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Radiation Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905869/neurogenic-effects-of-low-dose-whole-body-hze-fe-ion-and-gamma-irradiation
#1
Tara B Sweet, Sean D Hurley, Michael D Wu, John A Olschowka, Jacqueline P Williams, M Kerry O'Banion
Understanding the dose-toxicity profile of radiation is critical when evaluating potential health risks associated with natural and man-made sources in our environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose whole-body high-energy charged (HZE) iron (Fe) ions and low-energy gamma exposure on proliferation and differentiation of adult-born neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, cells deemed to play a critical role in memory regulation. To determine the dose-response characteristics of the brain to whole-body Fe-ion vs...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905868/short-term-effects-of-low-let-radiation-on-the-endothelial-barrier-uncoupling-of-pecam-1-and-the-production-of-endothelial-microparticles
#2
Thomas Templin, Preety Sharma, Peter Guida, Peter Grabham
A significant target for radiation-induced effects is the microvascular system, which is critical to healthy tissue function and its pathology is linked to disrupted endothelial barrier function. Low-linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation is a source of noncancer pathologies in humans and little is known about the early events that could initiate subsequent diseases. However, it is well known that gamma radiation causes a very early disruption of the endothelial barrier at doses below those required for cytotoxic effects...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874325/mixed-beam-murine-harderian-gland-tumorigenesis-predicted-dose-effect-relationships-if-neither-synergism-nor-antagonism-occurs
#3
Nopphon Siranart, Eleanor A Blakely, Alden Cheng, Naval Handa, Rainer K Sachs
Complex mixed radiation fields exist in interplanetary space, and little is known about their late effects on space travelers. In silico synergy analysis default predictions are useful when planning relevant mixed-ion-beam experiments and interpreting their results. These predictions are based on individual dose-effect relationships (IDER) for each component of the mixed-ion beam, assuming no synergy or antagonism. For example, a default hypothesis of simple effect additivity has often been used throughout the study of biology...
November 22, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874324/interaction-between-radioadaptive-response-and-radiation-induced-bystander-effect-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-a-unique-role-of-the-dna-damage-checkpoint
#4
Huangqi Tang, Liangwen Chen, Lianyun Chen, Bin Chen, Ting Wang, Aifeng Yang, Furu Zhan, Lijun Wu, Po Bian
Although radioadaptive responses (RAR) and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) are two important biological effects of low-dose radiation, there are currently only limited data that directly address their interaction, particularly in the context of whole organisms. In previous studies, we separately demonstrated RAR and RIBE using an in vivo system of C. elegans . In the current study, we further investigated their interaction in C. elegans , with the ratio of protruding vulva as the biological end point for RAR...
November 22, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869556/evaluation-of-on-and-off-line-bioluminescence-tomography-system-for-focal-irradiation-guidance
#5
Bin Zhang, John W Wong, Iulian I Iordachita, Juvenal Reyes, Katriana Nugent, Phuoc T Tran, Stephen W Tuttle, Constantinos Koumenis, Ken Kang-Hsin Wang
In response to the limitations of computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) in irradiation guidance, especially for soft-tissue targets without the use of contrast agents, our group developed a solution that implemented bioluminescence tomography (BLT) as the image-guidance modality for preclinical radiation research. However, adding such a system to existing small animal irradiators is no small task. A potential solution is to utilize an off-line BLT system in close proximity to the irradiator, with stable and effective animal transport between the two systems...
November 21, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869555/the-influence-of-the-ctip-polymorphism-q418p-on-homologous-recombination-and-predisposition-to-radiation-induced-tumorigenesis-mainly-raml-in-mice
#6
Agata Patel, Jennifer Anderson, Daniela Kraft, Rosemary Finnon, Paul Finnon, Cheryl L Scudamore, Grainne Manning, Robert Bulman, Natalie Brown, Simon Bouffler, Peter O'Neill, Christophe Badie
Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which has been diagnosed in Japanese atomic bombing survivors, as well as patients treated with radiotherapy. The genetic basis for susceptibility to radiation-induced AML is not well characterized. We previously identified a candidate murine gene for susceptibility to radiation-induced AML (rAML): C-terminal binding protein (CTBP)-interacting protein (CTIP)/retinoblastoma binding protein 8 (RBBP8). This gene is essential for embryonic development, double-strand break (DSB) resection in homologous recombination (HR) and tumor suppression...
November 21, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869554/genome-wide-deletion-screening-with-the-array-cgh-method-in-mouse-offspring-derived-from-irradiated-spermatogonia-indicates-that-mutagenic-responses-are-highly-variable-among-genes
#7
Jun-Ichi Asakawa, Mieko Kodaira, Akiko Miura, Takanori Tsuji, Yoshiko Nakamoto, Masaaki Imanaka, Jun Kitamura, Harry Cullings, Mayumi Nishimura, Yoshiya Shimada, Nori Nakamura
Until the end of the 20th century, mouse germ cell data on induced mutation rates, which were collected using classical genetic methods at preselected specific loci, provided the principal basis for estimates of genetic risks from radiation in humans. The work reported on here is an extension of earlier efforts in this area using molecular methods. It focuses on validating the use of array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) methods for identifying radiation-induced copy number variants (CNVs) and specifically for DNA deletions...
November 21, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869553/radiation-induced-chemical-reactions-in-hydrogel-of-hydroxypropyl-cellulose-hpc-a-pulse-radiolysis-study
#8
Shinichi Yamashita, Jun Ma, Jean-Louis Marignier, Akihiro Hiroki, Mitsumasa Taguchi, Mehran Mostafavi, Yosuke Katsumura
We performed studies on pulse radiolysis of highly transparent and shape-stable hydrogels of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) that were prepared using a radiation-crosslinking technique. Several fundamental aspects of radiation-induced chemical reactions in the hydrogels were investigated. With radiation doses less than 1 kGy, degradation of the HPC matrix was not observed. The rate constants of the HPC composing the matrix, with two water decomposition radicals [hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) and hydrated electron ([Formula: see text])] in the gels, were determined to be 4...
November 21, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849436/impairment-of-the-intrinsic-capability-of-th1-polarization-in-irradiated-mice-a-close-look-at-the-imbalanced-th1-th2-response-after-irradiation
#9
Renxiang Chen, Yi-Wen Wang, Albert J Fornace, Heng-Hong Li
Two major CD4(+) T-helper (Th) lineages are Th1 and Th2, and well balanced Th1/Th2 responses are essential for immune function. In previously published studies, it was reported that radiation induces a Th1/Th2 immune imbalance toward a Th2-dominant direction, and this imbalance may contribute to postirradiation immune dysfunction. The polarization of Th cells is driven by the cytokine milieu and controlled by intracellular regulatory pathways that respond to cytokine signaling. It is widely accepted that radiation induces cytokine aberration, however, the precise alterations of cytokines in various tissue environments have been difficult to evaluate...
November 16, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841703/distinct-sets-of-lncrnas-are-differentially-modulated-after-exposure-to-high-and-low-doses-of-x-rays
#10
Mariona Terradas, Marta Martín, Joan Repullès, Maite Huarte, Anna Genescà
High- and low-dose X rays are used in medicine as therapeutic and diagnostic tools, respectively. While the cellular response to high-dose radiation is well known, studies on the effects of low-dose radiation and its ability to trigger a proper DNA damage response have had contradictory results. The functions of many signaling and effector proteins of the DNA damage response (DDR) have been described, and are attributed to well-known DDR pathways. However, there has been little known about the contribution of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) to DDR, although there is recent evidence that lncRNAs may be associated with almost all biological functions, including DDR...
November 14, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802110/base-release-and-modification-in-solid-phase-dna-exposed-to-low-energy-electrons
#11
Surakarn Choofong, Pierre Cloutier, Léon Sanche, J Richard Wagner
Ionization generates a large number of secondary low-energy electrons (LEEs) with a most probable energy of approximately 10 eV, which can break DNA bonds by dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and lead to DNA damage. In this study, we investigated radiation damage to dry DNA induced by X rays (1.5 keV) alone on a glass substrate or X rays combined with extra LEEs (average energy of 5.8 eV) emitted from a tantalum (Ta) substrate under an atmosphere of N2 and standard ambient conditions of temperature and pressure...
November 1, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788031/quantification-of-radiation-biomarkers-in-leukocytes-of-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-different-modalities-of-3d-crt-or-imrt
#12
Sebastian Zahnreich, Anne Ebersberger, Heiko Karle, Bernd Kaina, Heinz Schmidberger
The goal of this study was to determine whether the quantification of radiation biomarkers in peripheral leukocytes of 111 breast cancer patients after adjuvant treatment with different modalities of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) revealed any difference in the patients' radiation burden by out-of-field doses and an associated risk of second malignancies. Whole-breast radiation therapy was performed by 3D-CRT using either a hard wedge (n = 32) or a virtual wedge (n = 49) at dose rates of 3 and 6 Gy per min each...
October 27, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775476/alteration-of-selected-neurotrophic-factors-and-their-receptor-expression-in-mouse-brain-response-to-whole-brain-irradiation
#13
Ewa Pius-Sadowska, Miłosz Piotr Kawa, Patrycja Kłos, Dorota Rogińska, Michał Rudnicki, Boehlke Marek, Piotr Waloszczyk, Bogusław Machaliński
Ionizing radiation can significantly affect brain function in children and young adults, particularly in the hippocampus where neurogenic niches are located. Injury to normal tissue is a major concern when whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is used to treat central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and the pathogenesis of this injury remains poorly understood. We assessed the expression of selected neurotrophins (NTs) and NT receptors (NTRs) in brains of young mice after a single 10 Gy gamma-ray exposure using morphological and molecular analyses [qRT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry (IHC)] to evaluate WBI-induced injury in its acute phase...
October 24, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740890/late-dna-damage-mediated-by-homologous-recombination-repair-results-in-radiosensitization-with-gemcitabine
#14
Michael M Im, Sheryl A Flanagan, Jeffrey J Ackroyd, Brendan Knapp, Aaron Kramer, Donna S Shewach
Gemcitabine (dFdCyd) shows broad antitumor activity in solid tumors in chemotherapeutic regimens or when combined with ionizing radiation (radiosensitization). While it is known that mismatches in DNA are necessary for dFdCyd radiosensitization, the critical event resulting in radiosensitization has not been identified. Here we hypothesized that late DNA damage (≥24 h after drug washout/irradiation) is a causal event in radiosensitization by dFdCyd, and that homologous recombination repair (HRR) is required for this late DNA damage...
October 14, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710704/effect-of-radiofrequency-radiation-on-human-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#15
Katharina Gläser, Martina Rohland, Thomas Kleine-Ostmann, Thorsten Schrader, Helga Stopper, Henning Hintzsche
Exposure to electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency range is ubiquitous, mainly due to the worldwide use of mobile communication devices. With improving technologies and affordability, the number of cell phone subscriptions continues to increase. Therefore, the potential effect on biological systems at low-intensity radiation levels is of great interest. While a number of studies have been performed to investigate this issue, there has been no consensus reached based on the results. The goal of this study was to elucidate the extent to which cells of the hematopoietic system, particularly human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), were affected by mobile phone radiation...
October 6, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710703/total-body-irradiation-exacerbates-dissemination-of-cutaneous-candida-albicans-infection
#16
Margaret L Barlow, Ryan J Cummings, Alice P Pentland, Tanzy M T Love, Constantine G Haidaris, Julie L Ryan, Edith M Lord, Scott A Gerber
Exposure to radiation, particularly a large or total-body dose, weakens the immune system through loss of bone marrow precursor cells, as well as diminished populations of circulating and tissue-resident immune cells. One such population is the skin-resident immune cells. Changes in the skin environment can be of particular importance as the skin is also host to a number of commensal organisms, including Candida albicans , a species of fungus that causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients...
October 6, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690175/risk-of-hematologic-malignancies-in-the-offspring-of-female-workers-of-the-mayak-nuclear-facility-in-the-southern-urals-russian-federation
#17
I Deltour, Y Tsareva, S J Schonfeld, V V Vostrotin, P Okatenko, M Sokolnikov, J Schüz
Long-term effects of in utero exposure to ionizing radiation remain poorly quantified in humans. In this study, the risk of hematologic malignancies was investigated in offspring of female workers of the Mayak Production Association, a large Russian nuclear facility. Excess relative risks (ERR) for exposure to gamma radiation and plutonium were estimated in a cohort of 8,466 offspring who were born between January 1, 1948 and December 31, 1988 and followed until 2009. An unstable linear ERR of 1.12 (95% CI 0...
September 30, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690174/sensitive-detection-of-radiation-induced-medulloblastomas-after-acute-or-protracted-gamma-ray-exposures-in-ptch1-heterozygous-mice-using-a-radiation-specific-molecular-signature
#18
Chizuru Tsuruoka, Benjamin Blyth, Takamitsu Morioka, Mutsumi Kaminishi, Mayumi Shinagawa, Yoshiya Shimada, Shizuko Kakinuma
Recently reported studies have led to a heightened awareness of the risks of cancer induced by diagnostic radiological imaging, and in particular, the risk of brain cancer after childhood CT scans. One feature of Ptch1(+/-) mice is their sensitivity to radiation-induced medulloblastomas (an embryonic cerebellar tumor) during a narrow window of time centered on the days around birth. Little is known about the dynamics of how dose protraction interacts with such narrow windows of sensitivity in individual tissues...
September 30, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643878/pidd-mediates-radiation-induced-microglia-activation
#19
Nong Yang, Xican Gao, Xiaofei Qu, Ruiguang Zhang, Fan Tong, Qian Cai, Jihua Dong, Yu Hu, Gang Wu, Xiaorong Dong
Radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI) is the most common adverse effect that occurs after cranial radiation therapy (CRT). We have previously reported that CRT-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain tissues and inhibition of neurogenesis in the hippocampus might be caused by microglial activation and may play an important role in RIBI. In this study we examined the role of p53-induced protein with a death domain (PIDD) in radiation-induced activation of BV-2 cells. BV-2 cells were transfected with antisense oligonucleotide control mRNA or antisense oligonucleotide-targeted PIDD mRNA and were sham or 16 Gy irradiated...
September 19, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643877/high-mutation-levels-are-compatible-with-normal-embryonic-development-in-mlh1-deficient-mice
#20
Xiaoyan Fan, Yan Li, Yulong Zhang, Meixiang Sang, Jianhui Cai, Qiaoxia Li, Toshinori Ozaki, Tetsuya Ono, Dongwei He
To elucidate the role of the mismatch repair gene Mlh1 in genome instability during the fetal stage, spontaneous mutations were studied in Mlh1-deficient lacZ-transgenic mouse fetuses. Mutation levels were high at 9.5 days post coitum (dpc) and gradually increased during the embryonic stage, after which they remained unchanged. In addition, mutations that were found in brain, liver, spleen, small intestine and thymus showed similar levels and no statistically significant difference was found. The molecular nature of mutations at 12...
September 19, 2016: Radiation Research
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