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Research in Veterinary Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331922/minimum-alveolar-concentration-key-concepts-and-a-review-of-its-pharmacological-reduction-in-dogs-part-1
#1
REVIEW
Rachel Reed, Thomas Doherty
OBJECTIVE: To outline the major components of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and review the literature in regard to pharmacological manipulation of the MAC of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, enflurane, and desflurane in dogs. The pharmacologic agents included are alpha-2 agonists, benzodiazepines, propofol, maropitant, opioids, lidocaine, acepromazine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and NMDA antagonists. Part 1 will focus on summarizing the relevance, measurement, and mechanisms of MAC and review the effects of alpha-2 agonists, benzodiazepines, and propofol on MAC...
January 9, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331737/hematology-reference-intervals-for-neonatal-holstein-calves
#2
Nikolaos Panousis, Nektarios Siachos, Georgios Kitkas, Emmanouil Kalaitzakis, Maria Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Georgios E Valergakis
Data regarding hematologic reference intervals (RI) for neonatal calves have not been published yet. The aims of this study were: a) to establish hematology RIs for neonatal Holstein calves, b) to compare them with the RIs for lactating cows, and c) to investigate the relationship of age and gender with the hematologic profile of calves. Two-hundred and fifty-four clinically healthy Holstein calves (1-9days old, from 30 farms) and 82 healthy Holstein cows (between 30 and 150days in milk, from 10 farms) were blood sampled once for a complete blood count evaluation, using the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer...
January 9, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331686/quercetin-decrease-somatic-cells-count-in-mastitis-of-dairy-cows
#3
Artur Burmańczuk, Piotr Hola, Andrzej Milczak, Tomasz Piech, Cezary Kowalski, Beata Wojciechowska, Tomasz Grabowski
Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which has an effect on inflammation, angiogenesis and vascular inflammation. In several other flavonoids (e.g. kaempferol, astragalin, alpinetin, baicalein, indirubin), anti-inflammatory mechanism was proven by using mice mastitis model. The aim of the current study was pilot analysis of quercetin tolerability and its impact on somatic cells count (SCC) after multiple intramammary treatment on dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Based on SCC and clinical investigation, 9 dairy cows with clinical mastitis of one quarter were selected for the pilot study...
January 9, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306151/enhancement-of-immune-response-of-piglets-to-pcv-2-vaccine-by-porcine-il-2-and-fusion-il-4-6-gene-entrapped-in-chitosan-nanoparticles
#4
Yi Chen, Tingyu Song, Yong-Le Xiao, Xiaoping Wan, Luyi Yang, Jinghai Li, Guangzhi Zeng, Pengfei Fang, Ze-Zhou Wang, Rong Gao
In order to develop a novel effective immunomodulator to enhance pig resistance against post-weaning multi systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a recombinant plasmid co-expressing pig interleukin-2 (IL-2) and fusion interleukin-4/6 (IL-4/6) genes, designated VRIL4/6-2, was constructed and encapsulated in chitosan (CS) nanoparticles prepared by the ionotropic gelation method. Then 21-day old piglets were divided into two groups and intramuscularly injected respectively with VPIL4/6-2-CS and saline along with the porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) vaccine...
December 29, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334646/17%C3%AE-estradiol-improves-the-efficacy-of-exploited-autologous-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-non-union-radial-defect-healing-a-rabbit-model
#5
Delaram Zamani Mazdeh, Pezhman Mirshokraei, Mohammadreza Emami, Ali Mirshahi, Iraj Karimi
Exploiting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) appears to be an appealing alternative to the traditional clinical approach in the treatment of non-union bone defects. It has been shown that 17β-estradiol improves the osteogenesis and proliferation potential of the MSCs via estrogen receptors. We investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol on exploiting autologous BMSCs (bone marrow-derived MSCs) for the purpose of healing of radial non-union segmental defect in rabbit. Twenty rabbits were divided into 4 experimental groups: 1...
December 28, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331687/probiotics-bacillus-toyonensis-and-saccharomyces-boulardii-improve-the-vaccine-immune-response-to-bovine-herpesvirus-type-5-in-sheep
#6
Talita Bandeira Roos, Carina Martins de Moraes, Régis Tuchtenhagen Sturbelle, Luana Alves Dummer, Geferson Fischer, Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite
There have been significant efforts toward the development of more efficient vaccines for animal health. A strategy that may be used to improve vaccine efficacy is the use of probiotics. Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) is an example of an important animal pathogen for which vaccines have provided only limited protection. In this study, we examined the use of the probiotics Bacillus toyonensis and Saccharomyces boulardii as a potential immune modulator to improve vaccine efficiency. Thirty, 5-month-old lambs were randomly grouped in three lots of 10 each and vaccinated at days 0, 21 and 42 of the experiment...
December 28, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310034/the-effect-of-month-farm-type-and-latitude-on-the-level-of-anaemia-associated-with-theileria-orientalis-ikeda-type-infection-in-new-zealand-cattle-naturally-infected-at-pasture
#7
K E Lawrence, R L Sanson, A M J McFadden, D J Pulford, W E Pomroy
Commencing in 2012, an epidemic of infectious bovine anaemia associated with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type has been present in New Zealand. The aims of this study were to analyse the temporal and spatial effects of T. orientalis Ikeda type infection on the sample submission rates and haematocrits of infected cattle over the first two years of the New Zealand epidemic. The data were collected from 30/08/2012 to 28/11/2014 and included all samples that met the case definition for Theileria associated bovine anaemia (TABA) and tested positive for T...
December 28, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329028/equine-allogeneic-chondrogenic-induced-mesenchymal-stem-cells-a-gcp-target-animal-safety-and-biodistribution-study
#8
S Y Broeckx, J H Spaas, K Chiers, L Duchateau, L Van Hecke, L Van Brantegem, M Dumoulin, A M Martens, F Pille
The safety of the intra-articular use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is scarcely reported. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the safety of a single intra-articular injection with allogeneic chondrogenic induced MSCs combined with equine plasma (=the investigational product: IVP) compared to a saline (0.9% NaCl) placebo control (=control product: CP). Sixteen healthy experimental horses were randomly assigned to receive a single intra-articular injection with either the IVP (n=8) or the CP (n=8) in the left metacarpophalangeal joint...
December 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306150/ultrasonographic-assessment-of-the-male-koala-phascolarctos-cinereus-reproductive-tract
#9
Rebecca Larkin, Chiara Palmieri, Motoharu Oishi, Lyndal Hulse, Stephen D Johnston
Studies documenting the application of ultrasonography to depict normal and pathological changes in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), especially in the male, are scarce. Sixty-two wild koalas were used in this study to define ultrasonographic protocols and features for the assessment of the male koala reproductive tract. Testis, epididymis and spermatic cord were examined using a hockey stick transducer. The normal koala testis showed a homogeneous echogenicity and an obvious hyper-echoic band corresponding to the tunica albuginea...
December 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306149/a-case-report-of-intrarenal-epidermoid-cysts-in-a-yellow-bellied-slider-trachemys-scripta-scripta
#10
Simon Stokes, Nicola Di Girolamo, Paolo Selleri, Sara Pagliarani, Chiara Palmieri
A 7-year-old yellow-bellied slider exhibited anorexia, decreased activity, generalised wasting of skeletal muscles and oedema. Haematology examination revealed increased phosphorus and decreased calcium levels. During necropsy performed after spontaneous death, a focal nodular lesion containing tan amorphous material was found in the left kidney. Histopathology examination revealed multiple cystic lesions lined by a multilayered squamous, occasionally cuboidal, and containing keratin. Epithelial cells and keratin material were cytokeratin-positive...
December 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304440/evaluation-of-an-insect-meal-of-the-black-soldier-fly-hermetia-illucens-as-soybean-substitute-intestinal-morphometry-enzymatic-and-microbial-activity-in-laying-hens
#11
Monica Isabella Cutrignelli, Maria Messina, Francesca Tulli, Basilio Randazzi, Ike Olivotto, Laura Gasco, Rosa Loponte, Fulvia Bovera
This research investigated the ileum morphometry and enzymatic activity, the caecal volatile fatty acid production and the apparent nutrient digestibility in laying hens fed a Hermetia illucens larvae meal (HILM) as a complete replacement of diet soybean meal (SBM). The hens fed HILM exhibited a lower live weight (P<0.05) and a higher incidence of the full digestive tract (P<0.05) than the SBM group. In the duodenum, the maltase exhibited a higher (P<0.05) activity in the HILM group while the intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) had a higher (P<0...
December 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304439/cryptosporidium-outbreak-in-calves-on-a-large-dairy-farm-effect-of-treatment-and-the-association-with-the-inflammatory-response-and-short-term-weight-gain
#12
Tarmo Niine, Elisabeth Dorbek-Kolin, Brian Lassen, Toomas Orro
Cryptosporidium spp. infections in neonatal dairy calves can cause diarrhoea and, in rare cases, death. The infection is usually self-limiting, but halofuginone lactate (HL) can be used prophylactically. Calves (n=144) in the study were born during a 2-month period on one farm. A total of 901 serum and 767 faecal samples were collected. Based on HL treatment, the calves were divided into 3 groups: I) not treated, II) treated incorrectly (treatment started >48h after birth, or lasted <7days), and III) treated correctly (started <48h after birth, and lasted ≥7days)...
December 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294432/short-communication-immune-responses-in-sows-induced-by-porcine-sapovirus-virus-like-particles-reduce-viral-shedding-in-suckled-piglets
#13
Bo Yang, Bin Yang, Xingna Shan, Baoyu Li, Xiaojun Ma, Xiangping Yin, Yun Zhang, Yongsheng Liu, Xi Lan
Porcine sapovirus (PoSaV) is a potential threat to public health owing to its capacity for reassortment with human sapovirus strains. However, there is still no vaccine available for the prevention and control of this infectious disease. In this study, we developed PoSaV virus-like particles (VLPs) using a baculovirus expression system. Immunization with PoSaV VLPs induced high titers of serum antibody specific for VP1 in sows. The results of our challenge study demonstrated that maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) induced by VLP immunization dramatically reduced viral shedding of PoSaV in the feces of next generation piglets...
December 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277015/milk-fever-in-dairy-cows-is-preceded-by-activation-of-innate-immunity-and-alterations-in-carbohydrate-metabolism-prior-to-disease-occurrence
#14
Guanshi Zhang, Elda Dervishi, Burim N Ametaj
The objective of this study was to search for potential alterations in innate immunity reactants and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after clinical occurrence of milk fever (MF) and identify potential predictive biomarkers of disease. One hundred pregnant multiparous Holstein dairy cows were involved in the study starting from -8wks before the expected day of parturition until +8wks postpartum as part of a large retrospective longitudinal study. Health status, DMI, milk yield, and milk composition were monitored during the whole experimental period...
December 19, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275905/pathogen-specific-responses-in-the-bovine-udder-models-and-immunoprophylactic-concepts
#15
REVIEW
Wolfram Petzl, Holm Zerbe, Juliane Günther, Hans-Martin Seyfert, Jamal Hussen, Hans-Joachim Schuberth
Bovine mastitis is a disease of major economic effects on the dairy industry worldwide. Experimental in vivo infection models have been widely proven as an effective tool for the investigation of pathogen-specific host immune responses. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are two common mastitis pathogens with an opposite clinical outcome of the disease. E. coli and S. aureus have proven to be valid surrogates to model clinical and subclinical mastitis respectively. Contemporary transcriptome profiling studies demonstrated that the transcriptomic response in the teat reflects the course of pathogen-specific mastitis, being ultimately determined by the immune response of the mammary epithelial cells...
December 19, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291486/pharmacodynamic-interactions-of-amikacin-with-selected-%C3%AE-lactams-and-fluoroquinolones-against-canine-escherichia-coli-isolates
#16
Georgios A Delis, Victoria I Siarkou, Elpida I Vingopoulou, Maria Koutsoviti-Papadopoulou, Georgios C Batzias
Knowledge of in vitro antimicrobial interactions can serve as a guide for clinical application of combination antimicrobial regimens. The aim of the present study was to determine the pharmacodynamic interactions of amikacin with either amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, enrofloxacin or marbofloxacin against clinical canine Escherichia coli isolates. Bactericidal activity of individual antimicrobials was assessed by use of static kill curves. Interactions between amikacin and each of the β-lactams or fluoroquinolones were subsequently analyzed by employing the fractional maximal effect method...
December 18, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288959/ivermectin-acute-administration-impaired-the-spermatogenesis-and-spermiogenesis-of-adult-rats
#17
Flora Cordeiro, Vagner Gonçalves, Natalia Moreira, João Iosif Slobodticov, Nathalia de Andrade Galvão, Helenice de Souza Spinosa, Leoni Villano Bonamin, Eduardo Fernandes Bondan, Claudia Helena Pastor Ciscato, Cláudia Maria Barbosa, Maria Martha Bernardi
Ivermectin (IVM) is an antiparasitic agent widely used in agricultural, domestic animals and in human clinical practice. In the present study, the temporal effects of therapeutic doses of IVM in the morphometric and histological assessment of testis were studied to verify if IVM acute administration impaired the spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis of adult rats, if these effects are reversible. The testosterone levels and the plasmatic IVM levels were assessed. The results show: 1) IVM acute exposure, mainly in the higher dose, reduced the testicular volume, the tubular diameter and the germinal epithelium height; 2) no interferences on Leydig cells frequency; 3) histological studies show that tubular sections containing several histological changes indicative of spermatogenesis interruption, such as disorganization of germinal epithelium, vacuolar degeneration of the germ cells and sloughing of cells into the tubular lumen; 4) no differences in testosterone levels; 5) The IVM plasmatic levels were significantly reduced at 72h after the 0...
December 18, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277014/effects-of-trichostatin-a-on-pig-scnt-blastocyst-formation-rate-and-cell-number-a-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Zhenhua Guo, Lei Lv, Di Liu, Bo Fu
Although somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) can be used to create transgenic pigs for human xenotransplantation, low efficiency limits its use. Trichostatin A (TSA) promotes SCNT embryo development, but whether TSA modifies SCNT blastocyst numbers is unclear. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand whether TSA modifies the rate and number of embryos that grow from oocytes to blastocysts in culture and what types of cell signaling pathways may be involved. Thus, we identified 63 reports, of which 13 are included in this meta-analysis...
December 18, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324376/evaluation-of-translaryngeal-percutaneous-arytenoid-lateralization-tpal-in-dogs-with-experimentally-created-laryngeal-paralysis
#19
Susannah J Sample, Robert J Hardie, John Stein, Julie Webb
The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of Translaryngeal Percutaneous Arytenoid Lateralization (TPAL) in dogs with experimentally created laryngeal paralysis. All dogs (n=5) underwent bilateral recurrent laryngeal neurectomy before TPAL. Two TPAL suture techniques were evaluated. TPAL-CranialCaudal (TPAL-CC) was performed first, followed 11 to 14days later by TPAL-DorsalVentral (TPAL-DV). For both techniques, a mattress suture was placed through the arytenoid cartilage via an oral approach...
December 15, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275218/myrcia-sylvatica-essential-oil-mitigates-molecular-biochemical-and-physiological-alterations-in-rhamdia-quelen-under-different-stress-events-associated-to-transport
#20
Etiane M H Saccol, Ismael Jerez-Cepa, Giovana M Ourique, Tanise S Pês, Luciane T Gressler, Rosa H V Mourão, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Juan M Mancera, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Maria A Pavanato, Juan A Martos-Sitcha
The effects of pre-transport handling and addition of essential oil of Myrcia sylvatica (EOMS) during transport on stress pathways activation in Rhamdia quelen were investigated. Fish (n=400, 25.2±2.9g) were captured in production ponds and transferred to 100-L tank (density 100g L-1). After 24h, 10 fish were sampled (before transport group). The remaining fish were placed in plastic bags (n=30 or 32 fish per bag, density 150g L-1) containing 5L of water (control), ethanol (315μLL-1, vehicle) or EOMS (25 or 35μLL-1), in triplicate, transported for 6h and sampled (n=10 animals per group)...
December 15, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
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