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Radiation Research

Haibo Zhang, Chao Wan, Jing Huang, Chensu Yang, You Qin, Yanwei Lu, Jia Ma, Bian Wu, Shuangbing Xu, Gang Wu, Kunyu Yang
Hypofractionated radiotherapy is a new and highly effective mode of radiation therapy. For this study we used biologically equivalent dose (BED), the dose required to give the same log cell kill as the schedule being studied. BED has been widely accepted to transform its dose to conventionally fractionated ones. However, actual differential effects beyond the clone-forming ability between hypofractionation and conventional radiation treatment remain unknown. We hypothesize that hypofractionation has some advantages over conventional treatment in in vitro radiobiology, excluding influences of the tumor microenvironment in angiogenesis and potential immune-stimulatory effects...
September 20, 2018: Radiation Research
Jayne Moquet, Manuel Higueras, Ellen Donovan, Sue Boyle, Stephen Barnard, Clare Bricknell, Mingzhu Sun, Lone Gothard, Grainne O'Brien, Lourdes Cruz-Garcia, Christophe Badie, Elizabeth Ainsbury, Navita Somaiah
The RTGene study was focused on the development and validation of new transcriptional biomarkers for prediction of individual radiotherapy patient responses to ionizing radiation. In parallel, for validation purposes, this study incorporated conventional biomarkers of radiation exposure, including the dicentric assay. Peripheral blood samples were taken with ethical approval and informed consent from a total of 20 patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy for breast, lung, gastrointestinal or genitourinary tumors...
September 20, 2018: Radiation Research
Kouichi Yamamoto, Atsushi Yamatodani
Since the peripheral serotoninergic pathway is involved in the development of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting, referred to as radiation sickness, serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are used as a preventive measure, although patients still suffer from these symptoms. Glutamate is known as the excitatory neurotransmitter and is involved in various autonomic symptoms. We investigated the effect of radiation on glutamate release in rats, as measured by in vivo brain microdialysis, and the effects of glutamate receptor antagonists on radiation-induced pica, which can be used as a behavioral assessment of radiation sickness in rats...
September 12, 2018: Radiation Research
Evan L Pannkuk, Evagelia C Laiakis, Melissa Garcia, Albert J Fornace, Vijay K Singh
Threats of nuclear terrorism coupled with potential unintentional ionizing radiation exposures have necessitated the need for large-scale response efforts of such events, including high-throughput biodosimetry for medical triage. Global metabolomics utilizing mass spectrometry (MS) platforms has proven an ideal tool for generating large compound databases with relative quantification and structural information in a short amount of time. Determining metabolite panels for biodosimetry requires experimentation to evaluate the many factors associated with compound concentrations in biofluids after radiation exposures, including temporal changes, pre-existing conditions, dietary intake, partial- vs...
September 5, 2018: Radiation Research
Andrea L DiCarlo, David R Cassatt, William E Dowling, John L Esker, Judith A Hewitt, Oxana M Selivanova, Mark S Williams, Paul W Price
The risk of a radiological or nuclear public health emergency is a major growing concern of the U.S. government. To address a potential incident and ensure that the government is prepared to respond to any subsequent civilian or military casualties, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of Defense have been charged with the development of medical countermeasures (MCMs) to treat the acute and delayed injuries that can result from radiation exposure. Because of the limited budgets in research and development and the high costs associated with bring promising approaches from the bench through advanced product development activities, and ultimately, to regulatory approval, the U...
August 30, 2018: Radiation Research
Wonmo Sung, Yoon Jeong, Hyejin Kim, Hoibin Jeong, Clemens Grassberger, Seongmoon Jung, G-One Ahn, Il Han Kim, Jan Schuemann, Kangwon Lee, Sung-Joon Ye
Radioenhancement of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has shown great potential for increasing the therapeutic efficiency of radiotherapy. Here we report on a computational model of radiation response, which was developed to predict the survival curves of breast cancer cells incubated with GNPs. The amount of GNP uptake was estimated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, and the three-dimensional (3D) intracellular distribution of GNPs was obtained using optical diffraction tomography. The developed computational model utilized the 3D live cell imaging and recent Monte Carlo techniques to calculate microscopic dose distributions within the cell...
August 24, 2018: Radiation Research
Jingwen Xu, Nipa H Patel, Tareq Saleh, Emmanuel K Cudjoe, Moureq Alotaibi, Yingliang Wu, Santiago Lima, Adam M Hawkridge, David A Gewirtz
Studies of radiation interaction with tumor cells often focus on apoptosis as an end point; however, clinically relevant doses of radiation also promote autophagy and senescence. Moreover, functional p53 has frequently been implicated in contributing to radiation sensitivity through the facilitation of apoptosis. To address the involvement of apoptosis, autophagy, senescence and p53 status in the response to radiation, the current studies utilized isogenic H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells that were either p53-wild type (H460wt) or null (H460crp53)...
August 22, 2018: Radiation Research
Martina Giraudo, Christoph Schuy, Uli Weber, Marta Rovituso, Giovanni Santin, John W Norbury, Emanuele Tracino, Alessandra Menicucci, Luca Bocchini, Cesare Lobascio, Marco Durante, Chiara La Tessa
The roadmap for space exploration foresees longer journeys and further excursions outside low-Earth orbit as well as the establishment of permanent outposts on other celestial bodies, such as the Moon or Mars. The design of spacecraft and habitats depends heavily on the mission scenario and must consider the radiation protection properties of the structural components as well as dedicated shielding. In fact, short- and long-term effects caused by exposure to cosmic radiation are now considered among the main health risks of space travel...
August 20, 2018: Radiation Research
Angela M Groves, Jacqueline P Williams, Eric Hernady, Christina Reed, Bruce Fenton, Tanzy Love, Jacob N Finkelstein, Carl J Johnston
Biomarkers could play an essential role during triage in the aftermath of a radiological event, where exposure to radiation will be heterogeneous and complicated by concurrent trauma. Used alongside biodosimetry, biomarkers can identify victims in need of treatment for acute radiation effects, and might also provide valuable information on later developing consequences that need to be addressed as part of a treatment strategy. Indeed, because the lung is particularly sensitive to radiation and resultant late effects not only affect quality of life, but can also lead to morbidity, the risk of developing downstream pulmonary complications in exposed individuals requires assessment...
August 17, 2018: Radiation Research
Fernanda Villegas, Nina Tilly, Anders Ahnesjö
The linear-quadratic (LQ) parameterization of survival fraction [SF( D)] inherently assumes that all cells in a population receive the same dose ( D), albeit the distribution of specific energy z over the individual cells f( z, D) can be very wide. From these microdosimetric distributions, which are target size dependent, we estimate the size of the cellular sensitive volume by analyzing its influence on the LQ parameterization of cell survival. A Monte Carlo track structure code was used to simulate detailed tracks from a 60 Co source as well as proton and carbon ions of various energies...
August 14, 2018: Radiation Research
Xiaoyao Yang, Shengmin Xu, Yao Su, Biao Chen, Hang Yuan, An Xu, Lijun Wu
Connexin molecules are an important component of the gap junction, with connexin43 (Cx43) being the most abundantly expressed type. Src is a nonreceptor tyrosine-protein kinase that affects Cx43 activity by multiple mechanisms. However, it is not clear how Src regulates Cx43 to influence radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBEs). In this study, we demonstrated that Cx43 on Tyr265 was phosphorylated by activated Src in α-irradiated HepG2 cells, with the total expression of Cx43 unchanged. After inhibition of Cx43 phosphorylation in irradiated cells, the frequency of γ-H2AX foci formation in adjacent nonirradiated bystander cells was significantly enhanced...
August 10, 2018: Radiation Research
Charles P Hinzman, Janet E Baulch, Khyati Y Mehta, Kirandeep Gill, Charles L Limoli, Amrita K Cheema
It is well known that ionizing radiation-induced toxicity to normal tissue has functional consequences in the brain. However, the underlying molecular alterations have yet to be elucidated. We have previously reported cognitive impairments with concomitant changes in dendritic complexity, spine density and inflammation in mice at 6-24 weeks postirradiation. The goal of this study was to determine whether metabolic changes in the mouse hippocampus after whole-body (4 Gy) or cranial (9 Gy) X-ray irradiation might trigger some of the incipient changes contributing to the persisting pathology in the radiation-injured brain...
August 7, 2018: Radiation Research
Julie Bensimon Etzol, Samuel Bouvet, Caroline Bettencourt, Sandrine Altmeyer, Vincent Paget, Nicolas Ugolin, Sylvie Chevillard
DosiKit is a field radiation biodosimetry immunoassay for fast triage of individuals exposed to external total-body or partial-body irradiation (TBI or PBI). Assay proof-of-concept based on γ-H2AX analysis of human blood samples has been previously described as a promising tool for rapid assessment of TBI. Here, we report on the performance of the assay for PBI based on an analysis of hair follicles irradiated with a 137 Cs gamma-ray source, at doses ranging from 0 to 20 Gy and dose rates ranging from ∼0...
August 3, 2018: Radiation Research
Amrita K Cheema, Stephanie D Byrum, Neel Kamal Sharma, Tatiana Altadill, Vidya P Kumar, Shukla Biswas, Brian M Balgley, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Alan J Tackett, Sanchita P Ghosh
Gamma-tocotrienol (GT3), a naturally occurring vitamin E isomer, a promising radioprotector, has been shown to protect mice against radiation-induced hematopoietic and gastrointestinal injuries. We analyzed changes in protein expression profiles of spleen tissue after GT3 treatment in mice exposed to gamma radiation to gain insights into the molecular mechanism of radioprotective efficacy. Male CD2F1 mice, 12-to-14 weeks old, were treated with either vehicle or GT3 at 24 h prior to 7 Gy total-body irradiation...
August 2, 2018: Radiation Research
Monica Mangoni, Mariangela Sottili, Giulia Salvatore, Icro Meattini, Isacco Desideri, Daniela Greto, Mauro Loi, Carlotta Becherini, Pietro Garlatti, Camilla Delli Paoli, Luca Dominici, Chiara Gerini, Silvia Scoccianti, Pierluigi Bonomo, Angela Silvano, Giovanni Beltrami, Domenico Campanacci, Lorenzo Livi
Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are aggressive tumors with a poor prognosis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 inhibitors (PARPi) enhance the cytotoxic effects of radiation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of PARPi on survival and DNA damage of irradiated STS cells. For clonogenic assays, STS cell lines were irradiated with or without olaparib, iniparib or veliparib pretreatment. The effect of PARP inhibition on γ-H2AX and Rad51 foci formation, on PARP-1, phospho-ERK and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression and on cell cycle progression was evaluated on irradiated rhabdomyosarcoma cells pretreated with olaparib...
August 1, 2018: Radiation Research
Alina V Brenner, Dale L Preston, Ritsu Sakata, Hiromi Sugiyama, Amy Berrington de Gonzalez, Benjamin French, Mai Utada, Elizabeth K Cahoon, Atsuko Sadakane, Kotaro Ozasa, Eric J Grant, Kiyohiko Mabuchi
The importance of reproductive history in breast tissue development and etiology of sporadic breast cancer in females is well established. However, there is limited evidence of factors, other than age, that modify risk of radiation-related breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated breast cancer incidence in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors, adding 11 years of follow-up and incorporating reproductive history data. We used Poisson regression models to describe radiation risks and modifying effects of age and reproductive factors...
July 25, 2018: Radiation Research
David Murray, Razmik Mirzayans, William H McBride
There has been enormous recent progress in understanding how human cells respond to oxidative stress, such as that caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. We have witnessed a significant deciphering of the events that underlie how antioxidant responses counter pro-oxidant damage to key biological targets in all cellular compartments, including the genome and mitochondria. These cytoprotective responses include: 1. The basal cellular repertoire of antioxidant capabilities and its supporting cast of facilitator enzymes; and 2...
July 24, 2018: Radiation Research
Yoshitaka Matsumoto, Yoshiya Furusawa, Akiko Uzawa, Ryoichi Hirayama, Sachiko Koike, Koichi Ando, Koji Tsuboi, Hideyuki Sakurai
The goal of this work was to clarify the effect of carbon-ion beams on reduction of the metastatic potential of malignant melanoma using in vitro and in vivo techniques. We utilized a 290 MeV/u carbon beam with a 6-cm spread-out Bragg-peak (SOBP), 137 Cs γ rays or 200 kVp X rays for irradiation, and in vitro murine melanoma B16/BL6 cells that were implanted into C57BL/6J mice. The metastatic abilities (migration, invasion and adhesion) were suppressed by carbon ion treatment at all doses that were tested, whereas invasion and migration tended to increase after X-ray irradiation at low dose...
July 24, 2018: Radiation Research
Lin Shi, Kurumi Fujioka, Nami Sakurai-Ozato, Wataru Fukumoto, Kenichi Satoh, Jiying Sun, Akinori Awazu, Kimio Tanaka, Mari Ishida, Takafumi Ishida, Yukiko Nakano, Yasuki Kihara, C Nelson Hayes, Hiroshi Aikata, Kazuaki Chayama, Takashi Ito, Kazuo Awai, Satoshi Tashiro
The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities and cancer risk correlates well with the radiation dose after exposure to moderate- to high-dose ionizing radiation. However, the biological effects and health risks at less than 100 mGy, e.g., from computed tomography (CT) have not been ascertained. To investigate the biological effects of low-dose exposure from a CT procedure, we examined chromosomal aberrations, dicentric and ring chromosomes (dic+ring), in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), using FISH assays with telomere and centromere PNA probes...
July 24, 2018: Radiation Research
Wan Qin, Bo Liu, Minxiao Yi, Long Li, Yang Tang, Bili Wu, Xianglin Yuan
Radiation-induced complications of the respiratory system are a common side effect of thoracic radiotherapy with no viable treatment option. Here, we investigated the potential therapeutic effect of the orphan drug pirfenidone for treating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. C57BL/6 mice received a single fraction of 16 Gy to the thorax and were subsequently treated with 300 mg/kg/day pirfenidone for four weeks. Survival and body weight of the mice were quantified. Micro-CT in vivo lung imaging was performed to dynamically observe the developmental process of pulmonary fibrosis...
July 17, 2018: Radiation Research
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