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Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology

Ayaka Nakashima, Koji Yamada, Osamu Iwata, Ryota Sugimoto, Kohei Atsuji, Taro Ogawa, Naoko Ishibashi-Ohgo, Kengo Suzuki
β-Glucans are a class of polysaccharides consisting of D-glucose units that are polymerized primarily via the β-1,3 glycosidic bonds, in addition to the β-1,4 and/or β-1,6 bonds. They are present in various food products such as cereals, mushrooms, and seaweeds and are known for their numerous effects on the human body, depending on their structures, which are diverse. The major physicochemical properties of β-glucans include their antioxidant property, which is responsible for the scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and their role as dietary fiber for preventing the absorption of cholesterol, for promoting egestion, and for producing short-chain fatty acids in the intestine...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Hiroko Maruki-Uchida, Minoru Morita, Yoshikazu Yonei, Masahiko Sai
Piceatannol has been reported to have a wide variety of effects on the skin, including promoting collagen production, inhibiting melanin synthesis, inducing the antioxidant glutathione, and eliminating reactive oxygen species. In this study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted to clinically evaluate the effects of piceatannol-rich passion fruit seed extract on the skin of healthy Japanese women (age, 35-54 y). Thirty-two women with dry skin received either passion fruit seed extract (5 mg piceatannol) or a placebo (dextrin) for 8 wk...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Miho Chikazawa, Ryuichiro Sato
Maintaining skeletal muscle functions by controlling muscle metabolism is of utmost importance. β2 -Adrenergic receptor (β2 -AR), which is expressed in skeletal muscle, is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family that plays a critical role in the maintenance of muscle mass. In the present study, using luciferase reporter assays in β2 -AR-expressing HEK293 cells, we discovered several food factors that exhibited agonistic activity at mouse or human β2 -AR. Osthole, gramine, and hordenine were identified as both mouse and human β2 -AR agonists, whereas berberine was identified as a mouse β2 -AR agonist only...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Tiantian Zhang, Ping Liu, Yu Sun, Na Ren, Shuang Nie
The aim of the study was to demonstrate the impairment of trans fatty acids (TFAs) in neurological disorders in mice. Forty-eight male Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups with twelve in each group, namely a control group (corn oil group), and TFA groups with low, middle and high dosages. The tested chemicals were given by gavage, once a day, for 12 wk in total, with the volume of the intragastric liquid as 0.1 mL/10 g of body weight. The mice in the control group were given corn oil only. The mice in the TFA groups were given TFA solution (doses were 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of body weight, respectively)...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Kohei Kawakami, Kazuo Yamada, Takaya Yamada, Toru Nabika, Masato Nomura
'Haiibuki' is a giant embryo rice cultivar that contains abundant γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) compared with conventional rice cultivars. Here, we performed a functional evaluation of 'GABA-enriched brown rice' (GEBR) prepared by modifying the 'Haiibuki' cultivar to contain more GABA. Study 1: Spontaneously hypertensive rats were divided into three groups [control (cornstarch), normal brown rice, and GEBR] and fed an orally administered diet for 4 wk. A significant blood pressure elevation-inhibitory effect was observed in the GEBR group as compared with the other groups...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Eri Imai, Katsumi Shibata
We investigated oral glucose tolerance and tryptophan (Trp) metabolism in non-obese and non-insulin-dependent diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats fed high-Trp diets. Five-week-old male Wistar and GK rats were fed a 20% casein diet (control diet) or the same diet supplemented with 1%, 2%, 3%, or 5% Trp for 58 d. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on Days 14 and 28 of the experimental period. Urine as well as livers and blood were collected on the last day of the experiment. The glucose concentration and the amount of Trp metabolites were measured...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Takahiro Ueda, Airo Tategaki, Kazuya Hamada, Hideyuki Kishida, Kazunori Hosoe, Hideyuki Morikawa, Kaku Nakagawa
The biological effects of heat-killed Pediococcus acidilactici R037 (R037) were evaluated when orally administered in mice and rats. Oral R037 administration at a daily dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg for 3 wk dose-dependently reduced fasting and non-fasting serum triglyceride concentrations in KK-Ay /TaJcl mice, a model of type II diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Serum levels of free fatty acids in the 100 mg/kg group tended to decrease (not statistically significant), and total cholesterol levels remained unchanged...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Akira Wada, Chiaki Sonoda, Yuya Makino, Yuki Hama, Akihiro Nagahama, Daisuke Harada
In Japan, parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions are frequently administered to patients in the postoperative short-term period. In these cases, amino acid-containing peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) solutions, amino acid-free maintenance solutions or combinations of the two are used. However, consensus regarding the most beneficial solution for these patients is lacking. Here, we examined the nutritional status and wound healing outcomes in protein-malnourished rats receiving postoperative administrations of PPN solution, maintenance solution or combinations of the two solutions...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Mei Zhao, Jun Zhou, Yuan-Hua Chen, Li Yuan, Man-Man Yuan, Xin-Qiong Zhang, Yan Hu, Huan Yu
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of folic acid on impaired wound healing in diabetic mice. Male mice were divided into three groups: group 1, the non-diabetic mice (control); group 2, the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice; and group 3, the diabetic mice that received a daily dose of 3 mg/kg folic acid via oral gavage. Full-thickness excision wounds were created with 8-mm skin biopsy punches. Each wound closure was continuously evaluated until the wound healed up. Wound healing was delayed in diabetic mice compared with the non-diabetic mice...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Seong-Woo Choi, Sun-Seog Kweon, Young-Hoon Lee, So-Yeon Ryu, Jin-Su Choi, Hae-Sung Nam, Kyeong-Soo Park, Sun A Kim, Min-Ho Shin
Increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) was associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in CKD patients. Our aim was to investigate the associations among estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) and PTH independent of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). This study included 9,162 individuals who completed the baseline survey of the Dong-gu Study, which was conducted in Korea from 2007 to 2010. The eGFR, ACR, PTH and 25(OH)D were measured in participants who met the detailed inclusion criteria...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Yukina Nishito, Taiho Kambe
Essential trace elements play pivotal roles in numerous structural and catalytic functions of proteins. Adequate intake of essential trace elements from the daily diet is indispensable to the maintenance of health, and their deficiency leads to a variety of conditions. However, excessive amounts of these trace elements may be highly toxic, and in some cases, may cause damage by the production of harmful reactive oxygen species. Homeostatic dysregulation of their metabolism increases the risk of developing diseases...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Tomomi Shirai, Yuri Tanioka, Tadasu Furusho, Jun Yamauchi
The AICAR responsive element binding protein (AREBP) suppresses transcription of the gluconeogenic enzyme genes in response to AICAR treatment. Moreover, overexpression of AREBP also suppresses gluconeogenic gene expressions in animals, indicating that AREBP plays an important role in gluconeogenesis. Through a combination of systematic analyses of the AREBP gene promoter and assays for DNA-protein interaction, we identified a nuclear factor involved in tissue-specific expression of AREBP. By targeting this nuclear factor, pharmacological or nutraceutical induction of AREBP gene expression is expected to reduce blood glucose levels in patient with insulin resistance...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Masaru Ochiai, Yoshiyuki Azuma
We have previously reported that chicken egg white (EW) and low-allergenic EW hydrolysate (EWH) suppressed ectopic fat accumulation and improved serum glucose and insulin levels. In this study, the dietary effects of EW and EWH on glucose tolerance were investigated in different ways to clarify the effect of EW and EWH on intestinal glucose absorption. Type 2 diabetic Nagoya-Shibata-Yasuda mice were divided into four groups: a low-fat and low-sucrose casein-based diet group (NL); high-fat and high-sucrose (HFS) casein-based diet group (NH); HFS EW-based diet group (NE); and HFS EWH-based diet group (NEH)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Yoshiharu Tokita, Minami Hirayama, Katsuyuki Nakajima, Kenei Tamaki, Masahiko Iha, Takeaki Nagamine
Seaweed has been considered an indigestible food. Fucoidan, which is found abundantly in seaweed, especially in Cladosiphon okamuranus (Okinawa mozuku), has a high molecular weight and has been long believed to be hardly absorbed in the human digestive system due to a lack of certain digestive enzymes. We previously reported that fucoidan can be detected in serum and urine after oral intake of purified fucoidan in humans and rats. However, it is unclear whether the fucoidan in mozuku can be absorbed after digestion of mozuku...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Asuka Igoshi, Yui Sato, Kumi Kameyama, Masatsune Murata
The browning or discoloration of cheese is often observed during long-time ripening or aging. In the present study, we identified galactose as a limiting factor for the browning, and clarified the involvement of the Maillard reaction for the discoloration. A precursor of browning of Cheddar cheese was isolated by procedures of solvent extraction and chromatography. D-Galactose and D-lactose were identified as a precursor of browning of Cheddar cheese A and B, respectively. Cheddar cheese (A, B, and C), sugar-added cheese, and nine kinds of retail cheese were stored at 4 to 70ºC for 0 to 10 d, before the L*-, a*-, and b*-values and sugar contents of each sample were measured...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Shohei Tamura, Kazuhisa Honda, Ryoji Morinaga, Takaoki Saneyasu, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
The combination of diet and exercise is the first choice for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We previously reported that enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in obese rats. However, the effect of the combination of ESG and exercise on abdominal fat accumulation has not yet been investigated. Our goal in this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of dietary ESG and its combination with exercise on abdominal fat accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Takahiro Seura, Yoko Yoshino, Tsutomu Fukuwatari
Recent studies have shown that dietary content affects the health of the host by changing the gut microbiota. However, little is known about the association of microbiota composition with habitual diet in Japanese people. Here, we aimed to clarify the relationship between the fecal microbiota and habitual dietary intake of micronutrients, macronutrients and food groups in healthy young Japanese women. Analysis of fecal microbiota was performed by the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) method, and a dietary survey was conducted over three consecutive days using a weighed food record method...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Kazuyo Tujioka, Takashi Yamada, Hidehiko Yokogoshi, Saori Akiduki, Yukihiro Hishida, Kazumi Tsutsui, Kazutoshi Hayase
Brain protein synthesis and the plasma concentration of growth hormone (GH) are sensitive to dietary ornithine. However, dietary ornithine does not increase brain protein synthesis in hypophysectomized rats. Because hypophysectomy may decrease the secretion of thyroid stimulated hormone (TSH), we assessed whether the regulation of brain protein synthesis was mediated by changes in the plasma concentrations of thyroid hormone and ghrelin in the 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU, thyroid inhibitor)-treated or control adult rats fed ornithine...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Naomi Yoshii, Koji Sato, Riki Ogasawara, Toshiyuki Kurihara, Takafumi Hamaoka, Satoshi Fujita
Dietary protein intake is critical for maintaining an optimal muscle mass, especially among older individuals. Although protein supplementation during resistance training (RT) has been shown to further augment training-induced muscle mass in older individuals, the impact of daily variations in protein intake on training-induced muscle mass has not been explored thus far. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between the dietary protein and amino acid intake and RT-induced muscle hypertrophy among older individuals...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Miho Hanai, Miko Yoshikuni, Haruna Hikita
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary protein levels on protein nutritional status in rats kept under constant darkness. Thirty-six 4-wk-old female rats (F344 strain) were divided into six groups. Each group was given a diet with one of three different protein levels and kept under normal light and dark cycles (7:00-19:00 light period/19:00-7:00 dark period, N group) or under constant darkness (D group) for 4 wk. The protein levels of the diets were 10%, 20%, and 30% casein. The six groups are referred to as the N10%, N20%, N30%, D10%, D20%, and D30% groups...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
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