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Radiation Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092218/analysis-of-the-effect-of-chronic-and-low-dose-radiation-exposure-on-spermatogenic-cells-of-male-large-japanese-field-mice-apodemus-speciosus-after-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#1
Sachio Takino, Hideaki Yamashiro, Yukou Sugano, Yohei Fujishima, Akifumi Nakata, Kosuke Kasai, Gohei Hayashi, Yusuke Urushihara, Masatoshi Suzuki, Hisashi Shinoda, Tomisato Miura, Manabu Fukumoto
In this study we analyzed the effect of chronic and low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation on spermatogenic cells of large Japanese field mice ( Apodemus speciosus ) after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. In March 2014, large Japanese field mice were collected from two sites located in, and one site adjacent to, the FNPP ex-evacuation zone: Tanashio, Murohara and Akogi, respectively. Testes from these animals were analyzed histologically. External dose rate from radiocesium (combined (134)Cs and (137)Cs) in these animals at the sampling sites exhibited 21 μGy/day in Tanashio, 304-365 μGy/day in Murohara and 407-447 μGy/day in Akogi...
January 16, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054838/il-6-mediates-macrophage-infiltration-after-irradiation-via-up-regulation-of-ccl2-ccl5-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Xin Wang, Xiaodong Yang, Ying Tsai, Li Yang, Kuang-Hsiang Chuang, Peter C Keng, Soo Ok Lee, Yuhchyau Chen
Radiotherapy is effective in reducing primary tumors, however, it may enhance macrophage infiltration to tumor sites, accelerating tumor progression in several ways. We investigated whether radiation can increase macrophage infiltration into non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. Analysis of in vitro macrophage (differentiated THP-1 cells) migration to either nonirradiated or irradiated tumor cells showed increased migration to the irradiated tumor cells. Because the IL-6 levels in A549 and H157 cells were significantly increased after irradiation, we then investigated whether this increased IL-6 level contributes to radiation-induced macrophage migration...
January 5, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054837/radiosurgery-alters-the-endothelial-surface-proteome-externalized-intracellular-molecules-as-potential-vascular-targets-in-irradiated-brain-arteriovenous-malformations
#3
Lucinda S McRobb, Vivienne S Lee, Margaret Simonian, Zhenjun Zhao, Santhosh George Thomas, Markus Wiedmann, Jude V Amal Raj, Michael Grace, Vaughan Moutrie, Matthew J McKay, Mark P Molloy, Marcus A Stoodley
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an established treatment for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that drives blood vessel closure through cellular proliferation, thrombosis and fibrosis, but is limited by a delay to occlusion of 2-3 years and a maximum treatable size of 3 cm. In this current study we used SRS as a priming tool to elicit novel protein expression on the endothelium of irradiated AVM vessels, and these proteins were then targeted with prothrombotic conjugates to induce rapid thrombosis and vessel closure...
January 5, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054836/will-an-mri-examination-damage-your-genes
#4
Kenneth R Foster, John E Moulder, Thomas F Budinger
Questions about possible genotoxic effects from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) go back for many years, beginning with a (negative) study performed in 1980 by Wolff et al. (1). This issue has recently reemerged, with an inconsistent set of reports of DNA damage in human lymphocytes subsequent to cardiac MRI (Table 1). While evidence for DNA damage is reported in some published studies, in others it is not. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 107 MRI exams per 1,000 U...
January 5, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085640/seeking-beta-experimental-considerations-and-theoretical-implications-regarding-the-detection-of-curvature-in-dose-response-relationships-for-chromosome-aberrations
#5
Igor Shuryak, Bradford D Loucas, Michael N Cornforth
The concept of curvature in dose-response relationships figures prominently in radiation biology, encompassing a wide range of interests including radiation protection, radiotherapy and fundamental models of radiation action. In this context, the ability to detect even small amounts of curvature becomes important. Standard statistical (ST) approaches used for this purpose typically involve least-squares regression, followed by a test on sums of squares. Because we have found that these methods are not particularly robust, we investigated an alternative information theoretic (IT) approach, which involves Poisson regression followed by information-theoretic model selection...
January 1, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085639/significant-radiation-enhancement-effects-by-gold-nanoparticles-in-combination-with-cisplatin-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells-and-tumor-xenografts
#6
Lei Cui, Sohyoung Her, Michael Dunne, Gerben R Borst, Raquel De Souza, Robert G Bristow, David A Jaffray, Christine Allen
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and cisplatin have been explored in concomitant chemoradiotherapy, wherein they elicit their effects by distinct and overlapping mechanisms. Cisplatin is one of the most frequently utilized radiosensitizers in the clinical setting; however, the therapeutic window of cisplatin-aided chemoradiotherapy is limited by its toxicity. The goal of this study was to determine whether AuNPs contribute to improving the treatment response when combined with fractionated cisplatin-based chemoradiation in both in vitro and in vivo models of triple-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231(Luc+))...
January 1, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085638/spatial-memory-performance-of-socially-mature-wistar-rats-is-impaired-after-exposure-to-low-5-cgy-doses-of-1-gev-n-48-ti-particles
#7
Richard A Britten, Jessica S Jewell, Vania D Duncan, Leslie K Davis, Melissa M Hadley, Andrew J Wyrobek
Prolonged deep space missions to planets and asteroids will expose astronauts to galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), a mixture of low-LET ionizing radiations, high-energy protons and high-Z and energy (HZE) particles. Ground-based experiments are used to determine whether this radiation environment will have an effect on the long-term health of astronauts and their ability to complete various tasks during their mission. Emerging data suggest that mission-relevant HZE doses impair several hippocampus-dependent neurocognitive processes in rodents, but that there is substantial interindividual variation in the severity of neurocognitive impairment, ranging from no observable effects to severe impairment...
January 1, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036235/biomarkers-for-uranium-risk-assessment-for-the-development-of-the-cure-concerted-uranium-research-in-europe-molecular-epidemiological-protocol
#8
Yann Guéguen, Laurence Roy, Sabine Hornhardt, Christophe Badie, Janet Hall, Sarah Baatout, Eileen Pernot, Ladislav Tomasek, Olivier Laurent, Teni Ebrahimian, Chrystelle Ibanez, Stephane Grison, Sylwia Kabacik, Dominique Laurier, Maria Gomolka
Despite substantial experimental and epidemiological research, there is limited knowledge of the uranium-induce health effects after chronic low-dose exposures in humans. Biological markers can objectively characterize pathological processes or environmental responses to uranium and confounding agents. The integration of such biological markers into a molecular epidemiological study would be a useful approach to improve and refine estimations of uranium-induced health risks. To initiate such a study, Concerted Uranium Research in Europe (CURE) was established, and involves biologists, epidemiologists and dosimetrists...
December 30, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001909/neudose-a-cubesat-mission-for-dosimetry-of-charged-particles-and-neutrons-in-low-earth-orbit
#9
A R Hanu, J Barberiz, D Bonneville, S H Byun, L Chen, C Ciambella, E Dao, V Deshpande, R Garnett, S D Hunter, A Jhirad, E M Johnston, M Kordic, M Kurnell, L Lopera, M McFadden, A Melnichuk, J Nguyen, A Otto, R Scott, D L Wagner, M Wiendels
During space missions, astronauts are exposed to a stream of energetic and highly ionizing radiation particles that can suppress immune system function, increase cancer risks and even induce acute radiation syndrome if the exposure is large enough. As human exploration goals shift from missions in low-Earth orbit (LEO) to long-duration interplanetary missions, radiation protection remains one of the key technological issues that must be resolved. In this work, we introduce the NEUtron DOSimetry & Exploration (NEUDOSE) CubeSat mission, which will provide new measurements of dose and space radiation quality factors to improve the accuracy of cancer risk projections for current and future space missions...
December 21, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001908/acute-temporal-changes-of-mri-tracked-tumor-vascular-parameters-after-combined-anti-angiogenic-and-radiation-treatments-in-a-rat-glioma-model-identifying-signatures-of-synergism
#10
Rasha Elmghirbi, Tavarekere N Nagaraja, Stephen L Brown, Swayamprava Panda, Madhava P Aryal, Kelly A Keenan, Hassan Bagher-Ebadian, Glauber Cabral, James R Ewing
In this study we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers to monitor the acute temporal changes in tumor vascular physiology with the aim of identifying the vascular signatures that predict response to combined anti-angiogenic and radiation treatments. Forty-three athymic rats implanted with orthotopic U-251 glioma cells were studied for approximately 21 days after implantation. Two MRI studies were performed on each animal, pre- and post-treatment, to measure tumor vascular parameters. Two animal groups received treatment comprised of Cilengitide, an anti-angiogenic agent and radiation...
December 21, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001907/ionizing-radiation-induces-innate-immune-responses-in-macrophages-by-generation-of-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species
#11
Sup Kim, Jin Ho Choe, Gippeum Joy Lee, Yi Sak Kim, Soo Yeon Kim, Hye-Mi Lee, Hyo Sun Jin, Tae Sung Kim, Jin-Man Kim, Moon-June Cho, Eui-Cheol Shin, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Jun-Sang Kim
During radiotherapy for tumors, the innate immune system also responds to ionizing radiation and induces immune modulation. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which radiation modulates innate immune responses. In this study, we observed that radiation triggered the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS), leading to innate immune responses in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). Radiation-induced mROS was essential for robust induction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-12p40 mRNA and protein in BMDM...
December 21, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992282/mortality-analysis-of-the-life-span-study-lss-cohort-taking-into-account-multiple-causes-of-death-indicated-in-death-certificates
#12
Ayako Takamori, Ikuno Takahashi, Fumiyoshi Kasagi, Akihiko Suyama, Kotaro Ozasa, Takashi Yanagawa
Mortality analyses have been performed using underlying causes of death as reported on death certificates; these are uniquely determined for a deceased person according to the World Health Organization coding system. Comorbidities, the disease conditions other than the underlying cause of death from death certificates recording multiple causes of death, have rarely been explored in Life Span Study subjects. The purpose of this study was to clarify associations between atomic bomb radiation exposure and mortality from combinations of the underlying cause of death and comorbidities...
December 19, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959588/exosome-mediated-telomere-instability-in-human-breast-epithelial-cancer-cells-after-x-irradiation
#13
Ammar H J Al-Mayah, Scott J Bright, Debbie A Bowler, Predrag Slijepcevic, Edwin Goodwin, Munira A Kadhim
In directly irradiating cells, telomere metabolism is altered and similar effects have been observed in nontargeted cells. Exosomes and their cargo play dominant roles in communicating radiation-induced bystander effects with end points related to DNA damage. Here we report novel evidence that exosomes are also responsible for inducing telomere-related bystander effects. Breast epithelial cancer cells were exposed to either 2 Gy X rays, or exposed to irradiated cell conditioned media (ICCM), or exosomes purified from ICCM...
December 13, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922334/ionizing-radiation-impairs-endogenous-regeneration-of-infarcted-heart-an-in-vivo-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-and-99m-tc-tetrofosmin-spect-ct-study-in-mice
#14
Lan Luo, Kodai Nishi, Yoshishige Urata, Chen Yan, Al Shaimaa Hasan, Shinji Goto, Takashi Kudo, Zhao-Lan Li, Tao-Sheng Li
Epidemiological studies have suggested that ionizing radiation increases cardiovascular disease risk, but the relevant mechanism is poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that adult mice exposed to whole-body irradiation with 3 Gy gamma rays significantly decreases the number and quality of cardiac stem cells. To further determine if radiation impairs myocardial regenerative potency, a myocardial infarction model was established in adult C57BL/6 mice by ligating the left anterior descending artery approximately 6 h after sham- or whole-body gamma irradiation (0 or 3 Gy)...
December 6, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802110/base-release-and-modification-in-solid-phase-dna-exposed-to-low-energy-electrons
#15
Surakarn Choofong, Pierre Cloutier, Léon Sanche, J Richard Wagner
Ionization generates a large number of secondary low-energy electrons (LEEs) with a most probable energy of approximately 10 eV, which can break DNA bonds by dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and lead to DNA damage. In this study, we investigated radiation damage to dry DNA induced by X rays (1.5 keV) alone on a glass substrate or X rays combined with extra LEEs (average energy of 5.8 eV) emitted from a tantalum (Ta) substrate under an atmosphere of N2 and standard ambient conditions of temperature and pressure...
November 1, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788031/quantification-of-radiation-biomarkers-in-leukocytes-of-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-different-modalities-of-3d-crt-or-imrt
#16
Sebastian Zahnreich, Anne Ebersberger, Heiko Karle, Bernd Kaina, Heinz Schmidberger
The goal of this study was to determine whether the quantification of radiation biomarkers in peripheral leukocytes of 111 breast cancer patients after adjuvant treatment with different modalities of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) revealed any difference in the patients' radiation burden by out-of-field doses and an associated risk of second malignancies. Whole-breast radiation therapy was performed by 3D-CRT using either a hard wedge (n = 32) or a virtual wedge (n = 49) at dose rates of 3 and 6 Gy per min each...
October 27, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775476/alteration-of-selected-neurotrophic-factors-and-their-receptor-expression-in-mouse-brain-response-to-whole-brain-irradiation
#17
Ewa Pius-Sadowska, Miłosz Piotr Kawa, Patrycja Kłos, Dorota Rogińska, Michał Rudnicki, Boehlke Marek, Piotr Waloszczyk, Bogusław Machaliński
Ionizing radiation can significantly affect brain function in children and young adults, particularly in the hippocampus where neurogenic niches are located. Injury to normal tissue is a major concern when whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is used to treat central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and the pathogenesis of this injury remains poorly understood. We assessed the expression of selected neurotrophins (NTs) and NT receptors (NTRs) in brains of young mice after a single 10 Gy gamma-ray exposure using morphological and molecular analyses [qRT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry (IHC)] to evaluate WBI-induced injury in its acute phase...
October 24, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925862/the-withers-archive-online-availability-of-h-rodney-withers-data
#18
H D Thames, N R Hunter, K A Mason
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925861/modeling-heavy-ion-impairment-of-hippocampal-neurogenesis-after-acute-and-fractionated-irradiation
#19
Eliedonna Cacao, Francis A Cucinotta
Radiation-induced impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is a concern due to its reported association with cognitive detriments after radiotherapy for brain cancers and the possible risks to astronauts chronically exposed to space radiation. Here, we have extended our recent work in a mouse model of impaired neurogenesis after exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation to heavy ion irradiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a predictive mathematical model of radiation-induced changes to neurogenesis for a variety of radiation types after acute or fractionated irradiation...
December 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922333/environmentally-relevant-chronic-low-dose-tritium-and-gamma-exposures-do-not-increase-somatic-intrachromosomal-recombination-in-pkz1-mouse-spleen
#20
Laura Bannister, Mandy Serran, Lindsey Bertrand, Dmitry Klokov, Heather Wyatt, Melinda Blimkie, Yann Gueguen, Nicholas Priest, Jean-René Jourdain, Pamela Sykes
The toxicity of tritium is a public health concern given its presence and mobility in the environment. For risk predictions using radiological protection models, it is essential to allocate an appropriate radiation weighting factor (WR). This in turn should be consistent with the observed relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium beta radiation. Although the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently recommends a WR of 1 for the calculation of committed effective dose for X rays, gamma rays and electrons of all energies, including tritium energies, there are concerns that tritium health risks are underestimated and that current regulatory tritium drinking water standards need revision...
December 2016: Radiation Research
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