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Bulletin of Mathematical Biology

E Iboi, K Okuneye, O Sharomi, A B Gumel
Deterministic (ordinary differential equation) models for the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases that incorporate disease-induced death in the host(s) population(s) are generally known to exhibit the phenomenon of backward bifurcation (where a stable disease-free equilibrium of the model coexists with a stable endemic equilibrium when the associated reproduction number of the model is less than unity). Further, it is well known that, in these models, the phenomenon of backward bifurcation does not occur when the disease-induced death rate is negligible (e...
February 16, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Aleksandra Karolak, Katarzyna A Rejniak
Systemic chemotherapy is one of the main anticancer treatments used for most kinds of clinically diagnosed tumors. However, the efficacy of these drugs can be hampered by the physical attributes of the tumor tissue, such as tortuous vasculature, dense and fibrous extracellular matrix, irregular cellular architecture, tumor metabolic gradients, and non-uniform expression of the cell membrane receptors. This can impede the transport of therapeutic agents to tumor cells in sufficient quantities. In addition, tumor microenvironments undergo dynamic spatio-temporal changes during tumor progression and treatment, which can also obstruct drug efficacy...
February 8, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Matthew P Edgington, Marcus J Tindall
We undertake a detailed mathematical analysis of a recent nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) model describing the chemotactic signalling cascade within an Escherichia coli cell. The model includes a detailed description of the cell signalling cascade and an average approximation of the receptor activity. A steady-state stability analysis reveals the system exhibits one positive real steady state which is shown to be asymptotically stable. Given the occurrence of a negative feedback between phosphorylated CheB (CheB-P) and the receptor state, we ask under what conditions the system may exhibit oscillatory-type behaviour...
February 5, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Bismark Oduro, Mario J Grijalva, Winfried Just
Insecticide spraying of housing units is an important control measure for vector-borne infections such as Chagas disease. As vectors may invade both from other infested houses and sylvatic areas and as the effectiveness of insecticide wears off over time, the dynamics of (re)infestations can be approximated by [Formula: see text]-type models with a reservoir, where housing units are treated as hosts, and insecticide spraying corresponds to removal of hosts. Here, we investigate three ODE-based models of this type...
February 5, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Chris Durden, Seth Sullivant
Distances between sequences based on their k-mer frequency counts can be used to reconstruct phylogenies without first computing a sequence alignment. Past work has shown that effective use of k-mer methods depends on (1) model-based corrections to distances based on k-mers and (2) breaking long sequences into blocks to obtain repeated trials from the sequence-generating process. Good performance of such methods is based on having many high-quality blocks with many homologous sites, which can be problematic to guarantee a priori...
February 1, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Josh Hiller, James Keesling
We examine basic asymptotic properties of relative risk for two families of generalized Erlang processes (where each one is based off of a simplified Armitage and Doll multistage model) in order to predict relative risk data from cancer. The main theorems that we are able to prove are all corroborated by large clinical studies involving relative risk for former smokers and transplant recipients. We then show that at least some of these theorems do not extend to other Armitage and Doll multistage models. We conclude with suggestions for lifelong increased cancer screening for both former smoker and transplant recipient subpopulations of individuals and possible future directions of research...
January 30, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Oleksii M Matsiaka, Catherine J Penington, Ruth E Baker, Matthew J Simpson
Scratch assays are routinely used to study the collective spreading of cell populations. In general, the rate at which a population of cells spreads is driven by the combined effects of cell migration and proliferation. To examine the effects of cell migration separately from the effects of cell proliferation, scratch assays are often performed after treating the cells with a drug that inhibits proliferation. Mitomycin-C is a drug that is commonly used to suppress cell proliferation in this context. However, in addition to suppressing cell proliferation, mitomycin-C also causes cells to change size during the experiment, as each cell in the population approximately doubles in size as a result of treatment...
January 25, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Sarder Mohammed Asaduzzaman, Junling Ma, P van den Driessche
To determine the cross-immunity between influenza strains, we design a novel statistical method, which uses a theoretical model and clinical data on attack rates and vaccine efficacy among school children for two seasons after the 1968 A/H3N2 influenza pandemic. This model incorporates the distribution of susceptibility and the dependence of cross-immunity on the antigenic distance of drifted strains. We find that the cross-immunity between an influenza strain and the mutant that causes the next epidemic is 88%...
January 25, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Maitri Verma, A K Misra
The extinction of species is a major threat to the biodiversity. The species exhibiting a strong Allee effect are vulnerable to extinction due to predation. The refuge used by species having a strong Allee effect may affect their predation and hence extinction risk. A mathematical study of such behavioral phenomenon may aid in management of many endangered species. However, a little attention has been paid in this direction. In this paper, we have studied the impact of a constant prey refuge on the dynamics of a ratio-dependent predator-prey system with strong Allee effect in prey growth...
January 24, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Wencel Valega-Mackenzie, Karen R RĂ­os-Soto
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a vector-borne disease that has rapidly spread during the year 2016 in more than 50 countries around the world. If a woman is infected during pregnancy, the virus can cause severe birth defects and brain damage in their babies. The virus can be transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes as well as through direct contact from human to human (e.g., sexual contact and blood transfusions). As an intervention for controlling the spread of the disease, we study a vaccination model for preventing Zika infections...
January 22, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Carla White, Lloyd J Bridge
Evidence suggests that many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are bound together forming dimers. The implications of dimerisation for cellular signalling outcomes, and ultimately drug discovery and therapeutics, remain unclear. Consideration of ligand binding and signalling via receptor dimers is therefore required as an addition to classical receptor theory, which is largely built on assumptions of monomeric receptors. A key factor in developing theoretical models of dimer signalling is cooperativity across the dimer, whereby binding of a ligand to one protomer affects the binding of a ligand to the other protomer...
January 18, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Wei Wang, Tongqian Zhang
Caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis is the predominance for driving CD4[Formula: see text] T cells death. Dying infected CD4[Formula: see text] T cells can release inflammatory signals which attract more uninfected CD4[Formula: see text] T cells to die. This paper is devoted to developing a diffusive mathematical model which can make useful contributions to understanding caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis by inflammatory cytokines IL-1[Formula: see text] released from infected cells in the within-host environment. The well-posedness of solutions, basic reproduction number, threshold dynamics are investigated for spatially heterogeneous infection...
January 18, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Kristina Wicke, Mareike Fischer
The Shapley value, a solution concept from cooperative game theory, has recently been considered for both unrooted and rooted phylogenetic trees. Here, we focus on the Shapley value of unrooted trees and first revisit the so-called split counts of a phylogenetic tree and the Shapley transformation matrix that allows for the calculation of the Shapley value from the edge lengths of a tree. We show that non-isomorphic trees may have permutation-equivalent Shapley transformation matrices and permutation-equivalent null spaces...
January 17, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Seunggyu Lee
In this paper, a mathematical model of contractile ring-driven cytokinesis is presented by using both phase-field and immersed-boundary methods in a three-dimensional domain. It is one of the powerful hypotheses that cytokinesis happens driven by the contractile ring; however, there are only few mathematical models following the hypothesis, to the author's knowledge. I consider a hybrid method to model the phenomenon. First, a cell membrane is represented by a zero-contour of a phase-field implicitly because of its topological change...
January 17, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Leonid Hanin, Jason Rose
We study metastatic cancer progression through an extremely general individual-patient mathematical model that is rooted in the contemporary understanding of the underlying biomedical processes yet is essentially free of specific biological assumptions of mechanistic nature. The model accounts for primary tumor growth and resection, shedding of metastases off the primary tumor and their selection, dormancy and growth in a given secondary site. However, functional parameters descriptive of these processes are assumed to be essentially arbitrary...
January 4, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Cole Zmurchok, Tim Small, Michael J Ward, Leah Edelstein-Keshet
We apologize for the error in the references.
January 4, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Volkmar Liebscher
We present a new class of metrics for unrooted phylogenetic X-trees inspired by the Gromov-Hausdorff distance for (compact) metric spaces. These metrics can be efficiently computed by linear or quadratic programming. They are robust under NNI operations, too. The local behaviour of the metrics shows that they are different from any previously introduced metrics. The performance of the metrics is briefly analysed on random weighted and unweighted trees as well as random caterpillars.
January 2, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
A Nwankwo, D Okuonghae
The re-emergence of syphilis has become a global public health issue, and more persons are getting infected, especially in developing countries. This has also led to an increase in the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections as some studies have shown in the recent decade. This paper investigates the synergistic interaction between HIV and syphilis using a mathematical model that assesses the impact of syphilis treatment on the dynamics of syphilis and HIV co-infection in a human population where HIV treatment is not readily available or accessible to HIV-infected individuals...
December 27, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Andrijana Burazin, Corina S Drapaca, Giuseppe Tenti, Siv Sivaloganathan
Although the mechanisms responsible for elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in tumours remain obscure, it seems clear that high IFP represents a barrier to drug delivery (since the resulting adverse pressure gradient implies a reduction in the driving force for transvascular exchange of both fluid and macromolecules). R. Jain and co-workers studied this problem, and although the conclusions drawn from their idealized mathematical models offered useful insights into the causes of elevated IFP, they by no means gave a definitive explanation for this phenomenon...
December 27, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Eduardo Liz
The gamma-Ricker model is one of the more flexible and general discrete-time population models. It is defined on the basis of the Ricker model, introducing an additional parameter [Formula: see text]. For some values of this parameter ([Formula: see text], population is overcompensatory, and the introduction of an additional parameter gives more flexibility to fit the stock-recruitment curve to field data. For other parameter values ([Formula: see text]), the gamma-Ricker model represents populations whose per-capita growth rate combines both negative density dependence and positive density dependence...
December 15, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
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