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Annals of Human Biology

C Y Henderson, C Padez
BACKGROUND: Identifying the onset of puberty in skeletal remains can provide evidence of social changes associated with the onset of adulthood. AIM: This paper presents the first test of a skeletal method for identifying stages of development associated with the onset of puberty in a skeletal sample of known age and cause of death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Skeletal methods for assessing skeletal development associated with changes associated with puberty were recorded in the identified skeletal collection in Coimbra, Portugal...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Hongjuan Li, Chengye Ji, Liu Yang, Cheng Zhuang
BACKGROUND: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), the most plentiful circulating adrenal hormone, may be considered as a marker of the onset of adrenarche and is involved in pubertal development and metabolic disorders. AIM: The objective of this study is to determine the genetic and environmental influences on the variation of basal DHEAS levels and pubertal development in pubertal girls. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Three hundred and sixty twin girls aged 6-18-years were enrolled, consisting of 132 monozygotic pairs and 48 dizygotic pairs...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Duncan S Buchan, Gillian McLellan, Samantha Donnelly, Rosie Arthur
BACKGROUND: Limited studies have examined the diagnostic performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist to height ratio (WHtR) for identifying cardiometabolic risk (increased clustered glucose, triglycerides, mean arterial pressure and inv-HDL-cholesterol) in pre-adolescent youth. AIM: To compare the utility of BMI, WC and WHtR as predictors of cardiometabolic risk (CMR) in Scottish pre-adolescent children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 223 Scottish children (55...
October 12, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Ángeles C Ochoa-Martínez, Tania Ruíz-Vera, Sandra T Orta-García, G Domínguez-Cortinas, Jorge A Jiménez-Avalos, Iván N Pérez-Maldonado
AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the genetic effects of PON1 Q192R polymorphism on serum FABP4 levels in Mexican women. METHODS: PON1 Q192R polymorphism was genotyped using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay and serum FABP4 concentration was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The distribution of genotype frequencies in the assessed women (PON1 Q192R polymorphism) was QQ = 20%, QR = 48%, and RR = 32%...
October 6, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Sara Pereira, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Thayse Natacha Gomes, Michele Souza, Raquel N Chaves, Fernanda K Dos Santos, Daniel Santos, Donald Hedeker, José A R Maia
BACKGROUND: Somatotype is a complex trait influenced by different genetic and environmental factors as well as by other covariates whose effects are still unclear. AIM: To (1) estimate siblingś resemblance in their general somatotype; (2) identify sib-pair (brother-brother (BB), sister-sister (SS), brother-sister (BS)) similarities in individual somatotype components; (3) examine the degree to which between and within variances differ among sib-ships; (4) investigate the effects of physical activity (PA) and family socioeconomic status (SES) on these relationships...
September 29, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Xinnan Zong, Hui Li, Yaqin Zhang, Huahong Wu
BACKGROUND: It is important to update weight-for-length/height growth curves in China and reexamine their performance in screening malnutrition. AIM: To develop weight-for-length/height growth curves for Chinese children and adolescents. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 94,302 children aged 0-19 years with complete sex, age, weight and length/height data were obtained from two cross-sectional large-scaled national surveys in China. Weight-for-length/height growth curves were constructed using the LMS method before and after average spermarcheal/menarcheal ages, respectively...
September 26, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Jing Chen, Bingbing Xie, Yaran Yang, Meng Yang, Chao Liu, Yuexin Lv, Chuguang Chen, Xiu Liu, Xiangdong Fang, Huijuan Wu, Jiangwei Yan
BACKGROUND: Investigation of allele and genotype frequencies of microsatellite loci in various populations is an essential prerequisite in forensic application. AIM: In the present study, we obtained population genetic data and forensic parameters of 39 autosomal Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) loci from Chinese Li ethnic group and estimated the genetic relationships between Li and other reference populations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine STR loci, which include D19S433, D5S818, D21S11, D18S51, D6S1043, D3S1358, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, D2S441, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX, Penta E, TH01, D12S391, D2S1338, FGA, D6S477, D18S535, D19S253, D15S659, D11S2368, D20S470, D1S1656, D22-GATA198B05, D8S1132, D4S2366, D21S1270, D13S325, D9S925, D3S3045, D14S608, D10S1435, D7S3048, D17S1290 and D5S2500, were amplified two multiplex DNA-STR fluorescence detection systems for 189 unrelated healthy individuals of Chinese Li ethnic group...
September 26, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Victoria E Bullock, Paula Griffiths, Lauren B Sherar, Stacy A Clemes
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases and the prevalence is increasing worldwide. Research suggests that sedentary behaviour (sitting) may be related to obesity. AIM: To examine the association between sitting time and obesity, while controlling for physical activity, in a large international sample. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In total, 5338 adults from the UK, USA, Germany, Spain, Italy, France, Portugal, Austria and Switzerland self-reported their total daily sitting time, physical activity, age, height and weight...
September 25, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Jannick De Tobel, Elke Hillewig, Koenraad Verstraete
BACKGROUND: Established methods to stage development of third molars for forensic age estimation are based on the evaluation of radiographs, which show a 2D projection. It has not been investigated whether these methods require any adjustments in order to apply them to stage third molars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which shows 3D information. AIM: To prospectively study root stage assessment of third molars in age estimation using 3 Tesla MRI and to compare this with panoramic radiographs, in order to provide considerations for converting 2D staging into 3D staging and to determine the decisive root...
September 20, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
K Griggs, V Goosey-Tolfrey, T Paulson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Chunming Ma, Rui Wang, Yue Liu, Qiang Lu, Xiaoli Liu, Fuzai Yin
BACKGROUND: The neck circumference (NC) has been shown to be an accurate index for screening overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. AIM: To perform a meta-analysis to assess the performance of NC for the assessment of overweight and obesity. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data sources were PubMed and EMBASE up to March 2016. Studies providing measures of diagnostic performance of NC and using body mass index as reference standard were included...
September 2, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Danilo Rp Silva, André O Werneck, Paul Collings, David Ohara, Rômulo A Fernandes, Décio S Barbosa, Enio Rv Ronque, Luís B Sardinha, Edilson S Cyrino
BACKGROUND: Both cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat have been independently related to metabolic syndrome in adolescents, however the strength of these relationships seems to be dependent on the outcome composition. AIM: To analyse the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat combined with different indicators of metabolic risk in adolescents. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample was composed of 957 adolescents (58.7% girls)...
August 25, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Meg Armstrong, M I Lambert, E V Lambert
BACKGROUND: A double burden of both under- and over-nutrition exists among South African children. AIM: To describe associations between nutritional statuses and health-related fitness test performances. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Height and weight of 10 285 children (6-13 years; n = 5604 boys and 4681 girls) were measured and used to calculate: body mass index (BMI), and prevalence of overweight and obesity, stunting, wasting, and underweight...
August 21, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
M Mazharul Islam
BACKGROUND: Although consanguinity is widely practiced in Oman, the attitude of community towards consanguinity and the awareness of its health consequences to offspring remain largely unexplored. AIM: To analyse the levels and trends of consanguineous marriage and examine community awareness about congenital anomaly associated with consanguinity and attitude towards consanguinity in Oman. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The data come from a nationally representative survey on Omani adults of age 18 years and above, irrespective of their marital status...
August 21, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Flavio De Angelis, Olga Rickards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Noël Cameron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Annals of Human Biology
T J Cole, M Cortina Borja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Annals of Human Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Alex Pinheiro Gordia, Teresa Maria Bianchini de Quadros, Luciana Rodrigues Silva, Jorge Mota
BACKGROUND: The use of step count and TV viewing time to discriminate youngsters with hyperglycaemia is still a matter of debate. AIM: To establish cut-off values for step count and TV viewing time in children and adolescents using glycaemia as the reference criterion. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1044 schoolchildren aged 6-18 years from Northeastern Brazil. Daily step counts were assessed with a pedometer over 1 week and TV viewing time by self-report...
September 2016: Annals of Human Biology
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