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Research in Veterinary Science

Olimpia Barbato, Elisabetta Chiaradia, Vittoria Lucia Barile, Francesca Pierri, Noelita Melo de Sousa, Luigi Terracina, Claudio Canali, Luca Avellini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Yaneisy García-Hernández, Tania Pérez-Sánchez, Ramón Boucourt, José L Balcázar, Jacques R Nicoli, João Moreira-Silva, Zoraya Rodríguez, Héctor Fuertes, Odalys Nuñez, Nereyda Albelo, Nabil Halaihel
In livestock production, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common microorganisms used as probiotics. For such use, these bacteria must be correctly identified and characterized to ensure their safety and efficiency. In the present study, LAB were isolated from broiler excreta, where a fermentation process was used. Nine among sixteen isolates were identified by biochemical and molecular (sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene) methods as Lactobacillus crispatus (n=1), Lactobacillus pentosus (n=1), Weissella cibaria (n=1), Pediococcus pentosaceus (n=2) and Enterococcus hirae (n=4)...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
R Callaby, P Toye, A Jennings, S M Thumbi, J A W Coetzer, I C Conradie Van Wyk, O Hanotte, M N Mbole-Kariuki, B M de C Bronsvoort, L E B Kruuk, M E J Woolhouse, H Kiara
Most studies of infectious diseases in East African cattle have concentrated on gastro-intestinal parasites and vector-borne diseases. As a result, relatively little is known about viral diseases, except for those that are clinically symptomatic or which affect international trade such as foot and mouth disease, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease. Here, we investigate the seroprevalence, distribution and relationship between the viruses involved in respiratory disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), bovine parainfluenza virus Type 3 (PIV3) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in East African Shorthorn Zebu calves...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
D Risco, F J Salguero, R Cerrato, J Gutierrez-Merino, S Lanham-New, O Barquero-Pérez, J Hermoso de Mendoza, P Fernández-Llario
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease affecting humans and other mammal species. Severity of TB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans seems to be influenced by nutritional factors like vitamin D3 intake. However, this relationship has been scarcely studied in cattle and other mammals infected with Mycobacterium bovis. The aim of this work was to assess if wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis show different levels of TB severity depending on the level of vitamin D found in serum after supplementation with vitamin D3...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Wen-Ko Chou, Chang-Hsin Chen, Christine N Vuong, Daad Abi-Ghanem, Suryakant D Waghela, Waithaka Mwangi, Lisa R Bielke, Billy M Hargis, Luc R Berghman
Many pathogens enter the host through mucosal surfaces and spread rapidly via the circulation. The most effective way to prevent disease is to establish mucosal and systemic immunity against the pathogen. However, current vaccination programs in poultry industry require repeated administrations of live-attenuated virus or large amounts (10 to 100μg) of antigen together with adjuvant to induce specific secretory IgA immune responses at the mucosal effector sites. In the present study, we show that a single administration of 0...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
S R Mishra, N Thakur, A Somal, M S Parmar, R Reshma, G Rajesh, V P Yadav, M K Bharti, Jaya Bharati, A Paul, V S Chouhan, G T Sharma, G Singh, M Sarkar
The present study investigated the expression and localization of FGF and its functional receptors in the follicle of buffalo and the treatment of FGF2 on mRNA expression of CYP19A1 (aromatase), PCNA, and BAX (BCL-2 associated X protein) in cultured buffalo granulosa cells (GCs). Follicles were classified into four groups based on size and E2 level in follicular fluid (FF): F1, 4-6mm diameter, E2<0.5ng/ml of FF; F2, 7-9mm, E2=0.5-5ng/ml; F3, 10-13mm, E2=5-40ng/ml; F4, >14mm, E2>180ng/ml. The qPCR studies revealed that the mRNA expression of FGF1, FGF2 and FGF7 were maximum (P<0...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Hong Tian, Yan Chen, Jinyan Wu, Tong Lin, Xiangtao Liu
Orf virus (ORFV) causes contagious ecthyma, a non-systemic skin disease in sheep and goat. Bioinformatics analysis showed that ORFV125 has Bcl-2-like homologous domain and 3D structurally, it is generally known that Bcl-2 protein is known to be a key protein to control cell apoptosis. Maybe ORFV125 act as a Bcl-2-like manner to control cell apoptosis, but its exact function isn't very clear. So in this study, we use yeast two-hybrid system to identity the putative host cell protein interacting partners of ORFV125, and meanwhile using the data obtained from the Gene Ontology, Uniprot, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases to analysis the functions and pathways associated with them...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Xing Chen, Zhangrui Cheng, Dirk Werling, Geoffrey E Pollott, Mazdak Salavati, Kate F Johnson, Faheem Ahmed Khan, D Claire Wathes, Shujun Zhang
Bovine P-selectin (SELP) mediates leukocyte rolling and primes leukocyte adhesion to endothelium, both essential for leukocyte recruitment to an infection site. We investigated SELP-mediated adhesion between bovine peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells pre-activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We examined gene polymorphism for bovine selectins SELP, l-selectin (SELL) and E-selectin (SELE) and compared their SNP frequency between five dairy breeds (Holstein, Friesian, Jersey, Ayrshire and Brown Swiss)...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Anjan Mukherjee, Dipanjan Dutta, Sudeshna Banerjee, Einar Ringø, Eva Marie Breines, Ellinor Hareide, Goutam Chandra, Koushik Ghosh
The study explored antagonistic activity of the cellular components of potential probiotic bacteria from mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) against fish pathogens with a basic insight of the chemical nature of the antagonistic compound. Totally 208 autochthonous gut bacteria were isolated, of which 22 strains revealed antagonism towards ≥2 of the six common fish pathogens. Zones of inhibition (halo diameter) were presented as score and the four most promising strains were selected as putative probiotics based on the cumulative score assigned...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Tommaso Banzato, Enrico Fiore, Massimo Morgante, Elisabetta Manuali, Alessandro Zotti
Hepatic lipidosis is the most diffused hepatic disease in the lactating cow. A new methodology to estimate the degree of fatty infiltration of the liver in lactating cows by means of texture analysis of B-mode ultrasound images is proposed. B-mode ultrasonography of the liver was performed in 48 Holstein Friesian cows using standardized ultrasound parameters. Liver biopsies to determine the triacylglycerol content of the liver (TAGqa) were obtained from each animal. A large number of texture parameters were calculated on the ultrasound images by means of a free software...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Monika Szymańska-Czerwińska, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Agnieszka Jodełko
Diagnosis of Q fever in cattle is not easy due to the need to test the samples by both serological and molecular methods. Aim of this study was to evaluate qPCR, and phase I and II antibodies for detection of C. burnetii infection in cattle. A total of 187 bovine blood and vaginal swabs, and 97 milk samples, were tested. Limitations of serological tests were that the available indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) could lose positive results if antibody titres were low; or phase II antibodies were present...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
M S Herskin, P Di Giminiani, K Thodberg
In many countries, piglets are tail docked to prevent tail biting. The aim of this study was 1) to evaluate the efficacy of a local anaesthetic and/or NSAID to reduce pain caused by tail docking; and 2) to examine interactions with docking length. This was examined in 295 piglets docked by hot iron cautery 2-4days after birth and based on behaviour during docking as well as the following 5h. The study involved three main factors: local anaesthetic (Lidocain), NSAID (Meloxicam) and docking length. Either 100%, 75%, 50% or 25% of the tails were left on the body of the piglets...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Shanika Kurukulsuriya, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Davor Ojkic, Thushari Gunawardana, Ashish Gupta, Kalhari Goonewardene, Ruwani Karunaratne, Shelly Popowich, Philip Willson, Suresh K Tikoo, Susantha Gomis
Antibiotic-free and safe animal products are most desirable among consumers. However, ensuring safe poultry products is a challenging task when the chicken immune system is compromised. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression and predisposes chickens to secondary infections. Breeder vaccination against IBDV is routinely practiced for producing chicks with maternally-derived antibody (MAb) to prevent infection in newly hatched chicks. The majority of IBDV circulating in Canadian farms are variant strains (vIBDV)...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Luke Randall, Anne Ridley, Fabrizio Lemma, Carol Hale, Rob Davies
The aim of this study was to determine if apramycin, colistin or lincomycin-spectinomycin, in combination with enrofloxacin, was able prevent the emergence of mutants with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone antibiotics in vitro. MICs were determined for enrofloxacin alone and in combination for panels of Campylobacter (n=37), Escherichia coli (n=52) and Salmonella (n=52) isolates. MIC results suggested that apramycin, colistin and lincomycin-spectinomycin worked in an additive/indifferent way when each was combined with enrofloxacin...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Melinda Kovács, Roland Pósa, Tamás Tuboly, Tamás Donkó, Imre Repa, János Tossenberger, Judit Szabó-Fodor, Stoycho Stoev, Tibor Magyar
The possible interaction between Pasteurella multocida and the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1), recognised as one of the most often food/feed contaminant, was studied with the aim to evaluate whether and how FB1 can influence and/or complicate the development and severity of various pathological damages provoked by Pasteurella multocida in some internal organs of pigs. Heavier lung pathology was seen in pigs experimentally infected with Pasteurella multocida, when the same were exposed to 20ppm dietary levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) as was assessed by gross pathology, pathomorphological examinations, clinical biochemistry and some immunological investigations...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Baochao Fan, Hongjian Zhang, Juan Bai, Xing Liu, Yufeng Li, Xianwei Wang, Ping Jiang
Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) was first characterized in 2006 in China, and it causes great economic losses to the Chinese swine production industry. A China Landrace pig, the Tibetan pig, which has striking phenotypic and physiological differences from lowland pigs, is mainly distributed in the Tibetan highlands of China. The susceptibility of the Tibetan pig to HP-PRRSV has not been reported. In this study, 15 4-week-old Tibetan piglets were divided into three groups, and their susceptibility to HP-PRRSV was examined in the highland region...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Fatma I Abo El-Ela, S A S Shany, Manal B El-Deen, H A El-Banna, A A El-Gendy, K Hendy, M A Tohamy
Tylvalosin (TVS) is a third-generation macrolide drug used for prophylaxis and treatment of mycoplasma, however; it is supposed to possess an immunosuppressive effect. In the current study, the immunosuppressive effect of TVS and florfenicol (FFC) and the potential immunomodulatory role of Vit E were investigated. The experiment included one day old chick groups treated with either TVS, FFC, Vit E, TVS/Vit E, FFC/Vit E and control non-treated group. Chicks were vaccinated with inactivated H9N2 avian influenza (AI) vaccine and humoral antibody titers to viral antigen as well as innate immunity (serum lysozyme activity and nitric oxide levels) were evaluated...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Desiree D Rosselli, Jennifer L Mumaw, Vanna Dickerson, Cathy A Brown, Scott A Brown, Chad W Schmiedt
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a model of ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI). STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. ANIMALS: Adult, purpose-bred research cats (n=15) and a historical reference group (n=3). METHODS: Cats underwent unilateral, in vivo, warm renal ischemia, then intravenous administration of 4 million adipose-derived MSCs, bone marrow-derived MSCs, or fibroblasts (n=5/treatment) 1h after reperfusion...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
J W Aleri, B C Hine, M F Pyman, P D Mansell, W J Wales, B Mallard, A D Fisher
Common health problems observed during peripartum include milk fever, mastitis, fatty liver disease, ketosis, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis, hypomagnesaemia and abomasal displacements. The increased incidence of health problems observed during the periparturient period can be partly attributed to suboptimal immune responses. Factors contributing to decreased periparturient immunity include the act of parturition itself, impaired leukocytic activity, effects of colostrogenesis and lactogenesis, and associated hypocalcemia and negative energy balance...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Efrat Koresh, Devorah Matas, Lee Koren
Testosterone (T) is a key androgen that mediates vertebrate molecular, cellular, and behavioral processes. Its manipulation is therefore of interest to a vast number of researchers studying animal behavior and reproduction, among others. Here, the usage of silastic implants across wildlife species is reviewed, and a method to manipulate rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) testosterone levels using silastic implants is presented. Using a series of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments, the secretion patterns of silastic tubes and silastic glue were tested and were surprisingly found to be similar...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
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