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Research in Veterinary Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441610/total-esterase-measurement-in-saliva-of-pigs-validation-of-an-automated-assay-characterization-and-changes-in-stress-and-disease-conditions
#1
Fernando Tecles, María D Contreras-Aguilar, Silvia Martínez-Miró, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Damián Escribano, José J Cerón
An automated spectrophotometric method for total esterase activity (TEA) measurement in porcine saliva has been developed and validated, using 4-nitrophenyl acetate (4-NA) as substrate. The method was precise and accurate, with low limit of detection, and was able to measure samples with TEA activities up to 400IU/L without any dilution. In addition, the different enzymes contributing to TEA were characterized, being identified carbonic anhydrase VI (CA-VI), lipase, cholinesterase (ChE) and cholesterol esterase (CEL)...
April 18, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419940/cholesterol-concentrations-in-lipoprotein-fractions-separated-by-anion-exchange-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-in-healthy-dogs-and-dogs-with-hypercholesterolemia
#2
Hitomi Oda, Akihiro Mori, Yuji Hirowatari, Toshie Takoura, Daisuke Manita, Tomoya Takahashi, Saori Shono, Eri Onozawa, Hisashi Mizutani, Yohei Miki, Yukiko Itabashi, Toshinori Sako
Anion-exchange (AEX)-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for measurement of cholesterol can be used to separate serum lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein (HDL); low-density lipoprotein (LDL); intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL); very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)) in humans. However, AEX-HPLC has not been applied in veterinary practice. We had three objectives: (i) the validation of AEX-HPLC methods including the correlation of serum cholesterol concentration in lipoprotein fraction measured by AEX-HPLC and gel permeation-HPLC (GP-HPLC) in healthy dogs and those with hypercholesterolemia was investigated; (ii) the reference intervals of lipoprotein fractions measured by AEX-HPLC from healthy dogs (n=40) was established; (iii) lipoprotein fractions from the serum of healthy dogs (n=12) and dogs with hypercholesterolemia (n=23) were compared...
April 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419939/the-5-ht4-receptor-agonist-prucalopride-does-not-facilitate-cholinergic-neurotransmission-in-circular-and-longitudinal-smooth-muscle-preparations-of-equine-mid-jejunum
#3
Romain Adelin Lefebvre, Chana Callens, Inge Van Colen, Catherine John Ghislaine Delesalle
BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus (POI) remains an important cause of death in horses. The recently developed selective 5-HT4 receptor agonists such as prucalopride target 5-HT4 receptors on myenteric cholinergic neurons to enhance acetylcholine release and GI motility. No clearcut in vitro evaluation whether highly selective 5-HT4 receptor agonists enhance submaximal cholinergic neurotransmission towards the muscle layer has been performed in horses. OBJECTIVES: To identify functional 5-HT4 receptors in equine jejunum...
April 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414979/role-of-egf-on-in-situ-culture-of-equine-preantral-follicles-and-metabolomics-profile
#4
F L N Aguiar, F O Lunardi, L F Lima, J B Bruno, B G Alves, D M Magalhães-Padilha, F W S Cibin, L Berioni, G A Apgar, E G Lo Turco, E L Gastal, J R Figueiredo
The effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentrations (0, 10, 50, and 100ng/ml) on in vitro culture (IVC) of equine preantral follicles were evaluated using histology, estradiol and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and metabolomics. After IVC, the percentage of normal follicles was lower (P<0.05) for all treatments when compared to non-cultured control. EGF 50ng/ml treatment had more (P<0.05) normal follicles at Day 7 of culture when compared with EGF 0 and 100ng/ml. EGF 50ng/ml had more (P<0...
April 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411501/different-cross-protection-scopes-of-two-avian-influenza-h5n1-vaccines-against-infection-of-layer-chickens-with-a-heterologous-highly-pathogenic-virus
#5
Okti Nadia Poetri, Michiel Van Boven, Guus Koch, Arjan Stegeman, Ivo Claassen, I Wayan Wisaksana, Annemarie Bouma
Avian influenza (AI) virus strains vary in antigenicity, and antigenic differences between circulating field virus and vaccine virus will affect the effectiveness of vaccination of poultry. Antigenic relatedness can be assessed by measuring serological cross-reactivity using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests. Our study aims to determine the relation between antigenic relatedness expressed by the Archetti-Horsfall ratio, and reduction of virus transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1 AI strains among vaccinated layers...
April 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433933/functional-foods-in-pet-nutrition-focus-on-dogs-and-cats
#6
REVIEW
Alessandro Di Cerbo, Julio Cesar Morales-Medina, Beniamino Palmieri, Federica Pezzuto, Raffaella Cocco, Gonzalo Flores, Tommaso Iannitti
Functional foods provide health benefits if they are consumed on a regular basis as part of a varied diet. In this review, we discuss the availability and role of functional foods in pet nutrition with a focus on dogs and cats. Indeed, functional foods modify gastrointestinal physiology, promote changes in biochemical parameters, improve brain functions and may reduce or minimize the risk of developing specific pathologies. This evidence derives largely from clinical studies while only limited evidence is available from studies in dogs and cats...
April 7, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437624/immune-response-to-salmonella-infections-in-vaccinated-and-non-vaccinated-turkeys
#7
Martina Hesse, Andreas Stamm, Angela Berndt, Gerhard Glünder, Rita Weber
Vaccination has been widely used to reduce the Salmonella burden in poultry and subsequently the transmission to humans. Concerning turkey, there is little knowledge on the immune response to colonization and invasion by Salmonella species or about efficacy of vaccination and involved immune mechanisms. In the present study, turkeys were vaccinated at the day of hatch and infected with Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) or Enteritidis (SE) field strains three weeks later. A control group was kept uninfected. After challenge infection, bacterial counts in the cecal content, liver and spleen were determined 7 and 14days post infection...
April 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391056/influence-of-long-term-high-dose-dexamethasone-administration-on-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-porcine-hepatocytes
#8
Mateusz Mikiewicz, Iwona Otrocka-Domagała, Katarzyna Paździor-Czapula, Tadeusz Rotkiewicz
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of long-term, high-dose dexamethasone administration on the liver, with particular emphasis on hepatocyte proliferation and apoptosis, using a swine model. The study included 48 large, female Polish breed pigs aged 3months (weighing ca. 30kg) divided into groups I (control; n=24) and II (dexamethasone; n=24) that receiving intra-muscular injections of monosodium phosphate dexamethasone for 29days. The pigs were euthanized on days subsequent to the experiment...
April 2, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391058/control-of-bovine-leptospirosis-aspects-for-consideration-in-a-tropical-environment
#9
REVIEW
G Martins, W Lilenbaum
Due to the complex and dynamic epidemiology of leptospirosis on livestock, control is still controversial and frustrating. In this context, this paper discusses the main challenges and perspectives for the control of bovine leptospirosis, particularly under tropical conditions. In order to reduce the effects of the disease in cattle, it has been proposed that the control should integrate the trinomial antibiotic therapy (mainly streptomycin); vaccination (whole-cell bacterins); and environmental management...
April 1, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391057/dietary-allium-hookeri-reduces-inflammatory-response-and-increases-expression-of-intestinal-tight-junction-proteins-in-lps-induced-young-broiler-chicken
#10
Youngsub Lee, Sung-Hyen Lee, Ujvala Deepthi Gadde, Sung-Taek Oh, Sung-Jin Lee, Hyun S Lillehoj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384550/molecular-detection-and-isolation-of-pathogenic-leptospira-from-asymptomatic-humans-domestic-animals-and-water-sources-in-nan-province-a-rural-area-of-thailand
#11
Alongkorn Kurilung, Pattrarat Chanchaithong, Kittitat Lugsomya, Waree Niyomtham, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Nuvee Prapasarakul
Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease that is often associated with animal carriers and contamination of the environment via infected urine. This study aimed to assess pathogenic leptospiral carriage in Nan province, a rural area of Thailand where leptospirosis is endemic. Samples from 20 villages were obtained during the period 2013 to 2016, comprising urine samples collected from asymptomatic people (n=37) and domestic animals (n=342), and environmental water samples (n=14). Leptospira were cultured in Ellinghauson McCullough Johnson and Harris (EMJH) media...
March 29, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371694/novel-effects-of-identified-snps-within-the-porcine-pregnancy-associated-glycoprotein-gene-family-ppags-on-the-major-reproductive-traits-in-hirschmann-hybrid-line-sows
#12
Grzegorz Panasiewicz, Martyna Bieniek-Kobuszewska, Aleksandra Lipka, Marta Majewska, Roman Jedryczko, Bozena Szafranska
This is the first study describing identification of SNPs within the multiple and polymorphic Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein gene family (PAGs) in the genome of the domestic pig (pPAGs). We identified pPAG-like (pPAG-L) genotypes in primiparous and multiparous farmed hybrid-line JSR Hirschmann (Hrn) sows (N=159), in which various novel associations with their phenotypes for the major reproductive traits have been discovered. Genomic DNA templates were isolated from the blood and different pPAG-L primers were used to amplify various regions by PCR...
March 29, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371693/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-modeling-of-benazepril-and-benazeprilat-after-administration-of-intravenous-and-oral-doses-of-benazepril-in-healthy-horses
#13
Juan Manuel Serrano-Rodríguez, Manuel Gómez-Díez, María Esgueva, Cristina Castejón-Riber, Antonio Mena-Bravo, Feliciano Priego-Capote, Nahúm Ayala, Juan Manuel Serrano Caballero, Ana Muñoz
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) properties of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) benazeprilat have not been evaluated in horses. This study was designed to establish PK profiles for benazepril and benazeprilat after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration of benazepril using a PK/PD model. This study also aims to determine the effects of benazeprilat on serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), selecting the most appropriate dose that suppresses ACE activity. Six healthy horses in a crossover design received IV benazepril at 0...
March 28, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376370/evaluation-of-a-vital-staining-protocol-with-2-3-5-triphenyltetrazolium-chloride-for-cancellous-bone-in-a-sheep-model
#14
René Schiffner, Sabine J Bischoff, Georg Matziolis, Martin Schmidt
Decision making on the optimal surgical treatment of fractures often is hampered by the lack of a method for direct assessment of bone vitality. In various contexts, for example to determine the extents of cerebral insults or of myocardial infarctions in experimental studies, tetrazolium based staining procedures of vital cells are widely used. Here, we set out to test the applicability of tetrazolium based staining on bone samples. 8 brains and 26 femoral heads from sheep were used to prepare tissue slices, which were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) at various times (1 to 12h) after explantation...
March 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454000/models-describing-metronidazole-pharmacokinetics-in-relation-to-hemodynamics-in-turkeys
#15
Tomasz Grabowski, Urszula Pasławska, Błażej Poźniak, Marcin Świtała
Linking haemodynamic (HD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters provides much insight into interrelations between circulatory system and drug disposition. This effect is particularly pronounced in rapidly growing animals. Heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) are tightly linked with the animal's age and correlate with the increasing body weight (BW). The aim of this study was to establish and validate the relations between BW, HD and chosen PK parameters of metronidazole (MTZ) and its metabolite - hydroxymetronidazole (MTZ-OH) in growing turkeys...
March 25, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365518/immunological-implications-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-infection
#16
M G Blagitz, F N Souza, C F Batista, L F F Azevedo, E M R Sanchez, S A Diniz, M X Silva, J P Haddad, A M M P Della Libera
This study examined neutrophil and monocyte functions and the blood lymphocyte profile of naturally BLV-infected cows with or without persistent lymphocytosis (PL). The percentage of neutrophils and monocytes that phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus was lower in BLV-infected dairy cows, particularly those with PL. The relative percentage of CD44(+) monocytes and neutrophils and CD11b expression by neutrophils was also lower in BLV-infected dairy cows with PL. A correlation between the percentage of CD11b(+) neutrophils and that produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found...
March 24, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343145/effects-of-tiletamine-on-the-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway-in-the-rat-central-nervous-system
#17
Li-Xue Su, Xing-Xing Shi, Peng Yang, Hao Chen, Xin Li, Hong-Gang Fan, Hong-Bin Wang
OBJECTIVE: The dissociative anesthetic tiletamine, which acts on the central nervous system (CNS), is widely used in veterinary medicine and animal experiments. Recent studies indicate that adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in the analgesic action of tiletamine. In the present study, the effects of tiletamine on the AMPK signaling pathway in rats were investigated. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with tiletamine and executed at 10, 20, 40 and 60min post injection...
March 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342429/non-parasitic-life-cycle-of-the-cattle-tick-rhipicephalus-boophilus-microplus-in-panicum-maximum-pastures-in-northern-argentina
#18
Mariano Mastropaolo, Atilio J Mangold, Alberto A Guglielmone, Santiago Nava
The aim of this work was to study the non-parasitic phase of the Rhipicephalus microplus life cycle in Panicum maximum grasses from northern Argentina, in order to provide ecological information for designing methods of tick control. Four localities were chosen as replicates. The biological parameters measured were proportion of females ovipositing, the pre-oviposition period, the proportion of egg clusters hatching, the incubation period of eggs, larval longevity, and the total non-parasitic period (time from the exposure of the female to the date of death of the last larva) (TNPP))...
March 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343146/antimicrobial-effect-of-the-biotronic%C3%A2-top3-supplement-and-efficacy-in-protecting-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-from-infection-by-aeromonas-salmonicida-subsp-salmonicida
#19
Simon Menanteau-Ledouble, Ines Krauss, Rui Alexandre Goncalves, Barbara Weber, Gonçalo Abreu Santos, Mansour El-Matbouli
Demand for more environmentally friendly practices have led to the adoption of several feed supplements by the fish farming industry. In the present study, we investigated a commercially available formula that includes a mixture of three compounds: organic acids, a phytochemical and Biomin® Permeabilizing Complex. This mixture demonstrated antimicrobial properties in vitro and was able to inhibit growth of multiple species of aquatic bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida. Bacterial challenge was performed using A...
March 18, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340428/vaccination-as-a-control-strategy-against-salmonella-infection-in-pigs-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
M L de la Cruz, I Conrado, A Nault, A Perez, L Dominguez, J Alvarez
Consumption or handling of improperly processed or cooked pork is considered one of the top sources for foodborne salmonellosis, a common cause of intestinal disease worldwide. Asymptomatic carrier pigs may contaminate pork at slaughtering; therefore, pre-harvest reduction of Salmonella load can contribute to reduce public health risk. Multiple studies have evaluated the impact of vaccination on controlling Salmonella in swine farms, but results are highly variable due to the heterogeneity in vaccines and vaccination protocols...
March 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
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