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Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology

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2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Hiroshi Ashigai, Yuta Komano, Guanying Wang, Yasuji Kawachi, Kazuko Sunaga, Reiko Yamamoto, Ryoji Takata, Takaaki Yanai
Blackcurrants (Ribes nigrum L.) have various benefits for human health. In particular, a polysaccharide derived from blackcurrant was found to be an immunostimulating food ingredient in a mouse model. We named a polysaccharide derived from blackcurrant cassis polysaccharide (CAPS). In a previous clinical study, we reported that CAPS affects skin dehydration, demonstrating its effectiveness against skin inflammation was related to atopic dermatitis; skin inflammation caused skin dehydration. However, there are no studies regarding CAPS effectiveness against skin dehydration...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Takaoki Saneyasu, Haruka Shindo, Kazuhisa Honda, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
Skeletal muscle is composed of four types of fibers in mammals; oxidative slow-twitch type I, oxidative fast-twitch IIA, and glycolytic fast-twitch IIB and IIX/D. In this study using C2C12 myotubes, an extract of soybean protein significantly upregulated mRNA level of myosin heavy chain 7 (Myh7), the predominant isoform expressed in oxidative slow-twitch type I and downregulated mRNA levels of Myh4, the predominant isoform expressed in glycolytic fast-twitch IIB. Similarly, its hydrolysate prepared using digestive enzyme also significantly increased Myh7 expression...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Katsumi Shibata
2-Oxo acids derived from amino acids, glucose, and fatty acids are key intermediates in energy production. During diabetes, energy production is known to be lower than in healthy individuals. However, it was unknown whether the production of 2-oxo acids is impacted by diabetes. In the present study, I compared the quantities of 2-oxo acids (pyruvic acid, oxaloacetic acid, 2-oxoglutaric acid, 2-oxoadipic acid, 2-oxoisovaleric acid, 2-oxo-3-methylvaleric acid, and 2-oxo-4-methylvaleric acid) excreted in the urine of normoglycemic control rats and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, which reflect the quantities of unused 2-oxo acids in the body...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Yo Tsuchiya, Koichi Kawamata
[6]-Gingerol possesses various beneficial pharmacological and therapeutic properties, including anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties and the ability to regulate intestinal contraction. Recently, our group observed that the serosal administration of [6]-gingerol stimulated electrogenic sodium absorption in the rat colon via the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. TRPV1 is known to be expressed in both the mucosal epithelium and the muscle layers in the colon. In the present study, we assessed whether [6]-gingerol stimulated sodium absorption via TRPV1 in the colonic mucosal epithelium...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Hiroshi Tanaka, Yoshikazu Nishikawa, Kotaro Kure, Kinsuke Tsuda, Masaya Hosokawa
The semi-solidified nutrition supplemented with soluble dietary fiber, xanthan gum (XG), inhibited postprandial glycemia in rats. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether XG exerts the same effects in humans. Subjects fasted for 12 h and then ingested the enteral nutrient, Meibalance with or without XG at 9 AM. Blood glucose levels were measured 0, 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after its ingestion. Postprandial blood glucose levels were lower in the XG group than in the control group. At 20 min, postprandial blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the XG group (84±5...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Chiharu Nishijima, Yoko Sato, Tsuyoshi Chiba, Keizo Umegaki
The current adverse event reporting system for dietary supplements lacks the ability to collect and analyze ongoing case reports in sufficient numbers to detect health issues. We conducted an online survey to collect data on skin manifestations due to supplement use in consumers and to identify the suspected products and ingredients. An online survey was conducted among 63,737 dietary supplement users in 2016. Those who self-reported experiences of skin anthema or itching caused by supplement use and recognized a causal relationship as almost certain (0...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Keisuke Hashimoto, Nobuhiro Zaima, Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Hirona Kugo, Chie Miyamoto, Kiyoto Hoshino, Natsumi Kawasaki, Keita Sutoh, Koji Usumi, Tatsuya Moriyama
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the infrarenal aorta. Epidemiologic data have clearly linked tobacco smoking to aneurysm formation and a faster rate of expansion. It suggested that nicotine, one of the main ingredients of tobacco, has been suggested to be associated with AAA development and rupture. In the condition where no established drugs are available; therefore, an effective approach to prevent the vascular damage from nicotine consumption may be the use of dietary functional food factors...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Shoko Fukunaga, Sayori Wada, Toshiya Sato, Masahide Hamaguchi, Wataru Aoi, Akane Higashi
Glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is present in foods such as barley, corn, and wheat flour. GlcCer derived from different foods has differences in its physiological effects, depending on the sphingoid backbone and constituent fatty acids. In this study, we investigated the moisturizing and skin conditioning effects of GlcCer derived from torula yeast (Candida utilis) in healthy human subjects. The participants were randomly distributed in a crossover, double-blind comparative manner. Seventeen volunteers were orally administered both 1...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Yuzuru Iizuka, Aoi Ozeki, Tsubasa Tani, Takanori Tsuda
Blackcurrants are berries that contain high levels of anthocyanins, particularly delphinidin 3-rutinoside (D3R). Several studies have reported that the consumption of blackcurrant extract (BCE) lowers blood glucose levels and ameliorates glucose tolerance, but the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are considered one of the most significant molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we showed that dietary BCE significantly reduced blood glucose concentration and improved glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic mice (KK-Ay )...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Miyuki Takasaki, Ryo Momosaki, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Shinta Nishioka
Nutritional complications frequently occur among patients undergoing rehabilitation, and the importance of nutrition in these patients has been emphasized. However, there is not enough evidence available on rehabilitation nutrition. The Japan Rehabilitation Nutrition Database was set up to reflect the real-world clinical practice of rehabilitation nutrition. This paper describes the construction and quality evaluation of the registry database. We constructed a large-scale database that can be used for the clinical research of nutrition for rehabilitation...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Saiko Ikeda, Saki Nomura, Fumiaki Hanzawa, Saki Takahashi, Hiroaki Oda, Yoko Fujiwara, Tomono Uchida
Previous studies have shown that α-tocopherol intake lowers phylloquinone (PK) concentration in some extrahepatic tissues in rats. The study's aim was to clarify the effect of α-tocopherol intake on vitamin K concentration in bone, as well as the physiological action of vitamin K. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Over a 3-mo period, the K-free group was fed a vitamin K-free diet with 50 mg RRR-α-tocopherol/kg, the E-free group was fed a diet containing 0.75 mg PK/kg without vitamin E, the control group was fed a diet containing 0...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Kenichi Shibuya, Mai Misegawa, Megumi Fukuhara, Shiniya Hirano, Kasumi Suzuki, Naoto Sato
In the present study, we examined the cognitive function during mastication of lemon-flavored gum, which is said to enhance cerebral blood flow. Nine healthy subjects (8 female and 1 male) participated in this study. Subjects chewed the gum for 3 min after fasting for 2 h and conducted a Stroop test while continuing to chew. At the end of all answers, gum chewing ended. The response time in the Stroop test was used as an indicator of cognitive function. We set the three conditions (lemon-flavored gum, mint-flavored gum, no gum chewing)...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Xi Li, Kazuhiko Higashida, Takuji Kawamura, Mitsuru Higuchi
It is known that a high-fat diet induces an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. To examine the time course of decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle after discontinuing a high-fat diet feeding, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 4 wk and then switched to the control diet for another 3 or 7 d. During the high-fat diet withdrawal period, the protein content of the mitochondrial respiratory chain decreased faster than the fatty acid oxidation enzymes. The mitochondrial DNA copy number remained high for at least 1 wk after withdrawing the high-fat diet...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Yuma Hirose, Takumi Onishi, Shinji Miura, Yukino Hatazawa, Yasutomi Kamei
Vitamin D is known to be effective for the prevention of muscle atrophy, such as age-related sarcopenia. However, vitamin D action in skeletal muscle tissue and muscle cells is largely unknown. We previously found that a transcription factor, FOXO1 gene expression, was induced in various muscle atrophy conditions causing muscle atrophy by upregulating atrophy-related genes, including atrogin 1 (ubiquitin ligase) and cathepsin L (lysosomal proteinase). In this study, we found that vitamin D inhibited FOXO1-mediated transcriptional activity in a reporter gene assay...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Shuichi Kamo, Yuichi Takada, Takatoshi Yamashita, Toshiro Sato, Erika Yano, Nobuhiro Zaima, Tatsuya Moriyama
Group B soyasaponins, found in soy, have various health-promoting properties, but it is unclear whether they have an anti-obesity effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-obesity effect of group B soyasaponin glycosides and aglycone in mice fed a high-fat diet. Six-week-old C57/BL6 mice were divided into three groups (each n=10) and orally administered a high-fat diet for 35 d; two of the groups also received group B soyasaponin glycosides or aglycone. Although there was no significant difference among the three groups in consumption, the weight of fat adipose tissue at autopsy was more than 30% lower in the group B soyasaponin aglycone group than in the control group, but X-ray computed tomography showed no significant difference in muscle weight between these two groups...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Bungo Shirouchi, Rikako Yamanaka, Shoji Tanaka, Fagyun Kawatou, Takuya Hayashi, Ai Takeyama, Akiko Nakao, Ryoko Goromaru, Masako Iwamoto, Masao Sato
Dietary intake of total phospholipids (PLs) accounts for approximately 10% of total dietary lipids. Each PL molecular class has various beneficial effects on health. However, limited information is available regarding the intake of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and sphingomyelin (SM) among Japanese people, and the relevant food sources. In this study, we quantified the contents of PC, PE, PI, PS, LPC, and SM in 120 meal samples served in a Japanese company's dormitory and cafeteria...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Yusaku Akashi, Hiromichi Suzuki, Koji Kanemoto, Yumi Hirose, Keita Yamashita, Takayuki Yamamoto, Takamaro Miyazawa, Kazuhito Hirose, Hiroichi Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro Maeno
The association between advanced age and the thiamine concentration has not been conclusively determined. A recent report from Japan showed that more than half of nursing home elderly residents at an institution had a low whole-blood thiamine concentration (<20 ng/mL). Therefore, a high incidence of low thiamine concentrations among hospitalized elderly has been anticipated in the Japanese population but never investigated. We evaluated the whole thiamine concentration in newly hospitalized elderly patients (≥65 y old) with infectious diseases...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Ryuto Maruyama, Makoto Shimizu, Tsutomu Hashidume, Jun Inoue, Nobuyuki Itoh, Ryuichiro Sato
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), mainly synthesized and secreted from the liver, is an endocrine FGF that regulates glucose and fatty acid metabolism to maintain whole body energy homeostasis. Gene expression of FGF21 was previously reported to be induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). It has been reported that drug-induced ER stress is reduced by overexpression of FGF21. However, the function of endogenous FGF21 under physiological conditions such as the postprandial state remains unknown...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Tomonori Sato, Nao Muramatsu, Yoshiaki Ito, Yoshio Yamamoto, Takashi Nagasawa
Non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis is a phenotype of metabolic syndrome, and aging is a risk factor for this condition. Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) is a murine model for studying aging-associated disorders. We here investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with L-lysine (Lys) on non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis in SAMP8 mice. Triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (Chol) accumulated in the livers of SAMP8 mice fed a standard diet at 36 wk of age. However, intake of a Lys-rich diet for 2 mo prevented the accumulation of TG and Chol in the liver...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
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