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Journal of Environmental Management

Gülen Tekin, Gülin Ersöz, Süheyda Atalay
This research focused on the abatement of the model food dye, tartrazine, using visible light photo-Fenton oxidation with novel bismuth oxyhalide catalysts. Bismuth-oxyhalide and metal doped bismuth oxyhalide catalysts (BiOCl, Cu-BiOCl, and Fe-BiOCl) were synthesized via the facile co-precipitation method. The catalysts were characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD, BET, and DRS analyses and the results showed that Cu-BiOCl possess a unique flower-like nanostructure with narrow band gap (2.53 eV) which enhanced its visible light photocatalytic activity remarkably which was proven by catalyst screening experiments...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Muhammad Shaaban, Lukas Van Zwieten, Saqib Bashir, Aneela Younas, Avelino Núñez-Delgado, Muhammad Afzal Chhajro, Kashif Ali Kubar, Umeed Ali, Muhammad Shoaib Rana, Mirza Abid Mehmood, Ronggui Hu
Application of biochar to soil can play a significant role in the alteration of nutrients dynamics, soil contaminants as well as microbial functions. Therefore, strategic biochar application to soil may provide agronomic, environmental and economic benefits. Key environmental outcomes may include reduced availability of toxic metals and organic pollutants, reduced soil N losses and longer-term storage of carbon in soil. The use of biochar can certainly address key soil agronomic constraints to crop production including Al toxicity, low soil pH and may improve nutrient use efficiency...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Mutiara Ayu Sari, Mohammad Badruzzaman, Carla Cherchi, Matthew Swindle, Newsha Ajami, Joseph G Jacangelo
Water conduits have a large untapped potential to recapture energy for small hydroelectric generation, which can substantially reduce grid electricity consumption and/or provide renewable energy to water agencies. Over the past decade, there has been a recent technological renaissance in off-the-shelf "water-to-wire" turbine technologies including reaction, impulse, and hydrokinetic turbines that target the sub 1-MW in-conduit hydroelectric market. However, adoption of small hydropower technologies remain limited in water and wastewater utility sector, possibly due to the lack of market penetration and exposure...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Egle Köster, Kajar Köster, Frank Berninger, Anatoly Prokushkin, Heidi Aaltonen, Xuan Zhou, Jukka Pumpanen
Rising air temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns in boreal ecosystems are changing the fire occurrence regimes (intervals, severity, intensity, etc.). The main impacts of fires are reported to be changes in soil physical and chemical characteristics, vegetation stress, degradation of permafrost, and increased depth of the active layer. Changes in these characteristics influence the dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) fluxes. We have studied the changes in CO2 and CH4 fluxes from the soil in boreal forest areas in central Siberia underlain by continuous permafrost and the possible impacts of the aforementioned environmental factors on the emissions of these greenhouse gases...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Md Zahanggir Alam, A H M Faisal Anwar, Anna Heitz, Dipok Chandra Sarker
Stormwater runoff transports contaminants, including gross pollutants (GPs) accumulated on surfaces to nearby receiving water bodies. These may clog storm drainage systems, seal side entry pits and increase dissolved pollutants in receiving water bodies. Best management practices (BMPs) such as oil and grit separators, grassed swales, vegetated filter strips, retention ponds, and catch basin inserts (CBIs) are implemented to reduce stormwater pollutants in urban runoff. However, the information on physicochemical characteristics of the pollutants are still few in literature but important to improve the design of BMPs, considering qualitative aspects, and their operation...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Ming-Wei Kee, Jian-Wen Soo, Sze-Mun Lam, Jin-Chung Sin, Abdul Rahman Mohamed
Recycling of alternative water sources particularly greywater and recovery of energy from wastewater are gaining momentum due to clean water scarcity and energy crisis. In this study, the photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) employing ZnO/Zn photoanode and CuO/Cu photocathode was successfully designed for effective greywater recycling as well as energy recovery. The photoelectrodes were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Kathryn M Collins, Owen F Price, Trent D Penman
Fire agencies aim to contain wildfires before they impact on life, property and infrastructure and to reduce the risk of damage to the environment. Despite the large cost of suppression, there are few data on the success of suppression efforts under varying weather, fuel and resource scenarios. We examined over 2200 forest and 4600 grass fires in New South Wales, Australia to determine the dominant influences on the containment of wildfires. A random forest modelling approach was used to analyse the effect of a range of human and environmental factors...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Manuel F Zamorano, Rupesh K Bhomia, Michael J Chimney, Delia Ivanoff
In South Florida, stormwater treatment areas (STAs) are used to reduce phosphorus (P) in runoff from agricultural areas before water is discharged into the Everglades Protection Area. The Everglades STAs retain a significant amount of P and play an important role in Everglades restoration. Wetland soils generally are long-term sinks for P; therefore, the sustainability of STA treatment performance can be assessed by tracking changes in soil characteristics. This study evaluated the spatiotemporal changes in soil P and related physicochemical characteristics in the unconsolidated floc and underlying surface soil layer (0-10 cm) of a 920-ha submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV)-dominated wetland (STA-2 Cell 3)...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Anoop Valiya Veettil, Ashok K Mishra
Land use change and climate variability have significantly altered the regional water cycle over the last century thereby affecting water security at a local to regional scale. Therefore, it is important to investigate how the climate, land use change, and water demand potentially influence the water security by applying the concept of water footprint. An integrated hydrological modeling framework using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was developed by considering both anthropogenic (e.g. land use change, water demand) and climatic factors to quantify the spatio-temporal variability of water security indicators such as blue water scarcity, green water scarcity, Falkenmark index, and freshwater provision indicators in Savannah River Basin (SRB)...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Peipei Song, Qianqian Song, Zhaohui Yang, Guangming Zeng, Haiyin Xu, Xin Li, Weiping Xiong
In order to intuitively and clearly evaluate the potential and current distribution, the fluid flow and mixing, as well as mass transfer involved in electrocoagulation process for As and Sb removal, numerical simulation of electric field, flow field and mass transfer were constructed by Comsol Multiphysics and verified by experiments. Results displayed that the primary current and potential distribution were improved by changing electrode distance or adding insulator in a batch reactor. When configuration 2 and 2 cm electrode distance were applied, a more uniform primary current distribution and higher electrode current efficiency were obtained...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Emine Yagmur, I Isil Gurten Inal, Yavuz Gokce, T Gamze Ulusoy Ghobadi, Tugce Aktar, Zeki Aktas
Activating agents play significant roles in the preparation of activated carbon (AC) from biomasses and their wastes, which are widely used in AC production. Application methods are also important for the production process. Products give remarkable ideas regarding the method and heat treatment process. The activated carbon was produced from waste tea in accordance with either the conventional method or microwave energy pretreated method using phosphoric acid (H3 PO4 ) as activating agent. The yields of the activated carbons were 51...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Silvia de Juan, Judi Hewitt, Maria Dulce Subida, Simon Thrush
It is crucial that societies are informed on the risks of impoverished ecosystem health for their well-being. For this purpose, Ecological Integrity (EI) is a useful concept that seeks to capture the complex nature of ecosystems and their interaction with social welfare. But the challenge remains to measure EI and translate scientific terminology into operational language to inform society. We propose an approach that simplifies marine ecosystem complexity by applying scientific knowledge to identify which components reflect the state or state change of ecosystems...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Yingfei Hou, Shengdong Qi, Haipeng You, Zhaoqi Huang, Qingshan Niu
In this paper, the following questions were investigated: the proportion of mass loss, the mass fraction of oil, the structure, composition and ultimate analysis of solid residues and gas products. By comparing the treatment effect of using both microwave and electric as the source of heat to dispose the oil-based drilling cuttings (OBDC), the advantages of microwave heating treatment were demonstrated. Meanwhile, the composition of liquid products by microwave pyrolysis was analyzed. The results show that the microwave heating is better than electric heating and the former can promote the pyrolysis of petroleum hydrocarbons...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
M T Miranda, F J Sepúlveda, J I Arranz, I Montero, C V Rojas
In recent years, biomass market has constantly increased. Pellet industry has started looking for new products with the potential to be used as biofuels. Among them are agricultural wastes, such as corn cob waste, which presents some characteristics that make its direct use in industrial facilities possible. However, these properties are not enough for its use in domestic stoves and boilers, where higher quality of fuel is needed. For this reason, densification is used. In the present research work a technical and energy analysis of corn cob waste pelletizing was carried out in a semi-industrial pelletizer...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Yaowen Zhang, Ling Shao, Xudong Sun, Mengyao Han, Xueli Zhao, Jing Meng, Bo Zhang, Han Qiao
Consumption demands are final drivers for the extraction and allocation of natural resources. This paper investigates demand-driven natural resource requirements and spatial outsourcing within China in 2012 by using the latest multi-regional input-output model. Exergy is adopted as a common metric for natural resources input. The total domestic resource exergy requirements amounted to 125.5 EJ, of which the eastern area contributed the largest share of 44.5%, followed by the western area (23.9%), the central area (23...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
R R Reeves, M Wilke, P Cashmore, N Macdonald, K Thompson
Pressure to optimise land use and to maximise the economic viability of land has had a detrimental impact on wetlands worldwide. Rehabilitating wetlands has been identified by resource managers as increasingly important to enhance environmental values and restore ecosystem functions that may have been lost through developments effecting wetlands. This paper investigates rehabilitating a geothermally influenced wetland that had been drained and used for grazing stock. The Waikite Wetland (New Zealand) is a relatively unique wetland because the primary water source to the wetland has a significant geothermal water component...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
E Rollason, L J Bracken, R J Hardy, A R G Large
Recognition of the need to manage the water environment in more holistic ways has resulted in the global growth of Integrated Catchment Management (ICM). ICM is characterised by horizontal integration, encouraging interdisciplinary working between traditionally disparate management sectors, alongside vertical integration, characterised by the engagement of communities; central is the promotion of participatory governance and management decision-making. ICM has been translated into policy through, for example, the EU Water Framework Directive and at a national level by policies such as the Catchment Based Approach in England...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Sergej Ustak, Jakub Munoz
The study was focused on the assessment of cup-plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.) as a potential feedstock for biogas production in comparison to reference maize related to the balance needs of nutrients and some microelements for their cultivation, especially with use of digestate for fertilization. Field experiments were carried out in areas of the Czech Republic with less favorable conditions for the cultivation of maize. Obtained results confirmed that cup-plant can be considered a promising novel crop for biogas production due to high yields of biomass (12-18 t/ha DM) and methane (3600-4250 Nm3 /ha) competing with reference maize grown under the same soil and climatic conditions...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Sreerag Gopi, Rupert Kargl, Karin Stana Kleinschek, Anitha Pius, Sabu Thomas
The requirement of promoting a revolution in filtration technology has led to growing devotion in advanced functional materials such as electrospun membranes for filtering devices as a solution for providing water at lower energy costs. In this study, electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride membranes were fabricated by reinforcing 0.5 and 1 wt. % of chitin nanowhiskers in order to improve their thermal stability, mechanical properties, pure water flux and oil-water filtration performance for the possible application as filtration membranes...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
M Conde-Cid, D Fernández-Calviño, J C Nóvoa-Muñoz, M Arias-Estévez, M Díaz-Raviña, A Núñez-Delgado, M J Fernández-Sanjurjo, E Álvarez-Rodríguez
Antibiotics discharged to the environment constitute a main concern for which different treatment alternatives are being studied, some of them based on antibiotics removal or inactivation using by-products with adsorbent capacity, or which can act as catalyst for photo-degradation. But a preliminary step is to determine the general characteristics and magnitude of the degradation process effectively acting on antibiotics. A specific case is that of sulfonamides (SAs), one of the antibiotic groups most widely used in veterinary medicine, and which are considered the most mobile antibiotics, causing that they are frequently detected in both surface- and ground-waters, facilitating their entry in the food chain and causing public health hazards...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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