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Radiation Research

Wan Qin, Bo Liu, Minxiao Yi, Long Li, Yang Tang, Bili Wu, Xianglin Yuan
Radiation-induced complications of the respiratory system are a common side effect of thoracic radiotherapy with no viable treatment option. Here, we investigated the potential therapeutic effect of the orphan drug pirfenidone for treating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. C57BL/6 mice received a single fraction of 16 Gy to the thorax and were subsequently treated with 300 mg/kg/day pirfenidone for four weeks. Survival and body weight of the mice were quantified. Micro-CT in vivo lung imaging was performed to dynamically observe the developmental process of pulmonary fibrosis...
July 17, 2018: Radiation Research
Rachel N Andrews, David L Caudell, Linda J Metheny-Barlow, Ann M Peiffer, Janet A Tooze, J Daniel Bourland, Robert E Hampson, Samuel A Deadwyler, J Mark Cline
Late-delayed radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI) is a major adverse effect of fractionated whole-brain irradiation (fWBI). Characterized by progressive cognitive dysfunction, and associated cerebrovascular and white matter injury, RIBI deleteriously affects quality of life for cancer patients. Despite extensive morphological characterization of the injury, the pathogenesis is unclear, thus limiting the development of effective therapeutics. We previously reported that RIBI is associated with increased gene expression of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin (FN1)...
July 17, 2018: Radiation Research
Hang Zhang, Yimeng Song, Cuiping Zhou, Yang Bai, Dexiao Yuan, Yan Pan, Chunlin Shao
Recurrence and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radiotherapy are frequently observed in clinical practice. To date, the involved mechanism, endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), has not been well understood and warrants investigation. Here we demonstrated that both single-dose and fractionated irradiation enhanced metastasis of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo at 20-60 days postirradiation. In particular, a gain in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal features was observed...
July 17, 2018: Radiation Research
Martin Šefl, Kateřina Pachnerová Brabcová, Václav Štěpán
Experimental radiobiological studies in which the effects of ionizing radiation on a biological model are examined often highlight the biological aspects while missing detailed descriptions of the geometry, sample and dosimetric methods used. Such omissions can hinder the reproducibility and comparability of the experimental data. An application based on the Geant4 simulation toolkit was developed to design experiments using a biological solution placed in a microtube. The application was used to demonstrate the influence of the type of microtube, sample volume and energy of a proton source on the dose distribution across the sample, and on the mean dose in the whole sample...
July 17, 2018: Radiation Research
Pablo de Vera, Isabel Abril, Rafael Garcia-Molina
The number and energy of secondary electrons generated around the trajectories of swift protons interacting with biological materials are highly relevant in proton therapy, due to the prominent role of low-energy electrons in the production of biodamage. For a given material, electron energy distributions are determined by the proton energy; and it is imperative that the distribution of proton energy at depths around the Bragg peak region be described as accurately as possible. With this objective, we simulated the energy distributions of proton beams of clinically relevant energies (50-300 MeV) at depths around the Bragg peak in liquid water and the water-equivalent polymer poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)...
July 11, 2018: Radiation Research
Xiao-Mei Zhao, Wei-Xu Hu, Zhi-Feng Wu, Yi-Xing Chen, Zhao-Chong Zeng
The goal of this study was to determine whether tetrandrine enhanced radiosensitization in different hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and to elucidate the potential mechanism. We also tested whether PA28γ was regulated by tetrandrine. The human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2 and LM3 were divided into six groups: control; low-dosage (0.5 or 5 μg/ml) tetrandrine alone; high-dosage (1.0 or 10 μg/ml) tetrandrine alone; irradiation alone; irradiation with low-dosage (0.5 μg/ml or 5 μg/ml) tetrandrine; and irradiation with high-dosage (1...
July 6, 2018: Radiation Research
Guillaume Hubert, Sébastien Aubry
This study analyzed the impact of galactic and solar cosmic rays on ambient dose equivalent during airline travel. A high statistic of flights are considered, which is representative of European international air traffic. Flight paths are based on the Eurocontrol Demand Data Repository and consider realistic flight plans with and without regulations or updated with radar data from the Central Flow Management Unit. Ambient dose equivalent during flights was investigated during quiet solar periods and extreme solar flare events...
July 5, 2018: Radiation Research
Jacob J Curtis, Colin B Seymour, Carmel E Mothersill
The radiation-induced bystander effect is mechanistically complex, involving many different signaling components. Serotonin, present in fetal bovine serum (FBS), has been implicated in the modulation of cellular responses to radiation. However, the role of this ubiquitous signaling molecule has yet to be elucidated with regard to cell line-specific radiation responses. In this study, cell survival was measured in HCT116 p53 wild-type (HCT116+/+ ) and HaCaT cell cultures treated with media containing serotonin-depleted FBS and compared to our standard FBS-supplemented media, using clonogenic assays...
July 2, 2018: Radiation Research
Jake C Forster, Michael J J Douglass, Wendy M Harriss-Phillips, Eva Bezak
DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation exposure is enhanced in the presence of oxygen (the "oxygen effect"). Despite its practical importance in radiotherapy, the oxygen effect has largely been excluded from models that predict DNA damage from radiation tracks. A Monte Carlo-based algorithm was developed in MATLAB software to predict DNA damage from physical and chemical tracks through a cell nucleus simulated in Geant4-DNA, taking into account the effects of cellular oxygenation (pO2 ) on DNA radical chemistry processes...
June 28, 2018: Radiation Research
Qian Qin, Xinyu Nan, Tara Miller, Ronald Fisher, Bin Teh, Shruti Pandita, Andrew M Farach, Sai Ravi Pingali, Raj K Pandita, E Brian Butler, Tej K Pandita, Swaminathan P Iyer
Until recently, patients with relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma after brentuximab vedotin (Bv) treatments had poor treatment outcomes. Checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab that bind to and inhibit programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), have demonstrated an overall response rate of 70% in Hodgkin's lymphoma patients; however, complete response is still low at 20% with median progression-free survival of 14 months. There are ongoing clinical studies to seek out synergistic combinations, with the goal of improving the complete response rates for the cure of Hodgkin's lymphoma...
June 27, 2018: Radiation Research
Dongyoul Lee, Mengshi Li, Bryan Bednarz, Michael K Schultz
The use of targeted radionuclide therapy for cancer is on the rise. While beta-particle-emitting radionuclides have been extensively explored for targeted radionuclide therapy, alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides are emerging as effective alternatives. In this context, fundamental understanding of the interactions and dosimetry of these emitted particles with cells in the tumor microenvironment is critical to ascertaining the potential of alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides. One important parameter that can be used to assess these metrics is the S-value...
June 26, 2018: Radiation Research
S Agbenyegah, M Abend, M J Atkinson, S E Combs, K R Trott, M Port, M Majewski
In previous studies we determined a gene expression signature in baboons for predicting the severity of hematological acute radiation syndrome. We subsequently validated a set of eight of these genes in leukemia patients undergoing total-body irradiation. In the current study, we addressed the effect of intra-individual variability on the basal level of expression of those eight radiation-responsive genes identified previously, by examining baseline levels in 200 unexposed healthy human donors (122 males and 88 females with an average age of 46 years) using real-time PCR...
June 20, 2018: Radiation Research
Byung Nam Kim, Alia Weaver, Marina Chumakov, Ileana M Pazos, Dianne L Poster, Karen Gaskell, Do Hung Han, Günther Scherer, Michael A Yandrasits, Byung Cheol Lee, Mohamad Al-Sheikhly
During the pulsed-electron beam direct grafting of neat styrene onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene) (FEP) substrate, the radiolytically-produced styryl and carbon-centered FEP radicals undergo various desired and undesired competing reactions. In this study, a high-dose rate is used to impede the undesired free radical homopolymerization of styrene and ensure uniform covalent grafting through 125-μm FEP films. This outweighs the enhancement of the undesired crosslinking reactions of carbon-centered FEP radicals and the dimerization of the styryl radicals...
June 18, 2018: Radiation Research
Shuai Shao, Yue Gao, Jianxiang Liu, Mei Tian, Qiao Gou, Xu Su
Cell death and tissue injury occur as a result of radiation accidents and radiotherapy. The role of endothelial cell damage in mediating radiation-induced acute tissue injury has been extensively studied. We previously demonstrated that ferulic acid (FA) mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic injury in mice and lessens radiation-induced oxidative damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The purpose of the current study was to determine whether FA can protect HUVECs from radiation toxicity in a cell model via the thrombomodulin (Thbd) pathway, an anti-radiation pathway with anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties...
June 14, 2018: Radiation Research
Yuehua Wei, Lulu Chen, Hui Xu, Conghua Xie, Yunfeng Zhou, Fuxiang Zhou
We investigated the relationship between significantly different genes of the mitochondria-to-nucleus retrograde signaling pathway (RTG) in H1299 ρ0 cells (mtDNA depleted cell) and compared their radiosensitivity to that of parental ρ+ cells, to determine the possible intervention targets of radiosensitization. ρ0 cells were depleted of mitochondrial DNA by chronic culturing in ethidium bromide at low concentration. Radiosensitivity was analyzed using clonogenic assay. Western blot was used to analyze the cell cycle-related proteins, serine/threonine kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutant (ATM), ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) and cyclin B1 (CCNB1)...
June 4, 2018: Radiation Research
Patrizia Morciano, Francesca Cipressa, Antonella Porrazzo, Giuseppe Esposito, Maria Antonella Tabocchini, Giovanni Cenci
Deep underground laboratories (DULs) were originally created to host particle, astroparticle or nuclear physics experiments requiring a low-background environment with vastly reduced levels of cosmic-ray particle interference. More recently, the range of science projects requiring an underground experiment site has greatly expanded, thus leading to the recognition of DULs as truly multidisciplinary science sites that host important studies in several fields, including geology, geophysics, climate and environmental sciences, technology/instrumentation development and biology...
June 4, 2018: Radiation Research
Shen Jing, Yujia He, Yanqiong He, Liang Wang, Jianhua Jia, Xiaomin Shan, Shuang Liu, Min Tang, Zhiping Peng, Xujie Liu
As one of the most crucial epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) variants, EGFRvIII can be detected in various tumors but rarely in normal tissues, making it an ideal target for prognosis, diagnosis or immune therapy. The recently developed anti-EGFRvIII monoclonal antibody (mAb), 4G1, has been validated as a promising molecular probe to detect EGFRvIII expression in tumors by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging. To overcome shortcomings associated with the whole antibody, including long-term retention, circulation and enhanced permeability and retention effects, the Fab fragment of 4G1 (Fab-4G1) was generated, labeled with 131 I and evaluated in vitro and in vivo to test its potential application in molecular imaging...
May 31, 2018: Radiation Research
Doreswamy Kenchegowda, Betre Legesse, Bernadette Hritzo, Cara Olsen, Saeed Aghdam, Amandeep Kaur, William Culp, Alexandrine Derrien-Colemyn, Grant Severson, Maria Moroni
Although bone marrow aplasia has been considered for the past decades as the major contributor of radiation-induced blood disorders, cytopenias alone are insufficient to explain differences in the prevalence of bleeding. In this study, the minipig was used as a novel preclinical model of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome to assess if factors other than platelet counts correlated with bleeding and survival. We sought to determine whether radiation affected the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway, a growth hormone with cardiovascular and radioprotective features...
May 29, 2018: Radiation Research
Karen Krukowski, Tamako Jones, Mary Campbell-Beachler, Gregory Nelson, Susanna Rosi
Exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) poses an obstacle to successful deep space missions, including missions to the Moon or Mars. Previously, we and others have identified chronic cognitive impairments associated with GCR in rodent model systems. The persistent cognitive loss previously reported is indicative of global changes in different regions of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. It has been shown that both of these brain regions are involved in social functions. Here we demonstrate that four months after a single exposure to oxygen ionizing radiation, which is a component of GCR, adult male mice have social memory deficits...
May 29, 2018: Radiation Research
Brent D Cameron, Konjeti R Sekhar, Maxwell Ofori, Michael L Freeman
The transcription factor Nrf2 is an important modulator of antioxidant and drug metabolism, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as heme and iron metabolism. Regulation of Nrf2 expression occurs transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Post-transcriptional regulation entails ubiquitination followed by proteasome-dependent degradation. Additionally, Nrf2-mediated gene expression is subject to negative regulation by ATF3, Bach1 and cMyc. Nrf2-mediated gene expression is an important regulator of a cell's response to radiation...
May 25, 2018: Radiation Research
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