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Research in Veterinary Science

Michele Losurdo, Giulia Dowgier, Maria Stella Lucente, Mario Cinone, Michele Camero, Maria Loredana Colaianni, Giuseppe Passantino, Gianluca Ventriglia, Domenico Buonavoglia, Nicola Decaro
The long-term shedding of Canine alphaherpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1) by neonatal pups with natural infection is reported. The pups belonged to a litter of 11 pointers of a breeding kennel in southern Italy, 9 of which developed a fatal form of systemic infection, as resulted by the detection of CaHV-1 in internal organs (kidney, liver, lung and brain) of one of this dogs and in the vaginal swab of their mother. The two remaining animals displayed a milder form of disease, with one pup showing ocular involvement, and underwent a progressive recovery...
July 6, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Peter T Thomsen, Hans Houe
Welfare assessments based on herd visits are time consuming - and thus costly - and only measure welfare at specific points in time. This makes the use of routinely recorded indicators of animal welfare interesting. Such an indicator must - among other things - meet the following requirements: 1) the indicator must have a well-documented association with animal welfare and 2) data on the indicator must be easily available. Focussing on these two requirements, the objective of this paper was to evaluate the possibility of using routinely recorded cow mortality data as an indicator of animal welfare in dairy cattle herds...
June 30, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Andrew M Whiteoak, Justin Ideozu, Hadil Alkathiry, Alexandra J Tomlinson, Richard J Delahay, Sara Cowen, Elizabeth Mullineaux, Eamonn Gormley, Richard J Birtles, Zhao-Rong Lun, Geoff Hide
The Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes are a conserved family of genes central to the innate immune response to pathogen infection. They encode receptor proteins, recognise pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger initial immune responses. In some host-pathogen systems, it is reported that genetic differences, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), associate with disease resistance or susceptibility. Little is known about TLR gene diversity in the European badger (Meles meles). We collected DNA from UK badgers, carried out PCR amplification of the badger TLR2 gene and exon 3 of TLR4 and determined DNA sequences for individual badgers for TLR2 (n = 61) and TLR4 exon 3 (n = 59)...
June 30, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Thiago Alves de Souza, Cecília Bonolo de Campos, Aline De Biasi Bassani Gonçalves, Fernanda Camargo Nunes, Lidianne Narducci Monteiro, Rosemeri de Oliveira Vasconcelos, Geovanni Dantas Cassali
Mammary neoplasms are the tumors with higher incidence in female dogs. Among the factors that contribute for the development of this and other neoplasms, the inflammatory tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role. Several studies reported important roles for lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and mast cells in this context. In the present study, our aim was to evaluate the number of profile cells of inflammatory cells and area of tumor fibrosis and the relation of these features with canine mammary tumors of different histologic and clinical presentation (benign mixed tumor, carcinoma in mixed tumor, solid carcinoma and tubular carcinoma) Counting and staining of inflammatory cells and tumor fibrosis were performed through histochemistry, while counting and staining of CD4+ , TCD8+ and FOXP3+ lymphocytes were performed through immunohistochemistry...
June 23, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Mohamed Shaalan, Magdy El-Mahdy, Sarah Theiner, Nora Dinhopl, Mansour El-Matbouli, Mona Saleh
The rise of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is one of the great challenges of our age. One of the strategies to limit the development of antibiotics resistance is the investigation of alternative antimicrobials. As silver nanoparticles demonstrated a potent bactericidal activity in vitro, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Rainbow trout (n = 120) were divided into four groups of 30 fish each...
June 21, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
M Pluim, A Martens, K Vanderperren, S Sarrazin, M Koene, A Luciani, P R van Weeren, C Delesalle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Lei Feng, Ming-Wei Sun, Ping Jiang, Zi-Bin Li, Hua Gao, Xiao-Xin Zhai, Yong Han, Zong-Hui Zhang, Feng-Shan Gao
Up to now, no crystal structure of swine leukocyte antigen 2 (SLA-2) molecules was reported. In order to elucidate the structure of SLA-2 and to study the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes derived from foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a complex of swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule (SLA-2 haplotype, Hebao allele) with swine β2 -microglobulin and the CTL epitope FMDV-Hu64 (ALLRTATYY) derived from O serotype of FMDV VP1 protein (residues 64-72) was refolded and crystallized...
June 20, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Maria Ugarte-Ruiz, Lucas Domínguez, Nicolae Corcionivoschi, Brendan W Wren, Nick Dorrell, Ozan Gundogdu
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of food-borne bacterial enteritis in humans, with contaminated poultry products considered the main source of infection. To survive the food chain, C. jejuni utilizes multiple defense mechanisms that counter oxidative and aerobic stresses. In this study, we phenotypically characterised 63 C. jejuni strains with oxidative stress survival and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to investigate correlations between these two phenotypes against the source of the strains and the presence of the MarR regulators RrpA and RrpB which have a role in regulating the response to oxidative and aerobic stress...
June 19, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Kirstin Dahl-Pedersen, Leslie Foldager, Mette S Herskin, Hans Houe, Peter T Thomsen
Cull dairy cows are transported to slaughter, but may be more vulnerable to transport stress than younger livestock. In order to ensure the welfare of cull cows during transport their fitness for transport must be assessed before transport. Lameness is a common reason for culling dairy cows, and assessing fitness for transport in lame dairy cows is a frequent task for farmers, veterinarians and livestock drivers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement within and between these three groups of professionals in relation to lameness scoring and assessment of fitness for transport...
June 19, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Carolina A S C Araújo, Rejane S Sousa, Bruno M Monteiro, Francisco L C Oliveira, Antonio H H Minervino, Frederico A M L Rodrigues, Rodolfo G Vale, Clara S Mori, Enrico L Ortolani
Hyperketonemia in sheep is associated with a disease known as pregnancy toxemia. The purposes of this study were to (1) induce hyperketonemia by infusion with D-beta-hydroxybutyrate (D-BHB) in eighteen healthy, non-pregnant, non-lactating ewes, (2) to evaluate the metabolic pathways in which recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) may be involved, and (3) to evaluate the possible benefits of preventive rbST therapy on the metabolic profiles of the sheep. The sheep were intravenously infused with a D-BHB solution over 2 h...
June 15, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
B Poulsen Nautrup, I Van Vlaenderen, A Aldaz, C K Mah
Meta-analysis was used to compare pigs immunocastrated (IC) with Improvac® versus physically castrated (PC) or entire male (EM) pigs. Performance and carcass data as most relevant for producers and packers were analyzed and the risk of boar taint was assessed by comparing the number of pigs exceeding the consumer thresholds of detection (ToD) for skatole and androstenone. A total of 78 articles fulfilled pre-defined inclusion criteria. Compared to PC pigs, IC pigs have a higher average daily gain (ADG; +32...
June 15, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Suzana Gonçalves Carvalho, Larissa Ataíde Siqueira, Marcos Santos Zanini, Ana Paula Dos Santos Matos, Carla Holandino Quaresma, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade, Juliana Aparecida Severi, Janaina Cecília Oliveira Villanova
Recently, there have been numerous cases of leishmaniasis reported in different Brazilian states. The use of furazolidone (FZD) to treat leishmaniasis has been previously described; however, the drug is associated with adverse effects such as anorexia, weight loss, incoordination, and fatigue in dogs. Thus, in the present study, we prepared and evaluated inclusion complexes between FZD and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to guarantee increased drug solubility and reduce the toxicity associated with high doses. The FZD:β-CD complexes were prepared by two different techniques (kneading and lyophilization) prior to incorporation in an oral pharmaceutical dosage form...
June 15, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Anna Czech, Aleksandra Smolczyk, Katarzyna Ognik, Łukasz Wlazło, Bożena Nowakowicz-Dębek, Martyna Kiesz
The objective of the study was to compare the efficiency of two species of yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica (YL) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC), with or without a probiotic supplement, added to feed for piglets, on the basis of haematological blood indices and the gut microbiota. A total of 360 piglets (the average 27-d-old) were allotted to dietary treatments: 1) the basal control(C) diet, 2) the C diet + probiotic(P) (a mixture of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis), 3) the C diet +3%YL(Y), 4) the C diet +3%YL + probiotic(YP), 5) the C diet +3%SC(S) and 6) the C diet +3%SC + probiotic(SP)...
June 14, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
F C Thomas, T Geraghty, P B A Simões, F M Mshelbwala, H Haining, P D Eckersall
This study analysed three acute phase proteins in milk from natural cases of bovine mastitis and compared their profiles across different pathogens causing the infection. Their ability to differentiate subclinical and clinical mastitis from normal (uninfected) milk samples was also examined. Samples from various dairy farms across Scotland submitted to the Veterinary Diagnostic Services unit of the University of Glasgow were used for this study. They were subjected to microbiological examination for mastitis pathogens, evaluation of somatic cell counts and analyses by ELISAs for haptoglobin, C-reactive protein and mammary associated serum amyloid A3...
June 14, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Naoki Iwasa, Satoshi Takashima, Tatsuo Iwasa, Kazuko Iwasa, Tomomi Suzuki, Yui Kobatake, Hitoshi Kitagawa, Naohito Nishii
This study examined the predictive value of serum cystatin C (Cys-C) concentration, measured during routine periodic health examinations, in the renal prognosis of dogs. A cohort of 140 dogs weighing <15 kg whose serum Cys-C concentrations were measured during periodic health examinations from December 2013 to March 2016 were prospectively studied, with renal disease-related death the predicted end point. Of the 140 dogs, nine died from renal diseases during the follow-up period (539 ± 249 days)...
June 14, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Olubunmi G Fasanmi, Olugbenga O Kehinde, Agnes T Laleye, Bassey Ekong, Syed S U Ahmed, Folorunso O Fasina
We conducted benefit-cost analysis of outbreak and surveillance costs for HPAI H5N1in poultry in Nigeria. Poultry's death directly cost US$ 939,734.0 due to outbreaks. The integrated disease surveillance and response originally created for comprehensive surveillance and laboratory investigation of human diseases was adapted for HPAI H5N1 in poultry. Input data were obtained from the field, government documents and repositories and peer-reviewed publications. Actual/forecasted bird numbers lost were integrated into a financial model and estimates of losses were calculated...
June 13, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
B Tranberg, L I Hellgren, J Lykkesfeldt, A K Hansen
In obesity and dyslipidemia, hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) into non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) may contribute to insulin resistance, and production of oxygenated, bioactive polyunsaturated fatty acids may increase oxidative stress. Here we show that after six weeks of high-fat feeding of obese prone rats (Crl:OP(CD), vitamin C was increased both in liver (P < 0.01) and plasma (P < 0.001), while both TAG (P < 0.01) and NEFA (P < 0.001) were lower than in low-fat fed control rats...
June 12, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Martina Trckova, Alena Lorencova, Vladimir Babak, Jiri Neca, Miroslav Ciganek
A three-week trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of leonardite and lignite, natural sources of humic substances, on selected indicators of health status of weaned piglets. A total of 45 weaned piglets were assigned to three dietary treatments: Control - basal diet without any medication; Leonardite or Lignite - diet supplemented with lignite or leonardite at a dose of 20 g/kg, respectively. Leonardite differed from lignite in the content of humic substances and minerals. Diarrhoea incidence and severity, growth performance, haematological and biochemical status, biomarkers of oxidative stress, serum fatty acid (FA) profile and faecal microbiota composition were monitored...
June 12, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Kwonil Jung, Ayako Miyazaki, Linda J Saif
Serotonin is a critical monoamine neurotransmitter molecule stored and released from enterochromaffin (EC) cells into the gut submucosa, transmitting the vomiting signal to the brain. We studied one mechanism by which vomiting is induced in pigs infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) by characterization of swine EC cells by immunohistochemistry. Conventional or gnotobiotic (Gn) 9-day-old pigs [PEDV-inoculated (n = 12); Mock (n = 14)] were inoculated orally (8.9-9.2 log10 genomic equivalents/pig) with PEDV PC21A strain or mock...
June 12, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Qi Zhang, Ying Xu, Rong Chang, Dewen Tong, Xingang Xu
This essay focuses on transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), which is an enteropathogenic virus related to contagious and acute diseases in suckling piglets. Previous literature suggests that the TGEV nucleocapsid protein (N) plays a significant role in viral transcriptional process, however, there is a need to examine other functions of TGEV N protein in the porcine intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) which is the target cell of TGEV. In the present study, we investigated the degradation, subcellular localisation, and function of TGEV N protein by examining its effects on cycle progression, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression, and cell survival...
June 12, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
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