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Plant Physiology

Jie Zhou, Xuechen Xu, Jiajian Cao, Lingling Yin, Xiaojian Xia, Kai Shi, Yanhong Zhou, Jingquan Yu
Plants, especially those with resistance (R) genes, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the apoplast in response to pathogen attack; however, how this process is activated remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) infection rapidly induces ROS accumulation and the hypersensitive response (HR) in the roots of tomato plants with the R gene Mi-1.2 but rarely does so in the susceptible or Mi-1.2-silenced resistant genotypes. While RKN induces the expression of numerous class-A heat shock factor (HsfA) genes in resistant tomato, only silencing of HsfA1a gene compromises Mi-1...
January 16, 2018: Plant Physiology
Theresa Maria Rottmann, Franz Klebl, Sabine Schneider, Dominik Kischka, David Rüscher, Norbert Sauer, Ruth Stadler
The controlled distribution of sugars between assimilate exporting source tissues and sugar consuming sink tissues is a key element for plant growth and development. Monosaccharide transporters of the SUGAR TRANSPORT PROTEIN (STP) family contribute to the uptake of sugars into sink cells. Here we report on the characterization of STP7, STP8 and STP12, three previously uncharacterized members of this family in Arabidopsis thaliana. Heterologous expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) revealed that STP8 and STP12 catalyze the high-affinity proton-dependent uptake of glucose and also accept galactose and mannose...
January 8, 2018: Plant Physiology
Bernhard Wurzinger, Ella Nukarinen, Thomas Nägele, Wolfram Weckwerth, Markus Teige
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: Plant Physiology
Lorenzo Concia, Ashley M Brooks, Emily Wheeler, Greg Zynda, Emily Elizabeth Wear, Chantal LeBlanc, Jawon Song, Tae-Jin Lee, Pete E Pascuzzi, Robert Martienssen, Matthew W Vaughn, William Thompson, Linda Hanley-Bowdoin
Eukaryotes use a temporally regulated process, known as the replication timing program, to ensure that their genomes are fully and accurately duplicated during S phase. Replication timing programs are predictive of genomic features and activity, and considered to be functional readouts of chromatin organization. Although replication timing programs have been described for yeast and animal systems, much less is known about the temporal regulation of plant DNA replication or its relationship to genome sequence and chromatin structure...
January 4, 2018: Plant Physiology
Michael C E Niemann, Henriette Weber, Tomáš Hluska, Georgeta Leonte, Samantha M Anderson, Ondrej Novak, Alessandro Senes, Tomas Werner
Degradation of the plant hormone cytokinin is controlled by cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX) enzymes. The molecular and cellular behavior of these proteins is still largely unknown. In this study, we show that CKX1 is a type-II single-pass membrane protein that predominantly localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This indicates that this CKX isoform is a bona fide ER protein directly controlling the cytokinin which triggers the signaling from the ER. By using various approaches, we demonstrate that CKX1 forms homodimers and homooligomers in vivo...
January 4, 2018: Plant Physiology
Ivan Kulich, Zdeňka Vojtíková, Peter Sabol, Jitka Ortmannová, Vilém Neděla, Eva Tihlaříková, Viktor Žárský
Biogenesis of the plant secondary cell wall involves many important aspects, such as phenolic compound deposition and often silica incrustation. Previously, we demonstrated the importance of the exocyst subunit EXO70H4 for biogenesis of the trichome secondary cell wall, namely for deposition of the autofluorescent and callose-rich cell wall layer. Here, we reveal that EXO70H4-driven cell wall biogenesis is constitutively active in the mature trichome, but can also be activated elsewhere upon pathogen attack, giving this study a broader significance with an overlap into phytopathology...
January 4, 2018: Plant Physiology
Yunqing Yu, David Chakravorty, Sarah M Assmann
Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins are composed of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, and function as molecular switches in signal transduction. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are one canonical Gα (GPA1), three extra-large Gα (XLG1, XLG2 and XLG3), one Gβ (AGB1) and three Gγ (AGG1, AGG2 and AGG3) subunits. To elucidate AGB1 molecular signaling, we performed immunoprecipitation using plasma membrane enriched proteins followed by mass spectrometry to identify the protein interactors of AGB1. After eliminating proteins present in the control immunoprecipitation, commonly identified contaminants, and organellar proteins, a total of 103 candidate AGB1-associated proteins were confidently identified...
January 4, 2018: Plant Physiology
Der-Fen Suen, Yi-Hsiu Tsai, Ya-Tan Cheng, Ramalingam Radjacommare, Ram Nivas Ahirwar, Hongyong Fu, Wolfgang Schmidt
Phosphorus, taken up by plants as inorganic phosphate (Pi), is an essential but often growth-limiting mineral nutrient for plants. As part of an orchestrated response to improve its acquisition, insufficient Pi supply triggers alterations in root architecture and epidermal cell morphogenesis. Mutants defective in the expression of the OVARIAN TUMOR DOMAIN-CONTAINING DEUBIQUITINATING ENZYME5 (OTU5) exhibited a constitutive Pi deficiency root phenotype, comprising the formation of long and dense root hairs and attenuated primary root growth...
January 4, 2018: Plant Physiology
Stephan Wagner, Olivier Van Aken, Marlene Elsässer, Markus Schwarzländer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2018: Plant Physiology
Lars B Scharff, Piotr Gawroński, Poul Erik Jensen, Stanislaw Karpinski, Dario Leister
Many mRNAs contain pause sites that briefly interrupt the progress of translation. Specific features that induce ribosome pausing have been described; however, their individual contributions to pause-site formation, and the overall biological significance of ribosome pausing, remain largely unclear. We have taken advantage of the compact genome of chloroplasts to carry out a plastid genome-wide survey of pause sites, as a basis for studying the impact of pausing on post-translational processes. Based on ribosomal profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast mRNAs, we demonstrate that a combination of factors - mRNA secondary structure, internal Shine-Dalgarno sequences, and positively charged amino acids in the nascent peptide chain - explains 95% of the major pause sites on plastid mRNAs, while codon usage has little impact...
January 3, 2018: Plant Physiology
Dal-Hoe Koo, Mithila Jugulam, Karthik Putta, Ivan B Cuvaca, Dallas Peterson, Randall S Currie, Bernd Friebe, Bikram S Gill
An increase in gene copy number is often associated with changes in the number and structure of chromosomes, as has been widely observed in yeast and eukaryotic tumors, yet little is known about stress-induced chromosomal changes in plants. Previously, we reported that the EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene, the molecular target of glyphosate, was amplified at the native locus and on an extra chromosome in glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus. Here we report that the extra chromosome is a ring chromosome termed Extra Circular Chromosome carrying Amplified EPSPS (ECCAE)...
January 2, 2018: Plant Physiology
Pratikshya Borah, Jitendra P Khurana
Regulated proteolysis by the Ubiquitin-26S proteasome system challenges transcription and phosphorylation in magnitude and is one of the most important regulatory mechanisms in plants. This article describes the characterization of a rice auxin-responsive Kelch-domain containing F-box protein, OsFBK1, found to be a component of an SCF E3 ligase by interaction studies in yeast. Rice transgenics of OsFBK1 displayed variations in anther and root secondary cell wall content; it could be corroborated by electron/confocal microscopy and lignification studies, with no apparent changes in auxin content/signalling pathway...
January 2, 2018: Plant Physiology
Enrico Martinoia
Biochemical and electrophysiological studies on plant vacuolar transporters became feasible in the late 1970th and early 1980th when methods to isolate large quantities of intact vacuoles and purified vacuolar membrane vesicles were established. However, with the exception of the H+-ATPase and H+-PPase that could be followed due to their hydrolytic activities attempts to purify tonoplast transporters were for a long time not successful. Heterologous complementation, T-DNA insertion mutants and later proteomic studies allowed the next steps starting from the 1990s...
January 2, 2018: Plant Physiology
Chia-Hong Tsai, Sahra Uygun, Rebecca Roston, Shin-Han Shiu, Christoph Benning
Facing adverse conditions such as nitrogen (N) deprivation, microalgae enter cellular quiescence, a reversible cell cycle arrest with drastic changes in metabolism allowing cells to remain viable. Recovering from N deprivation and quiescence is an active and orderly process as we are showing here for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We conducted comparative transcriptomics on this alga to discern processes relevant to quiescence in the context of N deprivation and recovery following refeeding. A mutant with slow recovery from N deprivation, compromised hydrolysis of triacylglycerols 7 (cht7), was included to better define the regulatory processes governing the respective transitions...
December 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
Yan Li Li, Yaqiong Li, Yao Rong Wu, Yongchang Liu, Qi Xie
The phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) response pathways interact synergistically or antagonistically to regulate plant development and environmental adaptation. Here, we show that ABI1, a key negative regulator of ABA signaling, is essential for auxin-modulated root development. We performed a microarray analysis using the loss-of-function mutant abi1-3 and Col-0 seedlings treated with IAA. For sHSP22, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) small heat shock protein-encoding gene, the induction by IAA was dependent on ABI1...
December 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
Stefan Schulze, Anne Oltmanns, Nick Machnik, Gai Liu, Nannan Xu, Niklas Jarmatz, Martin Scholz, Kazuhiko Sugimoto, Christian Fufezan, Kaiyao Huang, Michael Hippler
At present, only little is known about the enzymatic machinery required for N-glycosylation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, leading to the formation of N-glycans harboring xylose (Xyl) and methylated mannose. This machinery possesses new enzymatic features, as C. reinhardtii N-glycans are independent of β1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnTI). Here we have performed comparative N-glycoproteomic analyses of insertional mutants of mannosidase 1A (IMMan1A) and xylosyltransferase 1A (IMXylT1A). The disruption of man1A affected methylation of mannoses and the addition of terminal Xyl...
December 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
Britta Schillheim, Irina Jansen, Stephani Baum, Carsten Bolm, Alexander Beesley, Uwe Conrath
Modern crop production calls for agrochemicals that prime plants for enhanced defense. Reliable test systems for spotting priming-inducing chemistry, however, are rare. We developed an assay for the high-throughput search for compounds that prime microbial pattern-induced secretion of antimicrobial furanocoumarins (phytoalexins) in cultured parsley cells. The screen produced 1-isothiocyanato-4-methylsulfinylbutane (sulforaphane; SFN), a secondary metabolite in many crucifers, as a novel defense priming compound...
December 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
Igor S Kryvoruchko, Pratyush Routray, Sinharoy Senjuti, Ivone Torres-Jerez, Manuel Tejada-Jiménez, Lydia A Finney, Jin Nakashima, Catalina I Pislariu, Vagner A Benedito, Manuel Gonzalez-Guerrero, Daniel M Roberts, Michael K Udvardi
Iron is an essential micronutrient for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legume nodules, where it is required for the activity of bacterial nitrogenase, plant leghemoglobin, respiratory oxidases and other iron-proteins in both organisms. Iron solubility and transport within and between plant tissues is facilitated by organic chelators, such as nicotianamine and citrate. We have characterized a nodule-specific citrate transporter of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion family, MtMATE67 of Medicago truncatula...
December 28, 2017: Plant Physiology
Veronique Larosa, Andrea Meneghesso, Nicoletta La Rocca, Janina Steinbeck, Michael Hippler, Ildiko Szabo, Tomas Morosinotto
Photosynthetic organisms use sunlight as the primary source of energy to support their metabolism. In eukaryotes reactions responsible of the conversion of light into chemical energy occur in specific organelles, the chloroplasts. In this study we showed that mitochondria also have a seminal influence on cells' energy metabolism and on photosynthetic reactions. This is illustrated by the observation that the strong photosensitivity of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells depleted of the chloroplast protein PGRL1 was rescued by the introduction of a mitochondrial mutation affecting respiratory complex I...
December 28, 2017: Plant Physiology
Agnieszka Golicz, Mohan B Singh, Prem L Bhalla
Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of diverse biological processes. However, our understanding of lincRNA abundance and function remains very limited especially for agriculturally important plants. Soybean is a major legume crop plant providing over a half of global oilseed production. Moreover, soybean can form symbiotic relationships with Rhizobium bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Soybean has a complex paleopolyploid genome and exhibits many vegetative and floral development complexities...
December 28, 2017: Plant Physiology
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