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Radiation Research

Frank Jermusek, Chelsea Benedict, Emma Dreischmeier, Michael Brand, Michael Uder, Justin J Jeffery, Frank N Ranallo, William E Fahl
While computed tomography (CT) is now commonly used and considered to be clinically valuable, significant DNA double-strand breaks (γ-H2AX foci) in white blood cells from adult and pediatric CT patients have been frequently reported. In this study to determine whether γ-H2AX foci and X-ray-induced naked DNA damage are suppressed by administration of the PrC-210 radioprotector, human blood samples were irradiated in a CT scanner at 50-150 mGy with or without PrC-210, and γ-H2AX foci were scored. X-ray-induced naked DNA damage was also studied, and the DNA protective efficacy of PrC-210 was compared against 12 other common "antioxidants...
May 21, 2018: Radiation Research
Birendra Mishra, Gregory W Lawson, Ryan Ripperdan, Laura Ortiz, Ulrike Luderer
Astronauts traveling in deep space are exposed to high-charge and energy (HZE) particles from galactic cosmic rays. We have previously determined that irradiation of adult female mice with iron HZE particles induces DNA double-strand breaks, oxidative damage and apoptosis in ovarian follicles, causing premature ovarian failure. These effects occur at lower doses than with conventional photon irradiation. Ovarian failure with resultant loss of negative feedback and elevated levels of gonadotropin hormones is thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of ovarian cancer...
May 21, 2018: Radiation Research
Peter D Inskip, Lene H S Veiga, Alina V Brenner, Alice J Sigurdson, Evgenia Ostroumova, Eric J Chow, Marilyn Stovall, Susan A Smith, Rita E Weathers, Wendy Leisenring, Leslie L Robison, Gregory T Armstrong, Charles A Sklar, Jay H Lubin
While thyroid cancer risks from exposure to ionizing radiation early in life are well characterized quantitatively, the association of radiation with nonmalignant, functional thyroid disorders has been less studied. Here, we report on a risk analysis study of hypothyroidism with radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis among survivors of childhood cancer. Utilizing data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a cohort of 14,364 five-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed at 26 hospitals in the U...
May 15, 2018: Radiation Research
Eric J Keller, Meghan Porter, Joy E Garrett, Meredith Varie, Haiyan Wang, Karen E Pollok, John J Turchi, Jeffrey M Zaleski, Joseph R Dynlacht
Enediynes are a highly cytotoxic class of compounds. However, metallation of these compounds may modulate their activation, and thus their cytotoxicity. We previously demonstrated that cytotoxicity of two different metalloenediynes, including (Z)-N,N'-bis[1-pyridyl-2-yl-meth-(E)-ylidene]octa-4-ene-2,6-diyne-1,8-diamine] (PyED), is potentiated when the compounds are administered to HeLa cells during hyperthermia treatment at concentrations that are minimally or not cytotoxic at 37°C. In this study, we further characterized the concentration, time and temperature dependence of cytotoxicity of PyED on human U-1 melanoma cells...
May 15, 2018: Radiation Research
Michael N Cornforth, Pavana Anur, Nicholas Wang, Erin Robinson, F Andrew Ray, Joel S Bedford, Bradford D Loucas, Eli S Williams, Myron Peto, Paul Spellman, Rahul Kollipara, Ralf Kittler, Joe W Gray, Susan M Bailey
Chromosome rearrangements are large-scale structural variants that are recognized drivers of oncogenic events in cancers of all types. Cytogenetics allows for their rapid, genome-wide detection, but does not provide gene-level resolution. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) promises DNA sequence-level characterization of the specific breakpoints involved, but is strongly influenced by bioinformatics filters that affect detection efficiency. We sought to characterize the breakpoint junctions of chromosomal translocations and inversions in the clonal derivatives of human cells exposed to ionizing radiation...
May 11, 2018: Radiation Research
Cameron J Koch
Hypoxia in tumors has many well-characterized effects that are known to prevent optimal cancer treatment. Despite the existence of a large number of assays that have supported hypoxia as an important diagnostic, there is no routine clinical assay in use, and anti-hypoxia therapies have often not included parallel hypoxia measurements. Even with a functioning hypoxia assay, it is difficult to match the oxygen dependence of treatment resistance to that of the assay, and this mismatch can vary substantially from assay to assay and even from tumor to tumor [e...
May 10, 2018: Radiation Research
M A Suresh Kumar, Evagelia C Laiakis, Shanaz A Ghandhi, Shad R Morton, Albert J Fornace, Sally A Amundson
There is a current interest in the development of biodosimetric methods for rapidly assessing radiation exposure in the wake of a large-scale radiological event. This work was initially focused on determining the exposure dose to an individual using biological indicators. Gene expression signatures show promise for biodosimetric application, but little is known about how these signatures might translate for the assessment of radiological injury in radiosensitive individuals, who comprise a significant proportion of the general population, and who would likely require treatment after exposure to lower doses...
May 10, 2018: Radiation Research
X W Mao, M Boerma, D Rodriguez, M Campbell-Beachler, T Jones, S Stanbouly, V Sridharan, A Wroe, G A Nelson
There is concern that degradation of vision as a result of space flight may compromise both mission goals and long-term quality of life after space travel. The visual disturbances may be due to a combination of intracerebral pressure changes and exposure to ionizing radiation. The retina and the retinal vasculature play important roles in vision, yet have not been studied extensively in relationship to space travel and space radiation. The goal of the current study was to characterize oxidative damage and apoptosis in retinal endothelial cells after whole-body gamma-ray, proton and oxygen (16 O) ion radiation exposure at 0...
May 9, 2018: Radiation Research
Michael Farris, Emory R McTyre, Catherine Okoukoni, Greg Dugan, Brendan J Johnson, A William Blackstock, Michael T Munley, J Daniel Bourland, J Mark Cline, Jeffrey S Willey
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is associated with an increased risk of vertebral compression fracture. While bone is typically considered radiation resistant, fractures frequently occur within the first year of SBRT. The goal of this work was to determine if rapid deterioration of bone occurs in vertebrae after irradiation. Sixteen male rhesus macaque non-human primates (NHPs) were analyzed after whole-chest irradiation to a midplane dose of 10 Gy. Ages at the time of exposure varied from 45-134 months...
May 8, 2018: Radiation Research
Igor Koturbash
In addition to the generally accepted potential of ionizing radiation to cause DNA damage, its capability to target the cellular epigenome has become increasingly evident. Epigenetics unifies the chemical marks and molecules that collectively facilitate the proper reading of genetic material. Among the epigenetic mechanisms of regulation, methylation of DNA is known to be the key player in the postirradiation response by controlling the expression of genetic information and activity of transposable elements...
April 26, 2018: Radiation Research
B M Mendes, A V Ferreira, L T C Nascimento, S M Z M D Ferreira, M B Silveira, J B Silva
3'-Deoxy-3-[18 F]fluorothymidine, or [18 F]FLT, is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer used in clinical studies for noninvasive assessment of proliferation activity in several types of cancer. Although the use of this PET tracer is expanding, to date, few studies concerning its dosimetry have been published. In this work, new [18 F]FLT dosimetry estimates are determined for human and mice using Monte Carlo simulations. Modern voxelized male and female phantoms and [18 F]FLT biokinetic data, both published by the ICRP, were used for simulations of human cases...
April 25, 2018: Radiation Research
Jay W Burmeister, Monica W Tracey, Sara E Kacin, Michael M Dominello, Michael C Joiner
The contribution of radiation oncology to the future of cancer treatment depends significantly on our continued clinical progress and future research advancements. Such progress relies on multidisciplinary collaboration among radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiobiologists. Cultivating collaborative educational and research opportunities among these three disciplines and further investing in the infrastructure used to train both clinicians and researchers will therefore help us improve the future of cancer care...
April 25, 2018: Radiation Research
Konstantin A Kudinov, Daniel R Cooper, Jonathan K Ha, Colin K Hill, Jay L Nadeau, Jan P Seuntjens, Stephen E Bradforth
A hybrid of radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proposed in previously reported studies. This approach utilizes scintillating nanoparticles to transfer energy to attached photosensitizers, thus generating singlet oxygen for local killing of malignant cells. Its effectiveness strongly depends upon the scintillation yield of the nanoparticles. Using a liquid scintillator as a reference standard, we estimated the scintillation yield of Ce0.1 La0.9 F3 /LaF3 core/shell nanoparticles at 28.9 mg/ml in water to be 350 photons/MeV under orthovoltage X-ray irradiation...
April 19, 2018: Radiation Research
Kathleen A Ashcraft, Kingshuk Roy Choudhury, Sam R Birer, Hansford C Hendargo, Pranalee Patel, Gary Eichenbaum, Mark W Dewhirst
Vascular injury after radiation exposure contributes to multiple types of tissue injury through a cascade of events. Some of the earliest consequences of radiation damage include increased vascular permeability and promotion of inflammation, which is partially manifested by increased leukocyte-endothelial (L/E) interactions. We describe herein a novel intravital imaging method to evaluate L/E interactions, as a function of shear stress, and vascular permeability at multiple time points after local irradiation to the ear...
April 19, 2018: Radiation Research
Jaimee C Eckers, Adam D Swick, Randall J Kimple
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Radiation Research
Ajda Prevc, Simona Kranjc, Maja Cemazar, Vesna Todorovic, Bojana Zegura, Matjaz Novak, Metka Filipic, Margareta Strojan Flezar, Irena Srebotnik Kirbis, Ana Rotter, Andreja Brozic, Martina Niksic Zakelj, Mario Poljak, Lea Hosnjak, Blaz Groselj, Primoz Strojan, Gregor Sersa
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important etiological factor in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Compared to HPV-negative tumors, HPV-positive oropharyngeal SCC has shown a better response to nonsurgical treatments. In this study, we determined the dose-modifying factors for HPV-positive tumors with single-dose irradiation, with or without low radiosensitizing doses of cisplatin. In vitro, we determined an increased radiosensitivity of HPV-positive SCC, which might be a consequence of HPV-induced changes in the cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response, leading to increased cell death...
April 13, 2018: Radiation Research
Afshin Beheshti, Jack Miller, Yared Kidane, Daniel Berrios, Samrawit G Gebre, Sylvain V Costes
Accurate assessment of risks of long-term space missions is critical for human space exploration. It is essential to have a detailed understanding of the biological effects on humans living and working in deep space. Ionizing radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major health risk factor for astronauts on extended missions outside the protective effects of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently, there are gaps in our knowledge of the health risks associated with chronic low-dose, low-dose-rate ionizing radiation, specifically ions associated with high (H) atomic number (Z) and energy (E)...
April 13, 2018: Radiation Research
Juliann G Kiang, Joan T Smith, Sara R Hegge, Natalia I Ossetrova
Exposure to ionizing radiation is a crucial life-threatening factor in nuclear and radiological incidents. It is known that ionizing radiation affects cytokine/chemokine concentrations in the blood of B6D2F1 mice. It is not clear whether radiation dose rates would vary the physiological response. Therefore, in this study we utilized data from two experiments using B6D2F1 female mice exposed to six different dose rates ranging from low to high rates. In one experiment, mice received a total dose of 8 Gy (LD0/30 ) of 60 Co gamma radiation at four dose rates: 0...
April 13, 2018: Radiation Research
Katherine D Castle, Andrea R Daniel, Everett J Moding, Lixia Luo, Chang-Lung Lee, David G Kirsch
Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation can cause lethal injury to normal tissue, thus inducing acute radiation syndrome. Acute radiation syndrome is caused by depletion of bone marrow cells (hematopoietic syndrome) and irreparable damage to the epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract (gastrointestinal syndrome). Although radiation initiates apoptosis in the hematopoietic and gastrointestinal compartments within the first few hours after exposure, alternative mechanisms of cell death may contribute to injury in these radiosensitive tissues...
April 10, 2018: Radiation Research
Rotem Daudee, Rafi Gonen, Uzi German, Itzhak Orion, Zeev B Alfassi, Esther Priel
In radiation exposure scenarios where physical dosimetry is absent or inefficient, dose estimation must rely on biological markers. A reliable biomarker is of utmost importance in correlating biological system changes with radiation exposure. Human DNA topoisomerase ІB (topo І) is a ubiquitous nuclear enzyme, which is involved in essential cellular processes, including transcription, DNA replication and DNA repair, and is the target of anti-cancer drugs. It has been shown that the cellular activity of this enzyme is significantly sensitive to various DNA lesions, including radiation-induced DNA damages...
April 10, 2018: Radiation Research
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