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Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710038/current-vitamin-d-status-in-healthy-japanese-infants-and-young-children
#1
Satoshi Nakano, Mitsuyoshi Suzuki, Kei Minowa, Saeko Hirai, Noriyuki Takubo, Yuko Sakamoto, Muneaki Ishijima, Eri Hoshino, Akifumi Tokita, Toshiaki Shimizu
This study aimed to characterize serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OH-D) values among Japanese children aged ≤48 mo. The study included 290 healthy infants and young children aged 0-48 mo (males/females=166/124) living in Shizuoka or Tokyo. The subjects were divided into three groups by age (Low Age: 0-5, Middle Age: 6-15, High Age: 16-48 mo). The vitamin D deficient state was defined as 25OH-D <12 ng/mL, the insufficient state as 12-20 ng/mL, and the sufficient state as >20 ng/mL. The seasonal variation of serum 25OH-D levels was also analyzed...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710037/organ-co-relationship-in-tryptophan-metabolism-and-factors-that-govern-the-biosynthesis-of-nicotinamide-from-tryptophan
#2
Katsumi Shibata
The pathway of tryptophan (Trp)-nicotinamide is very important nutritionally because a vitamin nicotinamide is biosynthesized from an amino acid Trp. Until we started studying the factors that affect the Trp-nicotinamide conversion rate, little data existed. Data obtained from TDO (Trp 2,3-dioxygenase)-KO (knock-out) mice have revealed that mice can biosynthesize a necessary amount of nicotinamide from Trp by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) even when TDO is lacking. It has also been shown that 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid is a key intermediate...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710036/dietary-salt-sodium-chloride-requirement-and-adverse-effects-of-salt-restriction-in-humans
#3
Mamoru Nishimuta, Naoko Kodama, Yutaka Yoshitake, Mieko Shimada, Naho Serizawa
Inevitable sodium loss under sodium restriction must not be construed as evidence for the estimated average requirement (EAR) for sodium (Na) in humans. We conducted human mineral balance studies to determine the EAR for some minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn). Na concentration in arm sweat was low while those of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were high, during relatively heavy bicycle-ergometer exercise under relatively low Na intake (100 mmol/d). This suggests that Na was released from the bone, the sole pool of Na, with Ca and Mg...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710035/iuns-workshop-on-capacity-and-leadership-development-in-nutritional-sciences-held-in-tokyo-2017
#4
Miki Miyoshi, Nobuo Nishi, Hisanori Kato, Nobuko Murayama, Teruo Miyazawa, Makoto Shimizu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710034/the-relationship-between-maternal-serum-vitamin-d-levels-and-infant-neurodevelopment-and-anthropometry-a-prospective-observational-study
#5
Mei-Zhu Chi, Lin Zhu, Zeng-Li Zhang, Fang-Fang Jin, Hao-Ran Shao, Jia-Yin Zheng, Chao Wu, Guang-Qiong Hu
This study was designed to determine whether there is a relationship between serum vitamin D levels and neurodevelopment and anthropometry in Chinese infants. A prospective cohort study with 160 women who gave birth to 160 healthy full-term infants and who were followed up for 6 mo was done. It included 80 pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency, and the other 80 pregnant women were enrolled matching the age and delivery method with a 25(OH)D level of more than 50 nmol/L. There was a signicant intergroup difference in length, weight or head circumference at birth (p<0...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710033/methylxanthine-derivative-rich-cacao-extract-suppresses-differentiation-of-adipocytes-through-downregulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-c-ebps
#6
Yoko Yamashita, Takakazu Mitani, Liuqing Wang, Hitoshi Ashida
Cacao extract (CE) consumption has beneficial effects on human health, such as lowering the risk of obesity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for the anti-obesity effect of CE remains incompletely understood. Here, we used a 50% aqueous alcohol extract of cacao mass, which is rich in methylxanthine derivatives (about 11%) and poor in flavan-3-ols (less than 1%), and assessed the suppression effects of this extract on adipocyte differentiation to investigate the anti-obesity mechanism. CE dose-dependently decreased fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells without affecting cell viability...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710032/effects-of-chronic-whey-protein-supplementation-on-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice
#7
Zheng Zhang, Ru Zhang, Zhi-Zhen Qin, Jia-Ping Chen, Jia-Ying Xu, Li-Qiang Qin
Whey protein is associated with improvement of metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate effects of whey protein on atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. Male ApoE-/- mice were fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD), or HFCD supplemented with 10% or 20% whey protein for 18 wk. At the end of experiment, serum lipid profiles and inflammatory cytokines were assayed. Livers were examined using HE staining and Oil Red O staining. Aortas were used for en face and cryosection analyses to observe aortic lesions...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710031/enzyme-treated-asparagus-extract-etas-facilitates-the-turnover-of-uv-b-irradiated-keratinocytes
#8
Tomoko Koda, Ken Shirato, Jun Takanari, Hideki Imai
Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) is prepared from the lower, residual parts of asparagus, and some functionalities, such as anti-oxidative and neuroprotective activities, have been suggested. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of ETAS on photoaging in the epidermal layer of the skin using cultured keratinocytes. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes were irradiated or left unirradiated with UV-B (10 mJ/cm2 ) and incubated with ETAS (0.5 or 2 mg/mL) or vehicle. After 3 or 13 h, molecular examinations were performed, and after 24 or 48 h, cell viabilities were determined by a CCK-8 assay...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710030/characteristics-of-the-japanese-diet-described-in-epidemiologic-publications-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#9
Nozomu Suzuki, Yoshihito Goto, Haruka Ota, Kumiko Kito, Fumika Mano, Erina Joo, Kaori Ikeda, Nobuya Inagaki, Takeo Nakayama
CONTEXT: International interest in the Japanese diet has grown in recent years. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate and organize the Japanese diet and dietary characteristics from an epidemiological perspective, mainly focusing on the nutritional and dietary elements. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Web of Science, Japan Medical Abstracts Society, JDream III, and CiNii databases were searched. STUDY SELECTION: The eligibility criteria included research with an epidemiological study design that was either cross-sectional, cohort, or case-control-based that defined the dietary patterns of the Japanese diet using dietary pattern analysis...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710029/gender-difference-and-dietary-supplemental-vitamin-b-6-impact-on-colon-luminal-environment
#10
Dwi Eva Nirmagustina, Yongshou Yang, Thanutchaporn Kumrungsee, Noriyuki Yanaka, Norihisa Kato
Colon diseases can be affected by several factors such as gender difference and dietary supplemental vitamin B6 (B6 ). The nutritional status of B6 is affected by gender difference, leading us to hypothesize that gender difference affects colon luminal environment, which is dependent on B6 status. To investigate this hypothesis, we fed male and female rats a diet containing 1 mg, 7 mg, or 35 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg diet for 6 wk. We found significantly higher fecal mucin levels in female rats compared to those in male rats...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710028/vitamin-d-deficiency-increases-lipogenesis-and-reduces-beta-oxidation-in-the-liver-of-diet-induced-obese-mice
#11
Celina Carvalho Borges, Andreza Fernandes Salles, Isabele Bringhenti, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-DE-Lacerda, Marcia Barbosa Aguila
The study was conducted to understand better the mechanisms involved in liver changes when there is a combination of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and vitamin D deficiency (VDD). After 8 wk of feeding a control diet (C group) or a high-fat diet (HF), both with vitamin D, and counterpart groups without vitamin D (VitD- groups), we found in plasma: higher alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase in the VitD- groups, and more elevated total cholesterol in the HF group. Compared to their counterparts, HF and HF/VitD- showed hyperinsulinemia and higher hepatic triglycerides and steatosis...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491277/%C3%AE-glucan-in-foods-and-its-physiological-functions
#12
Ayaka Nakashima, Koji Yamada, Osamu Iwata, Ryota Sugimoto, Kohei Atsuji, Taro Ogawa, Naoko Ishibashi-Ohgo, Kengo Suzuki
β-Glucans are a class of polysaccharides consisting of D-glucose units that are polymerized primarily via the β-1,3 glycosidic bonds, in addition to the β-1,4 and/or β-1,6 bonds. They are present in various food products such as cereals, mushrooms, and seaweeds and are known for their numerous effects on the human body, depending on their structures, which are diverse. The major physicochemical properties of β-glucans include their antioxidant property, which is responsible for the scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and their role as dietary fiber for preventing the absorption of cholesterol, for promoting egestion, and for producing short-chain fatty acids in the intestine...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491276/effect-of-passion-fruit-seed-extract-rich-in-piceatannol-on-the-skin-of-women-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#13
Hiroko Maruki-Uchida, Minoru Morita, Yoshikazu Yonei, Masahiko Sai
Piceatannol has been reported to have a wide variety of effects on the skin, including promoting collagen production, inhibiting melanin synthesis, inducing the antioxidant glutathione, and eliminating reactive oxygen species. In this study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted to clinically evaluate the effects of piceatannol-rich passion fruit seed extract on the skin of healthy Japanese women (age, 35-54 y). Thirty-two women with dry skin received either passion fruit seed extract (5 mg piceatannol) or a placebo (dextrin) for 8 wk...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491275/identification-of-functional-food-factors-as-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-agonists-and-their-potential-roles-in-skeletal-muscle
#14
Miho Chikazawa, Ryuichiro Sato
Maintaining skeletal muscle functions by controlling muscle metabolism is of utmost importance. β2 -Adrenergic receptor (β2 -AR), which is expressed in skeletal muscle, is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family that plays a critical role in the maintenance of muscle mass. In the present study, using luciferase reporter assays in β2 -AR-expressing HEK293 cells, we discovered several food factors that exhibited agonistic activity at mouse or human β2 -AR. Osthole, gramine, and hordenine were identified as both mouse and human β2 -AR agonists, whereas berberine was identified as a mouse β2 -AR agonist only...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491274/the-impairment-of-trans-fatty-acids-on-learning-memory-and-brain-amino-acid-neurotransmitters-in-mice
#15
Tiantian Zhang, Ping Liu, Yu Sun, Na Ren, Shuang Nie
The aim of the study was to demonstrate the impairment of trans fatty acids (TFAs) in neurological disorders in mice. Forty-eight male Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups with twelve in each group, namely a control group (corn oil group), and TFA groups with low, middle and high dosages. The tested chemicals were given by gavage, once a day, for 12 wk in total, with the volume of the intragastric liquid as 0.1 mL/10 g of body weight. The mice in the control group were given corn oil only. The mice in the TFA groups were given TFA solution (doses were 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of body weight, respectively)...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491273/antihypertensive-effect-of-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-enriched-brown-rice-on-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#16
Kohei Kawakami, Kazuo Yamada, Takaya Yamada, Toru Nabika, Masato Nomura
'Haiibuki' is a giant embryo rice cultivar that contains abundant γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) compared with conventional rice cultivars. Here, we performed a functional evaluation of 'GABA-enriched brown rice' (GEBR) prepared by modifying the 'Haiibuki' cultivar to contain more GABA. Study 1: Spontaneously hypertensive rats were divided into three groups [control (cornstarch), normal brown rice, and GEBR] and fed an orally administered diet for 4 wk. A significant blood pressure elevation-inhibitory effect was observed in the GEBR group as compared with the other groups...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491272/oral-glucose-tolerance-and-tryptophan-metabolism-in-non-obese-and-non-insulin-dependent-diabetic-goto-kakizaki-rats-fed-high-tryptophan-diets
#17
Eri Imai, Katsumi Shibata
We investigated oral glucose tolerance and tryptophan (Trp) metabolism in non-obese and non-insulin-dependent diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats fed high-Trp diets. Five-week-old male Wistar and GK rats were fed a 20% casein diet (control diet) or the same diet supplemented with 1%, 2%, 3%, or 5% Trp for 58 d. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on Days 14 and 28 of the experimental period. Urine as well as livers and blood were collected on the last day of the experiment. The glucose concentration and the amount of Trp metabolites were measured...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491271/effects-of-pediococcus-acidilactici-r037-on-serum-triglyceride-levels-in-mice-and-rats-after-oral-administration
#18
Takahiro Ueda, Airo Tategaki, Kazuya Hamada, Hideyuki Kishida, Kazunori Hosoe, Hideyuki Morikawa, Kaku Nakagawa
The biological effects of heat-killed Pediococcus acidilactici R037 (R037) were evaluated when orally administered in mice and rats. Oral R037 administration at a daily dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg for 3 wk dose-dependently reduced fasting and non-fasting serum triglyceride concentrations in KK-Ay /TaJcl mice, a model of type II diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Serum levels of free fatty acids in the 100 mg/kg group tended to decrease (not statistically significant), and total cholesterol levels remained unchanged...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491270/effects-of-parenteral-amino-acid-administration-on-the-postoperative-nutritional-status-and-wound-healing-of-protein-malnourished-rats
#19
Akira Wada, Chiaki Sonoda, Yuya Makino, Yuki Hama, Akihiro Nagahama, Daisuke Harada
In Japan, parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions are frequently administered to patients in the postoperative short-term period. In these cases, amino acid-containing peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) solutions, amino acid-free maintenance solutions or combinations of the two are used. However, consensus regarding the most beneficial solution for these patients is lacking. Here, we examined the nutritional status and wound healing outcomes in protein-malnourished rats receiving postoperative administrations of PPN solution, maintenance solution or combinations of the two solutions...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491269/folic-acid-promotes-wound-healing-in-diabetic-mice-by-suppression-of-oxidative-stress
#20
Mei Zhao, Jun Zhou, Yuan-Hua Chen, Li Yuan, Man-Man Yuan, Xin-Qiong Zhang, Yan Hu, Huan Yu
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of folic acid on impaired wound healing in diabetic mice. Male mice were divided into three groups: group 1, the non-diabetic mice (control); group 2, the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice; and group 3, the diabetic mice that received a daily dose of 3 mg/kg folic acid via oral gavage. Full-thickness excision wounds were created with 8-mm skin biopsy punches. Each wound closure was continuously evaluated until the wound healed up. Wound healing was delayed in diabetic mice compared with the non-diabetic mice...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
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