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Annals of Human Biology

Charlotte J Houldcroft, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Riaan F Rifkin, Simon J Underdown
BACKGROUND: The biology of human migration can be observed from the co-evolutionary relationship with infectious diseases. While many pathogens are brief, unpleasant visitors to human bodies, others have the ability to become life-long human passengers. The story of a pathogen's genetic code may, therefore, provide insight into the history of its human host. The evolution and distribution of disease in Africa is of particular interest, because of the deep history of human evolution in Africa, the presence of a variety of non-human primates, and tropical reservoirs of emerging infectious diseases...
May 16, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Martina Čížková, Zuzana Hofmanová, Mohammed G Mokhtar, Václav Janoušek, Issa Diallo, Pavel Munclinger, Viktor Černý
BACKGROUND: The origin of Western African pastoralism, represented today by the Fulani nomads, has been a highly debated issue for the past decades, and has not yet been conclusively resolved. AIM: In this study, we focused on Alu polymorphisms in sedentary and nomadic populations across the African Sahel to investigate patterns of diversity that can complement the existing results and contribute to resolving issues concerning the origin of West African pastoralism...
May 14, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Hua Zhang, Hui Xu, Fei Song, Weili Xu, Stephanie Pallard-Borg, Xiuying Qi
BACKGROUND: China has been going through significant changes in social and economical aspects and with great socioeconomic disparity in different regions. However, data on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity are not available in Tianjin, China. AIM: We aimed to investigate the association between SES and high adiposity among the adult population in Tianjin. SUBJECTS & METHODS: A total of 7351 individuals aged 20-79 were included in this study...
May 8, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Kelly Virecoulon Giudici, Ligia Araujo Martini
BACKGROUND: Besides body mass index (BMI), new parameters have been developed to classify individual body shape. AIM: To investigate the relationship between BMI, waist circumference (WC), a body shape index (ABSI) and ABSI-adolescents among adolescents, and verify which would better predict lower adiponectin/leptin (A/L) ratio and disturbances on glucose metabolism. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 197 Brazilian adolescents 14-18y...
May 8, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Hao-Tian Meng, Chun-Mei Shen, Yu-Dang Zhang, Qian Dong, Yu-Xin Guo, Guang Yang, Jiang-Wei Yan, Yao-Shun Liu, Ting Mei, Jian-Feng Shi, Bo-Feng Zhu
BACKGROUND: The Xibe population is one of China's officially recognised populations and is now distributed separately from west to east in the northern part of China. X-chromosomal short tandem repeats have a special inheritance pattern, and could be used as complements in forensic application, especially for complex or deficiency cases. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study obtained the allelic and haplotypic frequencies of 19 X-STR loci in the Xibe population from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, and studied the genetic differentiations between the Xibe and other populations...
May 5, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
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April 18, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Changwei Tian, Shuang Xu, Hua Wang, Wenming Wang, Hui Shen
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of data on the prevalence of pre high blood pressure (PreHBP) and high blood pressure (HBP), based on recent international blood pressure references, in non-overweight children and adolescents. AIM: To describe the prevalence of PreHBP and HBP in non-overweight children and adolescents in developed regions of China. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 588,097 non-overweight children and adolescents aged 6-17 years from National Surveys on Chinese Students' Constitution and Health in 2015 were included...
April 16, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Tânia Oliveira, Andreia Pizarro, Manuela Costa, Luís Fernandes, Gustavo Silva, Jorge Mota, José Carlos Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) seem to have positive effects on academic achievement (AA), although in most studies, objective methods of assessment have not been used. AIM: To examine the associations of CRF and PA with AA. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A sample of 640 youngsters (10-18 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. CRF was estimated with the 20-metre shuttle run test and PA was measured using accelerometers...
April 3, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
C G N Mascie-Taylor, M Krzyżanowska
This paper reviews how migration, both geographical and social, impacts on variation in some human biological traits. Migration and mobility are considered in relation to anthropometric traits and indices, psychometric traits, health, disease and nutrition, temperature regulation and metabolism, mental health and gene flow. It is well known that migration is important in disease transmission but, as this paper demonstrates, migration can have both positive and negative impacts on both donor and recipient populations for a wide range of human traits...
March 30, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Chelouti Hiba, Malika Khelil
BACKGROUND: The arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is a key enzyme in the biotransformation of xenobiotics. NAT2 gene polymorphisms have been associated with the risk of isoniazid hepatotoxicity and these polymorphisms change among different populations. AIM: The objective of this study is to investigate NAT2 polymorphisms in order to predict the prevalence of NAT2 phenotype in an Algerian population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Genotyping of NAT2 was done using a PCR-RFLP method...
March 27, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Marc Tremblay, Gabrielle Rouleau
BACKGROUND: Genealogical analysis helps to better understand the genetic structure of populations. The population of Quebec (Canada) often serves as a model for this type of analysis, having one of the world's most complete genealogical databases. AIM: The main objective of this study was to reconstruct, analyse and compare the ascending genealogies of participants to CARTaGENE, a project that aims at building a database on various aspects of public health. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In total, 5110 genealogies from four Quebec regions were reconstructed...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Sarabjit S Mastana, Jasvinder S Bhatti, Puneetpal Singh, Adam Wiles, Jonathan Holland
BACKGROUND: Alu elements are highly researched due to their useful nature as markers in the study of human population genetics. Recently discovered Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) polymorphic Alu insertions (POALINs) have not been examined extensively for genetic variation and their HLA associations. AIMS: The aim of this study is to assess the genetic variation between three populations using five recently discovered POALINs. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: The study examined 190 healthy, unrelated subjects from three different populations in the East Midlands (UK) for the presence or absence of five Alu elements (AluHG, AluMICB, AluHJ, AluTF and AluHF) via the polymerase chain reaction followed by gel electrophoresis...
March 5, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Nima Montazeri-Najafabady, Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh, Gholamhossein Ranjbar Omrani, Forough Saki, Marzieh Bakhshayeshkaram
BACKGROUND: Wnt signalling/LRP5 is involved in adipogenesis by down-regulating adipogenic transcription factors. Therefore polymorphisms in components of this pathway may lead to metabolic disorders. AIM: This study tested the impact of LRP5 polymorphism on lipid profile in Iranian children. METHODS: The study population was comprised of 9-18 year old children (125 boys, 137 girls). Total cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Non-HDL cholesterol and Triglyceride (TG) levels were checked...
June 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Fabio Caputo, Bianca Maria Ciminelli, Carla Jodice, Paola Blasi, Teo Vignoli, Mauro Cibin, Giorgio Zoli, Patrizia Malaspina
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a complex trait with genetic and environmental influences. Several gene variants have been associated with the risk for AUD, including genes encoding the sub-units of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. AIM: This study evaluated whether specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding GABAB receptor sub-units can be considered as candidates for the risk of AUD. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-four AUD subjects and 128 Italian controls were genotyped for 10 SNPs in genes encoding GABA-B1 and GABA-B2 sub-units (GABBR1 and GABBR2)...
June 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Brittany S Walter, Sharon N DeWitte
BACKGROUND: Late medieval England underwent intensive urbanisation, particularly in its largest city: London. Urban dwellers were exposed to factors such as high population density, elevated risk of infection, unsanitary living conditions and precarious food supplies. AIM: To assess whether the urban environment was more detrimental to health than the rural environment, this study compares risks of mortality and survival, as proxies for health, in medieval urban vs rural England...
June 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Slah Ouerhani, Islem Ben Bahria, Kamel Rouissi, Lotfi Cherni
BACKGROUND: The N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and glutathione transferase enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Genetic polymorphisms affecting these enzymes can modify their activities with an effect on individual susceptibility for different pathologies. These metabolic phenotypes occur with varying prevalence in different populations. AIM: This study sought to analyse the prevalence of important allelic variants of NAT2, GSTM1 and GSTT1 in different Tunisian populations and compare them to other previously reported data...
June 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Jasbir Arora, Indu Talwar, Daisy Sahni, Vidya Rattan
BACKGROUND: Dentine has been examined extensively for age-related physiological changes, but there are limited data on age-related changes at ultrastructural level of dentine. AIM: The present study aimed to examine age-related ultrastructural changes in calcospherites of human dentine under the scanning electron microscope. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty single rooted teeth of North Western adult Indians (18-75 years) were collected from the Department of Oral Health Sciences, PGIMER, Chandigarh...
June 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Natalia Weich, Alejandro Roisman, Belén Cerliani, Hilda V Aráoz, Lilien Chertkoff, Silvina M Richard, Irma Slavutsky, Irene B Larripa, Ariela F Fundia
BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are drug-metabolising enzymes involved in biotransformation of carcinogens, drugs, xenobiotics and oxygen free radicals. Polymorphisms of GST genes contribute to inter-individual and population variability in the susceptibility to environmental risk factors, cancer predisposition and pharmacotherapy responses. However, data about GST variability in Argentina are lacking. AIM: The purpose was to determine the prevalence of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms in the general population from a central region of Argentina and to perform inter-population comparisons...
June 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Edmar Lacerda Mendes, Alynne Christian Ribeiro Andaki, Ciro José Brito, Juliano Magalhães Guedes, Maria Paula Maia Santos, Jorge Mota
BACKGROUND: The increase in obesity, especially the increase of visceral fat, has been directly associated with health risk. Additionally, a waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) (0.5) has been proposed as an indicator of early health risk. AIMS: To test the association between anthropometric measurements and inflammatory mRNA expression and to evaluate the effectiveness of WHtR to predict inflammatory risk in children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were collected in 94 Brazilian children (46 boys) aged 9-11 years...
June 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Charlotte Y Henderson, Cristina Padez
BACKGROUND: Identifying the onset of puberty in skeletal remains can provide evidence of social changes associated with the onset of adulthood. AIM: This paper presents the first test of a skeletal method for identifying stages of development associated with the onset of puberty in a skeletal sample of known age and cause of death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Skeletal methods for assessing skeletal development associated with changes associated with puberty were recorded in the identified skeletal collection in Coimbra, Portugal...
June 2017: Annals of Human Biology
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