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Annals of Human Biology

Andrew J Simpkin, Adrian Sayers, Mark S Gilthorpe, Jon Heron, Kate Tilling
BACKGROUND: Controlling for maturational status and timing is crucial in lifecourse epidemiology. One popular non-invasive measure of maturity is the age at peak height velocity (PHV). There are several ways to estimate age at PHV, but it is unclear which of these to use in practice. AIM: To find the optimal approach for estimating age at PHV. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Methods included the Preece & Baines non-linear growth model, multi-level models with fractional polynomials, SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) and functional data analysis...
November 7, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Bert B Little, Zofia Ignasiak, Teresa Sławinska, Pawel Posłuszny, R M Malina, David L Wiegman
BACKGROUND: Reduced vital capacity (VC) and forced vital capacity (FVC) are associated with lead (Pb) exposure. AIM: The objective of this study is to analyse the effects of Pb on FVC and the shuttle run performance. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data were available for 184 male and 189 female Polish schoolchildren aged 10-15 years. Regression analysis was performed of shuttle run performance (dependent) on Pb and FVC. RESULTS: Shuttle run time increased by 1...
October 30, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
David S Freedman, Nancy F Butte, Elsie M Taveras, Alyson B Goodman, Heidi M Blanck
BACKGROUND: BMI z-scores (BMIz) based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts among children do not accurately characterise BMI levels among children with very high BMIs. These limitations may be particularly relevant in longitudinal and intervention studies, as the large changes in the L (normality) and S (dispersion) parameters with age can influence BMIz. AIM: To compare longitudinal changes in BMIz with BMI expressed as a percentage of the 95th percentile (%BMIp95) and a modified z-score calculated as log(BMI/M)/S...
October 30, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Wittaya Jomoui, Goonnapa Fucharoen, Kanokwan Sanchaisuriya, Nga Thi Nguyen, Hoa Van Nguyen, Supan Fucharoen
Haemoglobin (Hb) E is the most common Hb variant in Asia where its gene frequency approaches 0.3 in some areas. We studied genetic background of Hb E genes among Southeast Asian populations. This study examined β-globin gene haplotypes linked to haemoglobin E (Hb E) in diverse groups of Southeast Asian populations. The study was conducted on southern Thai (22 alleles), Cambodian (84 alleles), Laotian (120 alleles), Vietnamese (87 alleles) and Burmese (one allele) subjects. Results were compared with those of previous studies in northeast Thailand, the Yunnan of China, West India and Europe...
October 19, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Mathieu Roelants, Noël Cameron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Susan M Abdel-Rahman, Ian M Paul, Paula Delmore, Laura James, Laura Fearn, Andrew M Atz, Brenda B Poindexter, Amira Al-Uzri, Andrew Lewandowski, Barrie L Harper, P Brian Smith
BACKGROUND: Anthropometric data prove valuable for screening and monitoring various medical conditions. In young infants, however, only weight, length and head circumference are represented in publically accessible databases. AIM: To characterise length and circumferential measures in preterm and full-term infants up to 90 days postnatal age. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In eight U.S. medical centres, trained raters recorded humeral, ulnar, femoral, tibial, and fibular lengths along with mid-upper arm, mid-thigh, chest, abdominal, and neck circumference...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Caroline Kroll, Silmara S B S Mastroeni, Sandra A Czarnobay, John Paul Ekwaru, Paul J Veugelers, Marco F Mastroeni
CONTEXT: Neck circumference (NC) has been suggested as an alternative measure to screen for excess body weight in the population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the accuracy of neck circumference (NC) as a measure for assessing overweight and obesity in both sexes in different age groups. METHODS: Detailed individual search strategies were developed for each of the following bibliographic databases: Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Márta Szmodis, Annamária Zsákai, Edit Bosnyák, Anna Protzner, Emese Trájer, Anna Farkas, Gábor Szőts, Miklós Tóth
Backround: Osteoporosis is a common disease and physical activity (PA) has a favourable influence on bone status. AIM: To establish normative data for calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) bone characteristics in children and to analyse the relationships between PA, anthropometric and bone parameters. SUBJECTS & METHODS: Hungarian children aged 7-19 (N = 2674; 1325 girls, 1349 boys) provided PA, anthropometric and bone data. QUS parameters were registered with Sonost3000 densitometer (speed of sound: SOS, m/s; broadband ultrasound attenuation: BUA, dB/MHz; bone quantity index (BQI=αSOS+βBUA)...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Youngyun Jin, Jinkyung Cho, Inhwan Lee, Haeryun Hong, Donghyun Kim, Soohyun Park, Hyunsik Kang
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is one major lifestyle risk factor of mild cognitive impairment with ageing. AIM: To investigate whether or not potential covariates modulate the association between physical activity (PA) and cognitive impairment in older adults. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data from 10 245 Korean older adults (5 817 women) were used. RESULTS: High PA older adults were younger and longer educated and had lower comorbidity and depression than low PA older adults...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Rebecca J Jones, Guan K Tay, Aurélie Mawart, Habiba Alsafar
BACKGROUND: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is positioned at the crossroads of human migration out of Africa and through to Asia and Europe. AIM: To compare the degree of genetic diversity of the Arabian UAE population with populations in other countries from the Middle East, South Asia and North Africa. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven Y-STR were analysed in 217 individuals. Y-STR haplotypes from this study were compared to population data stored in YHRD, using MDS and AMOVA...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Francesco Carano, Stefania Sarno, Sara De Fanti, Patrizia Serventi, Carla Bini, Donata Luiselli, Susi Pelotti
BACKGROUND: Environmental conditions and past migratory events may have shaped genetic heterogeneity of clinically relevant enzymes involved in the phase I metabolism of the most common therapeutic drugs. AIM: To investigate the genetic variability of CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 across the Italian Peninsula, by sampling only ancestrally and geographically homogeneous individuals from northern, central and southern Italy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 25 SNPs were genotyped in 174 unrelated Italian individuals by means of multiplex PCR and minisequencing reactions...
October 3, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Wei Wang, Qingxia Wu, Xiaoyang Yang, Xin He, Xuefang An
BACKGROUND: The number of migrant elders is increasing due to ageing of the global population and increasing life expectancy. There is accumulating evidence of the impact of internal or international migration on health. AIM: To compare the health and depression of local and migrant elders in Hainan province. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Health and depression were assessed by the Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale Version 1.0 (SRHMS V1.0) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively...
September 27, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Maria Jesus Alvarez-Cubero, Maria Saiz, Belén Martínez-García, Sara M Sayalero, Carmen Entrala, Jose Antonio Lorente, Luis Javier Martinez-Gonzalez
CONTEXT: Over the last few decades, advances in sequencing have improved greatly. One of the most important achievements of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is to produce millions of sequence reads in a short period of time, and to produce large sequences of DNA in fragments of any size. Libraries can be generated from whole genomes or any DNA or RNA region of interest without the need to know its sequence beforehand. This allows for looking for variations and facilitating genetic identification...
September 26, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Suhani Almal, Harish Padh
Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) are phase II detoxification enzymes involved in metabolism of numerous xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Interindividual variation in sulfonation capacity is important for determining an individual's response to xenobiotics. SNPs in SULTs, mainly SULT1A1 have been associated with cancer risk and also with response to therapeutic agents. Copy number variation (CNVs) in SULT1A1 is found to be correlated with altered enzyme activity. This short report primarily focuses on CNV in SULT1A1 and its distribution among different ethnic populations around the globe...
September 24, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Changwei Tian, Shuang Xu, Hua Wang, Wenming Wang, Hui Shen
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-established risk factor of elevated blood pressure; however, the relationships between normal weight status and the risk of hypertension and pre-hypertension are not clear. AIM: The aim of this study is to describe the blood pressure effects of adiposity in non-overweight children. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 588 097 non-overweight children aged 6-17 years were included from the National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health...
September 24, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Eunice Njeri Kihara, Peter Gichangi, Helen M Liversidge, Fawzia Butt, Gichambira Gikenye
BACKGROUND: Radiographic study of developing teeth provides a reliable indication of chronological age. In Kenya, dentists are often required to estimate age. However, there is a paucity of publications on the performance of dental age estimation methods. AIM: To determine the accuracy of Willems' method of dental age estimation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done at The University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. Panoramic radiographs of children aged 3...
September 11, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Juliana Martinez, Danilo Faustino Braganholi, Isabela Brunelli Ambrósio, Fernanda Silva Polverari, Regina Maria Barretto Cicarelli
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are genetic markers largely employed in forensic analysis and paternity investigation cases. When an inconsistency between the parent and child is considered as a possible mutation, the mutation rate should be incorporated into paternity index calculations to give a robust result and to reduce the chance of misinterpretation. The aim of this study was to estimate the mutation rates of 20 autosomal STRs loci used for paternity tests. In these loci we analysed 29,831 parent-child allelic transfers from 929 duo or trio paternity tests carried out during 2012?2016 from São Paulo State, Brazil...
September 11, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Yunping Zhou, Qian Zhang, Tao Wang, Yanqing Zhang, Bo Xu
BACKGROUND: To update the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from 2015. METHODS: Data for this study were obtained from children and adolescents aged 7-17 years with measured weight and height from the National Surveys on Chinese Students' Constitution and Health in 2015. RESULTS: Measurements from 29 418 children and adolescents (14 480 boys and 14 938 girls) were analysed. Among children and adolescents aged 7-17 years, the prevalence of obesity was 13...
September 11, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Duarte Freitas, José Maia, Mikis Stasinopoulos, Élvio Rúbio Gouveia, António M Antunes, Martine Thomis, Johan Lefevre, Albrecht Claessens, Donald Hedeker, Robert M Malina
BACKGROUND: The 12-minute run is a commonly used indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness in youth. Variation in growth and maturity status as potential correlates of test performance has not been systematically addressed. AIM: To evaluate biological and environmental determinants of 12-minute run performance in Portuguese youth aged 7-17 years. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Mixed-longitudinal samples of 187 boys and 142 girls were surveyed in 1996, 1997 and 1998...
August 23, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
João Carlos Nascimento de Alencar, Mario André Leocadio-Miguel, Leandro Lourenção Duarte, Fernando Louzada, John Fontenele Araujo, Mario Pedrazzoli
BACKGROUND: Daylight Saving Time (DST) annually moves clocks 1 hour forward, when daytime is longer than night. Previous studies from medium and high latitude locations have pointed to a disruptive effect of DST on human circadian rhythms. Since Brazil is an equatorial country implementing DST, a different relationship between photic and social synchronisers may interfere with DST effects. AIM: To explore the prevalence and duration of self-reported discomfort related to DST among Brazilian residents (latitude 12-33° S, longditude 39-57° W)...
August 23, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
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