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Annals of Human Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891350/dental-age-estimation-in-a-group-of-kenyan-children-using-willems-method-a-radiographic-study
#1
Eunice Njeri Kihara, Peter Gichangi, Helen M Liversidge, Fawzia Butt, Gichambira Gikenye
BACKGROUND: Radiographic study of developing teeth provides a reliable indication of chronological age. In Kenya, dentists are often required to estimate age. However, there is a paucity of publications on the performance of dental age estimation methods. AIM: To determine the accuracy of Willems' method of dental age estimation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done at The University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. Panoramic radiographs of children aged 3...
September 11, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875717/sult1a1-copy-number-variation-ethnic-distribution-analysis-in-indian-population
#2
Suhani Almal, Harish Padh
Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) are phase II detoxification enzymes involved in metabolism of numerous xenobiotics, drugs, and endogenous compounds. Interindividual variation in sulfonation capacity is important for determining an individual's response to xenobiotics. SNPs in SULTs, mainly SULT1A1 have been associated with cancer risk and also with response to therapeutic agents. Copy number variation (CNVs) in SULT1A1 is found to be correlated with altered enzyme activity. This short report primarily focuses on CNV in SULT1A1 and its distribution among different ethnic populations around the globe...
September 6, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866960/blood-pressure-effects-of-adiposity-in-non-overweight-children-aged-6-17-years
#3
Changwei Tian, Shuang Xu, Hua Wang, Wenming Wang, Hui Shen
Obesity is a well-established risk factor of elevated blood pressure; however, the relationships between normal weight status and the risk of hypertension and pre-hypertension are not clear. The aim of this study is to describe the blood pressure effects of adiposity in non-overweight children. 588,097 non-overweight children aged 6-17 years were included from National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health. A non-linear relationship was found between age- and gender-standardised body mass index (BMI) z-score and pre-hypertension and hypertension, respectively...
September 3, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835122/biological-and-environmental-determinants-of-12-minute-run-performance-in-youth
#4
Duarte Freitas, José Maia, Mikis Stasinopoulos, Élvio Rúbio Gouveia, António M Antunes, Martine Thomis, Johan Lefevre, Albrecht Claessens, Donald Hedeker, Robert M Malina
BACKGROUND: The 12-minute run is a commonly used indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness in youth. Variation in growth and maturity status as potential correlates of test performance has not been systematically addressed. AIM: To evaluate biological and environmental determinants of 12-minute run performance in Portuguese youth aged 7-17 years. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Mixed-longitudinal samples of 187 boys and 142 girls were surveyed in 1996, 1997 and 1998...
August 23, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831823/mutation-rates-for-20-str-loci-in-a-population-from-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-southeast-brazil
#5
J Martinez, D F Braganholi, I B Ambrósio, F S Polverari, Rmb Cicarelli
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are genetic markers largely employed in forensic analysis and paternity investigation cases. When an inconsistency between parent and child were considered as a possible mutation, the mutation rate should be incorporated into paternity index calculations to have a robust result and to reduce the chance of misinterpretation. The aim of this study was to estimate mutation rate of 20 autosomal STRs loci used for paternity tests. In these loci were analyzed 29,831 parent-child allelic transfers from 929 duos or trios paternity tests carried out during 2012-2016 from São Paulo State, Brazil...
August 23, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830231/prevalence-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-chinese-children-and-adolescents-from-2015
#6
Yunping Zhou, Qian Zhang, Tao Wang, Yanqing Zhang, Bo Xu
BACKGROUND: To update the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from 2015. METHODS: Data for this study were obtained from children and adolescents aged 7 to 17 years with measured weight and height in 2015 from National Surveys on Chinese Students' Constitution and Health. RESULTS: Measurements from 29,418 children and adolescents (14,480 boys and 14,938 girls) were analysed. Among children and adolescents aged 7 to 17 years, the prevalence of obesity was 13...
August 22, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830224/testing-ecological-and-universal-models-of-body-shape-and-child-health-using-a-global-sample-of-infants-and-young-children
#7
Craig Hadley, Daniel J Hruschka
AIM: To test whether a risk of child illness is best predicted by deviations from a population-specific growth distribution or a universal growth distribution. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Child weight for height and child illness data from 433 776 children (1-59 months) from 47 different low and lower income countries are used in regression models to estimate for each country the child basal weight for height. This study assesses the extent to which individuals within populations deviate from their basal slenderness...
August 22, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758518/allometric-scaling-of-power-force-velocity-ergometry-profiles-in-men
#8
Hamdi Jaafar
AIM: To examine the appropriate magnitude of allometric scaling of the force-velocity relationship according to body dimensions and to establish normative data for the power-force-velocity relationship for active men. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety-seven participants completed a force-velocity test on a Monark cycle ergometer. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks were established for maximal power (Pmax), maximal force (F0) and maximal velocity (V0). RESULTS: The mean (± SD) of Pmax, F0 and V0 were 1114...
July 31, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724311/characterization-of-complete-mitochondrial-genomes-of-indigenous-mayans-in-mexico
#9
Fuzuki Mizuno, Li Wang, Saburo Sugiyama, Kunihiko Kurosaki, Julio Granados, Celta Gomez-Trejo, Víctor Acuña-Alonzo, Shintaroh Ueda
In this study, we determined the complete mitogenome sequences of nine unrelated individuals from the indigenous Maya population living in Mexico. Their mitogenome sequences could be classified into either of the haplogroups A2 and C1. We previously published the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of two indigenous Mesoamerican populations, Mazahua (n = 25) and Zapotec (n =88). Surprisingly, there were no mitogenome sequences (haplotypes) that the Maya, Mazahua, and Zapotec people share in common...
July 20, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715917/self-reported-discomfort-associated-with-daylight-saving-time-in-brazilian-tropical-and-subtropical-zones
#10
João Carlos Nascimento de Alencar, Mario André Leocardio-Miguel, Leandro Lourenção Duarte, Fernando Louzada, John Fontenele Araujo, Mario Pedrazzoli
BACKGROUND: Daylight Saving Time (DST) annually moves clocks one hour forward, when daytime is longer than night. Previous studies from medium and high latitude locations have pointed to a disruptive effect of DST on human circadian rhythms. Since Brazil is an equatorial country implementing DST, a different relationship between photic and social synchronizers may interfere with DST effects. AIM: To explore the prevalence and duration of self-reported discomfort related to DST among Brazilian residents (lat...
July 17, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715914/leprosy-in-a-lombard-avar-cemetery-in-central-italy-campochiaro-molise-6th-8th-century-ad-ancient-dna-evidence-and-demography
#11
Mauro Rubini, Paola Zaio, Mark Spigelman, Helen D Donoghue
BACKGROUND: The study of past infectious diseases increases knowledge of the presence, impact and spread of pathogens within ancient populations. AIM: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine bones for the presence of Mycobacterium leprae ancient DNA (aDNA) as, even when leprosy is present, bony changes are not always pathognomonic of the disease. This study also examined the demographic profile of this population and compared it with two other populations to investigate any changes in mortality trends between different infectious diseases and between the pre-antibiotic and antibiotic eras...
July 17, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715913/body-parameters-of-czech-breastfed-children-compared-to-the-czech-references-and-who-growth-standards
#12
Jitka Riedlová, Jana Vignerová, Markéta Paulová, Vladimir Musil, Marek Brabec, Dagmar Schneidrová
BACKGROUND: The study concerns the comparison of percentile curves of Czech breastfed children with Czech national references from 1991 and 2001 and WHO growth standards. Growth charts of breastfed children demonstrate different curve shapes, especially in the first months of life. Incorrect interpretation of the growth curve could lead to premature introduction of complementary foods or infant formula. AIM: The comparison of four body parameters of Czech breastfed children with currently used Czech national references and WHO standards in order to recommend that Czech paediatricians use either Czech references or WHO standards in their practice...
July 17, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705029/bosnian-study-of-apoe-distribution-bosad-a-comparison-with-other-european-populations
#13
Grażyna Adler, Mateusz A Adler, Anna Urbańska, Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka, Emina Kiseljakovic, Amina Valjevac, Miłosz Parczewski, Almira Hadzovic-Dzuvo
BACKGROUND: The ε2, ε3 and ε4 alleles of APOE gene have been associated with several diseases in different populations. Data on the frequency of alleles are used in both a clinical and evolutionary context. Although the data on frequency of these alleles are numerous, there are no reports for the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. AIM: To estimate the frequency of APOE alleles in a healthy Bosnian population and compare it to data for other European populations...
July 13, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625087/the-ex-pat-effect-presence-of-recent-western-immigrants-is-associated-with-changes-in-age-at-first-birth-and-birth-rate-in-a-maya-population-from-rural-guatemala
#14
Luseadra McKerracher, Mark Collard, Rachel Altman, Michael Richards, Pablo Nepomnaschy
BACKGROUND: Economic transitions expose indigenous populations to a variety of ecological and cultural challenges, especially regarding diet and stress. These kinds of challenges are predicted by evolutionary ecological theory to have fitness consequences (differential reproduction) and, indeed, are often associated with changes in fertility dynamics. It is currently unclear whether international immigration might impact the nature of such an economic transition or its consequences for fertility...
July 11, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535729/quantitative-genetics-of-circulating-hyaluronic-acid-ha-and-its-correlation-with-hand-osteoarthritis-and-obesity-related-phenotypes-in-a-community-based-sample
#15
Jai Prakash, Gulzhan Gabdulina, Svetlana Trofimov, Gregory Livshits
BACKGROUND: One of the potential molecular biomarkers of osteoarthritis (OA) is hyaluronic acid (HA). HA levels may be related to the severity and progression of OA. However, little is known about the contribution of major risk factors for osteoarthritis, e.g. obesity-related phenotypes and genetics to HA variation. AIM: To clarify the quantitative effect of these factors on HA. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An ethnically homogeneous sample of 911 apparently healthy European-derived individuals, assessed for radiographic hand osteoarthritis (RHOA), HA, leptin, adiponectin, and several anthropometrical measures of obesity-related phenotypes was studied...
July 9, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535738/human-growth-and-the-microbiome
#16
Daniel J Hoffman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738741/human-biology-of-migration
#17
Djuke Veldhuis, Simon J Underdown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637372/recent-migration-and-sample-representativeness-in-a-danish-genetic-study
#18
Georgios Athanasiadis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535703/nutritional-status-and-height-weight-and-bmi-centiles-of-school-aged-children-and-adolescents-of-6-18-years-from-kinshasa-drc
#19
Rudahaba Augustin Buhendwa, Mathieu Roelants, Martine Thomis, Constant E Nkiama
BACKGROUND: The last study to establish centiles of main anthropometric measurements in Kinshasa was conducted over 60 years ago, which questions its current adequacy to describe or monitor growth in this population. AIM: To assess the nutritional status of school-aged children and adolescents and to estimate centile curves of height, weight and body mass index (BMI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A representative sample of 7541 school-aged children and adolescents (48% boys) aged 6-18 years was measured between 2010-2013...
June 14, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535737/the-influence-of-migration-on-dietary-practices-of-ghanaians-living-in-the-united-kingdom-a-qualitative-study
#20
Hibbah Araba Osei-Kwasi, Katie Powell, Mary Nicolaou, Michelle Holdsworth
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified a process of dietary acculturation when migrant groups adopt the food patterns of the host country. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the influence of migration on dietary practices and the process of dietary acculturation amongst Ghanaians living in the UK. SUBJECT AND METHODS: A qualitative study of adults aged ≥25 years (n = 31) of Ghanaian ancestry living in Greater Manchester using face-to-face interviews...
June 13, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
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