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Annals of Human Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931125/morphology-and-age-related-changes-in-calcospherites-of-human-teeth-an-ultrastructural-study
#1
Jasbir Arora, Indu Talwar, Daisy Sahni, Vidya Rattan
BACKGROUND: Dentine has been examined extensively for age-related physiological changes but there exists limited data on age related changes at ultrastructural level of dentine Aim: The present study aimed to examine age related ultrastructural changes in calcospherites of human dentine under the scanning electron microscope. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 30 single rooted teeth of North Western adult Indians (18-75 yrs) were collected from the Department of Oral Health Sciences, PGIMER, Chandigarh...
December 8, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927018/microbiome-growth-retardation-and-metabolism-are-they-related
#2
Daniel J Hoffman, Maiza Campos Ponce, Carla R Taddei, Colleen M Doak
The prevalence of undernutrition has decreased in many parts of the developing world, but increased urbanization in many countries, combined with broad changes in diet, have provided a backdrop against which many challenges to human growth continue. Moreover, a number of studies now suggest that poor diet and growth in early childhood are risk factors for chronic diseases in adulthood. However, such problems appear to continue despite an improvement in food security or the delivery of nutritional supplements to children living in impoverished areas of urban centers...
December 7, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826995/molecular-diversity-of-23-y-chromosome-short-tandem-repeat-loci-in-the-population-of-tuzla-canton-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#3
Naida Babić, Serkan Dogan, Jasmina Čakar, Amela Pilav, Damir Marjanović, Vesna Hadžiavdić
BACKGROUND: Tuzla Canton is the most populated region in the ethnically mixed territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, whose genetic analysis could provide an insight into past demographic events. AIM: Analysis of 23 Y-chromosome STR markers in the population of Tuzla Canton and investigation of the genetic relationship of the male population of the Tuzla Canton and that of the larger Bosnian and Herzegovinian population as well as neighbouring and other European populations...
November 30, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892699/genetics-of-consanguinity-and-inbreeding-in-health-and-disease
#4
Mohd Fareed, Mohammad Afzal
CONTEXT: Inbreeding increases the level of homozygotes for autosomal recessive disorders and is the major objective in clinical studies. The prevalence of consanguinity and the degree of inbreeding vary from one population to another depending on ethnicity, religion, culture and geography. Global epidemiological studies have revealed that consanguineous unions have been significantly associated with increased susceptibility to various forms of inherited diseases Objective: The study aimed to determine the role of consanguinity in human health and to highlight the associated risks for various diseases or disorders...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892694/gene-polymorphism-profiles-of-drug-metabolising-enzymes-gstm1-gstt1-and-gstp1-in-an-argentinian-population
#5
Natalia Weich, Alejandro Roisman, Belén Cerliani, Hilda V Aráoz, Lilien Chertkoff, Silvina M Richard, Irma Slavutsky, Irene B Larripa, Ariela F Fundia
BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are drug-metabolising enzymes involved in biotransformation of carcinogens, drugs, xenobiotics and oxygen free radicals. Polymorphisms of GST genes contribute to inter-individual and population variability in the susceptibility to environmental risk factors, cancer predisposition and pharmacotherapy responses. However, data about GST variability in Argentina are lacking. AIM: The purpose was to determine the prevalence of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms in the general population from a central region of Argentina and to perform inter-population comparisons...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780362/waist-circumference-to-height-ratio-predicts-inflammatory-risk-in-children
#6
Edmar Lacerda Mendes, Alynne Christian Ribeiro Andaki, Ciro José Brito, Juliano Magalhães Guedes, Maria Paula Maia Santos, Jorge Mota
BACKGROUND: The increase in obesity, especially the increase of visceral fat, has been directly associated with health risk. Additionally, a waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) (0.5) has been proposed as an indicator of early health risk. AIMS: To test the association between anthropometric measurements and inflammatory mRNA expression and to evaluate the effectiveness of WHtR to predict inflammatory risk in children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were collected in 94 Brazilian children (46 boys) aged 9-11 years...
October 26, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760470/testing-times-identifying-puberty-in-an-identified-skeletal-sample
#7
C Y Henderson, C Padez
BACKGROUND: Identifying the onset of puberty in skeletal remains can provide evidence of social changes associated with the onset of adulthood. AIM: This paper presents the first test of a skeletal method for identifying stages of development associated with the onset of puberty in a skeletal sample of known age and cause of death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Skeletal methods for assessing skeletal development associated with changes associated with puberty were recorded in the identified skeletal collection in Coimbra, Portugal...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658887/heritability-of-serum-dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate-levels-and-pubertal-development-in-6%C3%A2-18-year-old-girls-a-twin-study
#8
Hongjuan Li, Chengye Ji, Liu Yang, Cheng Zhuang
BACKGROUND: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), the most plentiful circulating adrenal hormone, may be considered as a marker of the onset of adrenarche and is involved in pubertal development and metabolic disorders. AIM: The objective of this study is to determine the genetic and environmental influences on the variation of basal DHEAS levels and pubertal development in pubertal girls. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Three hundred and sixty twin girls aged 6-18-years were enrolled, consisting of 132 monozygotic pairs and 48 dizygotic pairs...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733066/diagnostic-performance-of-body-mass-index-waist-circumference-and-the-waist-to-height-ratio-for-identifying-cardiometabolic-risk-in-scottish-pre-adolescents
#9
Duncan S Buchan, Gillian McLellan, Samantha Donnelly, Rosie Arthur
BACKGROUND: Limited studies have examined the diagnostic performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist to height ratio (WHtR) for identifying cardiometabolic risk (increased clustered glucose, triglycerides, mean arterial pressure and inv-HDL-cholesterol) in pre-adolescent youth. AIM: To compare the utility of BMI, WC and WHtR as predictors of cardiometabolic risk (CMR) in Scottish pre-adolescent children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 223 Scottish children (55...
October 12, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712128/association-between-q192r-paraoxonase-1-polymorphism-and-serum-adipocyte-fatty-acid-binding-protein-fabp4-levels-in-mexican-women
#10
Ángeles C Ochoa-Martínez, Tania Ruíz-Vera, Sandra T Orta-García, G Domínguez-Cortinas, Jorge A Jiménez-Avalos, Iván N Pérez-Maldonado
AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the genetic effects of PON1 Q192R polymorphism on serum FABP4 levels in Mexican women. METHODS: PON1 Q192R polymorphism was genotyped using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay and serum FABP4 concentration was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The distribution of genotype frequencies in the assessed women (PON1 Q192R polymorphism) was QQ = 20%, QR = 48%, and RR = 32%...
October 6, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686450/multilevel-modelling-of-somatotype-components-the-portuguese-sibling-study-on-growth-fitness-lifestyle-and-health
#11
Sara Pereira, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Thayse Natacha Gomes, Michele Souza, Raquel N Chaves, Fernanda K Dos Santos, Daniel Santos, Donald Hedeker, José A R Maia
BACKGROUND: Somatotype is a complex trait influenced by different genetic and environmental factors as well as by other covariates whose effects are still unclear. AIM: To (1) estimate siblingś resemblance in their general somatotype; (2) identify sib-pair (brother-brother (BB), sister-sister (SS), brother-sister (BS)) similarities in individual somatotype components; (3) examine the degree to which between and within variances differ among sib-ships; (4) investigate the effects of physical activity (PA) and family socioeconomic status (SES) on these relationships...
September 29, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670362/weight-for-length-height-growth-curves-for-children-and-adolescents-in-china-in-comparison-with-body-mass-index-in-prevalence-estimates-of-malnutrition
#12
Xinnan Zong, Hui Li, Yaqin Zhang, Huahong Wu
BACKGROUND: It is important to update weight-for-length/height growth curves in China and reexamine their performance in screening malnutrition. AIM: To develop weight-for-length/height growth curves for Chinese children and adolescents. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 94,302 children aged 0-19 years with complete sex, age, weight and length/height data were obtained from two cross-sectional large-scaled national surveys in China. Weight-for-length/height growth curves were constructed using the LMS method before and after average spermarcheal/menarcheal ages, respectively...
September 26, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670224/genetic-variability-and-forensic-efficiency-of-39-microsatellite-loci-in-the-li-ethnic-group-from-hainan-island-in-south-china-sea
#13
Jing Chen, Bingbing Xie, Yaran Yang, Meng Yang, Chao Liu, Yuexin Lv, Chuguang Chen, Xiu Liu, Xiangdong Fang, Huijuan Wu, Jiangwei Yan
BACKGROUND: Investigation of allele and genotype frequencies of microsatellite loci in various populations is an essential prerequisite in forensic application. AIM: In the present study, we obtained population genetic data and forensic parameters of 39 autosomal Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) loci from Chinese Li ethnic group and estimated the genetic relationships between Li and other reference populations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine STR loci, which include D19S433, D5S818, D21S11, D18S51, D6S1043, D3S1358, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, D2S441, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX, Penta E, TH01, D12S391, D2S1338, FGA, D6S477, D18S535, D19S253, D15S659, D11S2368, D20S470, D1S1656, D22-GATA198B05, D8S1132, D4S2366, D21S1270, D13S325, D9S925, D3S3045, D14S608, D10S1435, D7S3048, D17S1290 and D5S2500, were amplified two multiplex DNA-STR fluorescence detection systems for 189 unrelated healthy individuals of Chinese Li ethnic group...
September 26, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604822/sitting-time-and-obesity-in-a-sample-of-adults-from-europe-and-the-usa
#14
Victoria E Bullock, Paula Griffiths, Lauren B Sherar, Stacy A Clemes
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases and the prevalence is increasing worldwide. Research suggests that sedentary behaviour (sitting) may be related to obesity. AIM: To examine the association between sitting time and obesity, while controlling for physical activity, in a large international sample. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In total, 5338 adults from the UK, USA, Germany, Spain, Italy, France, Portugal, Austria and Switzerland self-reported their total daily sitting time, physical activity, age, height and weight...
September 25, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650301/forensic-age-estimation-based-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-third-molars-converting-2d-staging-into-3d-staging
#15
Jannick De Tobel, Elke Hillewig, Koenraad Verstraete
BACKGROUND: Established methods to stage development of third molars for forensic age estimation are based on the evaluation of radiographs, which show a 2D projection. It has not been investigated whether these methods require any adjustments in order to apply them to stage third molars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which shows 3D information. AIM: To prospectively study root stage assessment of third molars in age estimation using 3 Tesla MRI and to compare this with panoramic radiographs, in order to provide considerations for converting 2D staging into 3D staging and to determine the decisive root...
September 20, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809655/the-nick-norgan-award-2016
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809654/annals-of-human-biology
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26873523/response-to-letter-by-thodberg-et%C3%A2-al-ahb-2016
#18
Tim J Cole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608734/supporting-paralympic-wheelchair-sport-performance-through-technological-physiological-and-environmental-considerations
#19
K Griggs, V Goosey-Tolfrey, T Paulson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588606/diagnostic-performance-of-neck-circumference-to-identify-overweight-and-obesity-as-defined-by-body-mass-index-in-children-and-adolescents-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Chunming Ma, Rui Wang, Yue Liu, Qiang Lu, Xiaoli Liu, Fuzai Yin
BACKGROUND: The neck circumference (NC) has been shown to be an accurate index for screening overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. AIM: To perform a meta-analysis to assess the performance of NC for the assessment of overweight and obesity. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data sources were PubMed and EMBASE up to March 2016. Studies providing measures of diagnostic performance of NC and using body mass index as reference standard were included...
September 2, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
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