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Bulletin of Mathematical Biology

Farinaz Forouzannia, Heiko Enderling, Mohammad Kohandel
Radiotherapy uses high doses of energy to eradicate cancer cells and control tumors. Various treatment schedules have been developed and tried in clinical trials, yet significant obstacles remain to improving the radiotherapy fractionation. Genetic and non-genetic cellular diversity within tumors can lead to different radiosensitivity among cancer cells that can affect radiation treatment outcome. We propose a minimal mathematical model to study the effect of tumor heterogeneity and repair in different radiation treatment schedules...
December 7, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Svetoslav Nikolov, Guido Santos, Olaf Wolkenhauer, Julio Vera
Mathematical modeling of cell differentiated in colonic crypts can contribute to a better understanding of basic mechanisms underlying colonic tissue organization, but also its deregulation during carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Here, we combined bifurcation analysis to assess the effect that time delay has in the complex interplay of stem cells and semi-differentiated cells at the niche of colonic crypts, and systematic model perturbation and simulation to find model-based phenotypes linked to cancer progression...
December 7, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Ismail Belgacem, Stefano Casagranda, Edith Grac, Delphine Ropers, Jean-Luc Gouzé
The aim of this paper is to analyze the dynamical behavior of biological models of gene transcription and translation. We focus on a particular positive feedback loop governing the synthesis of RNA polymerase, needed for transcribing its own gene. We write a high-dimension model based on mass action laws and reduce it to a two-variable model (RNA polymerase and its mRNA) by means of monotone system theory and timescale arguments. We show that the reduced model has either a single globally stable trivial equilibrium in (0, 0), or an unstable zero equilibrium and a globally stable positive one...
December 6, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Gilles Gnacadja
Pharmacology, the study of interactions between biological processes and therapeutic agents, is traditionally presented as consisting of two subdisciplines: pharmacokinetics, which is about the distribution and metabolism of drugs in organisms, and pharmacodynamics, which is about the organisms' response to drugs. In discovery-stage pharmacology however, one primary concern is what we call pharmacostatics, the characterization of equilibrium parameters and states of core interactions of physiologic and therapeutic interest...
December 6, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Elías Vera-Sigüenza, Marcelo A Catalán, Gaspar Peña-Münzenmayer, James E Melvin, James Sneyd
We develop a mathematical model of a salivary gland acinar cell with the objective of investigating the role of two [Formula: see text] exchangers from the solute carrier family 4 (Slc4), Ae2 (Slc4a2) and Ae4 (Slc4a9), in fluid secretion. Water transport in this type of cell is predominantly driven by [Formula: see text] movement. Here, a basolateral [Formula: see text] adenosine triphosphatase pump (NaK-ATPase) and a [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] cotransporter (Nkcc1) are primarily responsible for concentrating the intracellular space with [Formula: see text] well above its equilibrium potential...
December 5, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Ozgur Aydogmus
The presence of one or more species at some spatial locations but not others is a central matter in ecology. This phenomenon is related to ecological pattern formation. Nonlocal interactions can be considered as one of the mechanisms causing such a phenomenon. We propose a single-species, continuous time metapopulation model taking nonlocal interactions into account. Discrete probability kernels are used to model these interactions in a patchy environment. A linear stability analysis of the model shows that solutions to this equation exhibit pattern formation if the dispersal rate of the species is sufficiently small and the discrete interaction kernel satisfies certain conditions...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Daisuke Takagi, Daniel K Hartline
Many aquatic organisms detect the presence of moving objects in their environment, such as predators, by sensing the hydrodynamic disturbances the movements produce. The resultant water flow is readily detectable by stationary organisms, but free-swimming organisms are carried with the surrounding water and may not detect the bulk surrounding flow, which limits the available information about the source. We have developed a theory that clarifies what information is contained in disturbances generated by an attacking predator that is available to a free-swimming organism and might be extracted from local flow deformations alone...
November 30, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Moritz P Thon, Hugh Z Ford, Michael W Gee, Mary R Myerscough
There are a growing number of studies that model immunological processes in the artery wall that lead to the development of atherosclerotic plaques. However, few of these models use parameters that are obtained from experimental data even though data-driven models are vital if mathematical models are to become clinically relevant. We present the development and analysis of a quantitative mathematical model for the coupled inflammatory, lipid and macrophage dynamics in early atherosclerotic plaques. Our modeling approach is similar to the biologists' experimental approach where the bigger picture of atherosclerosis is put together from many smaller observations and findings from in vitro experiments...
November 27, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
L M Bilinsky, S M Baer
It is well established that in problems featuring slow passage through a Hopf bifurcation (dynamic Hopf bifurcation) the transition to large-amplitude oscillations may not occur until the slowly changing parameter considerably exceeds the value predicted from the static Hopf bifurcation analysis (temporal delay effect), with the length of the delay depending upon the initial value of the slowly changing parameter (temporal memory effect). In this paper we introduce new delay and memory effect phenomena using both analytic (WKB method) and numerical methods...
November 17, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Irina Kareva, Georgy Karev
Finding an appropriate functional form to describe population growth based on key properties of a described system allows making justified predictions about future population development. This information can be of vital importance in all areas of research, ranging from cell growth to global demography. Here, we use this connection between theory and observation to pose the following question: what can we infer about intrinsic properties of a population (i.e., degree of heterogeneity, or dependence on external resources) based on which growth function best fits its growth dynamics? We investigate several nonstandard classes of multi-phase growth curves that capture different stages of population growth; these models include hyperbolic-exponential, exponential-linear, exponential-linear-saturation growth patterns...
November 17, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Ján Eliaš
A spatio-temporal evolution of chemicals appearing in a reversible enzyme reaction and modelled by a four-component reaction-diffusion system with the reaction terms obtained by the law of mass action is considered. The large time behaviour of the system is studied by means of entropy methods.
November 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Elizabeth S Allman, James H Degnan, John A Rhodes
Using topological summaries of gene trees as a basis for species tree inference is a promising approach to obtain acceptable speed on genomic-scale datasets, and to avoid some undesirable modeling assumptions. Here we study the probabilities of splits on gene trees under the multispecies coalescent model, and how their features might inform species tree inference. After investigating the behavior of split consensus methods, we investigate split invariants-that is, polynomial relationships between split probabilities...
November 10, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
James Moore, Hasan Ahmed, Jonathan Jia, Rama Akondy, Rafi Ahmed, Rustom Antia
Does target cell depletion, innate immunity, or adaptive immunity play the dominant role in controlling primary acute viral infections? Why do some individuals have higher peak virus titers than others? Answering these questions is a basic problem in immunology and can be particularly difficult in humans due to limited data, heterogeneity in responses in different individuals, and limited ability for experimental manipulation. We address these questions for infections following vaccination with the live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV-17D) by analyzing viral load data from 80 volunteers...
November 6, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Kelin Xia, Zhiming Li, Lin Mu
In this paper, we introduce multiscale persistent functions for biomolecular structure characterization. The essential idea is to combine our multiscale rigidity functions (MRFs) with persistent homology analysis, so as to construct a series of multiscale persistent functions, particularly multiscale persistent entropies, for structure characterization. To clarify the fundamental idea of our method, the multiscale persistent entropy (MPE) model is discussed in great detail. Mathematically, unlike the previous persistent entropy (Chintakunta et al...
November 2, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Evan Milliken
Single-type and multitype branching processes have been used to study the dynamics of a variety of stochastic birth-death type phenomena in biology and physics. Their use in epidemiology goes back to Whittle's study of a susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model in the 1950s. In the case of an SIR model, the presence of only one infectious class allows for the use of single-type branching processes. Multitype branching processes allow for multiple infectious classes and have latterly been used to study metapopulation models of disease...
November 2, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Paul Flondor, Mircea Olteanu, Radu Ştefan
The present paper analyzes an ODE model of a certain class of (open) enzymatic reactions. This type of model is used, for instance, to describe the interactions between messenger RNAs and microRNAs. It is shown that solutions defined by positive initial conditions are well defined and bounded on [Formula: see text] and that the positive octant of [Formula: see text] is a positively invariant set. We prove further that in this positive octant there exists a unique equilibrium point, which is asymptotically stable and a global attractor for any initial state with positive components; a controllability property is emphasized...
November 2, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
M R Stapf, R J Braun, P E King-Smith
Tear film thinning, hyperosmolarity, and breakup can cause irritation and damage to the human eye, and these form an area of active investigation for dry eye syndrome research. Recent research demonstrates that deficiencies in the lipid layer may cause locally increased evaporation, inducing conditions for breakup. In this paper, we explore the conditions for tear film breakup by considering a model for tear film dynamics with two mobile fluid layers, the aqueous and lipid layers. In addition, we include the effects of osmosis, evaporation as modified by the lipid, and the polar portion of the lipid layer...
November 2, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Gerardo Severino, Francesco Giannino, Fabrizio Cartení, Stefano Mazzoleni, Daniel M Tartakovsky
Current models of vegetation pattern formation rely on a system of weakly nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations that are coupled by their source terms. While these equations, which are used to describe a spatiotemporal planar evolution of biomass and soil water, qualitatively capture the emergence of various types of vegetation patterns in arid environments, they are phenomenological and have a limited predictive power. We ameliorate these limitations by deriving the vertically averaged Richards' equation to describe flow (as opposed to "diffusion") of water in partially saturated soils...
October 19, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Adrien Mazoyer
The classic Luria-Delbrück model for fluctuation analysis is extended to the case where the split instant distributions of cells are not i.i.d.: the lifetime of each cell is assumed to depend on its birth date. This model takes also into account cell deaths and non-exponentially distributed lifetimes. In particular, it is possible to consider subprobability distributions and to model non-exponential growth. The extended model leads to a family of probability distributions which depend on the expected number of mutations, the death probability of mutant cells, and the split instant distributions of normal and mutant cells...
October 18, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Samuel David Keyes, Konstantinos C Zygalakis, Tiina Roose
The rhizosphere is a zone of fundamental importance for understanding the dynamics of nutrient acquisition by plant roots. The canonical difficulty of experimentally investigating the rhizosphere led long ago to the adoption of mathematical models, the most sophisticated of which now incorporate explicit representations of root hairs and rhizosphere soil. Mathematical upscaling regimes, such as homogenisation, offer the possibility of incorporating into larger-scale models the important mechanistic processes occurring at the rhizosphere scale...
October 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
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