-night-fasting-interval-during-pregnancy-is-directly-associated-with-neonatal-head-circumference-and-adiposity-in-girls-but-not-boys
#17
See Ling Loy, Poh Hui Wee, Marjorelee T Colega, Yin Bun Cheung, Izzuddin M Aris, Jerry Kok Yen Chan, Keith M Godfrey, Peter D Gluckman, Kok Hian Tan, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Yap-Seng Chong, Padmapriya Natarajan, Falk Müller-Riemenschneider, Ngee Lek, Victor Samuel Rajadurai, Mya-Thway Tint, Yung Seng Lee, Mary Foong-Fong Chong, Fabian Yap
Background: Synchrony between daily feeding-fasting signals and circadian rhythms has been shown to improve metabolic health in animals and adult humans, but the potential programming effect on fetal growth is unknown.Objective: We examined the associations of the maternal night-fasting interval during pregnancy with offspring birth size and adiposity.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of mother-offspring dyads within the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort. For 384 mothers aged 30...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592515/intragastric-lysine-lowers-the-circulating-glucose-and-insulin-responses-to-a-mixed-nutrient-drink-without-slowing-gastric-emptying-in-healthy-adults
#18
Sina S Ullrich, Penelope Ce Fitzgerald, Iris Nkamba, Robert E Steinert, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset
Background: Lysine is reported to lower the glycemic response to oral glucose in humans and, albeit at high loads, to slow gastric emptying of glucose and decrease food intake in rats.Objective: We investigated the effects of intragastrically administered lysine on early (15 min) and later (60 min) blood glucose and insulin responses to and gastric emptying of a mixed-nutrient drink, and effects on subsequent energy intake.Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers (7 men and 5 women; mean ± SEM age: 24 ± 2 y) received intragastric infusions (200 mL) containing 5 or 10 g l-lysine or a control solution within 2 min on 3 different occasions in randomized order...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592514/a-western-diet-pattern-is-associated-with-higher-concentrations-of-blood-and-bone-lead-among-middle-aged-and-elderly-men
#19
Xin Wang, Ning Ding, Katherine L Tucker, Marc G Weisskopf, David Sparrow, Howard Hu, Sung Kyun Park
Background: Little is known about the effects of overall dietary pattern on lead concentration.Objective: We examined the association of overall dietary patterns, derived from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, with bone and blood lead concentrations.Methods: This longitudinal analyses included mostly non-Hispanic white, middle-aged-to-elderly men from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Long-term lead exposures were measured as tibia and patella lead concentrations by using K-shell-X-ray fluorescence...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592513/iron-zinc-folate-and-vitamin-b-12-status-increased-among-women-and-children-in-yaound%C3%A3-and-douala-cameroon-1-year-after-introducing-fortified-wheat-flour
#20
Reina Engle-Stone, Martin Nankap, Alex O Ndjebayi, Lindsay H Allen, Setareh Shahab-Ferdows, Daniela Hampel, David W Killilea, Marie-Madeleine Gimou, Lisa A Houghton, Avital Friedman, Ann Tarini, Rosemary A Stamm, Kenneth H Brown
Background: Few data are available on the effectiveness of large-scale food fortification programs.Objective: We assessed the impact of mandatory wheat flour fortification on micronutrient status in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon.Methods: We conducted representative surveys 2 y before and 1 y after the introduction of fortified wheat flour. In each survey, 10 households were selected within each of the same 30 clusters (n = ∼300 households). Indicators of inflammation, malaria, anemia, and micronutrient status [plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), zinc, folate, and vitamin B-12] were assessed among women aged 15-49 y and children 12-59 mo of age...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
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