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Radiation Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937316/age-dependent-responses-of-brain-myelin-integrity-and-behavioral-performance-to-radiation-in-mice
#1
Zhimeng Fu, Yunfei Zhao, Kaixiang Zhang, Jian Wang, Min Zhang, Xianghui Zhao
Radiation therapy is widely used to treat primary and metastatic brain tumors, but it may also lead to delayed neurological complications. Oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system produce myelin, and myelin integrity becomes highly vulnerable after brain irradiation. In this study, mice at different developmental stages were used to test the age-dependent sensitivity of myelin formation and maintenance, as well as behavioral performance after whole-brain irradiation (WBI). Mice at postnatal days 21 and 28 and at 2 months received a single dose of 25 Gy WBI...
September 22, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877030/radiation-mitigating-properties-of-intranasally-administered-kl4-surfactant-in-a-murine-model-of-radiation-induced-lung-damage
#2
Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Ralph A Pietrofesa, Evguenia Arguiri, Constantinos Koumenis, Robert Segal
The threat of exposure to ionizing radiation from a nuclear reactor accident or deliberate terrorist actions is a significant public health concern. The lung is particularly susceptible to radiation-induced injury from external sources or inhalation of radioactive particles from radioactive fallout. Radiation-induced lung disease can manifest with an acute radiation pneumonitis and/or delayed effects leading to pulmonary fibrosis. As prior warning of radiation exposure is unlikely, medical countermeasures (MCMs) to mitigate radiation-induced lung disease that can be given in mass-casualty situations many hours or days postirradiation are needed to prevent both early and late lung damage...
September 6, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877005/is-there-a-trade-off-between-radiation-stimulated-growth-and-metabolic-efficiency
#3
Charles Mitz, Christopher Thome, Mary Ellen Cybulski, Christopher M Somers, Richard G Manzon, Joanna Y Wilson, Douglas R Boreham
Beneficial protective effects may result from an adaptive respose to low dose radiation exposure. However, such benefits must be accompanied by some form of cost because the responsible biological mechanisms are not normally maintained in an upregulated state. It has been suggested that stimulation of adaptive response mechanisms could be metabolically costly, or that the adaptive response could come at a sacrifice to other physiological processes. We exposed developing lake whitefish embryos to a fractionated regime of gamma radiation (662 keV; 0...
September 6, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873027/the-cgl1-hela-%C3%A3-normal-skin-fibroblast-human-hybrid-cell-line-a-history-of-ionizing-radiation-induced-effects-on-neoplastic-transformation-and-novel-future-directions-in-snolab
#4
Jake S Pirkkanen, Douglas R Boreham, Marc S Mendonca
Cellular transformation assays have been utilized for many years as powerful in vitro methods for examining neoplastic transformation potential/frequency and mechanisms of carcinogenesis for both chemical and radiological carcinogens. These mouse and human cell based assays are labor intensive but do provide quantitative information on the numbers of neoplastically transformed foci produced after carcinogenic exposure and potential molecular mechanisms involved. Several mouse and human cell systems have been generated to undertake these studies, and they vary in experimental length and endpoint assessment...
September 5, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873026/impact-of-ionizing-radiation-on-the-cardiovascular-system-a-review
#5
Stephanie Puukila, Jennifer A Lemon, Simon J Lees, T C Tai, Douglas R Boreham, Neelam Khaper
Radiation therapy has become one of the main forms of treatment for various types of cancers. Cancer patients previously treated with high doses of radiation are at a greater risk to develop cardiovascular complications later in life. The heart can receive varying doses of radiation depending on the type of therapy and can even reach doses in the range of 17 Gy. Multiple studies have highlighted the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in radiation-induced cardiovascular damage. Doses of ionizing radiation below 200 mGy, however, have been shown to have beneficial effects in some experimental models of radiation-induced damage, but low-dose effects in the heart is still debated...
September 5, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850300/combined-therapy-of-pegylated-g-csf-and-alxn4100tpo-improves-survival-and-mitigates-acute-radiation-syndrome-after-whole-body-ionizing-irradiation-alone-and-followed-by-wound-trauma
#6
Juliann G Kiang, Min Zhai, David L Bolduc, Joan T Smith, Marsha N Anderson, Connie Ho, Bin Lin, Suping Jiang
Exposure to ionizing radiation alone or combined with traumatic tissue injury is a crucial life-threatening factor in nuclear and radiological incidents. Radiation injuries occur at the molecular, cellular, tissue and systemic levels; their mechanisms, however, remain largely unclear. Exposure to radiation combined with skin wounding, bacterial infection or burns results in greater mortality than radiation exposure alone in dogs, pigs, rats, guinea pigs and mice. In the current study we observed that B6D2F1/J female mice exposed to (60)Co gamma photon radiation followed by 15% total-body-surface-area skin wounds experienced an increment of 25% higher mortality over a 30-day observation period compared to those subjected to radiation alone...
August 29, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850294/prof-johan-broerse-1934-2017
#7
Nicolaas A Franken
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841391/atmospheric-cosmic-ray-variation-and-ambient-dose-equivalent-assessments-considering-ground-level-enhancement-thanks-to-coupled-anisotropic-solar-cosmic-ray-and-extensive-air-shower-modeling
#8
Guillaume Hubert, Sébastien Aubry
This work investigates the impact of Forbush decrease (FD) and ground-level enhancement (GLE) in the atmosphere, based on solar and galactic cosmic-ray models and the extensive air shower simulations. This approach gives the possibility to investigate both the dynamic behavior of neutron monitors (NM) (using response function) and the flight dose. The ambient dose equivalent during quiet solar activity and solar events (i.e., FDs and GLEs) were investigated for realistic flight plans issued from the Eurocontrol Demand Data Repository...
August 25, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829673/oxygen-enhancement-ratio-in-radiation-induced-initial-dsbs-by-an-optimized-flow-cytometry-based-gamma-h2ax-analysis-in-a549-human-cancer-cells
#9
Shigeaki Sunada, Hirokazu Hirakawa, Akira Fujimori, Mitsuru Uesaka, Ryuichi Okayasu
High-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions cause higher therapeutic effects than low-LET radiation due to lower dependency on oxygen concentration in tumor cell killing. The lethality after irradiation largely depends on DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), however the detailed LET dependency for DSB induction under oxic and hypoxic conditions has not been reported. Therefore, we evaluated the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of heavy ion-induced DSB induction using a highly-optimized flow cytometry-based method of γ-H2AX detection...
August 22, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829672/growth-differentiation-factor-11-does-not-mitigate-the-lethal-effects-of-total-abdominal-irradiation
#10
Sara Duhachek-Muggy, Kruttika Bhat, Erina Vlashi, Frank Pajonk
Total-body exposure to radiation causes widespread tissue injury. Damage to the hematopoietic and intestinal stem cell compartments is particularly lethal and mitigators of this damage are critical in providing effective treatment. Parabiosis radiation experiments, in which the vasculatures of two rodents are anastomosed prior to irradiation of one of the animals, have shown that there is a circulating factor that protects mice from radiation-induced intestinal death. Recently reported studies have suggested that growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is responsible for the rejuvenation of stem cells observed in parabiosis experiments involving aging mice...
August 22, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820355/alpha-particles-and-x-rays-interact-in-inducing-dna-damage-in-u2os-cells
#11
Alice Sollazzo, Beata Brzozowska, Lei Cheng, Lovisa Lundholm, Siamak Haghdoost, Harry Scherthan, Andrzej Wojcik
Survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are monitored for health effects within the Life Span Study (LSS). The LSS results represent the most important source of data about cancer effects from ionizing radiation exposure, which forms the foundation for the radiation protection system. One uncertainty connected to deriving universal risk factors from these results is related to the problem of mixed radiation qualities. The A-bomb explosions generated a mixed beam of the sparsely ionizing gamma radiation and densely ionizing neutrons...
August 18, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813624/tp53-mutational-status-and-ros-effect-the-expression-of-the-survivin-associated-radio-adaptive-response
#12
Jeffrey S Murley, Richard C Miller, Ralph R Weichselbaum, David J Grdina
A survivin-associated radio-adaptive response, characterized by increased radiation resistance or sensitization, was induced by exposure to 5 mGy of ionizing radiation and was correlated to the TP53 mutational status of exposed cells. Ten human cancer lines were investigated: colorectal carcinomas HCT116 and RKO [TP53 wild-type (WT)] and their respective TP53 null isogenic lines; breast adenocarcinomas MCF7 (TP53 WT) and MDA-MB-231 (TP53 Mut); lung carcinomas A549 (TP53 WT) and NCI-H1975 (TP53 Mut); and pancreatic carcinomas Hs766T (TP53 WT) and Panc-1 (TP53 Mut)...
August 16, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809605/age-modifies-the-effect-of-2-mev-fast-neutrons-on-rat-mammary-carcinogenesis
#13
Tatsuhiko Imaoka, Mayumi Nishimura, Kazuhiro Daino, Ayaka Hosoki, Masaru Takabatake, Toshiaki Kokubo, Kazutaka Doi, Kaye Showler, Yukiko Nishimura, Hitomi Moriyama, Takamitsu Morioka, Yoshiya Shimada, Shizuko Kakinuma
The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons depends on their physical nature (e.g., energy) and the biological context (e.g., end points, materials). From the perspective of radiological protection, age is an important biological context that influences radiation-related cancer risk, but very few studies have addressed its potential impact on neutron effects. We therefore investigated the influence of age on the effect of accelerator-generated fast neutrons (mean energy, ∼2 MeV) in an animal model of breast carcinogenesis...
August 15, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800285/cytogenetic-reconstruction-of-gamma-ray-doses-delivered-to-atomic-bomb-survivors-dealing-with-wide-distributions-of-photon-energies-and-contributions-from-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells
#14
Nori Nakamura, Yuko Hirai, Yoshiaki Kodama, Kanya Hamasaki, Harry M Cullings, Kismet A Cordova, Akio Awa
Retrospective estimation of the doses received by atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors by cytogenetic methods has been hindered by two factors: One is that the photon energies released from the bomb were widely distributed, and since the aberration yield varies depending on the energy, the use of monoenergetic (60)Co gamma radiation to construct a calibration curve may bias the estimate. The second problem is the increasing proportion of newly formed lymphocytes entering into the lymphocyte pool with increasing time intervals since the exposures...
August 11, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796579/effects-of-localized-x-ray-irradiation-on-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-in-transected-sciatic-nerve-in-rats
#15
Bo Jiang, Yong Zhang, Jiaju Zhao, Chang She, Xiaozhong Zhou, Qirong Dong, Peiji Wang
Low-dose radiation has been used in clinical and experimental models for the prevention of scarring and for fracture healing. There is evidence that low-dose radiation improves the hormesis of various cell types but little is known about its effects on peripheral nerve tissue. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of low-dose radiation on the regeneration of transectional peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat model. Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats received transection injury to the left sciatic nerves, and the nerves were subsequently sutured by epineurium end-to-end anastomosis to restore continuity...
August 10, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792846/nanodosimetric-simulation-of-direct-ion-induced-dna-damage-using-different-chromatin-geometry-models
#16
N T Henthorn, J W Warmenhoven, M Sotiropoulos, R I Mackay, K J Kirkby, M J Merchant
Monte Carlo based simulation has proven useful in investigating the effect of proton-induced DNA damage and the processes through which this damage occurs. Clustering of ionizations within a small volume can be related to DNA damage through the principles of nanodosimetry. For simulation, it is standard to construct a small volume of water and determine spatial clusters. More recently, realistic DNA geometries have been used, tracking energy depositions within DNA backbone volumes. Traditionally a chromatin fiber is built within the simulation and identically replicated throughout a cell nucleus, representing the cell in interphase...
August 9, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777696/exercise-in-adulthood-after-irradiation-of-the-juvenile-brain-ameliorates-long-term-depletion-of-oligodendroglial-cells
#17
Cecilia Bull, Christiana Cooper, Veronica Lindahl, Sylvia Fitting, Anders I Persson, Rita Grandér, Ann-Marie Alborn, Thomas Björk-Eriksson, H Georg Kuhn, Klas Blomgren
Cranial radiation severely affects brain health and function, including glial cell production and myelination. Recent studies indicate that voluntary exercise has beneficial effects on oligodendrogenesis and myelination. Here, we hypothesized that voluntary running would increase oligodendrocyte numbers in the corpus callosum after irradiation of the juvenile mouse brain. The brains of C57Bl/6J male mice were 6 Gy irradiated on postnatal day 9 during the main gliogenic developmental phase, resulting in a loss of oligodendrocyte precursor cells...
August 4, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771086/exposure-to-low-dose-x-ray-radiation-alters-bone-progenitor-cells-and-bone-microarchitecture
#18
Florence Lima, Joshua M Swift, Elisabeth S Greene, Matthew R Allen, David A Cunningham, Leslie A Braby, Susan A Bloomfield
Exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation during medical treatment exerts well-documented deleterious effects on bone health, reducing bone density and contributing to bone growth retardation in young patients and spontaneous fracture in postmenopausal women. However, the majority of human radiation exposures occur in a much lower dose range than that used in the radiation oncology clinic. Furthermore, very few studies have examined the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on bone integrity and results have been inconsistent...
August 3, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767314/letters-to-the-editor
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767313/low-energy-ion-species-dependent-induction-of-dna-double-strand-breaks-ion-energy-and-fluence-thresholds
#20
Prutchayawoot Thopan, Liangdeng Yu, Ian G Brown, Udomrat Tippawan
The goal of this study was to determine the critical ion-radiation conditions under which heavy ion beams can induce DNA double-strand breaks. Helium, nitrogen and argon-ion beams in the energy range of 20 eV to 2 keV were used to irradiate naked DNA plasmid pGFP to fluences of 1, 2 and 4 × 10(15) ions/cm(2). The topological forms of DNA were subsequently analyzed using gel electrophoresis. The DNA forms were changed from the original supercoiled to damaged relaxed and linear forms, depending on the ion mass, energy, fluence and inertia...
August 2, 2017: Radiation Research
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