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Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology

Riku Asahi, Kaoru Tanaka, Takahiko J Fujimi, Nobuyuki Kanzawa, Shigeru Nakajima
We recently suggested that proline might decrease the suppressive effect of histidine on food intake. Our purpose in the present study was to investigate the influence of proline on the suppressive effect of histidine on food intake and accumulation of body fat. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups and allowed free access to the following diets for 3 wk: control (C), 5% proline (P), 5% histidine (H), or 5% histidine plus 10% proline (HP) diets. Food intake for 7 d and retroperitoneal fat tissue weight at the end of the experimental period of the HP diet group were greater than those of the H diet group, whereas no significant difference existed between the HP diet group and the C diet group...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Tomoyo Kawamura, Noriyuki Mori, Katsumi Shibata
The turnover of the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) has attracted interest in regard to longevity. Thus, compounds that can rapidly increase the cellular NAD(+) concentration have been surveyed by many researchers. Of those, β-nicotinamide mononucleotide (β-NMN) has been focused on. Studies on the biosynthesis of NAD(+) from β-NMN have been reported at the cellular level, but not at the whole animal level. In the present study, we investigated whether β-NMN is superior to nicotinamide (Nam) as a precursor of NAD(+) in whole animal experiments...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Wen-Xing Li, Wei Li, Jia-Qian Cao, Haiyue Yan, Yuanyuan Sun, Hong Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Ling Tang, Manman Wang, Jing-Fei Huang, Dahai Liu
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were three key enzymes in the hepatic metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effect of homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism gene polymorphisms and serum Hcy and folate level on the hepatic functions in a Chinese hypertensive population. A representative sample with 480 subjects aged 28-75 was enrolled in 2005.9-2005.12 from six hospitals in different Chinese regions. Serum ALT, AST and GGT were measured by using an automatic biochemistry analyzer...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Yumiko Takahashi, Yuki Tamura, Yutaka Matsunaga, Yu Kitaoka, Shin Terada, Hideo Hatta
We previously reported that taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid; dose: 0.5 mg/g body weight) administration after treadmill running at 25 m/min for 90 min increased the glycogen concentration in the skeletal muscle of ICR mice at 120 min after the exercise (Takahashi et al. 2014). In the current study, we further investigated the effects of taurine administration on glycogen repletion and carbohydrate metabolism in the tibialis anterior muscle after endurance exercise. The metabolomic profiles of the tibialis anterior muscle at 120 min after the exercise were analyzed by a capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (n=6)...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Mai Yamashita, Motofumi Kumazoe, Yuki Nakamura, Yeong Seon Won, Jaehoon Bae, Shuya Yamashita, Hirofumi Tachibana
Western diets induce obesity associated with an increased risk of hypercholesterolaemia. Indeed, obesity-induced hypercholesterolaemia is correlated with increased coronary cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet, high-fat and high-sucrose diet (HF/HS), HF/HS with green tea extract powder diet (HF/HS+GT), HF/HS with eriodictyol diet (HF/HS+Eri), or HF/HS with green tea extract powder and eriodictyol diet (HF/HS+GT+Eri) for 8 wk. Body weight was lower in the HF/HS+GT+Eri group than in the HF/HS group (-8...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Kazuo Erami, Yasutake Tanaka, Sayaka Kawamura, Motonori Miyago, Ai Sawazaki, Katsumi Imaizumi, Masao Sato
Egg yolk is an important source of nutrients and contains different bioactive substances. In the present study, we studied the benefits of egg yolk in preventing low-protein-diet-induced fatty liver in rats. Rats were fed the following diets, which were based on the AIN-76 formula, for 2 wk: an adequate-protein diet containing 20% casein (C), a low-protein diet containing 5% casein (LP-C), a low-protein diet supplemented with 12.5% egg yolk (LP-EY), and a low-protein diet supplemented with 4.1% egg yolk oil (LP-EYO)...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Zahide Yalaki, Selda Ozmen, Medine Aysin Tasar, Yildiz Dallar
Breast feeding is the first and most important step of a healthy diet. Breast milk contains important vitamins and trace elements such as iron, zinc, copper, and vitamin A. The aim of our study was to evaluate the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, serum iron, iron binding capacity, ferritin, serum zinc, copper and vitamin A in three groups of infants, which were determined based on feeding practices. The infants in all groups were not given prophylactic iron in the first 6 mo. Two hundred fifty-nine infants were included in the study...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Anna Yamanouchi, Yoshihiro Yoshimura, Yumi Matsumoto, Seungwon Jeong
Sarcopenia is known to increase the risk of adverse outcomes, including disability, loss of independence, hospitalization, longer length of hospital stay, and mortality, but there is little data about the prevalence of sarcopenia and the factors associated with increased physical dependency and cognitive decline among older patients hospitalized in a long-term care (LTC) ward in Japan. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 79 consecutive patients (34 men, 45 women) with a median age of 81 y hospitalized in an LTC hospital...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Katsumi Shibata, Momoka Sakamoto
To find a functional biomarker of B-group vitamins, we collected 24-h urine samples from young Japanese women who lived in the community (n=29) to measure branched-chain 2-oxo acids such as 2-oxo-3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-oxo-3-methylpentanoic acid, and 2-oxo-4-methylpentanoic acid because B-group vitamins are involved in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids. The relationships between each pair of the three urinary 2-oxo acids were very high (2-oxo-3-methylbutanoic acid and 2-oxo-3-methylpentanoic acid, p<0...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Guo-Tao Pan, Jian-Feng Guo, Shao-Lin Mei, Meng-Xi Zhang, Zhi-Yong Hu, Chong-Ke Zhong, Chang-You Zeng, Xiao-Hong Liu, Qing-Hua Ma, Bing-Yan Li, Li-Qiang Qin, Zeng-Li Zhang
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent all over the world and dietary intakes of vitamin D are very low in China. In this study we aimed to determine whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients aged over 50 y. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured in a cross-sectional sample of 270 T2DM patients aged over 50 y from Zhejiang. Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometry and other variables were collected...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Yukako Okazaki, Hideyuki Chiji, Norihisa Kato
Lily bulb is traditionally consumed in East Asia and contains high amounts of glucomannan. This study investigated the effect of dietary lily bulb on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 30% beef tallow with or without 7% steamed lily bulb powder for 17 d. Experimental colitis was induced by replacing drinking water with DSS during the last 7 d. The disease activity index (DAI) was significantly lower in the lily bulb+DSS group than in the DSS group on day 17...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Jun Takanari, Jun Nakahigashi, Atsuya Sato, Hideaki Waki, Shogo Miyazaki, Kazuo Uebaba, Tatsuya Hisajima
The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on improving stress response. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial was undertaken in healthy volunteers. ETAS (150 mg/d) or a placebo was consumed for 28 d, with a washout period. Psychological parameters were examined using a self-report scale questionnaire and psychological stress was applied using the Uchida-Kraepelin (U-K) test. During the stress load, autonomic nervous function was analyzed...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Takahiro Tsujita
Inhibitors of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes play an important role in controlling postprandial blood glucose levels. Thus the effect of persimmon tannin on pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase has been investigated. Persimmon tannin inhibits pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase in a concentration-dependent manner with the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) for amylase, maltase and sucrase being 1.7 μg/mL, 632 μg/mL and 308 μg/mL, respectively. The effect of persimmon-tannin extract on carbohydrate absorption in rats has also been investigated...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Minoru Sugiura, Mieko Nakamura, Kazunori Ogawa, Yoshinori Ikoma, Masamichi Yano
Recent epidemiological studies show that antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids might be beneficial to the maintenance of bone health. Recently, we found that serum carotenoids were inversely associated with the risk of developing osteoporosis in post-menopausal Japanese female subjects. However, little is known about the vitamin alone and/or the combination of the vitamin and carotenoid with the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to investigate longitudinally whether antioxidant vitamins and their combination with carotenoids are associated with the risk of developing of osteoporosis...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Katsuya Hirasaka, Shinobu Saito, Saki Yamaguchi, Riho Miyazaki, Yao Wang, Marie Haruna, Shigeto Taniyama, Atsushi Higashitani, Junji Terao, Takeshi Nikawa, Katsuyasu Tachibana
Proinflammatory cytokines contribute to the progression of muscle wasting caused by ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis. We have previously demonstrated that isoflavones, such as genistein and daidzein, prevent TNF-α-induced muscle atrophy in C2C12 myotubes. In this study, we examined the effect of dietary flavonoids on the wasting of muscle. Mice were divided into the following four groups: vehicle-injected (control) mice fed the normal diet (CN); tumor-bearing mice fed the normal diet (TN); control mice fed the isoflavone diet (CI); and tumor-bearing mice fed the isoflavone diet (TI)...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Min Wen, Xueyuan Fu, Xiuqing Han, Xiaoqian Hu, Ping Dong, Jie Xu, Yong Xue, Jingfeng Wang, Changhu Xue, Yuming Wang
Circadian rhythms control aspects of physiological events, including lipid metabolism, showing rhythmic fluctuation over 24 h. Therefore, it is not sufficient to evaluate thoroughly how dietary components regulate lipid metabolism with a single time-point assay. In the present study, a time-course study was performed to analyze the effect of sea cucumber saponin echinoside A (EA) on lipid metabolism over 24 h. Results showed that EA lowered the levels of TC and TG in both serum and liver at most time-points during the 24 h...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Yasuo Nagata, Shiho Yamasaki, Norihiro Torisu, Taishi Suzuki, Saya Shimamoto, Shizuka Tamaru, Kazunari Tanaka
Irrespective of a well-known hypocholesterolemic action, a few studies have shown a hypotriglyceridemic potential of okara, a by-product of tofu manufacturing. Okara was fed to rats at the level of 2.5 and 5.0% as dietary protein for 4 wk, and serum and hepatic lipid levels were determined. In addition, soy flour, which has a well-known hypolipidemic action, was used to compare effects on lipid metabolism. Mechanisms of action were further evaluated by measuring hepatic enzyme activity, gene expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins and fecal excretion of lipids...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Jisu Kim, Jonghoon Park, Kiwon Lim
Athletes make great efforts to increase their endurance capacity in many ways. Using nutrition supplements for stimulating lipolysis is one such strategy to improve endurance performance. These supplements contain certain ingredients that affect fat metabolism; furthermore, in combination with endurance training, they tend to have additive effects. A large body of scientific evidence shows that nutrition supplements increase fat metabolism; however, the usefulness of lipolytic supplements as ergogenic functional foods remains controversial...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
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2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Keizo Umegaki, Yuki Sekine, Yoko Sato, Tsuyoshi Chiba, Masaru Sonoda
Green tea is thought to be a primary source of folate in the Japanese diet, based on folate content analyzed by a microbiological assay. Green tea also contains high amount of catechins, in particular, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), which was demonstrated to be able to inhibit the digestive enzyme activities and microbial growth in the folate assay. In the present study, we examined whether tea catechins interfered with components of the folate assay for green tea. A marked inhibitory effect of EGCg on microbial growth was observed at an inhibitory concentration of higher than 10 μg/mL...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
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