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Annals of Human Biology

Brittany S Walter, Sharon N DeWitte
BACKGROUND: Late medieval England underwent intensive urbanisation, particularly in its largest city: London. Urban dwellers were exposed to factors such as high population density, elevated risk of infection, unsanitary living conditions and precarious food supplies. AIM: To assess whether the urban environment was more detrimental to health than the rural environment, this study compares risks of mortality and survival, as proxies for health, in medieval urban vs rural England...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Slah Ouerhani, Islem Ben Bahria, Kamel Rouissi, Lotfi Cherni
BACKGROUND: The N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and glutathione transferase enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Genetic polymorphisms affecting these enzymes can modify their activities with an effect on individual susceptibility for different pathologies. These metabolic phenotypes occur with varying prevalence in different populations. AIM: This study sought to analyse the prevalence of important allelic variants of NAT2, GSTM1 and GSTT1 in different Tunisian populations and compare them to other previously reported data...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Daniel J Hoffman, Maiza Campos-Ponce, Carla R Taddei, Colleen M Doak
CONTEXT: Despite an improvement in food security and the delivery of nutritional supplements to children living in impoverished parts of the world, poor growth is still highly prevalent. Given that the microbiome is related to both nutrient absorption, as well as overweight/obesity, it may play a central role in limiting or modifying normal growth processes while contributing to chronic disease risks. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe normal growth processes, the role of the microbiome in supporting or disrupting normal growth processes, and its potential impact on long-term health...
January 5, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Edmar Lacerda Mendes, Alynne Christian Ribeiro Andaki, Ciro José Brito, Juliano Magalhães Guedes, Maria Paula Maia Santos, Jorge Mota
BACKGROUND: The increase in obesity, especially the increase of visceral fat, has been directly associated with health risk. Additionally, a waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) (0.5) has been proposed as an indicator of early health risk. AIMS: To test the association between anthropometric measurements and inflammatory mRNA expression and to evaluate the effectiveness of WHtR to predict inflammatory risk in children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were collected in 94 Brazilian children (46 boys) aged 9-11 years...
December 15, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Jasbir Arora, Indu Talwar, Daisy Sahni, Vidya Rattan
BACKGROUND: Dentine has been examined extensively for age-related physiological changes but there exists limited data on age related changes at ultrastructural level of dentine Aim: The present study aimed to examine age related ultrastructural changes in calcospherites of human dentine under the scanning electron microscope. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 30 single rooted teeth of North Western adult Indians (18-75 yrs) were collected from the Department of Oral Health Sciences, PGIMER, Chandigarh...
December 8, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Naida Babić, Serkan Dogan, Jasmina Čakar, Amela Pilav, Damir Marjanović, Vesna Hadžiavdić
BACKGROUND: Tuzla Canton is the most populated region in the ethnically mixed territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, whose genetic analysis could provide an insight into past demographic events. AIM: Analysis of 23 Y-chromosome STR markers in the population of Tuzla Canton and investigation of the genetic relationship of the male population of the Tuzla Canton and that of the larger Bosnian and Herzegovinian population as well as neighbouring and other European populations...
November 30, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Natalia Weich, Alejandro Roisman, Belén Cerliani, Hilda V Aráoz, Lilien Chertkoff, Silvina M Richard, Irma Slavutsky, Irene B Larripa, Ariela F Fundia
BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are drug-metabolising enzymes involved in biotransformation of carcinogens, drugs, xenobiotics and oxygen free radicals. Polymorphisms of GST genes contribute to inter-individual and population variability in the susceptibility to environmental risk factors, cancer predisposition and pharmacotherapy responses. However, data about GST variability in Argentina are lacking. AIM: The purpose was to determine the prevalence of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms in the general population from a central region of Argentina and to perform inter-population comparisons...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Mohd Fareed, Mohammad Afzal
CONTEXT: Inbreeding increases the level of homozygotes for autosomal recessive disorders and is the major objective in clinical studies. The prevalence of consanguinity and the degree of inbreeding vary from one population to another depending on ethnicity, religion, culture and geography. Global epidemiological studies have revealed that consanguineous unions have been significantly associated with increased susceptibility to various forms of inherited diseases. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to determine the role of consanguinity in human health and to highlight the associated risks for various diseases or disorders...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Jannick De Tobel, Elke Hillewig, Koenraad Verstraete
BACKGROUND: Established methods to stage development of third molars for forensic age estimation are based on the evaluation of radiographs, which show a 2D projection. It has not been investigated whether these methods require any adjustments in order to apply them to stage third molars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which shows 3D information. AIM: To prospectively study root stage assessment of third molars in age estimation using 3 Tesla MRI and to compare this with panoramic radiographs, in order to provide considerations for converting 2D staging into 3D staging and to determine the decisive root...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Cemal Gurkan, Huseyin Sevay, Damla Kanliada Demirdov, Sinem Hossoz, Deren Ceker, Kerem Teralı, Ayla Sevim Erol
BACKGROUND: Cyprus is an island in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea with a documented history of human settlements dating back over 10,000 years. AIM: To investigate the paternal lineages of a representative population from Cyprus in the context of the larger Near Eastern/Southeastern European genetic landscape. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Three hundred and eighty samples from the second most populous ethnic group in Cyprus (Turkish Cypriots) were analysed at 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Jannick De Tobel, Elke Hillewig, Stephanie Bogaert, Karel Deblaere, Koenraad Verstraete
BACKGROUND: Established dental age estimation methods in sub-adults study the development of third molar root apices on radiographs. In living individuals, however, avoiding ionising radiation is expedient. Studying dental development with magnetic resonance imaging complies with this requirement, adding the advantage of imaging in three dimensions. AIM: To elaborate the development of an MRI protocol to visualise all third molars for forensic age estimation, with particular attention to the development of the root apex...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Sarra Elkamel, Lotfi Cherni, Luis Alvarez, Sofia L Marques, Maria J Prata, Sami Boussetta, Amel Benammar-Elgaaied, Houssein Khodjet-El-Khil
BACKGROUND: Recent genomic analyses suggest that the current North African gene pool was mainly influenced by population flow coming from the East that altered the genetic structure of autochthonous Berber populations. Such genetic flow has not been extensively addressed yet using North African populations of Middle-eastern origin as reference. AIM: To discern the Middle-eastern component in the genetic background of Tunisian Arabs and evaluate the extent of gene flow from the Middle East into North African autochthonous Berber populations...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Nasimeh Vatandoost, Ahmad Reza Salehi, Mohammad Kazemi, Sharifeh Khosravi, Gilda Eslami, Sara Kamali, Rasoul Salehi
BACKGROUND: Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are genetic markers with practical applications in human identification and population studies. AIM: Here we present the allelic and haplotype frequencies of 8 Y-STR loci most commonly used in forensic medicine in 103 unrelated native males of Isfahan province, central part of Iran. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The cases were selected on the basis of strict criteria to assure pure native populations of Isfahan origin...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Sara Flores-Gutiérrez, Álvaro Rodríguez-Larralde, Merlyn Vívenes de Lugo, Dinorah Castro de Guerra
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms with decreased enzyme activity of their gene products have been reported in region CYP2C with population variations in haplotype structure. AIM: To estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of variants CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 and of CYP2C9/CYP2C19 haplotypes in Venezuelan populations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Six hundred and thirty-four individuals from nine admixed populations (AP) and the Warao indigenous group were studied...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Kemal Murat Canturk, Cemal Gurkan, Huseyin Sevay, Ramazan Emre
BACKGROUND: Situated at the crossroads of Asia, Middle East and Europe, Turkey has an ethnically diverse population of over 78 milllion people. AIM: To investigate the population genetics and potential differences in the autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms across all the major geographic regions and largest metropolitan province of Turkey within the context of the Near Eastern/European genetic landscape. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Samples from a total of 5299 unrelated individuals were analysed at 10 common [D2S1338, D3S1358, D8S1179, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, FGA, TH01, vWA] and five new European Standard Set (ESS) core autosomal STR loci [D1S1656, D2S441, D10S1248, D12S391, D22S1045]...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Danielle Wendel, David Weber, Mary B Leonard, Sheela N Magge, Andrea Kelly, Virginia A Stallings, Mary Pipan, Nicolas Stettler, Babette S Zemel
BACKGROUND: Body composition prediction equations using skinfolds are useful alternatives to advanced techniques, but their utility across diverse paediatric populations is unknown. AIM: To evaluate published and new prediction equations across diverse samples of children with health conditions affecting growth and body composition. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Anthropometric and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition measures were obtained in children with Down syndrome (n = 59), Crohn disease (n = 128), steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (n = 67) and a healthy reference group (n = 835)...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Paolo Anagnostou, Marco Capocasa, Valentina Dominici, Francesco Montinaro, Valentina Coia, Giovanni Destro-Bisol
BACKGROUND: A number of studies which have investigated isolation patterns in human populations rely on the analysis of intra- and inter-population genetic statistics of mtDNA polymorphisms. However, this approach makes it difficult to differentiate between the effects of long-term genetic isolation and the random fluctuations of statistics due to reduced sample size. AIM: To overcome the confounding effect of sample size when detecting signatures of genetic isolation...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Sabu S Padmadas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
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