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Plant Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330936/biochemical-principles-and-functional-aspects-of-pipecolic-acid-biosynthesis-in-immunity
#1
Michael Hartmann, Denis Kim, Friederike Bernsdorff, Ziba Ajami-Rashidi, Nicola Scholten, Stefan Schreiber, Tatyana Zeier, Stefan Schuck, Vanessa Reichel-Deland, Jürgen Zeier
The non-protein amino acid pipecolic acid (Pip) regulates plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and basal immunity to bacterial pathogen infection. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the Lys aminotransferase AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN1 (ALD1) mediates the pathogen-induced accumulation of Pip in inoculated and distal leaf tissue. Here we show that ALD1 transfers the alpha-amino group of L-Lys to acceptor oxoacids. Combined mass spectrometric and infrared spectroscopic analyses of in vitro assays and plant extracts indicate that the final product of the ALD1-catalysed reaction is enaminic 2,3-dehydropipecolic acid (2,3-DP), whose formation involves consecutive transamination, cyclization and isomerization steps...
March 22, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330935/the-role-of-enhanced-responses-to-aba1-era1-in-arabidopsis-stomatal-responses-is-beyond-aba-signaling
#2
Pirko Jalakas, Yi-Chun Huang, Yu-Hung Yeh, Laurent Zimmerli, Ebe Merilo, Hannes Kollist, Mikael Brosche
Proper stomatal responses are essential for plant function in an altered environment. The core signaling pathway for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure involves perception of the hormone that leads to the activation of guard cell anion channels by the protein kinase OPEN STOMATA1 (OST1). Several other regulators are suggested to modulate the ABA signaling pathway, including the protein ENHANCED RESPONSE TO ABA 1 (ERA1), that encodes the farnesyl transferase beta subunit. The era1 mutant is hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and shows a more closed stomata phenotype...
March 22, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325849/phospholipase-d%C3%AE-enhances-diacylglycerol-flux-into-triacylglycerol
#3
Wenyu Yang, Geliang Wang, Jia Li, Philip David Bates, Xuemin Wang, Douglas K Allen
Plant seeds are the primary source of triacylglycerols (TAG) for food, feed, fuel, and industrial applications. As TAG is produced from diacylglycerol (DAG) successful engineering strategies to enhance TAG levels have focused on the conversion of DAG to TAG. However, the production of TAG can be limited by flux through the enzymatic reactions that supply DAG. In this study, two Arabidopsis phospholipase Dζ genes (AtPLDζ1 and AtPLDζ2) were co-expressed in Camelina sativa to test whether the conversion of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to DAG impacts TAG levels in seeds...
March 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325848/hierarchically-aligning-10-legume-genomes-establishes-a-family-level-genomics-platform
#4
Jinpeng Wang, Pengchuan Sun, Yuxian Li, Yinzhe Liu, Jigao Yu, Xuelian Ma, Sangrong Sun, Nanshan Yang, Ruiyan Xia, Tianyu Lei, Xiaojian Liu, Beibei Jiao, Yue Xing, Weina Ge, Li Wang, Zhenyi Wang, Xiaoming Song, Min Yuan, Di Guo, Lan Zhang, Jiaqi Zhang, Dianchuan Jin, Wei Chen, Yuxin Pan, Tao Liu, Ling Jin, Jinshuai Sun, Jiaxiang Yu, Rui Cheng, Xueqian Duan, Shaoqi Shen, Jun Qin, Mengchen Zhang, Andrew H Paterson, Xiyin Wang
Mainly due to their economic importance, genomes of 10 legumes, including soybean, wild peanuts, barrel medic, etc, have been sequenced. However, a family-level comparative genomics analysis has been unavailable. With grape and selected legume genomes as outgroups, we managed to perform a hierarchical and event-related alignment of these genomes and deconvoluted layers of homologous regions produced by ancestral polyploidizations or speciations. Consequently, we illustrated genomic fractionation characterized by wide-spread gene losses after the polyploidizations...
March 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325847/specialized-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-contributes-to-extreme-fatty-acid-content-of-cuphea-seed-oil
#5
Umidjon Iskandarov, Jillian E Silva, Hae Jin Kim, Mariette Andersson, Rebecca E Cahoon, Keithanne Mockaitis, Edgar B Cahoon
Seed oils of many Cuphea sp. contain >90% of medium-chain fatty acids, such as decanoic acid (10:0). These seed oils, which are among the most compositionally variant in the plant kingdom, arise from specialized fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes and specialized acyltransferases. These include lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) that are required for successive acylation of medium-chain fatty acids in the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of seed triacylglycerols (TAGs)...
March 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320865/9-cis-neoxanthin-in-lhcii-regulates-the-binding-of-violaxanthin-and-xanthophyll-cycle
#6
Ke Wang, Wenfeng Tu, Cheng Liu, Yan Rao, Zhimin Gao, Chunhong Yang
The light harvesting chlorophyll (Chl) a/b complex of photosystem II (LHCII) is able to switch to multiple functions under different light conditions, i.e. harvesting solar energy for photosynthesis and dissipating excess excitation energy for photoprotection. The role of the different carotenoids (Cars) bound to LHCII in regulating the structure and function of the complex is a long-lasting question in photosynthesis research. 9-cis-neoxanthin (Nx) is one of the important Cars, which can only be found in the light harvesting Chla/b complexes of photosystem II...
March 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314795/unique-physiological-and-transcriptional-shifts-under-combinations-of-salinity-drought-and-heat
#7
Lidor Shaar-Moshe, Eduardo Blumwald, Zvi Peleg
Climate change-driven stresses such as extreme temperatures, water deficit, and ion imbalance are projected to exacerbate and jeopardize global food security. Under field conditions, these stresses usually occur simultaneously and cause damages that exceed single stresses. Here, we investigated the transcriptional patterns and morpho-physiological acclimations, of Brachypodium dystachion, to single salinity, drought and heat stresses as well as their double and triple stress combinations. Hierarchical clustering analysis of morpho-physiological acclimations showed that several traits exhibited a gradually aggravating effect as plants were exposed to combined stresses...
March 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314794/the-microtubule-associated-protein-map18-affects-rop2-gtpase-activity-during-root-hair-growth
#8
Erfang Kang, Mingzhi Zheng, Yan Zhang, Ming Yuan, Shaul Yalovsky, Lei Zhu, Ying Fu
Establishment and maintenance of the polar site are important for root hair tip growth. We previously reported that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN18 (MAP18) functions in controlling the direction of pollen tube growth and root hair elongation. Additionally, the Rop GTPase ROP2 was reported as a positive regulator of both root hair initiation and tip growth in Arabidopsis. Both loss-of-function of ROP2 or knock-down of MAP18 leads to a decrease in root hair length, whereas overexpression of either MAP18 or ROP2 causes multiple tips or a branching hair phenotype...
March 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298479/cyst-nematode-parasitism-induces-dynamic-changes-in-the-root-epigenome
#9
Tarek Hewezi, Thomas Lane, Sarbottam Piya, Aditi Rambani, J Hollis Rice, Meg Staton
A growing body of evidence indicates that epigenetic modifications can provide efficient, dynamic, and reversible cellular responses to a wide range of environmental stimuli. However, the significance of epigenetic modifications in plant-pathogen interactions remains largely unexplored. In this study, we provide a comprehensive analysis of epigenome changes during the compatible interaction between the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing was conducted to assess the dynamic changes in the methylome of Arabidopsis roots in response to H schachtii infection...
March 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298478/phylogeny-based-systematization-of-arabidopsis-proteins-with-histone-h1-globular-domain
#10
Maciej Kotliński, Łukasz Knizewski, Anna Muszewska, Kinga Rutowicz, Maciej Lirski, Anja Schmidt, Celia Baroux, Krzysztof Ginalski, Andrzej Jerzmanowski
H1 (or linker) histones are basic nuclear proteins that possess an evolutionarily-conserved nucleosome-binding globular domain - GH1. They perform critical functions in determining the accessibility of chromatin DNA to trans-acting factors. In most metazoan species so far studied, linker histones are highly heterogeneous, with numerous non-allelic variants co-occurring in the same cells. The phylogenetic relationships among these variants as well as their structural and functional properties have been relatively well established...
March 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292857/awake1-an-abc-type-transporter-reveals-an-essential-role-for-suberin-in-the-control-of-seed-dormancy
#11
Fabio Fedi, Carmel O'Neil, Guillaume Menard, Martin Trick, Francoise Corbineau, Christophe Bailly, Peter J Eastmond, Steven Penfield
The mother plant plays an important dynamic role in the control of dormancy of her progeny seed, in response to environmental signals. In order to further understand the mechanisms by which this dormancy control takes place we conducted a forward genetic screen to isolate mutants which fail to enter dormancy in response to variation in temperature during seed set. We show that for the first of these mutants, designated AWAKE1, the maternal allele is required for entry into strongly dormant states, and that awake1 mutants show seed phenotypes previously shown to be associated with loss of suberin the seed...
March 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292856/light-regulated-expression-of-sensor-histidine-kinase-cki1-controls-cytokinin-related-development
#12
Tereza Dobisova, Vendula Hrdinova, Candela Cuesta, Sarka Michlickova, Ivana Urbankova, Romana Hejatkova, Petra Žádníková, Marketa Pernisova, Eva Benkova, Jan Hejatko
In plants, the multistep phosphorelay (MSP) pathway mediates a range of regulatory processes, including those activated by cytokinins. The crosstalk between cytokinin response and light is known for a long time. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactionbetween light and cytokinin signaling remains elusive. In the screen for upstream regulators we identified a LONG PALE HYPOCOTYL (LPH) gene whose activity is indispensable for spatiotemporally correct expression of CYTOKININ INDEPENDENT-1 (CKI1), encoding the constitutively active sensor histidine kinase that activates MSP signaling...
March 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292855/transitory-starch-metabolism-in-guard-cells-unique-features-for-a-unique-function
#13
Diana Santelia, John E Lunn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280049/seedlings-lacking-the-ptm-protein-do-not-show-a-genomes-uncoupled-gun-mutant-phenotype
#14
Mike T Page, Sylwia M Kacprzak, Nobuyoshi Mochizuki, Haruko Okamoto, Alison G Smith, Matthew J Terry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275150/plant-chemical-genetics-from-phenotype-based-screens-to-synthetic-biology
#15
Wim Dejonghe, Eugenia Russinova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275149/o-acyl-sugars-protect-a-wild-tobacco-from-both-native-fungal-pathogens-and-a-specialist-herbivore
#16
Van Thi Luu, Alexander Weinhold, Chhana Ullah, Stefanie Dressel, Matthias Schoettner, Klaus Gase, Emmanuel Gaquerel, Shuqing Xu, Ian T Baldwin
O-acyl sugars (O-AS) are abundant trichome-specific metabolites that function as indirect defenses against herbivores of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata; whether they also function as generalized direct defenses against herbivores and pathogens remains unknown. We characterized natural variation in O-AS among 26 accessions and examined their influence on two native fungal pathogens, Fusarium brachygibbosum U4 and Alternaria sp. U10, and the specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta. At least 15 different O-AS structures belonging to three classes were found in N...
March 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275148/starch-synthase-4-and-plastidal-phosphorylase-differentially-affect-starch-granule-number-and-morphology
#17
Irina Malinova, Saleh Alseekh, Regina Feil, Alisdair R Fernie, Otto Baumann, Mark Aurel Schöttler, John E Lunn, Joerg Fettke
The process of starch granule formation in leaves of Arabidopsis is obscure. Beside starch synthase 4 (SS4) the plastidial phosphorylase (PHS1) also seems to be involved since dpe2-1/phs1a double mutants lacking both PHS1 and the cytosolic disproportionating enzyme 2 (DPE2) displayed only one starch granule per chloroplast under normal growth conditions. For further studies a dpe2-1/phs1a/ss4 triple mutant and various combinations of double mutants were generated and metabolically analysed with focus on starch metabolism...
March 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275147/localization-and-characterization-of-cyp76ae2-part-of-thapsigargin-biosynthesis-in-thapsia-garganica
#18
Trine Bundgaard Andersen, Karen Agatha Martinez-Swatson, Silas Anselm Rasmussen, Berin Alain Boughton, Kirsten Jørgensen, Johan Andersen-Ranberg, Nils Nyberg, Søren Brøgger Christensen, Henrik Toft Simonsen
The Mediterranean plant Thapsia garganica (dicot, Apiaceae), also known as Deadly carrot, produces the highly toxic compound thapsigargin. This compound is a potent inhibitor of the SERCA calcium pump in mammals, and is of industrial importance as the active moiety of the anticancer drug Mipsagargin, currently in clinical trials. Knowledge of thapsigargin in planta storage and biosynthesis has so far been limited. Here we present the putative second step in thapsigargin biosynthesis, by showing that the cytochrome P450 TgCYP76AE2, transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, converts epikunzeaol into epidihydrocostunolide...
March 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275146/second-site-of-pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-biosynthesis-in-comfrey-boosts-plant-defense-in-floral-stage
#19
Lars H Kruse, Thomas Stegemann, Christian Sievert, Dietrich Ober
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxic secondary metabolites that are found in several, distantly related families of the angiosperms. The first specific step in PA biosynthesis is catalyzed by homospermidine synthase (HSS), which has been recruited several times independently by duplication of the gene encoding deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS), an enzyme involved in the post-translational activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. HSS shows highly diverse spatiotemporal gene expression in various PA-producing species...
March 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270628/temperature-induced-remodeling-of-the-photosynthetic-machinery-tunes-photosynthesis-in-a-thermophyllic-alga
#20
Denitsa Nikolova, Dieter Weber, Martin Scholz, Till Bald, Jörn Peter Scharsack, Michael Hippler
The thermophilic alga C. merolae thrives in extreme environments (low pH and temperature between 40 and 56{degree sign}C. In this study we investigated the acclimation process of the alga to a colder temperature (25{degree sign}C). A long-term cell growth experiment revealed an extensive remodeling of the photosynthetic apparatus in the first 250 h of acclimation, which was followed by cell growth to an even higher density than the control (grown at 42{degree sign}C) cell density. Once the cells were shifted to the lower temperature, the proteins of the light-harvesting antenna were greatly down regulated and the phycobilisome (PBS) composition was altered...
March 7, 2017: Plant Physiology
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