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Research in Veterinary Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934612/measuring-and-modeling-for-the-assessment-of-the-genetic-background-behind-cognitive-processes-in-donkeys
#1
Francisco Javier Navas, Jordi Jordana, José Manuel León, Ander Arando, Gabriela Pizarro, Amy Katherine McLean, Juan Vicente Delgado
New productive niches can offer new commercial perspectives linked to donkeys' products and human therapeutic or leisure applications. However, no assessment for selection criteria has been carried out yet. First, we assessed the animal inherent features and environmental factors that may potentially influence several cognitive processes in donkeys. Then, we aimed at describing a practical methodology to quantify such cognitive processes, seeking their inclusion in breeding and conservation programmes, through a multifactorial linear model...
September 14, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935207/effects-of-energy-supply-and-nicotinic-acid-supplementation-on-phagocytosis-and-ros-production-of-blood-immune-cells-of-periparturient-primi-and-pluriparous-dairy-cows
#2
S Bühler, J Frahm, W Liermann, R Tienken, S Kersten, U Meyer, K Huber, S Dänicke
Effects of energy supply and nicotinic acid (NA) supplementation on the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and on ROS production in PMN of periparturient cows differing in parity were examined. 29 pluriparous and 18 primiparous cows were allocated to four different feeding groups from 42days prepartum until 100days postpartum. They were fed either a ration with a low concentrate proportion of 30% (LC) or a high concentrate proportion of 60% (HC)...
September 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917093/molecular-cloning-and-functional-expression-of-the-k-channel-kv7-1-and-the-regulatory-subunit-kcne1-from-equine-myocardium
#3
Philip J Pedersen, Kirsten B Thomsen, Jon B Flak, Maria A Tejada, Frank Hauser, Dagmar Trachsel, Rikke Buhl, Theodore Kalbfleisch, Michael Scott DePriest, James N MacLeod, Kirstine Calloe, Dan A Klaerke
BACKGROUND: The voltage-gated K(+)-channel KV7.1 and the subunit KCNE1, encoded by the KCNQ1 and KCNE1 genes, respectively, are responsible for termination of the cardiac action potential. In humans, mutations in these genes can predispose patients to arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). AIM: To characterize equine KV7.1/KCNE1 currents and compare them to human KV7.1/KCNE1 currents to determine whether KV7.1/KCNE1 plays a similar role in equine and human hearts...
September 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918236/gene-expression-profiles-of-cell-adhesion-molecules-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-their-tissue-inhibitors-in-canine-oral-tumors
#4
Sirinun Pisamai, Anudep Rungsipipat, Chanin Kalpravidh, Gunnaporn Suriyaphol
Perturbation of cell adhesion can be essential for tumor cell invasion and metastasis, but the current knowledge on the gene expression of molecules that mediate cell adhesion in canine oral tumors is limited. The present study aimed to investigate changes in the gene expression of cell adhesion molecules (E-cadherin or CDH1, syndecan 1 or SDC1, NECTIN2 and NECTIN4), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), in canine oral tumors, including benign tumors, oral melanoma (OM) and non-tonsillar oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR...
September 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898781/thymus-atrophy-is-an-efficient-marker-of-illicit-treatment-with-dexamethasone-in-veal-calves-results-from-a-triennial-experimental-study
#5
Guia Benedetta Richelmi, Cristiana Maurella, Marzia Pezzolato, Mario Botta, Katia Varello, Danilo Pitardi, Elisa Baioni, Claudio Bellino, Antonio D'Angelo, Maria Caramelli, Elena Bozzetta
Glucocorticoids, used in a wide range of pathologies thank to their therapeutical properties, are also illegally used as growth-promoters in animal breeding even if the European Union regulates their use to protect consumers' health from the adverse effects of residues in food. The first aim of the study was to establish the applicability of two histological parameters - atrophy and cortex-medulla ratio - to detect glucocorticoids misuse in calves. The second aim was to concurrently test the potentiality of both parameters to discriminate between treated and untreated animals...
September 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926781/a-leukomyeloencephalopathy-of-unknown-origin-in-an-azawakh-dog
#6
Maria Teresa Mandara, Alice Reginato, Federica Balducci, Marco Bernardini
A diffuse bilaterally symmetrical leukomyeloencephalopathy was observed in a 6-year-old male Azawakh dog showing a slowly progressive ataxia of six months duration associated with sensory disorders. Severe bilaterally symmetrical demyelination and vacuolisation were confined to the dorsal columns along the entire spinal cord with a minor axonal degeneration. The main changes of myelin sheaths consisted in splitting and intramyelin vacuolization. Naked axons were scattered in a network of astrocytic processes and collagen fibres...
September 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918235/identification-of-bluetongue-virus-serotypes-1-4-and-17-co-infections-in-sheep-flocks-during-outbreaks-in-brazil
#7
Lorena Lima Barbosa Guimarães, Júlio César Câmara Rosa, Ana Carolina Diniz Matos, Raquel Aparecida S Cruz, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes, Fernanda Alves Dorella, Henrique César Pereira Figueiredo, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini, Luciana Sonne, Zélia Inês Portela Lobato, David Driemeier
Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne viral disease caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV), an Orbivirus from the Reoviridae family, affecting domestic and wild ruminants. BTV circulation in Brazil was first reported in 1978, and several serological surveys indicate that the virus is widespread, although with varied prevalence. In 2014, BT outbreaks affected sheep flocks in Rio Grande do Sul state, causing significant mortality (18.4%; 91/495) in BTV-infected sheep. In total, seven farms were monitored, and one or two sheep from each farm that died due to clinical signs of BT were necropsied...
September 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898782/heart-rate-and-blood-pressure-variations-after-transvascular-patent-ductus-arteriosus-occlusion-in-dogs
#8
Valentina De Monte, Francesco Staffieri, Domenico Caivano, Sara Nannarone, Francesco Birettoni, Francesco Porciello, Antonio Di Meo, Antonello Bufalari
The objective of the study was to retrospectively analyse the cardiovascular effects that occurs following the transvascular occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus in dogs. Sixteen anaesthesia records were included. Variables were recorded at the time of placing the arterial introducer, occlusion of the ductus, and from 5 to 60min thereafter, including, among the other, heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure. The maximal percentage variation of the aforementioned physiological parameters within 60min of occlusion, compared with the values recorded at the introducer placing, was calculated...
September 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892662/livestock-drivers-knowledge-about-dairy-cow-fitness-for-transport-a-danish-questionnaire-survey
#9
M S Herskin, A Hels, I Anneberg, P T Thomsen
Dairy cows are transported by road to slaughter after their productive life. Cull cows are vulnerable to transport stress, and can only be transported when fit for the intended journey. However, the decision, as to whether a cow is fit is rather subjective and relies on the farmer and the livestock driver. Using a questionnaire survey, we aimed to describe knowledge about, and experiences with, dairy cow fitness for transport among Danish livestock drivers. During nine days of data collection at the three largest Danish cattle slaughterhouses, 66 drivers (55% of the national population of cattle drivers) answered a questionnaire (response rate: 97%)...
September 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889017/mycoplasmas-brain-invaders
#10
REVIEW
Rubén S Rosales, Roberto Puleio, Guido R Loria, Salvatore Catania, Robin A J Nicholas
Mycoplasmas of humans and animals are usually associated with respiratory, autoimmune, genital and joint diseases. Human mycoplasmas have also been known to affect the brain. Severe central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as encephalitis, have been linked to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and ureaplasma infections. Less well known is the sheep and goat pathogen, Mycoplasma agalactiae, which has been found in large quantities in the brain where it may be responsible for non-purulent encephalitis as well as ataxia in young animals...
September 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889016/the-effect-of-melatonin-from-slow-release-implants-on-basic-and-tlr-4-mediated-gene-expression-of-inflammatory-cytokines-and-their-receptors-in-the-choroid-plexus-in-ewes
#11
M Kowalewska, A P Herman, A Szczepkowska, J Skipor
The present study concerns the effect of melatonin from slow-release implants on the expression of genes coding interleukin-1β (Il1B), inerleukin-6 (Il6), tumour necrosis factor α (Tnf) and their receptors: IL-1 receptor type I (Il1r1) and type II (Il1r2), IL-6 receptor (Il6r) and signal transducer (Il6st), TNFα receptor type I (Tnfrsf1a) and II (Tnfrsf1b) and retinoid-related orphan receptor α (RorA) and Rev.-erbα in the ovine choroid plexus (CP) under basal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged conditions...
September 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818752/risk-factors-for-on-farm-mortality-in-beef-suckler-cows-under-extensive-keeping-management
#12
Kerli Mõtus, Ulf Emanuelson
The on-farm mortality of cows in cow-calf herds has a significant influence on the economic efficiency of the farm. It is also an indicator of suboptimal animal health and welfare. The present study analysed the registry data of beef cows in Estonia from the years 2013 to 2015. The datasets incorporated 8084 parturitions of primiparous cows and 21,283 parturitions of 9234 multiparous cows. A Weibull proportional hazard random effect model was used for risk factor analysis, in which the on-farm mortality, including death and euthanasia, was the event of interest...
August 10, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818749/a-conjugate-protein-containing-hiv-tat-isg20-and-a-prrsv-polymerase-binding-inhibits-prrsv-replication-and-may-be-a-novel-therapeutic-platform
#13
Ke Liu, Yuming Li, Bin Zhou, Feifei Wang, Beili Huan, Donghua Shao, Jianchao Wei, Yafeng Qiu, Beibei Li, Yingjuan Qian, Yong-Sam Jung, Denian Miao, Guangzhi Tong, Zhiyong Ma
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), which is caused by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection, has caused substantial economic losses for the global swine industry. To date, there are limited commercially available measures to control the spread of PRRSV. The available vaccines are unstable and there is no anti-PRRSV therapeutic available. Therefore, this study designed a novel recombinant antiviral protein that included a novel polypeptide that binds to the PRRSV polymerase (p9), the transduction ability of the HIV TAT, and the nucleotide degradation activity of interferon stimulated gene 20 (ISG20)...
August 10, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810132/short-communication-alteration-in-blood-parameters-by-enrofloxacin-in-juvenile-lesser-spotted-dogfish-scyliorhinus-canicula-linnaeus-1758-after-intramuscular-injection
#14
Annalisa Zaccaroni, Marcos Perez-Lopez, Irene de la Casa Resino, Gianfranco Medri, Fabrizio Ceneri, Simone Bertini, Oliviero Mordenti, Luana Cortinovis, Rubina Sirri, Luciana Mandrioli
Enrofloxacin (EF) is a veterinary drug for respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections. Parenteral administration at doses higher than the manufacturer recommended dosage has induced cartilage lesions in juvenile mammals and poultry. In elasmobranchs EF is commonly used for the treatment of infectious diseases, however only one study has been performed previously to evaluate pharmacokinetics and the potential chondrotoxicity of a fluoroquinolone in adult skates. In present study juvenile lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula, Linnaeus, 1758) were treated with low (LD, 5mg/kg) and high dose (HD, 10mg/kg) of EF daily via intramuscular injection for 15 consecutive days, as indicated in a recognized treatment...
August 10, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863307/transcriptomic-characterization-of-bovine-primary-cultured-hepatocytes-a-cross-comparison-with-a-bovine-liver-and-the-madin-darby-bovine-kidney-cells
#15
Ramy Elgendy, Mery Giantin, Mauro Dacasto
Bovine primary cultured hepatocytes (CHs) are widely used in vitro models for liver toxicity testing. However, little is known about their whole-transcriptome profile and its resemblance to the normal liver tissue. In the present study, we profiled - by microarray - the whole-transcriptome of bovine CHs (n=4) and compared it with the transcriptomic landscape of control liver samples (n=8), as well the Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells (n=4). Compared with liver tissue, the bovine CHs relatively expressed (fold change >2, P<0...
August 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858764/luxs-ai-2-in-streptococcus-agalactiae-reveals-a-key-role-in-acid-tolerance-and-virulence
#16
Yanping Ma, Le Hao, Hao Ke, Zhiling Liang, Jiangyao Ma, Zhenxing Liu, Yugu Li
LuxS-mediated autoinducer-2 (AI-2) directly or indirectly regulates important physiologic function in a variety of bacteria. We found a luxS homologue in the genome of Streptococcus agalactiae, an important pathogen of tilapia. To investigate the relationship between luxS/AI-2 and pathogenicity for tilapia, its bioluminescent activity, acid resistance, cell adherence, virulence, and regulation of virulence gene were evaluated. Compared with the wild-type strain, the bioluminescent activity lost in the luxS mutant, its resistance to acid (pH2...
August 4, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818750/whole-genome-sequence-phylogenetic-analysis-of-four-mexican-rabies-viruses-isolated-from-cattle
#17
I Bárcenas-Reyes, E Loza-Rubio, G J Cantó-Alarcón, J Luna-Cozar, A Enríquez-Vázquez, R J Barrón-Rodríguez, F Milián-Suazo
Phylogenetic analysis of the rabies virus in molecular epidemiology has been traditionally performed on partial sequences of the genome, such as the N, G, and P genes; however, that approach raises concerns about the discriminatory power compared to whole genome sequencing. In this study we characterized four strains of the rabies virus isolated from cattle in Querétaro, Mexico by comparing the whole genome sequence to that of strains from the American, European and Asian continents. Four cattle brain samples positive to rabies and characterized as AgV11, genotype 1, were used in the study...
August 4, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804053/leptospirosis-on-captive-wild-animals-in-latin-america
#18
REVIEW
Anahi S Vieira, Walter Lilenbaum
Leptospirosis is a worldwide bacterial infection, being more prevalent in tropical regions. Human beings, domestic animals and wildlife species are susceptible to a wide variety of serovars. Zoos have a great importance in keeping endangered species, increasing populations and accumulating knowledge on these species. Although some studies describe the occurrence of leptospirosis in captivity animals, a systematic review regarding the infection in these animals in tropical areas has never been conducted. Thus, the objective of this study was to systematically gather and analyze data regarding leptospirosis among captive wild animals in Latin America...
August 4, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802947/canine-diabetes-mellitus-risk-factors-a-matched-case-control-study
#19
Alan Gomes Pöppl, Guilherme Luiz Carvalho de Carvalho, Itatiele Farias Vivian, Luis Gustavo Corbellini, Félix Hilário Díaz González
Different subtypes of canine diabetes mellitus (CDM) have been described based on their aetiopathogenesis. Therefore, manifold risk factors may be involved in CDM development. This study aims to investigate canine diabetes mellitus risk factors. Owners of 110 diabetic dogs and 136 healthy controls matched by breed, sex, and age were interviewed concerning aspects related to diet, weight, physical activity, oral health, reproductive history, pancreatitis, and exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids. Two multivariate multivariable statistical models were created: The UMod included males and females without variables related to oestrous cycle, while the FMod included only females with all analysed variables...
August 4, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802138/inhibition-of-bioenergetic-metabolism-by-the-combination-of-metformin-and-2-deoxyglucose-highly-decreases-viability-of-feline-mammary-carcinoma-cells
#20
María Florencia Arbe, Chiara Fondello, Lucrecia Agnetti, Gabriel Martín Álvarez, Matías Nicolás Tellado, Gerardo Claudio Glikin, Liliana María Elena Finocchiaro, Marcela Solange Villaverde
Feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) is a highly aggressive pathology that has been proposed as an interesting model of breast cancer disease, especially for the hormone refractory subgroup. Recently, cancer cell metabolism has been described as a hallmark of cancer cells. Here, we investigate the effects and mechanism of metabolic modulation by metformin (MET, anti-diabetic drug), 2-deoxyglucose (2DG, hexokinase inhibitor) or a combination of both drugs, MET/2DG on two established FMC cells lines: AlRB (HER2 (3+) and Ki67<5%) and AlRATN (HER2 (-) and Ki67>15%)...
August 3, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
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