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Bulletin of Mathematical Biology

Cicik Alfiniyah, Martin A Bees, A Jamie Wood
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that is responsible for a wide range of infections in humans. Colonies employ quorum sensing (QS) to coordinate gene expression, including for virulence factors, swarming motility and complex social traits. The QS signalling system of P. aeruginosa is known to involve multiple control components, notably the las, rhl and pqs systems. In this paper, we examine the las system and, in particular, the repressive interaction of rsaL, an embedded small regulative protein, employing recent biochemical information to aid model construction...
May 19, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Natalia L Komarova, P van den Driessche
Design principles of biological networks have been studied extensively in the context of protein-protein interaction networks, metabolic networks, and regulatory (transcriptional) networks. Here we consider regulation networks that occur on larger scales, namely the cell-to-cell signaling networks that connect groups of cells in multicellular organisms. These are the feedback loops that orchestrate the complex dynamics of cell fate decisions and are necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis in stem cell lineages...
May 15, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Curtis A Gravenmier, Miriam Siddique, Robert A Gatenby
While most cancers promote ingrowth of host blood vessels, the resulting vascular network usually fails to develop a mature organization, resulting in abnormal vascular dynamics with stochastic variations that include slowing, cessation, and even reversal of flow. Thus, substantial spatial and temporal variations in oxygen concentration are commonly observed in most cancers. Cancer cells, like all living systems, are subject to Darwinian dynamics such that their survival and proliferation are dependent on developing optimal phenotypic adaptations to local environmental conditions...
May 15, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Xiaoying Wang, Xingfu Zou
Recent field experiments on vertebrates showed that the mere presence of a predator would cause a dramatic change of prey demography. Fear of predators increases the survival probability of prey, but leads to a cost of prey reproduction. Based on the experimental findings, we propose a predator-prey model with the cost of fear and adaptive avoidance of predators. Mathematical analyses show that the fear effect can interplay with maturation delay between juvenile prey and adult prey in determining the long-term population dynamics...
May 15, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Bo Deng
The Hodgkin and Huxley equations have served as the benchmark model in electrophysiology since 1950s. But it suffers from four major drawbacks. Firstly, it is only phenomenological not mechanistic. Secondly, it fails to exhibit the all-or-nothing firing mechanism for action potential generation. Thirdly, it lacks a theory for ion channel opening and closing activation across the cell membrane. Fourthly, it does not count for the phenomenon of voltage-gating which is vitally important for action potential generation...
May 12, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Vehpi Yildirim, Richard Bertram
Pancreatic islet [Formula: see text]-cells are electrically excitable cells that secrete insulin in an oscillatory fashion when the blood glucose concentration is at a stimulatory level. Insulin oscillations are the result of cytosolic [Formula: see text] oscillations that accompany bursting electrical activity of [Formula: see text]-cells and are physiologically important. ATP-sensitive [Formula: see text] channels (K(ATP) channels) play the key role in setting the overall activity of the cell and in driving bursting, by coupling cell metabolism to the membrane potential...
May 11, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Amanda Swan, Thomas Hillen, John C Bowman, Albert D Murtha
Gliomas are primary brain tumours arising from the glial cells of the nervous system. The diffuse nature of spread, coupled with proximity to critical brain structures, makes treatment a challenge. Pathological analysis confirms that the extent of glioma spread exceeds the extent of the grossly visible mass, seen on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Gliomas show faster spread along white matter tracts than in grey matter, leading to irregular patterns of spread. We propose a mathematical model based on Diffusion Tensor Imaging, a new MRI imaging technique that offers a methodology to delineate the major white matter tracts in the brain...
May 10, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Fajar Adi-Kusumo
We consider the dynamics of an influenza model with antigenic drift mechanism. Antigenic drift is an antigen mutation on the skin surface of the influenza virus that do not produce a new virus strain. The mutation produces the same virus but with slightly different antigens that cannot be recognized by the immune receptors formed by the previous infection. There are some type of influenza that involve the interaction between two populations such as human and animal. In this paper, we construct an influenza model with antigenic drift mechanism on the human population that has interaction with the animal population...
May 10, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Alexandra Smirnova, Linda deCamp, Gerardo Chowell
Deterministic and stochastic methods relying on early case incidence data for forecasting epidemic outbreaks have received increasing attention during the last few years. In mathematical terms, epidemic forecasting is an ill-posed problem due to instability of parameter identification and limited available data. While previous studies have largely estimated the time-dependent transmission rate by assuming specific functional forms (e.g., exponential decay) that depend on a few parameters, here we introduce a novel approach for the reconstruction of nonparametric time-dependent transmission rates by projecting onto a finite subspace spanned by Legendre polynomials...
May 2, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Michelle L Wynn, Megan Egbert, Nikita Consul, Jungsoo Chang, Zhi-Fen Wu, Sofia D Meravjer, Santiago Schnell
The development of network inference methodologies that accurately predict connectivity in dysregulated pathways may enable the rational selection of patient therapies. Accurately inferring an intracellular network from data remains a very challenging problem in molecular systems biology. Living cells integrate extremely robust circuits that exhibit significant heterogeneity, but still respond to external stimuli in predictable ways. This phenomenon allows us to introduce a network inference methodology that integrates measurements of protein activation from perturbation experiments...
April 28, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Olga Vasilyeva
We study the effect of changes in flow speed on competition of an arbitrary number of species living in advective environments, such as streams and rivers. We begin with a spatial Lotka-Volterra model which is described by n reaction-diffusion-advection equations with Danckwerts boundary conditions. Using the dominant eigenvalue [Formula: see text] of the diffusion-advection operator subject to boundary conditions, we reduce the model to a system of ordinary differential equations. We impose a "transitive arrangement" of the competitors in terms of their interspecific coefficients and growth rates, which means that in the absence of advection, we have the following situation: for all [Formula: see text], species i out-competes species j, while species j has higher intrinsic growth rate than species i...
April 25, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Harsh Jain, Trachette Jackson
Tumor growth and progression are critically dependent on the establishment of a vascular support system. This is often accomplished via the expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors, including members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of ligands. VEGF ligands are overexpressed in a wide variety of solid tumors and therefore have inspired optimism that inhibition of the different axes of the VEGF pathway-alone or in combination-would represent powerful anti-angiogenic therapies for most cancer types...
April 24, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
H T Banks, Kidist Bekele-Maxwell, R A Everett, Lyric Stephenson, Sijing Shao, Jon Morgenstern
We use dynamical systems modeling to help understand how selected intra-personal factors interact to form mechanisms of behavior change in problem drinkers. Our modeling effort illustrates the iterative process of modeling using an individual's clinical data. Due to the lack of previous work in modeling behavior change in individual patients, we build our preliminary model relying on our understandings of the psychological relationships among the variables. This model is refined and the psychological understanding is then enhanced through the iterative modeling process...
April 20, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Chiara Giverso, Alessandro Arduino, Luigi Preziosi
In order to move in a three-dimensional extracellular matrix, the nucleus of a cell must squeeze through the narrow spacing among the fibers and, by adhering to them, the cell needs to exert sufficiently strong traction forces. If the nucleus is too stiff, the spacing too narrow, or traction forces too weak, the cell is not able to penetrate the network. In this article, we formulate a mathematical model based on an energetic approach, for cells entering cylindrical channels composed of extracellular matrix fibers...
April 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Alexandra B Hogan, Mary R Myerscough
Tradescantia fluminensis is an invasive weed and a serious threat to native forests in eastern Australia and New Zealand. Current methods of eradication are often ineffective, so understanding the growth mechanisms of Tradescantia is important in formulating better control strategies. We present a partial differential equation (PDE) model for Tradescantia growth and spatial proliferation that accounts for Tradescantia's particular creeping and branching morphology, and the impact of self-shading on plant growth...
April 12, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Vardayani Ratti, Peter G Kevan, Hermann J Eberl
We incorporate a mathematical model of Varroa destructor and the Acute Bee Paralysis Virus with an existing model for a honeybee colony, in which the bee population is divided into hive bees and forager bees based on tasks performed in the colony. The model is a system of five ordinary differential equations with dependent variables: uninfected hive bees, uninfected forager bees, infected hive bees, virus-free mites and virus-carrying mites. The interplay between forager loss and disease infestation is studied...
April 11, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Xiunan Wang, Xiao-Qiang Zhao
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites and is transmitted among humans by female Anopheles mosquitoes. Climate factors have significant impact on both mosquito life cycle and parasite development. To consider the temperature sensitivity of the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) of malaria parasites, we formulate a delay differential equations model with a periodic time delay. We derive the basic reproduction ratio [Formula: see text] and establish a threshold type result on the global dynamics in terms of [Formula: see text], that is, the unique disease-free periodic solution is globally asymptotically stable if [Formula: see text]; and the model system admits a unique positive periodic solution which is globally asymptotically stable if [Formula: see text]...
April 7, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Leo van Iersel, Vincent Moulton, Eveline de Swart, Taoyang Wu
Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of evolutionary trees that are used by biologists to represent the evolution of organisms which have undergone reticulate evolution. Essentially, a phylogenetic network is a directed acyclic graph having a unique root in which the leaves are labelled by a given set of species. Recently, some approaches have been developed to construct phylogenetic networks from collections of networks on 2- and 3-leaved networks, which are known as binets and trinets, respectively...
April 6, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Bashar Ibrahim
Proliferating cells properly divide into their daughter cells through a process that is mediated by kinetochores, protein-complexes that assemble at the centromere of each sister chromatid. Each kinetochore has to establish a tight bipolar attachment to the spindle apparatus before sister chromatid separation is initiated. The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) links the biophysical attachment status of the kinetochores to mitotic progression and ensures that even a single misaligned kinetochore keeps the checkpoint active...
April 6, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Anne Talkington, Claudia Dantoin, Rick Durrett
Modified T cells that have been engineered to recognize the CD19 surface marker have recently been shown to be very successful at treating acute lymphocytic leukemias. Here, we explore four previous approaches that have used ordinary differential equations to model this type of therapy, compare their properties, and modify the models to address their deficiencies. Although the four models treat the workings of the immune system in slightly different ways, they all predict that adoptive immunotherapy can be successful to move a patient from the large tumor fixed point to an equilibrium with little or no tumor...
April 5, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
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