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Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology

Tsuyoshi Kameda, Hideyuki Aoki, Yongshou Yang, Dwi Eva Nirmagustina, Akane Iwamoto, Thanutchaporn Kumrungsee, Norihisa Kato, Noriyuki Yanaka
The regional standard for tempeh established by the Codex Alimentarius defines the use of Rhizopus oligosporus, R. oryzae, and/or R. stolonifer as soybean tempeh starters. However, comparative studies on the functions of tempeh prepared with these Rhizopus species are scarce. In the present study, we examined the effects of dietary tempeh prepared with these three Rhizopus species using rats fed with a high-fat diet. Compared to the control diet, consumption of tempeh prepared with R. stolonifer significantly suppressed serum levels of aspartate transaminase, total bilirubin, and ammonium (indices of liver function)...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Harri Hemilä
Beta-carotene has been suggested to be a factor for improving the immune system, which implies that it might decrease the risk of infections. We therefore analyzed whether beta-carotene supplementation influenced pneumonia risk in 14,564 Finnish male smokers of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Study. There were 231 pneumonia cases in the beta-carotene group and 217 cases in the placebo group. Thus, beta-carotene had no effect on the average incidence of pneumonia, RR=1.07 (95% CI: 0.89-1.29). However, cigarette smoking exposure significantly modified the effect...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Fumika Mano, Kaori Ikeda, Tosiya Sato, Takeo Nakayama, Daisuke Tanaka, Erina Joo, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Shinji Kosugi, Akihiro Sekine, Yasuharu Tabara, Fumihiko Matsuda, Nobuya Inagaki
Dietary habits and lifestyles are considered to affect the frequency of epigastric symptoms. In our previous study, we found that three amino acids in Japanese broth promoted gastric emptying. We hypothesized that a higher consumption of miso soup which was mainly composed of Japanese broth and miso paste would be associated with a lower frequency of epigastric symptoms. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the association between frequency of miso soup intake and reflux or dyspepsia symptoms in a general Japanese population...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Tomomi Genda, Takashi Kondo, Shingo Hino, Shunsaku Sugiura, Naomichi Nishimura, Tatsuya Morita
The effects of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on gut-barrier function are still controversial in human and animal studies. Diet conditions would be a major factor for the controversy in animal studies. We fed rats a semi-purified (SP) or a non-purified diet (NP) with or without FOS (60 g/kg diet) for 9 (experiment 1) or 10 d (experiment 2). We assessed microbial fermentation, gut permeability, and inflammatory responses in the cecum (experiment 1), and mucus layer in the cecum, intestinal transit time and microbiota composition (experiment 2)...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Zhuo-Si Li, Jia-Wen Zheng, Yuki Manabe, Takashi Hirata, Tatsuya Sugawara
Marine carotenoids have been reported to prevent and alleviate lifestyle-related diseases including diabetes and obesity. We previously reported that siphonaxanthin, a green algal carotenoid, effectively suppresses adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and prevents lipid accumulation in mesenteric adipose tissue of KK-Ay mice. Thus, we expect that dietary siphonaxanthin-rich marine green algae may effectively prevent obesity. Here, we assessed the effect of dietary siphonaxanthin-rich green algae (Codium cylindricum) on the development of diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Junpei Yamamoto, Junko Ishihara, Ayaka Kotemori, Misako Nakadate, Tomotaka Sobue
Acrylamide, classified as a probable carcinogen to humans, forms during high- temperature cooking. Dietary exposure among the Japanese is unknown. To evaluate the validity of estimated acrylamide intake using a dietary record (DR) and the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in comparison with the duplicate diet method (DM) in a Japanese population. Design: A validation study was performed with 14 participants (age, 32-50 y; 11 women) from 11 households. Food samples were simultaneously collected for the DM and DR on the same day over 2 consecutive days...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Hsing-Chun Lin, Chiung-Huei Peng, Chien-Ning Huang, Jeng-Yuan Chiou
Cognitive impairment is a common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. Dietary factors have an important role in cognitive dysfunction. Soy has many benefits, and consumption of soy-based foods is general in East Asian countries. In this study, we want to investigate the association between cognitive function decline and soy-based food intake among the elderly in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained from the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT). Subjects aged less than 65 y or with missing data were excluded...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Yukako Hino, Ayumi Koyanagi, Motohiro Maebuchi, Takashi Ichinose, Shigeki Furuya
The effect of soy and casein peptide intake on the metabolism of amino acids and monoamine neurotransmitters in the serum and brain were examined in C57BL/6 mice. Acute oral administration of soy peptide (0.026 g/30 g body weight) caused a notable increase in tyrosine, a catecholamine precursor, in the serum and cerebral cortex, whereas casein peptide administration at the same dose led to an increase in tyrosine in the serum, but not in the cerebral cortex. In addition to tyrosine, soy peptide administration also led to an effective augmentation of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG), a principal metabolite of noradrenaline, and significant facilitation of noradrenergic turnover in the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and hippocampus compared to the vehicle control...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Kazuto Tajiri, Yuka Futsukaichi, Saito Kobayashi, Satoshi Yasumura, Terumi Takahara, Masami Minemura, Toshiro Sugiyama
Hepatic encephalopathy is a major complication in patients with advanced cirrhosis and is associated with poor prognosis. To evaluate the effectiveness of L-carnitine supplementation in patients with overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE), outcomes were retrospectively analyzed in patients with OHE who were treated with intravenous branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), with or without intravenous L-carnitine. Twenty-six patients were treated with intravenous BCAA in addition to conventional agents such as lactulose and non-absorbable antibiotics (Group A), and 19 patients were treated with these agents plus intravenous L-carnitine (Group L)...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Kimiko Nishino, Masaru Sakurai, Yumie Takeshita, Toshinari Takamura
We aimed to examine the effects of variable timing of carbohydrate intake on postprandial glucose and insulin excursion in a diet with the same levels of energy and balance of three major nutrients. The study subjects included 8 healthy individuals, mean age 20.0±1.2 y (4 males and 4 females; mean age, 19.1±0.7 and 20.8±0.9 y, respectively), without a family history of diabetes. They consumed a test meal consisting of three separate plates of rice, vegetables, and meat after an overnight fast. The subjects consumed the three plates in different orders on three different days; the subsequent changes in glucose and insulin levels were measured over a 120-min period...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Xinyi Zhou, Peng Zhang, Qian Wang, Sisi Xia, Ning Ji, Yi Ding, Qi Wang
Type 2 diabetic mellitus is manifested by metabolic impairments with high prevalence worldwide, of which periodontitis represents a typical oral complication (also called diabetic periodontitis). Oral epithelia bear the brunt of periodontal damage from microscopic intruders; thus the defense function of epithelial cells is of vital significance. We have previously proved that 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3 ) altered the expression of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide in oral epithelial cells in vitro. Herein, we discovered that 25-OHD3 intraperitoneal injection attenuated periodontal inflammation by promoting cathelicidin production in gingival epithelia and reducing fasting glucose of diabetic mice...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
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2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Hiroshi Ashigai, Yuta Komano, Guanying Wang, Yasuji Kawachi, Kazuko Sunaga, Reiko Yamamoto, Ryoji Takata, Takaaki Yanai
Blackcurrants (Ribes nigrum L.) have various benefits for human health. In particular, a polysaccharide derived from blackcurrant was found to be an immunostimulating food ingredient in a mouse model. We named a polysaccharide derived from blackcurrant cassis polysaccharide (CAPS). In a previous clinical study, we reported that CAPS affects skin dehydration, demonstrating its effectiveness against skin inflammation was related to atopic dermatitis; skin inflammation caused skin dehydration. However, there are no studies regarding CAPS effectiveness against skin dehydration...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Takaoki Saneyasu, Haruka Shindo, Kazuhisa Honda, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
Skeletal muscle is composed of four types of fibers in mammals; oxidative slow-twitch type I, oxidative fast-twitch IIA, and glycolytic fast-twitch IIB and IIX/D. In this study using C2C12 myotubes, an extract of soybean protein significantly upregulated mRNA level of myosin heavy chain 7 (Myh7), the predominant isoform expressed in oxidative slow-twitch type I and downregulated mRNA levels of Myh4, the predominant isoform expressed in glycolytic fast-twitch IIB. Similarly, its hydrolysate prepared using digestive enzyme also significantly increased Myh7 expression...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Katsumi Shibata
2-Oxo acids derived from amino acids, glucose, and fatty acids are key intermediates in energy production. During diabetes, energy production is known to be lower than in healthy individuals. However, it was unknown whether the production of 2-oxo acids is impacted by diabetes. In the present study, I compared the quantities of 2-oxo acids (pyruvic acid, oxaloacetic acid, 2-oxoglutaric acid, 2-oxoadipic acid, 2-oxoisovaleric acid, 2-oxo-3-methylvaleric acid, and 2-oxo-4-methylvaleric acid) excreted in the urine of normoglycemic control rats and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, which reflect the quantities of unused 2-oxo acids in the body...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Yo Tsuchiya, Koichi Kawamata
[6]-Gingerol possesses various beneficial pharmacological and therapeutic properties, including anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties and the ability to regulate intestinal contraction. Recently, our group observed that the serosal administration of [6]-gingerol stimulated electrogenic sodium absorption in the rat colon via the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. TRPV1 is known to be expressed in both the mucosal epithelium and the muscle layers in the colon. In the present study, we assessed whether [6]-gingerol stimulated sodium absorption via TRPV1 in the colonic mucosal epithelium...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Hiroshi Tanaka, Yoshikazu Nishikawa, Kotaro Kure, Kinsuke Tsuda, Masaya Hosokawa
The semi-solidified nutrition supplemented with soluble dietary fiber, xanthan gum (XG), inhibited postprandial glycemia in rats. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether XG exerts the same effects in humans. Subjects fasted for 12 h and then ingested the enteral nutrient, Meibalance with or without XG at 9 AM. Blood glucose levels were measured 0, 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after its ingestion. Postprandial blood glucose levels were lower in the XG group than in the control group. At 20 min, postprandial blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the XG group (84±5...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Chiharu Nishijima, Yoko Sato, Tsuyoshi Chiba, Keizo Umegaki
The current adverse event reporting system for dietary supplements lacks the ability to collect and analyze ongoing case reports in sufficient numbers to detect health issues. We conducted an online survey to collect data on skin manifestations due to supplement use in consumers and to identify the suspected products and ingredients. An online survey was conducted among 63,737 dietary supplement users in 2016. Those who self-reported experiences of skin anthema or itching caused by supplement use and recognized a causal relationship as almost certain (0...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Keisuke Hashimoto, Nobuhiro Zaima, Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Hirona Kugo, Chie Miyamoto, Kiyoto Hoshino, Natsumi Kawasaki, Keita Sutoh, Koji Usumi, Tatsuya Moriyama
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the infrarenal aorta. Epidemiologic data have clearly linked tobacco smoking to aneurysm formation and a faster rate of expansion. It suggested that nicotine, one of the main ingredients of tobacco, has been suggested to be associated with AAA development and rupture. In the condition where no established drugs are available; therefore, an effective approach to prevent the vascular damage from nicotine consumption may be the use of dietary functional food factors...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Shoko Fukunaga, Sayori Wada, Toshiya Sato, Masahide Hamaguchi, Wataru Aoi, Akane Higashi
Glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is present in foods such as barley, corn, and wheat flour. GlcCer derived from different foods has differences in its physiological effects, depending on the sphingoid backbone and constituent fatty acids. In this study, we investigated the moisturizing and skin conditioning effects of GlcCer derived from torula yeast (Candida utilis) in healthy human subjects. The participants were randomly distributed in a crossover, double-blind comparative manner. Seventeen volunteers were orally administered both 1...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
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