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Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology

Stuart A Newman, Tilmann Glimm, Ramray Bhat
The paired appendages (fins or limbs) of jawed vertebrates contain an endoskeleton consisting of nodules, bars and, in some groups, plates of cartilage, or bone arising from replacement of cartilaginous templates. The generation of the endoskeletal elements occurs by processes involving production and diffusion of morphogens, with, variously, positive and negative feedback circuits, adhesion, and receptor dynamics with similarities to the mechanism for chemical pattern formation proposed by Alan Turing. This review presents a unified interpretation of the evolution and functioning of these mechanisms...
January 8, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Maria Grazia Masiello, Roberto Verna, Alessandra Cucina, Mariano Bizzarri
Data obtained by studying mammalian cells in absence of gravity strongly support the notion that cell fate specification cannot be understood according to the current molecular model. A paradigmatic case in point is provided by studying cell populations growing in absence of gravity. When the physical constraint (gravity) is 'experimentally removed', cells spontaneously allocate into two morphologically different phenotypes. Such phenomenon is likely enacted by the intrinsic stochasticity, which, in turn, is successively 'canalized' by a specific gene regulatory network...
January 4, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Oksana Polesskaya, Vadim Guschin, Nikolay Kondratev, Irina Garanina, Olga Nazarenko, Nelli Zyryanova, Alexey Tovmash, Abraham Mara, Tatiana Shapiro, Elena Erdyneeva, Yue Zhao, Eugenia Kananykhina, Max Myakishev-Rempel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 30, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Adrian Weber, Pok Man Boris Chan, Chunyi Wen
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a whole-joint disorder, and non-cartilage articular pathologies, e.g. subchondral bone disturbance, contribute substantially to the onset and progression of the disease. In the early stage of OA, abnormal mechanical loading leads to micro-cracks or micro-fractures that trigger a reparative process with angiogenesis and inflammatory response. With the progression of disease, cystic lesion, sclerosis and osteophytosis occur at tissue level, and osteoblast dysfunction at cellular level. Osteoblasts derived from OA sclerotic bone produce increased amount of type I collagen with aberrant Col1A1/A2 ratio and poor mineralization capability...
December 22, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Haitao Yu, Lili Jiang, Bo Wan, Wei Zhang, Chao Gan, Na Su, Jinchun He, Jintian Huang, Kaiyun Zhang, Yiheng Zhang
Bone remodeling is a persistent process for maintaining skeletal system homeostasis, and it depends on the dynamic equilibrium between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), a ligand-activated transcription factor, plays a pivotal role in regulating skeletal system. In order to better understand the role of Ahr in bone remodeling, we focused on bone remodeling characteristic, and the effects of Ahr on bone formation and differentiation, which suggest that Ahr is a critical control factor in the process of bone remodeling...
December 22, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
J S Torday, William B Miller
Recent advances in our understanding of evolutionary development permit a reframed appraisal of Terminal Addition as a continuous historical process of cellular-environmental complementarity. Within this frame of reference, evolutionary terminal additions can be identified as environmental induction of episodic adjustments to cell-cell signaling patterns that yield the cellular-molecular pathways that lead to differing developmental forms. Phenotypes derive, thereby, through cellular mutualistic/competitive niche constructions in reciprocating responsiveness to environmental biophysical stresses and epigenetic impacts...
December 19, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Clifford Chafin, Domenico De Falco, John S Torday
Contrary to claims that physics is timeless while biology is time-dependent, we take the opposite standpoint: physical systems' dynamics are constrained by the arrow of time, while living assemblies are time-independent. Indeed, the concepts of "constraints" and "displacements" shed new light on the role of continuous time flow in life evolution, allowing us to sketch a physical gauge theory for biological systems in long timescales. In the very short timescales of biological systems' individual lives, time looks like "frozen" and "fixed", so that the second law of thermodynamics is momentarily wrecked...
December 9, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Corrado Spadafora
Epigenetics is increasingly regarded as a potential contributing factor to evolution. Building on apparently unrelated results, here I propose that RNA-containing nanovesicles, predominantly small regulatory RNAs, are released from somatic tissues in the bloodstream, cross the Weismann barrier, reach the epididymis, and are eventually taken up by spermatozoa; henceforth the information is delivered to oocytes at fertilization. In the model, a LINE-1-encoded reverse transcriptase activity, present in spermatozoa and early embryos, plays a key role in amplifying and propagating these RNAs as extrachromosomal structures...
December 6, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Ye Zeng, Xiaoheng Liu, Zhiping Yan, Linshen Xie
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) plays important role in hepatocarcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated that S1P induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells via an MMP-7/Syndecan-1/TGF-β autocrine loop. In the present study, we investigated the regulation role of S1P in cell survival and progression of HCC cells, and tested whether syndecan-1 is required in the S1P action. After transfected with syndecan-1 shRNA, HepG2 and SMMC7721 cells were treated with S1P for 72 h, and then cell proliferation was detected by CCK8 assay, and cell cycle progression and cell apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry...
November 24, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
William B Miller
An alternative biological synthesis is presented that conceptualizes evolutionary biology as an epiphenomenon of integrated self-referential information management. Since all biological information has inherent ambiguity, the systematic assessment of information is required by living organisms to maintain self-identity and homeostatic equipoise in confrontation with environmental challenges. Through their self-referential attachment to information space, cells are the cornerstone of biological action. That individualized assessment of information space permits self-referential, self-organizing niche construction...
November 22, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Prashant K Singh, Naseer Iqbal, Harsh V Sirohi, Hridoy R Bairagya, Punit Kaur, Sujata Sharma, Tej P Singh
The mammalian heme peroxidases including lactoperoxidase (LPO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) contain a covalently linked heme moiety. Initially, it was believed that the heme group was fully cross-linked to protein molecule through at least two ester linkages involving conserved glutamate and aspartate residues with 1-methyl and 5-methyl groups of pyrrole rings A and C respectively. In MPO, an additional sulfonium ion linkage was present between 2-vinyl group of pyrrole ring A of the heme moiety and a methionine residue of the protein...
November 21, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Wenguang Li
Human saphenous vein has long been used as coronary artery bypass grafts to survive a heart arrested by blocked coronary arteries. Biomechanical properties of the saphenous vein can be critical because mismatch in the biomechanical property between a coronary artery and a graft will reduce graft patency and speed up disease development in the graft. In this paper hence the active and passive biomechanical behaviours of the human saphenous vein and other venous walls were reviewed extensively and comprehensively...
November 18, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Sahar E Abo-Neima
Cancer treatment is one of the main challenges that face the scientific centers all over the world. The cancer incidence percentage increases year after year. The most used treatment for cancer is chemotherapy which is an application of systemic cytotoxic drug inside the patient. There are two main problems in chemotherapy that the cytotoxic drug is given systematically and cannot be localized in the tumor region in most cases that lead to killing the cancer cells as well as normal cells; and that cause the chemotherapy side effects like anemia, decrease in all blood cells count and platelets, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair and nails loss and may cause a kind of blood toxicity...
November 14, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Mohammad Bayat, Amarjit Virdi, Fatemehalsadat Rezaei, Sufan Chien
To compare the in vitro effectiveness of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) on bony cells and related stem cells. In this study, we aim to systematically review the published scientific literature which explores the use of LLLT and LIPUS to biostimulate the activity or the proliferation of bony cells or stem cells in vitro. We searched the database PubMed for LLLT or LIPUS, with/without bone, osteoblast, osteocyte, stem cells, the human osteosarcoma cell line (MG63), bone-forming cells, and cell culture (or in vitro)...
November 8, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
A unifying principle underlies the organization of physical and biological systems. It relates to a well-known topological theorem which succinctly states that an activity on a planar circumference projects to two activities with "matching description" into a sphere. Here we ask: what does "matching description" mean? Has it something to do with "identity"? Going through different formulations of the principle of identity, we describe diverse possible meanings of the term "matching description". We demonstrate that the concepts of "sameness", "equality", "belonging together" stand for intertwined levels with mutual interactions...
October 31, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Plamen L Simeonov, Arran Gare, Koichiro Matsuno, Abir U Igamberdiev, Denis Noble
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Hutan Ashrafian
Several temporal paradoxes exist in physics. These include General Relativity's grandfather and ontological paradoxes and Special Relativity's Langevin-Einstein twin-paradox. General relativity paradoxes can exist due to a Gödel universe that follows Gödel's closed timelike curves solution to Einstein's field equations. A novel biological temporal paradox of General Relativity is proposed based on reproductive biology's phenomenon of heteropaternal fecundation. Herein, dizygotic twins from two different fathers are the result of concomitant fertilization during one menstrual cycle...
October 25, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Xin Tian, Yun-Ren Qiu
Hydrophilic material 2-methoxyethylacrylate (MEA) was grafted onto polyurethane (PU) membrane via Michael addition reaction. Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterizations of the modified membrane proved that MEA had been successfully grafted onto PU membrane surface. The water contact angle of membrane materials was tested. The results showed that the water contact angle changed from 86° to 48°, which means that the hydrophilicity of the modified membrane was greatly improved...
October 24, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
T R Robinson, E Haven, A M Fry
The set of natural numbers may be identified with the spectrum of eigenvalues of an operator (quantum counting), and the dynamical equations of populations of discrete, countable items may be formulated using operator methods. These equations take the form of time dependent operator equations, involving Hamiltonian operators, from which the statistical time dependence of population numbers may be determined. The quantum operator method is illustrated by a novel approach to cell population dynamics. This involves Hamiltonians that mimic the process of stimulated cell division...
November 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Taiki Takahashi
Human decision making has recently been focused in the emerging fields of quantum decision theory and neuroeconomics. The former discipline utilizes mathematical formulations developed in quantum theory, while the latter combines behavioral economics and neurobiology. In this paper, the author speculates on possible future directions unifying the two approaches, by contrasting the roles of quantum theory in the birth of molecular biology of the gene.
November 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
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