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Radiation Research

Franck Carbonero, Alba Mayta, Mathilde Bolea, Jiang-Zhou Yu, Matt Lindeblad, Alex Lyubimov, Flavia Neri, Erzsebet Szilagyi, Brett Smith, Lisa Halliday, Amelia Bartholomew
The development of effective biomarkers for detecting the magnitude of radiation exposure and resiliency of host response is crucial to identifying appropriate treatment strategies after radiation exposure. We hypothesized that the gastrointestinal resident bacteria would demonstrate predictable, dose-dependent changes after radiation exposure across two large animal models of acute radiation syndrome. Here, Göttingen minipigs (GMP) (n = 50) and rhesus macaques (n = 48) were exposed to five dose levels (resulting in mortality rates of 33-100% and 25-68...
November 15, 2018: Radiation Research
X W Mao, M Boerma, D Rodriguez, M Campbell-Beachler, T Jones, S Stanbouly, V Sridharan, N C Nishiyama, A Wroe, G A Nelson
The purpose of the current study was to characterize the effects of simulated microgravity and radiation-induced changes in retina and retinal vasculature, and to assess the accompanying early changes in immune cells and hematological parameters. To better understand the effects of spaceflight, we used a combination of treatments designed to simulate both the radiation and low-gravity aspects of space conditions. To simulate the broad energy spectrum of a large solar particle event (SPE) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation, male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation using fully modulated beams of 150-MeV protons containing particles of energy from 0 to 150 MeV and a uniform dose-vs...
November 15, 2018: Radiation Research
J Schuemann, A L McNamara, J W Warmenhoven, N T Henthorn, K Kirkby, M J Merchant, S Ingram, H Paganetti, K D Held, J Ramos-Mendez, B Faddegon, J Perl, D T Goodhead, I Plante, H Rabus, H Nettelbeck, W Friedland, P Kundrát, A Ottolenghi, G Baiocco, S Barbieri, M Dingfelder, S Incerti, C Villagrasa, M Bueno, M A Bernal, S Guatelli, D Sakata, J M C Brown, Z Francis, I Kyriakou, N Lampe, F Ballarini, M P Carante, M Davídková, V Štěpán, X Jia, F A Cucinotta, R Schulte, R D Stewart, D J Carlson, S Galer, Z Kuncic, S Lacombe, J Milligan, S H Cho, G Sawakuchi, T Inaniwa, T Sato, W Li, A V Solov'yov, E Surdutovich, M Durante, K M Prise, S J McMahon
Our understanding of radiation-induced cellular damage has greatly improved over the past few decades. Despite this progress, there are still many obstacles to fully understand how radiation interacts with biologically relevant cellular components, such as DNA, to cause observable end points such as cell killing. Damage in DNA is identified as a major route of cell killing. One hurdle when modeling biological effects is the difficulty in directly comparing results generated by members of different research groups...
November 8, 2018: Radiation Research
Jessica S Jewell, Vania D Duncan, Arriyam Fesshaye, Abigail Tondin, Evangeline Macadat, Richard A Britten
On future missions into deep space, astronauts will be required to work more autonomously than on previous missions, and thus their ability to perform executive functions could be critical to mission success. In this study, we determined the effect that ≤15 cGy of 600 MeV/n 56 Fe particles has on attentional set-shifting (ATSET) performance of ∼10 month-old-rats (at the time of irradiation) male Wistar rats that had been prescreened for their ability to perform the task. Exposure to 1-15 cGy of 56 Fe particles leads to a significant impairment in compound discrimination (CD) performance...
November 8, 2018: Radiation Research
Per Fessé, Fredrik Qvarnström, Jan Nyman, Ingegerd Hermansson, Johan Ahlgren, Ingela Turesson
To date, the response activated in melanocytes by repeated genotoxic insults from radiotherapy has not been explored. We hypothesized that the molecular pathways involved in the response of melanocytes to ionizing radiation and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are similar. Skin punch biopsies, not sun-exposed, were collected from prostate cancer patients before, as well as at 1 and 6.5 weeks after daily doses of 0.05-1.1 Gy. Interfollicular melanocytes were identified by ΔNp63- and eosin-periodic acid Schiff staining...
November 8, 2018: Radiation Research
Michael N Cornforth, Bradford D Loucas
Most of the important biological effects associated with the exposure to ionizing radiations are mirrored at the chromosomal level. In all cases, changes in the levels of cytogenetic effects are associated with changes in absorbed dose, dose rate and radiation quality. Some of the complexities associated with the quantitative description of such changes in response can be circumvented by appealing to concepts embodied in what has been called the "mean inactivation dose". Additional metrics designed to provide LET-dependent "signatures" of damage have been employed with moderate degrees of success...
November 8, 2018: Radiation Research
Donasian O Ochola, Rabab Sharif, Joel S Bedford, Thomas J Keefe, Takamitsu A Kato, Christina M Fallgren, Peter Demant, Sylvain V Costes, Michael M Weil
The risk of developing radiation-induced lung cancer differs between different strains of mice, but the underlying cause of the strain differences is unknown. Strains of mice also differ in how quickly they repair radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We assayed mouse strains from the CcS/Dem recombinant congenic strain set for their efficacy in repairing DNA DSBs during protracted radiation irradiation. We measured unrepaired γ-H2AX radiation-induced foci (RIF), which persisted after chronic 24-h gamma irradiation, as a surrogate marker for repair efficiency in bronchial epithelial cells for 17 of the CcS/Dem strains and the BALB/c founder strain...
November 6, 2018: Radiation Research
Frank de Vocht, Anthony Riddell, Richard Wakeford, Hanhua Liu, David MacGregor, Christine Wilson, Mark Peace, Jacqueline O'Hagan, Raymond Agius
Plutonium is a radiologically significant alpha-particle emitter. The potential for adverse health effects from internal exposures due to plutonium intakes has been recognized since the 1940s. The workforce of the Sellafield nuclear facility (Cumbria, UK), includes one of the world's most important groups of plutonium-exposed workers for studying the potential health risks of this internal exposure. However, for several hundred workers employed at the start of plutonium work at the facility (1952-1963), historical monitoring records based on measurements of urinary excretion of plutonium are not sufficiently reliable to provide the accurate and unbiased exposure assessments needed for epidemiological studies...
November 6, 2018: Radiation Research
Matthew S Alexander, Brianne R O'Leary, Justin G Wilkes, Adrienne R Gibson, Brett A Wagner, Juan Du, Ehab Sarsour, Rosa F Hwang, Garry R Buettner, Joseph J Cullen
Pharmacologic ascorbate (P-AscH- ) is emerging as a promising adjuvant for advanced pancreatic cancer. P-AscH- generates hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), leading to selective cancer cell cytotoxicity. Catalytic manganoporphyrins, such as MnT4MPyP, can increase the rate of oxidation of P-AscH- , thereby increasing the flux of H2 O2 , resulting in increased cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that a multimodal treatment approach, utilizing a combination of P-AscH- , ionizing radiation and MnT4MPyP, would result in significant flux of H2 O2 and pancreatic cancer cytotoxicity...
October 30, 2018: Radiation Research
Yueming Li, Dandan Lin, Youliang Weng, Shuping Weng, Chuan Yan, Xuru Xu, Jianwei Chen, Rongping Ye, Jinsheng Hong
In this study, we sought to determine how diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) features are associated with histopathological results, and explored the cellular mechanisms of DWI and 1 H-MRS in early radiosensitivity of transplanted liver tumors. VX2 tumors were implanted into the hind leg muscles of 60 New Zealand White Rabbits. All rabbits were randomly divided into ten subgroups according to treatment: irradiated or nonirradiated and according to different times postirradiation...
October 30, 2018: Radiation Research
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October 19, 2018: Radiation Research
Joy Garrett, Carol H Sampson, P Artur Plett, Robin Crisler, Jeffrey Parker, Richard Venezia, Hui Lin Chua, Debra L Hickman, Catherine Booth, Thomas MacVittie, Christie M Orschell, Joseph R Dynlacht
Several investigators performing bone marrow transplantation studies have previously reported sporadic increases in mortality that were associated with pronounced swelling in the face, head and neck of mice. Over the past few years, we and others have noted an increasing number of experiments in which mice that have received total-body irradiation (TBI) or partial-body irradiation (PBI) develop swollen muzzles, drastic thickening of the upper lip and redness, bruising and/or swelling around the nose and muzzle and sometimes over the top of the head...
October 19, 2018: Radiation Research
Vijayalaxmi, Thomas J Prihoda
There have been numerous published studies reporting on the extent of genetic damage observed in animal and human cells exposed in vitro and in vivo to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields (RF, electromagnetic waves that carry energy as they propagate in air and dense media). Overall, the data are inconsistent; while some studies have suggested significantly increased damage in cells exposed to RF energy compared to unexposed and/or sham-exposed control cells, others have not. Several variables in exposure conditions used in the experiments might have contributed to the controversy...
October 19, 2018: Radiation Research
Iulia Hanczarek, Aaron J Kenna, Chris Lindensmith, Jay Nadeau
We investigated the performance of several commonly used fluorescent dyes after exposure to a simulated Europa mission total ionizing radiation dose of 300 krad (3 kGy) applied using a 60 Co source. Dyes irradiated in aqueous solution or as lyophilized powders were evaluated for absorbance and emission spectra, quantum yield, and where appropriate, ability to label cells or nucleic acids. Although some dyes showed significant increase or decrease in quantum yield with the dose, their spectra and cell-labeling properties remained essentially unchanged after irradiation in powder form...
October 16, 2018: Radiation Research
Kentaro Ariyoshi, Tomisato Miura, Kosuke Kasai, Nakata Akifumi, Yohei Fujishima, Mitsuaki A Yoshida
Age at exposure is a critical factor that influences the risk of radiation-induced leukemia. Accumulating evidence suggests that ionizing radiation can induce genomic instability and promote leukemogenesis in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); however, the influence of age on this phenomenon has not been elucidated. In this study, infant (1-week-old) or adult (14-week-old) C3H/He mice received sham or 4 Gy whole-body irradiation, and bone marrow cells were transplanted to recipients at day 1 or 60 postirradiation...
October 12, 2018: Radiation Research
XiangHong Li, Wanchang Cui, Lisa Hull, Joan T Smith, Juliann G Kiang, Mang Xiao
In this study, we investigated the effects of low-to-moderate doses of radiation in mice, given our limited understanding of the health risks associated with these exposures. Here, we demonstrate the different responses of the CD2F1 mouse hematopoietic system to low-to-moderate (0.5, 1, 3 or 5 Gy) doses of gamma radiation. After 3 and 5 Gy of 60 Co total-body irradiation (TBI), mouse blood cell counts were decreased and maintained below baseline up to 28-42 days. In contrast, after 0.5 Gy TBI, lymphocyte and monocyte counts increased, and peaked from day 3 to day 14...
October 12, 2018: Radiation Research
Paul W Price, Andrea L DiCarlo
Increasingly, the risk of a radiological or nuclear public health emergency is a major concern for the U.S. government. To address a potential incident and ensure that the U.S. Government is prepared to respond to any civilian or military casualties that could result, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), together with the Department of Defense, has been charged with the development of medical countermeasures (MCMs) to treat individuals experiencing acute and delayed injuries that can result from exposure to radiation...
October 3, 2018: Radiation Research
Anne-Marie Lemay, Christina K Haston
Inbred strains of mice differ in susceptibility to both radiation-induced and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and these traits have been mapped to a common locus on chromosome 6 which harbors genes of natural killer cell function. To investigate this putative locus of fibrosis susceptibility we assessed the fibrotic response of chromosome-6 consomic mice (B6.6A), and of mice deficient for natural killer cells, C57BL/6J Ly49A transgenic mice, after each of thoracic irradiation and bleomycin treatment via osmotic minipump...
October 2, 2018: Radiation Research
Haibo Zhang, Chao Wan, Jing Huang, Chensu Yang, You Qin, Yanwei Lu, Jia Ma, Bian Wu, Shuangbing Xu, Gang Wu, Kunyu Yang
Hypofractionated radiotherapy is a new and highly effective mode of radiation therapy. For this study we used biologically equivalent dose (BED), the dose required to give the same log cell kill as the schedule being studied. BED has been widely accepted to transform its dose to conventionally fractionated ones. However, actual differential effects beyond the clone-forming ability between hypofractionation and conventional radiation treatment remain unknown. We hypothesize that hypofractionation has some advantages over conventional treatment in in vitro radiobiology, excluding influences of the tumor microenvironment in angiogenesis and potential immune-stimulatory effects...
September 20, 2018: Radiation Research
Jayne Moquet, Manuel Higueras, Ellen Donovan, Sue Boyle, Stephen Barnard, Clare Bricknell, Mingzhu Sun, Lone Gothard, Grainne O'Brien, Lourdes Cruz-Garcia, Christophe Badie, Elizabeth Ainsbury, Navita Somaiah
The RTGene study was focused on the development and validation of new transcriptional biomarkers for prediction of individual radiotherapy patient responses to ionizing radiation. In parallel, for validation purposes, this study incorporated conventional biomarkers of radiation exposure, including the dicentric assay. Peripheral blood samples were taken with ethical approval and informed consent from a total of 20 patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy for breast, lung, gastrointestinal or genitourinary tumors...
September 20, 2018: Radiation Research
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