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Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology

Kenichi Shibuya, Mai Misegawa, Megumi Fukuhara, Shiniya Hirano, Kasumi Suzuki, Naoto Sato
In the present study, we examined the cognitive function during mastication of lemon-flavored gum, which is said to enhance cerebral blood flow. Nine healthy subjects (8 female and 1 male) participated in this study. Subjects chewed the gum for 3 min after fasting for 2 h and conducted a Stroop test while continuing to chew. At the end of all answers, gum chewing ended. The response time in the Stroop test was used as an indicator of cognitive function. We set the three conditions (lemon-flavored gum, mint-flavored gum, no gum chewing)...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Xi Li, Kazuhiko Higashida, Takuji Kawamura, Mitsuru Higuchi
It is known that a high-fat diet induces an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. To examine the time course of decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle after discontinuing a high-fat diet feeding, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 4 wk and then switched to the control diet for another 3 or 7 d. During the high-fat diet withdrawal period, the protein content of the mitochondrial respiratory chain decreased faster than the fatty acid oxidation enzymes. The mitochondrial DNA copy number remained high for at least 1 wk after withdrawing the high-fat diet...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Yuma Hirose, Takumi Onishi, Shinji Miura, Yukino Hatazawa, Yasutomi Kamei
Vitamin D is known to be effective for the prevention of muscle atrophy, such as age-related sarcopenia. However, vitamin D action in skeletal muscle tissue and muscle cells is largely unknown. We previously found that a transcription factor, FOXO1 gene expression, was induced in various muscle atrophy conditions causing muscle atrophy by upregulating atrophy-related genes, including atrogin 1 (ubiquitin ligase) and cathepsin L (lysosomal proteinase). In this study, we found that vitamin D inhibited FOXO1-mediated transcriptional activity in a reporter gene assay...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Shuichi Kamo, Yuichi Takada, Takatoshi Yamashita, Toshiro Sato, Erika Yano, Nobuhiro Zaima, Tatsuya Moriyama
Group B soyasaponins, found in soy, have various health-promoting properties, but it is unclear whether they have an anti-obesity effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-obesity effect of group B soyasaponin glycosides and aglycone in mice fed a high-fat diet. Six-week-old C57/BL6 mice were divided into three groups (each n=10) and orally administered a high-fat diet for 35 d; two of the groups also received group B soyasaponin glycosides or aglycone. Although there was no significant difference among the three groups in consumption, the weight of fat adipose tissue at autopsy was more than 30% lower in the group B soyasaponin aglycone group than in the control group, but X-ray computed tomography showed no significant difference in muscle weight between these two groups...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Bungo Shirouchi, Rikako Yamanaka, Shoji Tanaka, Fagyun Kawatou, Takuya Hayashi, Ai Takeyama, Akiko Nakao, Ryoko Goromaru, Masako Iwamoto, Masao Sato
Dietary intake of total phospholipids (PLs) accounts for approximately 10% of total dietary lipids. Each PL molecular class has various beneficial effects on health. However, limited information is available regarding the intake of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and sphingomyelin (SM) among Japanese people, and the relevant food sources. In this study, we quantified the contents of PC, PE, PI, PS, LPC, and SM in 120 meal samples served in a Japanese company's dormitory and cafeteria...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Yusaku Akashi, Hiromichi Suzuki, Koji Kanemoto, Yumi Hirose, Keita Yamashita, Takayuki Yamamoto, Takamaro Miyazawa, Kazuhito Hirose, Hiroichi Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro Maeno
The association between advanced age and the thiamine concentration has not been conclusively determined. A recent report from Japan showed that more than half of nursing home elderly residents at an institution had a low whole-blood thiamine concentration (<20 ng/mL). Therefore, a high incidence of low thiamine concentrations among hospitalized elderly has been anticipated in the Japanese population but never investigated. We evaluated the whole thiamine concentration in newly hospitalized elderly patients (≥65 y old) with infectious diseases...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Ryuto Maruyama, Makoto Shimizu, Tsutomu Hashidume, Jun Inoue, Nobuyuki Itoh, Ryuichiro Sato
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), mainly synthesized and secreted from the liver, is an endocrine FGF that regulates glucose and fatty acid metabolism to maintain whole body energy homeostasis. Gene expression of FGF21 was previously reported to be induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). It has been reported that drug-induced ER stress is reduced by overexpression of FGF21. However, the function of endogenous FGF21 under physiological conditions such as the postprandial state remains unknown...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Tomonori Sato, Nao Muramatsu, Yoshiaki Ito, Yoshio Yamamoto, Takashi Nagasawa
Non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis is a phenotype of metabolic syndrome, and aging is a risk factor for this condition. Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) is a murine model for studying aging-associated disorders. We here investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with L-lysine (Lys) on non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis in SAMP8 mice. Triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (Chol) accumulated in the livers of SAMP8 mice fed a standard diet at 36 wk of age. However, intake of a Lys-rich diet for 2 mo prevented the accumulation of TG and Chol in the liver...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Kiyoko Watanabe, Hiroko Hiramine, Toshizo Toyama, Nobushiro Hamada
Frequent or persistent malodor (halitosis) represents a considerable embarrassment to those affected. French pine bark extract, Pycnogenol® (PYC), has displayed antibacterial activity against a broad range of bacterial species. In the present study, anticipated benefits of PYC on diminishing halitosis were investigated. Ten healthy males and 11 females, aged 40.1±12.3 y, were recruited based on threshold breath sulfur compounds presence, diagnosed by portable gas chromatography. Subjects were randomly assigned to either sugar-free gums, or gums bearing an additional 2...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Rosa María Oliart Ros, Ida Soto Rodríguez, María Guadalupe Sánchez Otero, Oscar M López Gil, Israel Escobar-Sagastume, Alfonso Alexander-Aguilera
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have an important role in reducing hypertriglyceridemia, these acids decrease the mortality for Coronary Heart Disease. Very important is the relationship between fatty acid biosynthesis and distribution in organs and tissues involved in insulin resistance and hypertension due to its role in the production of vasoactive eicosanoids and their effects on insulin sensitivity; which is estimated with the HOMA-IR index, which relates the physiological and metabolic behavior of glucose and insulin in the body...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Wei Wang, Shandong Ye, Liting Qian, Xuenong Xing
This study aimed to explore the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and insulin resistance as well as β-cell function in Chinese Han patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 264 patients was included in this study. Serum 25(OH)D, plasma glucose, serum insulin and other biochemical parameters were assayed. Postprandial venous blood was collected after a mixed-nutrient load. Insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda ISI)...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Satoshi Nakano, Mitsuyoshi Suzuki, Kei Minowa, Saeko Hirai, Noriyuki Takubo, Yuko Sakamoto, Muneaki Ishijima, Eri Hoshino, Akifumi Tokita, Toshiaki Shimizu
This study aimed to characterize serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OH-D) values among Japanese children aged ≤48 mo. The study included 290 healthy infants and young children aged 0-48 mo (males/females=166/124) living in Shizuoka or Tokyo. The subjects were divided into three groups by age (Low Age: 0-5, Middle Age: 6-15, High Age: 16-48 mo). The vitamin D deficient state was defined as 25OH-D <12 ng/mL, the insufficient state as 12-20 ng/mL, and the sufficient state as >20 ng/mL. The seasonal variation of serum 25OH-D levels was also analyzed...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Katsumi Shibata
The pathway of tryptophan (Trp)-nicotinamide is very important nutritionally because a vitamin nicotinamide is biosynthesized from an amino acid Trp. Until we started studying the factors that affect the Trp-nicotinamide conversion rate, little data existed. Data obtained from TDO (Trp 2,3-dioxygenase)-KO (knock-out) mice have revealed that mice can biosynthesize a necessary amount of nicotinamide from Trp by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) even when TDO is lacking. It has also been shown that 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid is a key intermediate...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Mamoru Nishimuta, Naoko Kodama, Yutaka Yoshitake, Mieko Shimada, Naho Serizawa
Inevitable sodium loss under sodium restriction must not be construed as evidence for the estimated average requirement (EAR) for sodium (Na) in humans. We conducted human mineral balance studies to determine the EAR for some minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn). Na concentration in arm sweat was low while those of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were high, during relatively heavy bicycle-ergometer exercise under relatively low Na intake (100 mmol/d). This suggests that Na was released from the bone, the sole pool of Na, with Ca and Mg...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Miki Miyoshi, Nobuo Nishi, Hisanori Kato, Nobuko Murayama, Teruo Miyazawa, Makoto Shimizu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Mei-Zhu Chi, Lin Zhu, Zeng-Li Zhang, Fang-Fang Jin, Hao-Ran Shao, Jia-Yin Zheng, Chao Wu, Guang-Qiong Hu
This study was designed to determine whether there is a relationship between serum vitamin D levels and neurodevelopment and anthropometry in Chinese infants. A prospective cohort study with 160 women who gave birth to 160 healthy full-term infants and who were followed up for 6 mo was done. It included 80 pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency, and the other 80 pregnant women were enrolled matching the age and delivery method with a 25(OH)D level of more than 50 nmol/L. There was a signicant intergroup difference in length, weight or head circumference at birth (p<0...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Yoko Yamashita, Takakazu Mitani, Liuqing Wang, Hitoshi Ashida
Cacao extract (CE) consumption has beneficial effects on human health, such as lowering the risk of obesity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for the anti-obesity effect of CE remains incompletely understood. Here, we used a 50% aqueous alcohol extract of cacao mass, which is rich in methylxanthine derivatives (about 11%) and poor in flavan-3-ols (less than 1%), and assessed the suppression effects of this extract on adipocyte differentiation to investigate the anti-obesity mechanism. CE dose-dependently decreased fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells without affecting cell viability...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Zheng Zhang, Ru Zhang, Zhi-Zhen Qin, Jia-Ping Chen, Jia-Ying Xu, Li-Qiang Qin
Whey protein is associated with improvement of metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate effects of whey protein on atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. Male ApoE-/- mice were fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD), or HFCD supplemented with 10% or 20% whey protein for 18 wk. At the end of experiment, serum lipid profiles and inflammatory cytokines were assayed. Livers were examined using HE staining and Oil Red O staining. Aortas were used for en face and cryosection analyses to observe aortic lesions...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Tomoko Koda, Ken Shirato, Jun Takanari, Hideki Imai
Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) is prepared from the lower, residual parts of asparagus, and some functionalities, such as anti-oxidative and neuroprotective activities, have been suggested. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of ETAS on photoaging in the epidermal layer of the skin using cultured keratinocytes. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes were irradiated or left unirradiated with UV-B (10 mJ/cm2 ) and incubated with ETAS (0.5 or 2 mg/mL) or vehicle. After 3 or 13 h, molecular examinations were performed, and after 24 or 48 h, cell viabilities were determined by a CCK-8 assay...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Nozomu Suzuki, Yoshihito Goto, Haruka Ota, Kumiko Kito, Fumika Mano, Erina Joo, Kaori Ikeda, Nobuya Inagaki, Takeo Nakayama
CONTEXT: International interest in the Japanese diet has grown in recent years. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate and organize the Japanese diet and dietary characteristics from an epidemiological perspective, mainly focusing on the nutritional and dietary elements. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Web of Science, Japan Medical Abstracts Society, JDream III, and CiNii databases were searched. STUDY SELECTION: The eligibility criteria included research with an epidemiological study design that was either cross-sectional, cohort, or case-control-based that defined the dietary patterns of the Japanese diet using dietary pattern analysis...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
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