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Radiation Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346028/biophysics-model-of-heavy-ion-degradation-of-neuron-morphology-in-mouse-hippocampal-granular-cell-layer-neurons
#1
Murat Alp, Francis A Cucinotta
Exposure to heavy-ion radiation during cancer treatment or space travel may cause cognitive detriments that have been associated with changes in neuron morphology and plasticity. Observations in mice of reduced neuronal dendritic complexity have revealed a dependence on radiation quality and absorbed dose, suggesting that microscopic energy deposition plays an important role. In this work we used morphological data for mouse dentate granular cell layer (GCL) neurons and a stochastic model of particle track structure and microscopic energy deposition (ED) to develop a predictive model of high-charge and energy (HZE) particle-induced morphological changes to the complex structures of dendritic arbors...
January 18, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332539/whole-body-oxygen-16o-ion-exposure-induced-impairments-in-social-odor-recognition-memory-in-rats-are-dose-and-time-dependent
#2
Ami Mange, Yuqing Cao, SiYuan Zhang, Robert D Hienz, Catherine M Davis
Future long-duration space missions will involve travel outside of the Earth's magnetosphere, which will result in increased radiation exposure for astronauts. Exposure could permanently damage multiple tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS), and result in deleterious effects on cognition and behavior during and beyond the mission. Here, we assessed the effects of whole-body oxygen ion (16O; 1,000 MeV/n) exposure (5 or 25 cGy) on social odor recognition memory in male Long-Evans rats at one and six months after exposure...
January 13, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332538/role-of-infiltrating-monocytes-in-the-development-of-radiation-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#3
Angela M Groves, Carl J Johnston, Jacqueline P Williams, Jacob N Finkelstein
Lung exposure to radiation induces an injury response that includes the release of cytokines and chemotactic mediators; these signals recruit immune cells to execute inflammatory and wound-healing processes. However, radiation alters the pulmonary microenvironment, dysregulating the immune responses and preventing a return to homeostasis. Importantly, dysregulation is observed as a chronic inflammation, which can progress into pneumonitis and promote pulmonary fibrosis; inflammatory monocytes, which are bone marrow derived and express CCR2, have been shown to migrate into the lung after radiation exposure...
January 13, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332537/azd9291-increases-sensitivity-to-radiation-in-pc-9-ir-cells-by-delaying-dna-damage-repair-after-irradiation-and-inducing-apoptosis
#4
Shenghai Wu, Lucheng Zhu, Linglan Tu, Sumei Chen, Haixiu Huang, Jingjing Zhang, Shenglin Ma, Shirong Zhang
AZD9291 is a novel, irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), which is administered orally. It has been proven effective in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, with both EGFR-sensitizing and EGFR T790M mutations in preclinical models. However, the potential therapeutic effects of AZD9291 combined with other modalities, including ionizing radiation, are not well understood. The presence of AZD9291 significantly increases the cell-killing effects of radiation in PC-9-IR cells with a secondary EGFR mutation (T790M), which was developed from NSCLC PC-9 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma cell with EGFR 19 exon 15 bp deletion) after chronic exposure to increasing doses of gefitinib, and in H1975 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma cell with EGFR exon 20 T790M mutation de novo), but not in PC-9 cells or in H460 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma cell with wild-type EGFR)...
January 13, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309266/radiation-induced-long-noncoding-rnas-in-a-mouse-model-after-whole-body-irradiation
#5
Molykutty J Aryankalayil, Sunita Chopra, Joel Levin, Iris Eke, Adeola Makinde, Shaoli Das, Uma Shankavaram, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Sandra Demaria, C Norman Coleman
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key molecules in regulating many biological processes and have been implicated in development and disease pathogenesis. Biomarkers of cancer and normal tissue response to treatment are of great interest in precision medicine, as well as in public health and medical management, such as for assessment of radiation injury after an accidental or intentional exposure. Circulating and functional RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and lncRNAs, in whole blood and other body fluids are potential valuable candidates as biomarkers...
January 8, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309265/roles-of-hydration-for-inducing-decomposition-of-2-deoxy-d-ribose-by-ionization-of-oxygen-k-shell-electrons
#6
Kentaro Fujii, Yudai Izumi, Ayumi Narita, Krishna Kamol Ghose, Pablo López-Tarifa, Alain Touati, Riccardo Spezia, Rodolphe Vuilleumier, Marie-Pierre Gaigeot, Marie-Françoise Politis, Marie-Anne Hervé Du Penhoat, Akinari Yokoya
To experimentally investigate the role of hydration in the initial process of the decomposition of 2-deoxy-d-ribose (dR), which is a major component of the DNA backbone, we used mass spectrometry to monitor the ions desorbing from hydrated dR films exposed to monochromatic soft X rays (560 eV). The X-ray photons preferentially ionize the K-shell electrons of the oxygen atoms in DNA. Hydrated dR samples were prepared under vacuum by exposing a cooled (∼150 K) dR film deposited on a Si substrate to water vapor...
January 8, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309264/impaired-attentional-set-shifting-performance-after-exposure-to-5-cgy-of-600-mev-n-28si-particles
#7
Richard A Britten, Jessica S Jewell, Vania D Duncan, Melissa M Hadley, Evangeline Macadat, Alberto E Musto, Chiara La Tessa
Astronauts on deep space missions will be required to work more autonomously than on previous missions, and thus their ability to perform executive functions could be critical to mission success. One of the most common measures of executive function in humans is the ability to perform attentional set shifting, which requires contributions from working memory, discrimination, reversal learning, attentional set shifting and attention. Rodent attentional set shifting assays require rats to form an association between the presence of the food reward and an associative cue, which is either the digging media or the scent that is placed in the bowl; by altering the combination of scent and digging media, progressively more complex cognitive processes can be tested...
January 8, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286257/synergy-theory-in-radiobiology
#8
Dae Woong Ham, Binglin Song, Jian Gao, Julien Yu, Rainer K Sachs
Customized open-source software is used to characterize, exemplify, compare and critically evaluate mathematical/computational synergy analysis methods currently used in biology, and used or potentially applicable in radiobiology. As examples, we reanalyze some published results on murine Harderian gland tumors and on in vitro chromosome aberrations induced by exposure to single-ion radiations that simulate components of the galactic cosmic ray field. Baseline no-synergy/no-antagonism-mixture dose-effect relationships are calculated for corresponding mixed fields...
December 29, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286256/the-sequence-preference-of-gamma-radiation-induced-damage-in-end-labeled-dna-after-heat-treatment
#9
Shweta D Gautam, Megan E Hardie, Vincent Murray
In this work, we examined the DNA sequence preference of gamma-radiation-induced DNA damage in purified DNA sequences after heat treatment. DNA was fluorescently end-labeled and gamma-radiation-induced DNA cleavage was examined using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Our findings provide evidence that gamma-radiation-induced DNA damage to end-labeled DNA is nonrandom and has a sequence preference. The degree of cleavage was quantified at each nucleotide, and we observed that preferential cleavage occurred at C nucleotides with lesser cleavage at G nucleotides, while being very low at T nucleotides...
December 29, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261411/why-genetic-effects-of-radiation-are-observed-in-mice-but-not-in-humans
#10
Nori Nakamura
Genetic effects from radiation have been observed in a number of species to date. However, observations in humans are nearly nonexistent. In this review, possible reasons for the paucity of positive observations in humans are discussed. Briefly, it appears likely that radiation sensitivity for the induction of mutations varies among different genes, and that the specific genes that were used in the past with the specific locus test utilizing millions of mice may have simply been very responsive to radiation...
December 20, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261410/cross-talk-between-radiation-and-immunotherapy-the-twain-shall-meet
#11
Swaminathan P Iyer, Clayton R Hunt, Tej K Pandita
There has been increased interest in the immune stimulatory properties of ionizing radiation based on several preclinical models and recently completed clinical studies performed in combination with checkpoint inhibitors. This is a paradigm shift in that it considers the role of radiation beyond its direct cytotoxic effects, however, the factors that promote or limit radiation-induced immunogenicity are still unclear. Here we review the role of radiation in modulating the various aspects of the tumor immune microenvironment and discuss in particular the direct effects of radiation on the DNA damage response and its immediate consequences to neighboring cells...
December 20, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251551/cherenkov-excited-multi-fluorophore-sensing-in-tissue-simulating-phantoms-and-in-vivo
#12
Alisha Dsouza, Huiyun Lin, Jason R Gunn, David J Gladstone, Lesley A Jarvis, Brian W Pogue
In this work, Cherenkov-excited molecular sensing was used to assess the potential for simultaneous quantitative sensing of two NIR fluorophores within tissue-simulating phantoms through spectral separation of signals. Cherenkov emissions induced by external beam gamma photon radiation treatment to tissues/tissue-simulating phantoms were detectable over the 500-900-nm wavelength range. The presence of blood was demonstrated to reduce the integrated intensity of detected Cherenkov emissions by nearly 50%, predominantly at wavelengths below 620 nm...
December 18, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251550/mri-study-on-the-changes-of-bone-marrow-microvascular-permeability-and-fat-content-after-total-body-x-ray-irradiation
#13
Kejun Wang, Yunfei Zha, Hao Lei, Xiao Xu
In this study, we investigated microvascular perfusion status, changes to fat content and fatty acid composition in the bone marrow of rat femurs after total-body irradiation by quantitative permeability parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and ex vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS). Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either an irradiated or nonirradiated control group. Permeability imaging using DCE-MRI and HRMAS 1H NMRS was performed before irradiation, as well as at days 4 and 7 postirradiation...
December 18, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232178/rapid-decrease-in-krt14-and-tp53-mrna-expression-in-the-buccal-mucosa-of-patients-receiving-total-body-irradiation-for-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
J Chmara, J W L Browning, H Atkins, M Sabloff, B C McKay
The only curative treatment option for relapsed patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Depletion of hematopoietic stem cells and leukemic blast cells is achieved through the systemic administration of DNA damaging agents, including total-body irradiation (TBI) prior to transplantation. Since other tissues are radiosensitive, the identification of biomarkers could facilitate the management of additional toxicities. Buccal keratinocytes are readily accessible and could provide a source of cells for RNA analysis...
December 12, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227739/chronic-exposure-to-external-low-dose-gamma-radiation-induces-an-increase-in-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-oxidative-parameters-resulting-in-atherosclerotic-plaque-size-reduction-in-apoe-mice
#15
T G Ebrahimian, L Beugnies, J Surette, N Priest, Y Gueguen, C Gloaguen, M Benderitter, J R Jourdain, K Tack
Populations living in radiation-contaminated territories, such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, are chronically exposed to external gamma radiation and internal radionuclide contamination due to the large amount of 137Cs released in the environment. The effect of chronic low-dose exposure on the development of cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. Previously reported studies have shown that low-dose radiation exposure could lead to discrepancies according to dose rate. In this study, we examined the effect of very low-dose and dose-rate chronic external exposure on atherosclerosis development...
December 11, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215327/factors-modifying-the-radon-related-lung-cancer-risk-at-low-exposures-and-exposure-rates-among-german-uranium-miners
#16
M Kreuzer, C Sobotzki, M Schnelzer, N Fenske
It is still not fully understood whether and how factors such as time, age and smoking modify the relationship between lung cancer and radon at low exposures and exposure rates. Improved knowledge is necessary for the dose conversion of radon in working level month (WLM) into effective dose, as currently discussed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). An update of the German uranium miner cohort study (n = 58,974 men) with a 10-year extension of mortality follow-up (1946-2013) was used to further examine this issue...
December 7, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215326/the-role-of-fabp5-in-radiation-induced-human-skin-fibrosis
#17
Jianyuan Song, Huojun Zhang, Zhenyu Wang, Wanglei Xu, Li Zhong, Jinming Cao, Jianfeng Yang, Ye Tian, Daojiang Yu, Jiang Ji, Jianping Cao, Shuyu Zhang
Radiation-induced skin fibrosis is a detrimental and chronic disorder that occurs after radiation exposure. The molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of radiation-induced fibrosis of human skin have not been extensively reported. Technical advances in proteomics have enabled exploration of the biomarkers and molecular pathogenesis of radiation-induced skin fibrosis, with the potential to broaden our understanding of this disease. In this study, we compared protein expression in radiation-induced fibrotic human skin and adjacent normal tissues using iTRAQ-based proteomics technology...
December 7, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215325/dosikit-a-new-portable-immunoassay-for-fast-external-irradiation-biodosimetry
#18
Julie Bensimon Etzol, Marco Valente, Sandrine Altmeyer, Caroline Bettencourt, Samuel Bouvet, Guillaume Cosler, François Desangles, Michel Drouet, Fabrice Entine, Francis Hérodin, Flora Jourquin, Yannick Lecompte, Patrick Martigne, Xavier Michel, Jérôme Pateux, Nicolas Ugolin, Sylvie Chevillard
DosiKit is a new field-radiation biodosimetry immunoassay for rapid triage of individuals exposed to external total-body radiation. Here, we report on the validation of this immunoassay in human blood cell extracts 0.5 h after in vitro exposure to 137Cs gamma rays, using γ-H2AX analysis. First, calibration curves were established for five donors at doses ranging from 0 to 10 Gy and dose rates ranging from ∼0.8 to ∼3 Gy/min. The calibration curves, together with a γ-H2AX peptide scale, enabled the definition of inter-experimental correction factors...
December 7, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206599/ftir-microspectroscopy-probes-particle-radiation-effect-on-hct116-cells-p53-p53
#19
Jingwen Yan, Fengqiu Zhang, Qing Huang
p53 is a crucial tumor suppressor and plays an important role in cell cycle arrest, DNA damage repair, promotion of cell senescence and apoptosis, prevention of DNA damage and maintaining genomic stability and integrity. It has been reported that p53 might also be related to radiation sensitivity, for which the involved effects and processes could be further examined biochemically at the molecular level. In this study, we explored a new spectroscopic approach to probe the radiation-induced biological effects related to p53...
December 5, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206598/is-there-unmeasured-indication-bias-in-radiation-related-cancer-risk-estimates-from-studies-of-computed-tomography
#20
Johanna M Meulepas, Michael Hauptmann, Jay H Lubin, Igor Shuryak, David J Brenner
Recently reported studies have associated radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) scanning with small excess cancer risks. However, since existing medical records were used in these studies, they could not control for reasons for the CT scans and therefore, the results may have been confounded by indication. Here we conducted a study to estimate potential indication bias that could affect hazard ratios for colorectal, lung and female breast cancers by reasons for a CT scan. This involved a retrospective cohort study of electronic records from all patients aged 18-89 years without previous cancer diagnoses, who received at least one CT scan at Columbia University Medical Center in the period of 1994-2014...
December 5, 2017: Radiation Research
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