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Annals of Human Biology

Jinkyung Cho, Inhwan Lee, Soohyun Park, Youngyun Jin, Donghyun Kim, Shinuk Kim, Hyunsik Kang
BACKGROUND: The association between physical activity (PA) and all-cause mortality may be modulated by potential confounders. AIM: To investigate the association between weekly PA and all-cause mortality in a population-based prospective study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study sample included Korean older adults aged 60 years and older who participated in baseline assessments (n = 15 416) in 2008 and completed follow-up visits in 2011 (n = 14,976)...
July 16, 2018: Annals of Human Biology
André O Werneck, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva, Camila S Padilha, Enio R V Ronque, Edilson S Cyrino, Célia L Szwarcwald, Danilo R Silva
AIM: The aim was to evaluate the association between age at menarche and cancer using a nationally representative sample of Brazilian women. METHODS: Data from the Brazilian Health Survey (PNS), a nationally representative survey conducted in 2013 (n = 33,715 women; ≥18 years), were used. Information on cancer diagnosis, age at menarche and other co-variables (chronological age, educational status, skin colour, menopause, leisure-time physical activity and tobacco smoking) were collected via interview...
May 28, 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Amy K McLennan, M Shimonovich, S J Ulijaszek, M Wilson
BACKGROUND: Dietary surveys are frequently used as the basis for theorising nutritional change and diet-related non-communicable disease emergence (DR-NCD) in the Pacific islands. However, findings from historical survey data do not always align with ethnographic evidence. AIMS: This paper aims to examine the extent to which the two types of evidence can lead to similar conclusions, and draw out the implications for current theories of, and interventions addressing, nutritional change...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Pearl A McElfish, Ramey Moore, Melisa Laelan, Britni L Ayers
CONTEXT: Arkansas currently has the largest Marshallese community in the continental US. The limited research available demonstrates that Marshallese have significant health disparities, with higher rates of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and infectious diseases than the US population. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is 2-fold: (1) to describe the formation and capacity building efforts of a community-based participatory research partnership with the Marshallese community in Arkansas and (2) to describe key findings and lessons learned from 5 years of collaborative research...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Jun Ohashi, Izumi Naka, Takuro Furusawa, Ryosuke Kimura, Kazumi Natsuhara, Taro Yamauchi, Minato Nakazawa, Takafumi Ishida, Tsukasa Inaoka, Yasuhiro Matsumura, Ryutaro Ohtsuka
BACKGROUND: A missense variant (rs373863828:G > A; p.Arg457Gln) of the CREBRF gene is strongly associated with a higher body mass index (BMI; kg/m2 ) in Polynesian populations. This variant has also been reported to be associated with lower total cholesterol in Samoans. AIM: The aim of this study is to examine the association of rs373863828:G > A with levels of serum lipids in four Pacific populations. METHODS: A total of 613 adult subjects were recruited from Tonga (Polynesians) and the Solomon Islands (Melanesians and Micronesians)...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Courtney C Choy, Avery A Thompson, Christina Soti-Ulberg, Take Naseri, Muagututia S Reupena, Rachel L Duckham, Nicola L Hawley
BACKGROUND: Young children are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition as nutrition transition progresses. The aim of this study was to examine the adequacy of macro- and micronutrient intake among 2-4.99-year-old Samoan children. METHODS: Child dietary intake was measured using a 117-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with a 30-day reference period. Daily total energy and nutrient intake was calculated by multiplying the frequency of daily consumption by the nutrient content of a fixed, standard portion size...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Nicola L Hawley, Stephen T McGarvey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Alec Ekeroma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Jessica Hardin, Amy K McLennan, Alexandra Brewis
BACKGROUND: Pacific Islanders have experienced over 50 years of obesity interventions-the longest of any region in the world. Yet, obesity-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) continue to rise. 'Traditional' body norms have been cited as barriers to these interventions. AIM: In this study, we ask: 'What is the relationship between health interventions, body norms and people's experience of "fatness"? How - and why - have these changed over time?' We study two nations with high rates of obesity: Nauru and Samoa...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Tony R Merriman, Phillip L Wilcox
CONTEXT: Cardio-metabolic conditions in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ) Māori and non-indigenous Polynesian (Pacific) populations have been increasing in prevalence and severity, especially over the last two decades. OBJECTIVES: To assess knowledge on genetic and non-genetic risk factors for cardio-metabolic disease in the Māori and Pacific populations residing in Aotearoa NZ by a semi-systematic review of the PubMed database. To outline possible future directions in genetic epidemiological research with Māori and Pacific communities...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Michaela E Howells, Christopher D Lynn, Lesley Jo Weaver, Margaret Langford-Sesepesara, Joseph Tufa
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is linked to deleterious foetal and neonate outcomes. Maternal exposure to ZIKV through mosquitoes and sexual fluids creates a public health challenge for communities and policymakers, which is exacerbated by high levels of chronic non-communicable diseases in American Samoa. AIM: This study aimed to identify structural barriers to ZIKV prevention in American Samoa and situate them within locally relevant cultural and epidemiological contexts...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Daniel E Brown, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Lincoln A Gotshalk
BACKGROUND: Obesity, particularly in Native Hawaiians, is an important health risk. A possible contributing factor to obesity is reduced physical activity levels. AIM: This study investigates the relationship between measured levels of physical activity and body composition in two grade cohorts of school children of Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (NHPI) and non-NHPI ethnicity. METHODS: A sample of 105 Kindergarteners and third graders were measured for adiposity, physical fitness, and physical activity levels...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
R Taylor, S Lin, C Linhart, S Morrell
CONTEXT: Fiji has undergone an epidemiological transition, characterised by declining infectious disease and childhood mortality, that has been offset by rising cardiovascular disease mortality. Other Pacific Island states are in a comparable situation. OBJECTIVE: With a focus on Fiji, this study reviews and contextualises research performed by the authors and others that examines cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and their risk factors in Pacific Island states...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith, Anna L Gosling
CONTEXT: The Pacific region has had a complex human history. It has been subject to multiple major human dispersal and colonisation events, including some of the earliest Out-of-Africa migrations, the so-called Austronesian expansion of people out of Island Southeast Asia, and the more recent arrival of Europeans. Despite models of island isolation, evidence suggests significant levels of interconnectedness that vary in direction and frequency over time. The Pacific Ocean covers a vast area and its islands provide an array of different physical environments with variable pathogen loads and subsistence opportunities...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Joseph Keawe'aimoku Kaholokula, Claire Townsend Ing, Mele A Look, Rebecca Delafield, Ka'imi Sinclair
CONTEXT: Obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have reached epidemic proportions among Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHPI). Culturally responsive interventions that account for their interpersonal, sociocultural and socioeconomic realities are a public health priority. OBJECTIVE: To describe cultural adaptation and culturally grounded approaches to developing health interventions for NHPI and to review the culturally responsive approaches used by, and outcomes from, two long-standing community-based participatory research projects (CBPR) in Hawai'i: PILI 'Ohana and KāHOLO Projects...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Alysa Pomer, Giavana Buffa, Fasihah Taleo, J Hunter Sizemore, Apisai Tokon, George Taleo, Len Tarivonda, Chim W Chan, Akira Kaneko, Kelsey N Dancause
BACKGROUND: Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with birth outcomes, including birthweight. Exposure to natural disasters during pregnancy provides a model to study these relationships. However, few studies assess both stress and diet, which might have interactive effects. Furthermore, most are conducted in high-income countries. Patterns might differ in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). AIM: To study relationships between stress and diet during pregnancy, and infant birthweight, following a natural disaster in a lower-middle income country...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Tim James Cole
BACKGROUND: The SITAR model expresses individual pubertal height growth in terms of mean size, peak height velocity (PHV) and age at PHV. AIM: To use SITAR to identify the optimal time interval between measurements to summarise individual pubertal height growth. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Heights in 3172 boys aged 9-19 years from Christ's Hospital School measured on 128 679 occasions (a median of 42 heights per boy) were analysed using the SITAR (SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation) mixed effects growth curve model, which estimates a mean curve and three subject-specific random effects...
April 18, 2018: Annals of Human Biology
William Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Tatjana M Pavlica, Rada S Rakić, Verica S Božić-Krstić, Biljana Đ Srdić-Galić
BACKGROUND: Different populations show variation in the pattern of change in craniofacial dimensions over time. Earlier studies of craniofacial traits in the Republic of Serbia were carried out, without any particular reference to secular changes. AIM: The aim of the study is to determine possible changes in craniofacial dimensions among the adult population of Vojvodina (Serbia) during a 33 year period. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The findings of the study are based on the comparison of data from two cross-sectional surveys...
March 26, 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Lawrence M Schell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Annals of Human Biology
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