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Radiation Research

Brianne R O'Leary, Frederick K Houwen, Chase L Johnson, Bryan G Allen, James J Mezhir, Daniel J Berg, Joseph J Cullen, Douglas R Spitz
Gastric adenocarcinoma most often presents at an advanced stage and overall five-year survival of ∼30%. Pharmacological ascorbate (high-dose IV ascorbate) has been proposed as a promising nontoxic adjuvant to standard radio-chemotherapies in several cancer types. In the current study, pharmacological ascorbate (0.5-2 m M) caused a dose-dependent decrease (70-85% at 2 m M) in clonogenic survival of gastric adenocarcinoma cells (AGS and MNK-45), but was relatively nontoxic to a small intestinal epithelial nonimmortalized human cell isolate (FHs 74 Int)...
March 16, 2018: Radiation Research
G Satta, N Mascia, T Serra, A Salis, L Saba, S Sanna, M G Zucca, E Angelucci, A Gabbas, F Culurgioni, P Pili, E Mura, M Cappai, M G Ennas, P Cocco
We investigated the association between environmental exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and risk of lymphoma subtypes in a case-control study comprised of 322 patients and 444 individuals serving as controls in Sardinia, Italy in 1998-2004. Questionnaire information included the self-reported distance of the three longest held residential addresses from fixed radio-television transmitters and mobile phone base stations. We georeferenced the residential addresses of all study subjects and obtained the spatial coordinates of mobile phone base stations...
March 16, 2018: Radiation Research
Olivier Grémy, Laurent Miccoli, Faustine Lelan, Sandra Bohand, Michel Cherel, Marie Mougin-Degraef
In this study, we assessed the efficacy of unilamellar 110-nm liposomes encapsulating the chelating agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in plutonium-exposed rats. Rats were contaminated by intravenous administration of the soluble citrate form of plutonium. The comparative effects of liposomal and free DTPA at similar doses were examined in terms of limitation of alpha activity burden in rats receiving various treatment regimens. Liposomal DTPA given at 1 h after contamination more significantly prevented the accumulation of plutonium in tissues than did free DTPA...
March 12, 2018: Radiation Research
John A Cook, Sarwat Naz, Miriam R Anver, Anastasia L Sowers, Kristin Fabre, Murali C Krishna, James B Mitchell
Amifostine is a potent antioxidant that protects against ionizing radiation effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Amifostine administered before total-body irradiation (TBI), at a drug dose that protects against TBI lethality, for potential protection against radiation-induced late effects such as a shortened lifespan and cancer. Three groups of mice were studied: 0 Gy control; 10.8 Gy TBI with Amifostine pretreatment; and 5.4 Gy TBI alone. Animals were monitored for their entire lifespan. The median survival times for mice receiving 0, 5...
March 12, 2018: Radiation Research
Andreas Lamkowski, Matthias Kreitlow, Jörg Radunz, Martin Willenbockel, Frank Sabath, Winfried Schuhn, Marcus Stiemer, Lars Ole Fichte, Michael Dudzinski, Sebastian Böhmelt, Reinhard Ullmann, Matthäus Majewski, Valeria Franchini, Stefan Ede, Alexis Rump, Matthias Port, Michael Abend
Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) are a basic requirement of modern wireless communication technology. Statutory thresholds of RF-EMF are established to limit relevant additional heat supply in human tissue. Nevertheless, to date, questions concerning nonthermal biological effects have yet to be fully addressed. New versions of microarrays (8 × 60K v2) provide a higher resolution of whole genome gene expression to display adaptive processes in cells after irradiation. In this ex vivo/ in vitro study, we irradiated peripheral blood cells from five donors with a continuous wave of 900 MHz RF-EMF for 0, 30, 60 and 90 min...
March 6, 2018: Radiation Research
Luděk Vyšín, Tomáš Burian, Egor Ukraintsev, Marie Davídková, Michael E Grisham, Scott Heinbuch, Jorge J Rocca, Libor Juha
In this study, we examined dose-rate effects on strand break formation in plasmid DNA induced by pulsed extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation. Dose delivered to the target molecule was controlled by attenuating the incident photon flux using aluminum filters as well as by changing the DNA/buffer-salt ratio in the irradiated sample. Irradiated samples were examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Yields of single- and double-strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs) were determined as a function of the incident photon fluence...
March 5, 2018: Radiation Research
M Port, B Pieper, H D Dörr, A Hübsch, M Majewski, M Abend
The degree of severity of hematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS) may vary across the range of radiation doses, such that dose alone may be a less reliable predictor of clinical course. We sought to elucidate the relationship between absorbed dose and risk of clinically relevant HARS in humans. We used the database SEARCH (System for Evaluation and Archiving of Radiation Accidents based on Case Histories), which contains the histories of radiation accident victims. From 153 cases we extracted data on dose estimates using the dicentric assay to measure individual biological dosimetry...
March 1, 2018: Radiation Research
T V Azizova, E Batistatou, E S Grigorieva, R McNamee, R Wakeford, H Liu, F de Vocht, R M Agius
Mortality from circulatory disease (CD), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) was investigated in relationship to cumulative doses of external gamma radiation and internal alpha radiation to the liver from deposited plutonium over long follow-up periods in two large cohorts of nuclear workers: the Russian Mayak Worker Cohort (MWC) and the UK Sellafield Worker Cohort (SWC). The MWC comprised 22,374 workers (74.6% males) with 5,123 CD deaths registered during 842,538 person-years of follow-up, while the SWC comprised 23,443 workers (87...
March 1, 2018: Radiation Research
Samantha J Van Nest, Leah M Nicholson, Lindsay DeVorkin, Alexandre G Brolo, Julian J Lum, Andrew Jirasek
Radiation therapy plays a crucial role in the management of breast cancer. However, current standards of care have yet to accommodate patient-specific radiation sensitivity. Raman spectroscopy is promising for applications in radiobiological studies and as a technique for personalized radiation oncology, since it can detect spectral changes in irradiated tissues. In this study, we used established Raman spectroscopic approaches to investigate the biochemical nature and temporal evolution of spectral changes in human breast adenocarcinoma xenografts after in vivo irradiation...
February 23, 2018: Radiation Research
Masaki Nagane, M Lakshmi Kuppusamy, Jennifer An, Jesse M Mast, Rajan Gogna, Hironobu Yasui, Tohru Yamamori, Osamu Inanami, Periannan Kuppusamy
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), a constitutive enzyme expressed in vascular endothelial cells, is the main source of nitric oxide (NO), which plays key roles in diverse biological functions, including regulation of vascular tone. Exposure to radiation has been known to generate nitric oxide from eNOS; however, the precise mechanism of its generation and function is not known. The goal of this study was to determine the involvement of radiation-induced DNA damage response (DDR) on eNOS transcription and its effect on cell survival after irradiation...
February 23, 2018: Radiation Research
Jeffrey R Whiteaker, Lei Zhao, Rick Saul, Jan A Kaczmarczyk, Regine M Schoenherr, Heather D Moore, Corey Jones-Weinert, Richard G Ivey, Chenwei Lin, Tara Hiltke, Kerryn W Reding, Gordon Whiteley, Pei Wang, Amanda G Paulovich
A lack of analytically robust and multiplexed assays has hampered studies of the large, branched phosphosignaling network responsive to DNA damage. To address this need, we developed and fully analytically characterized a 62-plex assay quantifying protein expression and post-translational modification (phosphorylation and ubiquitination) after induction of DNA damage. The linear range was over 3 orders of magnitude, the median inter-assay variability was 10% CV and the vast majority (∼85%) of assays were stable after extended storage...
February 23, 2018: Radiation Research
Paula Boaventura, Cecília Durães, Adélia Mendes, Natália Rios Costa, Inês Chora, Sara Ferreira, Emanuel Araújo, Pedro Lopes, Gilberto Rosa, Pedro Marques, Sofia Tavares, Vanessa Chaves, Paulo Bettencourt, Inês Oliveira, Francisco Costa, Isabel Ramos, Maria José Teles, João Tiago Guimarães, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, Paula Soares
Nontargeted late effects of radiation include an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, although this is still debatable in the context of low-dose radiation. Tinea capitis patients treated in childhood with X rays to induce scalp epilation received a low dose of radiation to their carotids. To better clarify this issue, we evaluated carotid atherosclerosis in a cohort of such patients treated in 1950-1963 in Portugal. A group of 454 individuals randomly chosen from previously observed Portuguese tinea capitis patients and a control group mainly composed of their spouses (n = 280) were enrolled...
February 20, 2018: Radiation Research
K C M Gulay, I B Tanaka, J Komura, S Tanaka
Pregnant C57BL/6JJcl mice were exposed to γ rays at low dose rate (20 mGy/day, LDR) or medium dose rate (200 and 400 mGy/day, MDR) from gestation day (GD) 0-18 to total accumulated doses of 360, 3,600 and 7,200 mGy, respectively. An additional group of pregnant mice were acutely exposed to 2 Gy at high dose rate (HDR) of 0.77 Gy/min on GD 11. In experiment 1, fetuses collected via cesarean section on GD 18 were examined for external and skeletal abnormalities. While the results of LDR exposure (20 mGy/day) did not significantly differ from the nonirradiated controls in all parameters examined, MDR (200 and 400 mGy/day) and acute HDR (2 Gy) exposure caused growth retardation and significantly increased incidence of unossified bones...
February 13, 2018: Radiation Research
Nan Yu, Sinian Wang, Xiujun Song, Ling Gao, Wei Li, Huijie Yu, Chuanchuan Zhou, Zhenxia Wang, Fengsheng Li, Qisheng Jiang
For dendritic cells (DCs) to initiate an immune response, their ability to migrate and to produce interleukin-12 (IL-12) is crucial. It has been previously shown that low-dose radiation (LDR) promoted IL-12 production by DCs, resulting in increased DC activity that contributed to LDR hormesis in the immune system. However, the molecular mechanism of LDR-induced IL-12 production, as well as the effect of LDR on DC migration capacity require further elucidation. Using the JAWSII immortalized mouse dendritic cell line, we showed that in vitro X-ray irradiation (0...
February 8, 2018: Radiation Research
R Tamarat, M Benderitter, J R Jourdain, B W Maidment, F Macchiarini, C I Rios, A L DiCarlo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Radiation Research
L Struelens, J Dabin, E Carinou, P Askounis, O Ciraj-Bjelac, J Domienik-Andrzejewska, D Berus, R Padovani, J Farah, P Covens
This study describes the retrospective lens dose calculation methods developed and applied within the European epidemiological study on radiation-induced lens opacities among interventional cardiologists. While one approach focuses on self-reported data regarding working practice in combination with available procedure-specific eye lens dose values, the second approach focuses on the conversion of the individual whole-body dose to eye lens dose. In contrast with usual dose reconstruction methods within an epidemiological study, a protocol is applied resulting in an individual distribution of possible cumulative lens doses for each recruited cardiologist, rather than a single dose estimate...
February 6, 2018: Radiation Research
M Port, M Majewski, F Herodin, M Valente, M Drouet, F Forcheron, A Tichy, I Sirak, A Zavrelova, A Malkova, B V Becker, D A Veit, S Waldeck, C Badie, G O'Brien, H Christiansen, J Wichmann, M Eder, G Beutel, J Vachelova, S Doucha-Senf, M Abend
The research for high-throughput diagnostic tests for victims of radio/nuclear incidents remains ongoing. In this context, we have previously identified candidate genes that predict risk of late-occurring hematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS) in a baboon model. The goal of the current study was to validate these genes after radiation exposure in humans. We also examined ex vivo relative to in vivo measurements in both species and describe dose-response relationships. Eighteen baboons were irradiated in vivo to simulate different patterns of partial- or total-body irradiation (TBI), corresponding to an equivalent dose of 2...
January 26, 2018: Radiation Research
Huguette Albrecht, Hsin-Ya Yang, Maija Kiuru, Saipiroon Maksaereekul, Blythe Durbin-Johnson, Michael S Wong, Thomas R Stevenson, David M Rocke, R Rivkah Isseroff
In a scenario involving a nuclear detonation during war or a terrorist attack, acute radiation exposure combined with thermal and blast effects results in severe skin injury. Although the cutaneous injury in such a scenario may not be lethal, it may lead to inflammation, delayed wound healing and loss of the skin barrier, resulting in an increased risk of infection. In this study, we tested the potential use of timolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, to improve epidermal wound closure after combined burn and radiation injury using an ex vivo human skin culture model...
January 26, 2018: Radiation Research
Arif Ali Chishti, Christa Baumstark-Khan, Kristina Koch, Waldemar Kolanus, Sebastian Feles, Bikash Konda, Abid Azhar, Luis F Spitta, Bernd Henschenmacher, Sebastian Diegeler, Claudia Schmitz, Christine E Hellweg
Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) is a central transcription factor in the immune system and modulates cell survival in response to radiotherapy. Activation of NF-κB was shown to be an early step in the cellular response to ultraviolet A (UVA) and ionizing radiation exposure in human cells. NF-κB activation by the genotoxic stress-dependent sub-pathway after exposure to different radiation qualities had been evaluated to a very limited extent. In addition, the resulting gene expression profile, which shapes the cellular and tissue response, is unknown...
January 25, 2018: Radiation Research
Dhruv Kumar, Sreeya Yalamanchali, Jacob New, Sean Parsel, Natalie New, Andrew Holcomb, Sumedha Gunewardena, Ossama Tawfik, Chris Lominska, Bruce F Kimler, Shrikant Anant, Kiran Kakarala, Terance Tsue, Yelizaveta Shnayder, Kevin Sykes, Subhash Padhye, Sufi Mary Thomas
Radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is a major side effect of radiotherapy in cancer patients with no effective therapeutic options. RIF involves excess deposition and aberrant remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to stiffness in tissues and organ failure. Development of preclinical models of RIF is crucial to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating fibrosis and to develop therapeutic approaches. In addition to radiation, the main molecular perpetrators of fibrotic reactions are cytokines, including transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)...
January 19, 2018: Radiation Research
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