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Plant Physiology

Tom Schreiber, Anja Prange, Alain F Tissier
Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are bacterial Type-III effector proteins from phytopathogenic Xanthomonas species that act as transcription factors in plants. The modular DNA-binding domain of TALEs can be reprogrammed to target nearly any DNA sequence. Here we design and optimize a two-component AND gate system for synthetic circuits in plants based on TALEs. In this system, named split-TALE (sTALE), the TALE DNA binding domain and the transcription activation domain are separated and each fused to protein interacting domains (IDs)...
January 14, 2019: Plant Physiology
Michael E Pyne, Lauren Narcross, Vincent J J Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2019: Plant Physiology
Suresh Varsani, Sajjan Grover, Shaoqun Zhou, Kyle G Koch, Pei-Cheng Huang, Mike V Kolomiets, W Paul Williams, Tiffany Heng-Moss, Gautam Sarath, Dawn S Luthe, Georg Jander, Joe Louis
The corn leaf aphid (CLA; Rhopalosiphum maidis) is a phloem sap-sucking insect that attacks many cereal crops, including maize (Zea mays). We previously showed that maize inbred line Mp708, which was developed by classical plant breeding, provides enhanced resistance to CLA. Using electrophysiological monitoring of aphid feeding behavior, we demonstrate here that Mp708 provides phloem-mediated resistance to CLA. Furthermore, feeding by CLA on Mp708 plants enhanced callose deposition, a potential defense mechanism utilized by plants to limit aphid feeding and subsequent colonization...
January 14, 2019: Plant Physiology
R Clay Wright, Jennifer Nemhauser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2019: Plant Physiology
Jeremy B Jewell, Joel M Sowders, Ruifeng He, Mark A Willis, David R Gang, Kiwamu Tanaka
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is not only an essential metabolite of cellular biochemistry, but also acts as a signal in the extracellular milieu. In plants, extracellular ATP is monitored by the purinergic receptor P2K1. Recent studies have revealed that extracellular ATP acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern in plants, and its signaling through P2K1 is important for mounting an effective defense response against various pathogenic microorganisms. Biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens attack plants using different strategies, to which plants respond accordingly with salicylate-based or jasmonate/ethylene-based defensive signaling, respectively...
January 10, 2019: Plant Physiology
Martin Km Engqvist, Kersten S Rabe
Protein engineering and directed evolution are powerful technologies for probing protein sequence-function relationships. These methods have been used to engineer both plant-derived proteins and exogenous proteins heterologously expressed in plants. In this review we aim to further increase the interdisciplinary cross-over between the disciplines of protein engineering and plant biology by first introducing protein engineering in some detail. This introduction is key to understanding current limitations to protein engineering when applied to plants...
January 9, 2019: Plant Physiology
Aymeric Roccia, Laurence Hibrand-Saint Oyant, Emilie Cavel, Jean-Claude Caissard, Jana Machenaud, Tatiana Thouroude, Julien Jeauffre, Aurélie Bony, Annick Dubois, Philippe Vergne, Judit Szecsi, Fabrice Foucher, Mohammed Bendahmane, Sylvie Baudino
Floral scent is one of the most important characters in horticultural plants. Roses (Rosa sp.) have been cultivated for their scent since antiquity. However, probably by selecting for cultivars with long vase life, breeders have lost the fragrant character in many modern roses, especially the ones bred for the cut flower market. Genetic inheritance of scent characters has remained elusive so far. In-depth knowledge of this quantitative trait is thus very much needed to breed more fragrant commercial cultivars...
January 8, 2019: Plant Physiology
Swarup Roy Choudhury, Maria A Marlin, Sona Pandey
Heterotrimeric G-proteins influence almost all aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants, likely via their interaction with specific effectors. However, the identity of such effectors and their mechanism of action are mostly unknown. While investigating the roles of different G-protein subunits in modulating the oil content in Camelina (Camelina sativa), an oil seed crop, we uncovered a role of Gβ proteins in controlling anisotropic cell expansion. Knockdown of Gβ genes causes reduced longitudinal and enhanced transverse expansion, resulting in altered cell, tissue, and organ shapes in transgenic plants during vegetative and reproductive development...
January 8, 2019: Plant Physiology
Wen-Lei Cao, Yao Yu, Meng-Ya Li, Jia Luo, Rui-Sen Wang, Hai-Juan Tang, Ji Huang, Jian-Fei Wang, Hong-Sheng Zhang, Yong-Mei Bao
Magnaporthe oryzae is a fungal pathogen that causes rice (Oryza sativa) blast. SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) are key components in vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic cells and are known to contribute to fungal pathogen resistance. Syntaxin of Plants 121 (SYP121), a Qa-SNARE, has been reported to function in non-host resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the functions of SYP121 in host resistance to rice blast are largely unknown. Here we report that the rice SYP121 protein, OsSYP121, accumulates at fungal penetration sites and mediates host resistance to rice blast...
January 7, 2019: Plant Physiology
Daniel Lunn, James G Wallis, John Browse
Understanding the biochemistry of triacylglycerol (TAG) assembly is critical in tailoring seed oils to produce high-value products. Hydroxy-fatty acid (HFA) is one such valuable modified fatty acid, which can be produced at low levels in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed through transgenic expression of the castor (Ricinus communis) hydroxylase. The resulting plants have low seed oil content and poor seedling establishment, indicating that Arabidopsis lacks efficient metabolic networks for biosynthesis and catabolism of hydroxy-containing TAG...
January 4, 2019: Plant Physiology
Andreas P M Weber, Arren Bar-Even
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2019: Plant Physiology
Mateusz Bajczyk, Susheel Sagar Bhat, Lukasz Szewc, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska, Artur Jarmolowski, Jakub Dolata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2019: Plant Physiology
Shea M Monihan, Choong-Hwan Ryu, Courtney A Magness, Karen S Schumaker
The Salt-Overly-Sensitive (SOS) pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) functions to prevent the toxic accumulation of sodium in the cytosol when plants are grown in salt-affected soils. In this pathway, the CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 (AtCBL10) calcium sensor interacts with the AtSOS2 kinase to activate the AtSOS1 plasma membrane sodium/proton exchanger. CBL10 has been duplicated in Eutrema salsugineum (Eutrema), a salt-tolerant relative of Arabidopsis. Because Eutrema maintains growth in salt-affected soils that kill most crop plants, the duplication of CBL10 provides a unique opportunity to functionally test the outcome of gene duplication and its link to plant salt tolerance...
January 3, 2019: Plant Physiology
Jiancai Li, Xiaoli Liu, Qi Wang, Jiayi Huangfu, Meredith Christine Schuman, Yonggen Lou
The mechanisms by which plants activate and enhance defense reponses have been well studied; however, the regulatory mechanisms that allow plants to avoid excessive defense responses are poorly understood. Here, we identified a group D mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene from rice (Oryza sativa), OsMAPK20-5, whose expression was rapidly induced by infestation of gravid female adults of a destructive rice pest, brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) but not by BPH nymphs. Expression silencing of OsMAPK20-5 (irMAPK) increased the accumulation of ethylene and nitric oxide (NO) following gravid female BPH infestation, and thereby increased rice plant resistance to BPH adults and oviposited eggs...
January 2, 2019: Plant Physiology
Robert VanBuren, Jeremy Pardo, Ching Man Wai, Sterling Evans, Dorothea Bartels
Desiccation tolerance was a critical adaptation for the colonization of land by early non-vascular plants. Resurrection plants have maintained or rewired these ancestral protective mechanisms and desiccation-tolerant species are dispersed across the land plant phylogeny. Though common physiological, biochemical, and molecular signatures are observed across resurrection plant lineages, features underlying the recurrent evolution of desiccation tolerance are unknown. Here we used a comparative approach to identify patterns of genome evolution and gene duplication associated with desiccation tolerance...
January 2, 2019: Plant Physiology
Peter Michael Dracatos, Jan Bartos, Huda Elmansour, Davinder Singh, Miroslava Karafiatova, Peng Zhang, Burkhard Steuernagel, Radim Svačina, Joanna Cobbin, Bethany Clark, Sami Hoxha, Mehar S Khatkar, Jaroslav Doležel, Brande B Wulff, Robert F Park
Unravelling and exploiting mechanisms of disease resistance in cereal crops is currently limited by their large repeat-rich genomes and the lack of genetic recombination or cultivar-specific sequence information. We cloned the first leaf rust resistance gene Rph1 (Rph1.a) from cultivated barley using 'MutChromSeq', a recently developed molecular genomics tool for the rapid cloning of genes in plants. Marker-trait association in the CI 9214/Stirling doubled haploid population mapped Rph1 to the short arm of chromosome 2H in a physical region of 1...
December 28, 2018: Plant Physiology
Davide Sosso, Karina Van Der Linde, Margaret Bezrutczyk, David Schuler, Karina Schneider, Jörg T Kämper, Virginia Walbot
The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize (Zea mays L.) by infecting all plant aerial tissues. The infection causes leaf chlorosis and stimulates the plant to produce nutrient-rich niches, i.e., tumors, where the fungus can proliferate and complete its life cycle. Previous studies have recorded high accumulation of soluble sugars and starch within these tumors. Using interdisciplinary approaches, we found that the sugar accumulation within tumors coincided with differential expression of plant SWEET sugar transporters and the H+/sucrose symporter ZmSUT1 (Sucrose Transporter1)...
December 28, 2018: Plant Physiology
Mohamed R M Ali, Takuya Uemura, Abdelaziz Ramadan, Kyoko Adachi, Keiichirou Nemoto, Akira Nozawa, Ryosuke Hoshino, Hiroshi Abe, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Gen-Ichiro Arimura
Jasmonates regulate plant defense and development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), JASMONATE-ASSOCIATED VQ-MOTIF GENE 1 (JAV1/VQ22) is a repressor of jasmonate-mediated defense responses and is degraded through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system after herbivory. We found that JAV1-ASSOCIATED UBIQUITIN LIGASE 1 (JUL1), a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, interacted with JAV1. JUL1 interacted with JAV1 in the nucleus to ubiquitinate JAV1, leading to proteasomal degradation of JAV1. The transcript levels of JUL1 and JAV1 were coordinately and positively regulated by the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)-dependent signaling pathway in the jasmonate signaling network, but in a manner that was not dependent on COI1-mediated signaling upon herbivory by Spodoptera litura...
December 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Mingxing Chang, Mian Gu, Yuwei Xia, Xiaoli Dai, Changrong Dai, Jun Zhang, Shichao Wang, Hongye Qu, Naoki Yamaji, Jian Feng Ma, Guohua Xu
Plant roots rely on phosphate (Pi) transporters to acquire soluble Pi from soil solutions that exists at micro-molar levels in natural ecosystems. Here, we functionally characterized a rice (Oryza sativa) Pi transporter, OsPHT1;3, that mediates Pi uptake, translocation and remobilization. OsPHT1;3 was directly regulated by OsPHR2 and, in response to Pi starvation, showed enhanced expression in young leaf blades and shoot basal regions and even more so in roots and old leaf blades. OsPHT1;3 was able to complement a yeast mutant strain defective in five Pi transporters and mediate Pi influx in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
December 19, 2018: Plant Physiology
Feng Wang, Luyue Zhang, Xiaoxiao Chen, Xiaodan Wu, Xun Xiang, Jie Zhou, Xiaojian Xia, Kai Shi, Jingquan Yu, Christine H Foyer, Yan-Hong Zhou
During the transition from warm to cool seasons, plants experience decreased temperatures, shortened days and decreased red/far-red (R/FR) ratios of light. The mechanism by which plants integrate these environmental cues to maintain plant growth and adaptation remains poorly understood. Here, we report that low temperature induced the transcription of PHYTOCHROME A and accumulation of LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (SlHY5, a bZIP transcription factor) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants, especially under short-day conditions with low R/FR light ratios...
December 18, 2018: Plant Physiology
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