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Annals of Human Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325067/deep-genealogical-analysis-of-a-large-cohort-of-participants-in-the-cartagene-project-quebec-canada
#1
Marc Tremblay, Gabrielle Rouleau
BACKGROUND: Genealogical analysis helps to better understand the genetic structure of populations. The population of Quebec (Canada) often serves as a model for this type of analysis, having one of the world's most complete genealogical databases. AIM: The main objective of this study was to reconstruct, analyse and compare the ascending genealogies of participants to CARTaGENE, a project that aims at building a database on various aspects of public health. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In total, 5110 genealogies from four Quebec regions were reconstructed...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301950/cardiorespiratory-fitness-but-not-physical-activity-is-associated-with-academic-achievement-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
Tânia Oliveira, Andreia Pizarro, Manuela Costa, Luís Fernandes, Gustavo Silva, Jorge Mota, José Carlos Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) seem to have positive effects on academic achievement (AA), although in most studies, objective methods of assessment have not been used. AIM: To examine the associations of CRF and PA with AA. SUBJECTS & METHODS: A sample of 640 youngsters (10-18 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. CRF was estimated with the 20-metre shuttle run test and PA was measured using accelerometers...
March 16, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277746/genetic-variation-of-mhc-class-i-polymorphic-alu-insertions-poalins-in-three-subpopulations-of-the-east-midlands-uk
#3
Sarabjit S Mastana, Jasvinder S Bhatti, Puneetpal Singh, Adam Wiles, Jonathan Holland
BACKGROUND: Alu elements are highly researched due to their useful nature as markers in the study of human population genetics. Recently discovered Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) polymorphic Alu insertions (POALINs) have not been examined extensively for genetic variation and their HLA associations. AIMS: The aim of this study is to assess the genetic variation between three populations using five recently discovered POALINs. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: The study examined 190 healthy, unrelated subjects from three different populations in the East Midlands (UK) for the presence or absence of five Alu elements (AluHG, AluMICB, AluHJ, AluTF and AluHF) via the polymerase chain reaction followed by gel electrophoresis...
March 5, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140657/mitochondrial-super-haplogroup-u-diversity-in-serbians
#4
Slobodan Davidovic, Boris Malyarchuk, Jelena Aleksic, Miroslava Derenko, Vladanka Topalovic, Andrey Litvinov, Katarzyna Skonieczna, Urszula Rogalla, Tomasz Grzybowski, Milena Stevanovic, Natasa Kovacevic-Grujicic
BACKGROUND: Available mitochondrial (mtDNA) data demonstrate genetic differentiation among South Slavs inhabiting the Balkan Peninsula. However, their resolution is insufficient to elucidate the female-specific aspects of the genetic history of South Slavs, including the genetic impact of various migrations which were rather common within the Balkans, a region having a turbulent demographic history. AIM: Therefore, we thoroughly studied complete mitogenomes of Serbians, a population linking westward and eastward South Slavs...
January 31, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139941/polymorphism-in-lrp5-rs556442-is-associated-with-higher-tg-levels-in-iranian-children
#5
Nima Montazeri-Najafabady, Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh, Gholamhossein Ranjbar Omrani, Forough Saki, Marzieh Bakhshayeshkaram
BACKGROUND: Wnt signaling/LRP5 is involved in adipogenesis by down-regulating adipogenic transcription factors. Therefore polymorphisms in components of this pathway may lead to metabolic disorders. AIM: In this study, we tested the impact of LRP5 polymorphism on lipid profile in Iranian children. METHODS: The study population was comprised of 9-18 year old children (125 boys, 137 girls). Total cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Non HDL cholesterol and Triglyceride (TG) levels were checked...
January 31, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139940/mitochondrial-dna-control-region-sequences-may-differentiate-yanbian-koreans-in-china-from-other-asian-populations
#6
Xiao-Na Li, Ji-Long Zheng, Jun Yao, Yue Dong, Zhang-Sen Shi, Bao-Jie Wang
BACKGROUND: Sequence polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are valuable in forensic medicine and anthropological genetics. AIM: We investigated the mtDNA control region sequences in 295 unrelated individuals living in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in the People's Republic of China. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: DNA was extracted from blood stained filter papers. Hypervariable regions of the mtDNA control region (HVI and HVII) were amplified and sequenced...
January 31, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118741/alcohol-use-disorder-and-gaba-b-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-in-an-italian-sample-haplotype-frequencies-linkage-disequilibrium-and-association-studies
#7
Fabio Caputo, Bianca Maria Ciminelli, Carla Jodice, Paola Blasi, Teo Vignoli, Mauro Cibin, Giorgio Zoli, Patrizia Malaspina
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a complex trait with genetic and environmental influences. Several gene variants have been associated with the risk for AUD, including genes encoding the subunits of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. AIM: This study evaluated whether specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding GABAB receptor subunits can be considered as candidates for the risk of AUD. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 74 AUD subjects and 128 Italian controls were genotyped for ten SNPs in genes encoding GABA-B1 and GABA-B2 subunits (GABBR1 and GABBR2)...
January 24, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931125/morphology-and-age-related-changes-in-calcospherites-of-human-teeth-an-ultrastructural-study
#8
Jasbir Arora, Indu Talwar, Daisy Sahni, Vidya Rattan
BACKGROUND: Dentine has been examined extensively for age-related physiological changes, but there are limited data on age-related changes at ultrastructural level of dentine. AIM: The present study aimed to examine age-related ultrastructural changes in calcospherites of human dentine under the scanning electron microscope. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty single rooted teeth of North Western adult Indians (18-75 years) were collected from the Department of Oral Health Sciences, PGIMER, Chandigarh...
January 23, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006969/urban-and-rural-mortality-and-survival-in-medieval-england
#9
Brittany S Walter, Sharon N DeWitte
BACKGROUND: Late medieval England underwent intensive urbanisation, particularly in its largest city: London. Urban dwellers were exposed to factors such as high population density, elevated risk of infection, unsanitary living conditions and precarious food supplies. AIM: To assess whether the urban environment was more detrimental to health than the rural environment, this study compares risks of mortality and survival, as proxies for health, in medieval urban vs rural England...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978766/distribution-of-xenobiotic-metabolising-enzyme-genotypes-in-different-tunisian-populations
#10
Slah Ouerhani, Islem Ben Bahria, Kamel Rouissi, Lotfi Cherni
BACKGROUND: The N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and glutathione transferase enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Genetic polymorphisms affecting these enzymes can modify their activities with an effect on individual susceptibility for different pathologies. These metabolic phenotypes occur with varying prevalence in different populations. AIM: This study sought to analyse the prevalence of important allelic variants of NAT2, GSTM1 and GSTT1 in different Tunisian populations and compare them to other previously reported data...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927018/microbiome-growth-retardation-and-metabolism-are-they-related
#11
Daniel J Hoffman, Maiza Campos-Ponce, Carla R Taddei, Colleen M Doak
CONTEXT: Despite an improvement in food security and the delivery of nutritional supplements to children living in impoverished parts of the world, poor growth is still highly prevalent. Given that the microbiome is related to both nutrient absorption, as well as overweight/obesity, it may play a central role in limiting or modifying normal growth processes while contributing to chronic disease risks. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe normal growth processes, the role of the microbiome in supporting or disrupting normal growth processes, and its potential impact on long-term health...
January 5, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892699/genetics-of-consanguinity-and-inbreeding-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Mohd Fareed, Mohammad Afzal
CONTEXT: Inbreeding increases the level of homozygotes for autosomal recessive disorders and is the major objective in clinical studies. The prevalence of consanguinity and the degree of inbreeding vary from one population to another depending on ethnicity, religion, culture and geography. Global epidemiological studies have revealed that consanguineous unions have been significantly associated with increased susceptibility to various forms of inherited diseases. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to determine the role of consanguinity in human health and to highlight the associated risks for various diseases or disorders...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650301/forensic-age-estimation-based-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-third-molars-converting-2d-staging-into-3d-staging
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jannick De Tobel, Elke Hillewig, Koenraad Verstraete
BACKGROUND: Established methods to stage development of third molars for forensic age estimation are based on the evaluation of radiographs, which show a 2D projection. It has not been investigated whether these methods require any adjustments in order to apply them to stage third molars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which shows 3D information. AIM: To prospectively study root stage assessment of third molars in age estimation using 3 Tesla MRI and to compare this with panoramic radiographs, in order to provide considerations for converting 2D staging into 3D staging and to determine the decisive root...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582472/correction-to-de-tobel-hillewig-bogaert-deblaere-and-verstraete-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-third-molars-developing-a-protocol-suitable-for-forensic-age-estimation
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456928/corrigendum
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356680/turkish-cypriot-paternal-lineages-bear-an-autochthonous-character-and-closest-resemblance-to-those-from-neighbouring-near-eastern-populations
#16
Cemal Gurkan, Huseyin Sevay, Damla Kanliada Demirdov, Sinem Hossoz, Deren Ceker, Kerem Teralı, Ayla Sevim Erol
BACKGROUND: Cyprus is an island in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea with a documented history of human settlements dating back over 10,000 years. AIM: To investigate the paternal lineages of a representative population from Cyprus in the context of the larger Near Eastern/Southeastern European genetic landscape. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Three hundred and eighty samples from the second most populous ethnic group in Cyprus (Turkish Cypriots) were analysed at 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329973/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-third-molars-developing-a-protocol-suitable-for-forensic-age-estimation
#17
Jannick De Tobel, Elke Hillewig, Stephanie Bogaert, Karel Deblaere, Koenraad Verstraete
BACKGROUND: Established dental age estimation methods in sub-adults study the development of third molar root apices on radiographs. In living individuals, however, avoiding ionising radiation is expedient. Studying dental development with magnetic resonance imaging complies with this requirement, adding the advantage of imaging in three dimensions. AIM: To elaborate the development of an MRI protocol to visualise all third molars for forensic age estimation, with particular attention to the development of the root apex...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328643/the-orientalisation-of-north-africa-new-hints-from-the-study-of-autosomal-strs-in-an-arab-population
#18
Sarra Elkamel, Lotfi Cherni, Luis Alvarez, Sofia L Marques, Maria J Prata, Sami Boussetta, Amel Benammar-Elgaaied, Houssein Khodjet-El-Khil
BACKGROUND: Recent genomic analyses suggest that the current North African gene pool was mainly influenced by population flow coming from the East that altered the genetic structure of autochthonous Berber populations. Such genetic flow has not been extensively addressed yet using North African populations of Middle-eastern origin as reference. AIM: To discern the Middle-eastern component in the genetic background of Tunisian Arabs and evaluate the extent of gene flow from the Middle East into North African autochthonous Berber populations...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282193/genetic-polymorphism-of-8-y-str-loci-in-native-population-of-isfahan-province-in-central-part-of-iran
#19
Nasimeh Vatandoost, Ahmad Reza Salehi, Mohammad Kazemi, Sharifeh Khosravi, Gilda Eslami, Sara Kamali, Rasoul Salehi
BACKGROUND: Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are genetic markers with practical applications in human identification and population studies. AIM: Here we present the allelic and haplotype frequencies of 8 Y-STR loci most commonly used in forensic medicine in 103 unrelated native males of Isfahan province, central part of Iran. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The cases were selected on the basis of strict criteria to assure pure native populations of Isfahan origin...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230833/distribution-of-polymorphisms-in-the-cyp2c9-gene-and-cyp2c19-cyp2c9-haplotypes-among-venezuelan-populations
#20
Sara Flores-Gutiérrez, Álvaro Rodríguez-Larralde, Merlyn Vívenes de Lugo, Dinorah Castro de Guerra
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms with decreased enzyme activity of their gene products have been reported in region CYP2C with population variations in haplotype structure. AIM: To estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of variants CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 and of CYP2C9/CYP2C19 haplotypes in Venezuelan populations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Six hundred and thirty-four individuals from nine admixed populations (AP) and the Warao indigenous group were studied...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
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