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Research in Veterinary Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914219/immune-protection-duration-and-efficacy-stability-of-dna-vaccine-encoding-eimeria-tenella-ta4-and-chicken-il-2-against-coccidiosis
#1
Xiaokai Song, Xiaofang Zhao, Lixin Xu, Ruofeng Yan, Xiangrui Li
In our previous study, an effective DNA vaccine encoding Eimeria tenella TA4 and chicken IL-2 was constructed. In the present study, the immunization dose of the DNA vaccine pVAX1.0-TA4-IL-2 was further optimized. With the optimized dose, the dynamics of antibodies induced by the DNA vaccine was determined using indirect ELISA. To evaluate the immune protection duration of the DNA vaccine, two-week-old chickens were intramuscularly immunized twice and the induced efficacy was evaluated by challenging with E...
November 25, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914220/modulation-of-the-innate-immune-related-genes-expression-in-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-infected-chicken-macrophage-like-cells-hd11-in-response-to-escherichia-coli-lps-stimulation
#2
Xuefeng Qi, Caihong Liu, Ruiqiao Li, Huizhu Zhang, Xingang Xu, Jingyu Wang
Macrophages play important roles in mediating virus-induced innate immune responses and are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial superinfections. The innate immune response initiated by both low pathogenicity AIV and bacterial superinfection in their avian host is not fully understood. We therefore determine the transcripts of innate immune-related genes following avian H9N2 AIV virus infection and E. coli LPS co-stimulation of avian macrophage-like cell line HD11 cells. More pronounced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1β) as well as the inflammatory chemokines (CXCLi1 and CXCLi2) was observed in virus infected plus LPS treated HD11 cells compared to H9N2 virus solely infected control...
November 17, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892867/the-balb-c-mouse-infection-model-for-improving-the-haemophilus-parasuis-serotyping-scheme
#3
Jiang Yu, Yuyu Zhang, Yijun Du, Jun Li, Baohua Huang, Wenbo Sun, Xiaoyan Cong, Jun Peng, Sufang Ren, Lihui Gou, Jianli Shi, Zhi Chen, Lei Chen, Jianda Li, Jie Yang, Jiaqiang Wu, Jinbao Wang
The use of BALB/c mouse as an alternative model to study Haemophilus parasuis (HPS) infections was evaluated, supplying the serotyping scheme by comparing the pathogenicity of different serovar HPS in pigs and mice challenge using statistical analysis. Results showed that the pathogenicity of different serovar HPS in mouse was consistent with in pigs, proving that this model is a viable alternative to pigs. It provides a convenient methodology for determining the virulence of HPS strains.
October 24, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892866/effectiveness-of-a-bhv-1-befv-bivalent-vaccine-against-bovine-herpesvirus-type-1-infection-in-cattle
#4
Yao-Chi Chung, Hsiu-Yen Shen, Li-Ting Cheng, Shyh-Shyan Liu, Chun-Yen Chu
Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) causes acute febrile respiratory diseases (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, IBR), decreased milk production, weight loss and abortion. Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) causes acute febrile respiratory disease, with pulmonary emphysema and pulmonary edema as the main signs. These viruses infect domesticated herds and lead to significant economic losses. In our previous study, an inactivated BHV-1 and BEFV bivalent vaccine was formulated with water-in-oil-in-water adjuvant, and vaccine efficacy was evaluated in guinea pigs...
October 13, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892865/co-occurrence-of-a-metastatic-mammary-liposarcoma-and-an-ovarian-sex-cord-stromal-tumor-in-a-dog
#5
M Polinas, G P Burrai, V Marras, R Ariu, M T Zedda, S Pau, E Antuofermo
Sarcoma arising in the mammary gland is a rare tumor in dogs, and primary liposarcoma with metastatic behavior has never been previously reported among canine mammary tumors. A 14-year old female poodle had a mammary mass diagnosed as pleomorphic liposarcoma. Two years following surgical removal, the tumor recurred in the mammary gland with lymph node metastases. In addition, a sex-cord stromal tumor was identified in the ovary. Immunohistochemistry was performed on both tumors that were positive for oestrogen and progesterone receptors...
October 13, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892863/nutrigenomic-activity-of-plant-derived-compounds-in-health-and-disease-results-of-a-dietary-intervention-study-in-dog
#6
Sandy Sgorlon, Bruno Stefanon, Misa Sandri, Monica Colitti
The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary administrations of four nutraceuticals in dogs. Seventy four dogs were enrolled in the trials, 24 healthy dogs were fed with a control diet (CT) and the experimental groups received for 60days the same diet supplemented with nutraceuticals, namely Echinacea angustifolia (EA, 0.10mg/kg live weight as echinacoside; 14 dogs), Vaccinium myrtillus (VM, 0.20mg/kg live weight as anthocyanidin, 13 dogs), Curcuma longa (CL, 6.60mg/kg live weight as curcumin, 18 dogs with arthrosis), and Sylibum marianum (SM, 1...
October 13, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892862/melamine-negatively-affects-testosterone-synthesis-in-mice
#7
Jiarui Sun, Yinan Cao, Xinchen Zhang, Qiling Zhao, Endong Bao, Yingjun Lv
Several studies have found that melamine causes damage to the testes, epididymis and sperm. However, few studies have investigated the effect of melamine on the synthesis of testosterone, which plays an import role in testicular development and spermatogenesis. In present study, mice were orally administrated with 2, 10 or 50mg/kg of melamine for 28days. In these groups, various abnormalities were observed including disruption of the seminiferous tubule structure, an increased necrotic germ cells and sperm abnormalities, and a reduced sperm count...
October 13, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892859/the-identification-of-potential-behavioural-indicators-of-pain-in-periparturient-sows
#8
Sarah H Ison, Susan Jarvis, Kenneth M D Rutherford
Periparturient pain is a welfare concern and could contribute to piglet losses. This has led to studies investigating post-farrowing analgesia. A clear reduction in pain has not been demonstrated, partly due to a lack of pain indicators. This study quantified behaviours as potential pain indicators (PPIn) in sows: i) before, during and after farrowing, and ii) 2min before and after piglet births. Twenty-five sows were observed during and after, and ten pre-farrowing. Behaviour recorded included: 1) back leg forward (back leg pulled forward and/or in); 2) tremble (movement as if shivering); 3) back arch (leg(s) stretch forming an arched back); 4) paw (leg scraped in pawing motion); and 5) tail flick (tail moved rapidly up and down)...
October 6, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892857/genotyping-of-german-and-austrian-taylorella-equigenitalis-isolates-using-repetitive-extragenic-palindromic-rep-pcr-and-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis-pfge
#9
Reinhard Sting, Christoph Seeh, Norman Mauder, Michaela Maurer, Igor Loncaric, Beatrix Stessl, Peter Kopp, Klaus Banzhaf, Brigitte Martin, Falk Melzer, Astrid Raßbach, Joachim Spergser
A total of 124 Taylorella (T.) equigenitalis and five T. asinigenitalis field isolates collected between 2002 and 2014 were available for genotyping using REP- (repetitive extragenic palindromic) PCR and PFGE (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis). The study comprised 79 T. equigenitalis field isolates originating from ten defined breeds of German horses and revealed a spectrum of five REP (rep-E1-E4, rep-E3a) and 15 PFGE (TE-A1-A9, TE-B1-B3, TE-C, TE-E1, and TE-E2) genotypes. T. equigenitalis field isolates (n=40) obtained from Austrian Lipizzaner horses were differentiated into three REP (rep-E1, rep-E3a, and rep-E4) and three PFGE genotypes (TE-A2, TE-A5, and TE-D); those isolated from four Austrian Trotters belonged to the REP/PFGE genotype rep-E2/TE-A1...
October 4, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892861/effects-of-myxoma-virus-and-rabbit-hemorrhagic-disease-virus-on-the-physiological-condition-of-wild-european-rabbits-is-blood-biochemistry-a-useful-monitoring-tool
#10
Isabel Pacios-Palma, Simone Santoro, Alejandro Bertó-Moran, Sacramento Moreno, Carlos Rouco
Myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are the major viral diseases that affect the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These diseases arrived in Europe within the last decades and have caused wild rabbit populations to decline dramatically. Both viruses are currently considered to be endemic in the Iberian Peninsula; periodic outbreaks that strongly impact wild populations regularly occur. Myxoma virus (MV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) alter the physiology of infected rabbits, resulting in physical deterioration...
October 1, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892880/mri-cross-sectional-atlas-of-normal-canine-cervical-musculoskeletal-structure
#11
M Alizadeh, C Zindl, M J Allen, G G Knapik, N Fitzpatrick, W S Marras
Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly used as a diagnostic tool for cervical spine injuries in canines, a comprehensive normal MRI anatomy of the canine cervical spine muscles is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to build a magnetic resonance imaging atlas of the normal cross sectional anatomy of the muscles of the canine cervical spine. MRI scans were performed on a canine cadaver using a combination of T1 and T2-weighted images in the transverse, sagittal and dorsal planes acquired at a slice thickness of 1mm...
September 30, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892858/longitudinal-study-of-ctx-m-esbl-producing-e-coli-strains-on-a-uk-dairy-farm
#12
R A Horton, D Duncan, L P Randall, S Chappell, L A Brunton, R Warner, N G Coldham, C J Teale
The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial strains and farm environment that may contribute to the persistence of ESBL-producing E. coli on a single UK dairy farm. A longitudinal study was conducted comprising 6 visits, between August and October 2010, followed by a further visit at approximately 69weeks after the initial visit. Faecal and environmental samples were collected from different parts of the farm. The persistence and extent of faecal shedding of ESBL E. coli by individual calves was also determined...
September 30, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892879/cytokine-activation-during-embryonic-development-and-in-hen-ovary-and-vagina-during-reproductive-age-and-salmonella-infection
#13
M Anastasiadou, G Michailidis
Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is usually associated with consumption of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) contaminated poultry meat or eggs. Contamination with SE is usually the result of infection of the digestive tract, or reproductive organs, especially the ovary and vagina. Thus, knowledge of endogenous innate immune mechanisms operating in the ovary and vagina of hen is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for triggering the immune response and inflammation in chicken to Salmonella infection...
September 28, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892878/inflammatory-biomarkers-are-associated-with-ketosis-in-periparturient-holstein-cows
#14
Mohannad Abuajamieh, Sara K Kvidera, Maria V Sanz Fernandez, Amir Nayeri, Nathan C Upah, Erin A Nolan, Sam M Lei, Jeffery M DeFrain, Howard B Green, Katie M Schoenberg, William E Trout, Lance H Baumgard
Ketosis is a prevalent periparturient metabolic disorder and we hypothesize that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infiltration may play a key role in its etiology. Study objectives were to characterize biomarkers of inflammation during the transition period in healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic cows. Cows were retrospectively categorized into one of two groups: healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic. Two data sets were utilized; the first dataset (Study A) was obtained as a subset of cows (n=16) enrolled in a larger experiment conducted at the Iowa State University Dairy utilizing Holstein cows (8 healthy; 8 ketotic), and the second dataset (Study B; 22 healthy; 22 ketotic) was obtained from a commercial farm...
September 21, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892877/detection-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-and-influenza-a-virus-iav-in-oral-fluid-of-pigs
#15
Kinga Biernacka, Paweł Karbowiak, Paweł Wróbel, Tomasz Charęza, Michał Czopowicz, Gyula Balka, Christa Goodell, Rolf Rauh, Tomasz Stadejek
Recently oral fluid has become a novel sample type for pathogen nucleic acid and antibody detection, as it is easy to obtain with non-invasive procedures. The objective of the study was to analyze porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and influenza A virus (IAV) circulation in growing pigs from three Polish production farms, using Real Time PCR and ELISA testing of oral fluid and serum. Oral fluids were collected every 2weeks, in the same 3-4 pens of pigs aged between 5 and 17weeks. Additionally, blood samples were collected every 4weeks from 4 pigs corresponding to the same pens as oral fluid and tested for the presence of PRRSV nucleic acid (pooled by 4) and antibodies...
September 21, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892875/the-zoonotic-potential-of-lactococcus-garvieae-an-overview-on-microbiology-epidemiology-virulence-factors-and-relationship-with-its-presence-in-foods
#16
REVIEW
Alicia Gibello, Fátima Galán-Sánchez, M Mar Blanco, Manuel Rodríguez-Iglesias, Lucas Domínguez, José F Fernández-Garayzábal
Lactococcus garvieae is a relevant worldwide fish pathogen affecting various farmed and wild marine and freshwater species. It has also been isolated from other animals, such as ruminants with subclinical mastitis and pigs with pneumonia. From the early 90s, L. garvieae has been associated with different human infections, mainly endocarditis. During the last five years, human infections by this bacterium appear to be increasing, likely due to the improvement in microbiological methods for bacterial identification and the alertness of this bacterium by physicians...
September 17, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892873/evidence-of-disseminated-infection-by-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-hominissuis-in-a-pet-ferret-mustela-putorius-furo
#17
Javier Bezos, Beatriz Álvarez-Carrión, Antonio Rodríguez-Bertos, Álvaro Fernández-Manzano, Lucía de Juan, Cristina Huguet, Víctor Briones, Beatriz Romero
The infection caused by the zoonotic opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (Mah) was reported for the first time in a pet ferret. Both owners were HIV-positive. Euthanasia of the pet was recommended due to medical reasons and as a preventive action. Disseminated and open tuberculosis lesions were observed in the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems of the ferret. Ecographic and radiographic surveys showed a severe generalized lymphadenopathy, strong thickening of the gastric wall and peritoneum layer...
September 17, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892872/fern-synthesized-silver-nanocrystals-towards-a-new-class-of-mosquito-oviposition-deterrents
#18
Rajapandian Rajaganesh, Kadarkarai Murugan, Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Sudalaimani Jayashanthini, Al Thbiani Aziz, Mathath Roni, Udaiyan Suresh, Subrata Trivedi, Hasibur Rehman, Akon Higuchi, Marcello Nicoletti, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquitoes act as vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, representing a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide. Eco-friendly control tools are urgently required. We proposed a novel method of fern-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using Dicranopteris linearis, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential and particle size analysis...
September 17, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892864/influence-of-a-low-dosage-of-clopidogrel-on-platelet-function-in-cats-as-measured-by-the-platelet-function-analyser-pfa-100-and-the-multiplate-analyser
#19
M Teuber, R Mischke
The antiplatelet drug clopidogrel is widely used for prophylaxis of arterial thromboses in cats in a standard dosage of 18.75mg per cat once daily. The aim of the study was to verify if a reduced daily dose of 10mg clopidogrel per cat has a similar antiplatelet effect as the standard dosage. Platelet function was measured with the platelet function analyser PFA-100(®) and a novel impedance aggregometer. Suitability of the platelet function analyser was tested in citrated blood samples of 59 healthy cats and reference ranges were established...
September 17, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892871/phenotypic-modulation-of-porcine-cd14-monocytes-natural-killer-natural-killer-t-cells-and-cd8%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-subsets-by-an-antibody-derived-killer-peptide-kp
#20
Luca Ferrari, Paolo Borghetti, Giulia Ferrarini, Elena De Angelis, Elena Canelli, Giulia Ogno, Alessia Catella, Tecla Ciociola, Walter Magliani, Paolo Martelli
An engineered killer peptide (KP) based on a recombinant anti-idiotypic antibody representing the functional image of a yeast killer toxin (KT) was demonstrated to mediate antimicrobial effects against fungi and viruses. KP binds to murine dendritic cells and macrophages and up-regulate co-receptor expression, thus sustaining CD4+ lymphocyte activation. No immunological data are available in domestic animals thus KP-induced immunomodulation was evaluated in porcine monocyte and lymphocyte subsets. PBMC from healthy adult pigs were stimulated with KP or a scramble peptide (SP), or kept unstimulated for 24, 48 and 72h, and subsequently analyzed by flow cytometry...
September 14, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
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