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Plant Physiology

Amélie Andres-Robin, Mathieu Reymond, Antoine Dupire, Virginie Battu, Nelly Dubrulle, Grégory Mouille, Valérie Lefebvre, Jerome Pelloux, Arezki Boudaoud, Jan Traas, Charles Patrick Scutt, Françoise Monéger
ETTIN is an atypical member of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR family of transcription factors, which plays a crucial role in tissue patterning in the Arabidopsis thaliana gynoecium. Though recent insights have provided valuable information on ETT's interactions with other components of auxin signaling, the biophysical mechanisms linking ETT to its ultimate effects on gynoecium morphology were until now unknown. Here, using techniques to assess cell-wall dynamics during gynoecium growth and development, we provide a coherent body of evidence to support a model in which ETT controls the elongation of the valves tissues of the gynoecium through the positive regulation of pectin methylesterase (PME) activity in the cell wall...
September 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Yana Butenko, Albina Lin, Leah Naveh, Meital Kupervaser, Yishai Levin, Ziv Reich, Zach Adam
Deg proteases are involved in protein quality control in prokaryotes. Of the three Arabidopsis homologs Deg1, Deg5, and Deg8 located in the thylakoid lumen, Deg1 forms a homo-hexamer whereas Deg5 and Deg8 form a hetero-complex. Both Deg1 and Deg5-Deg8 were shown separately to degrade photosynthetic proteins during photoinhibition. To investigate whether Deg1 and Deg5-Deg8 are redundant, a full set of Arabidopsis Deg knockout mutants were generated and their phenotypes were compared. Under all conditions tested, deg1 mutants were affected more than WT, deg5,and deg8 mutants...
September 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Priya Voothuluru, David M Braun, John S Boyer
Plants secrete a plethora of metabolites into the rhizosphere that allow them to obtain nutrients necessary for growth and modify microbial communities around the roots. Plants release considerable amounts of photosynthetically fixed carbon into the rhizosphere; hence, it is important to understand how carbon moves from the roots into the rhizosphere. Approaches previously used to address this question involved radioactive tracers, fluorescent probes, and biosensors to study sugar movement in the roots and into the rhizosphere...
September 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Josselin Lupette, Antoine Jaussaud, Claire Vigor, Camille Oger, Jean-Marie Galano, Guillaume Reversat, Joseph Vercauteren, Juliette Jouhet, Thierry Durand, Eric Marechal
The ecological success of diatoms requires a remarkable ability to survive many types of stress, including variations in temperature, light, salinity, and nutrient availability. On exposure to these stresses, diatoms exhibit common responses, including growth arrest, impairment of photosynthesis, production of reactive oxygen species, and accumulation of triacylglycerol (TAG). We studied the production of cyclopentane oxylipins derived from fatty acids in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum in response to oxidative stress...
September 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Yana Kazachkova, Gil Eshel, Pramod Pantha, John M Cheeseman, Maheshi Dassanayake, Simon Barak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Catalin Voiniciuc, Kristen A Engle, Markus Günl, Sabine Dieluweit, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm Schmidt, Jeong-Yeh Yang, Kelley W Moremen, Debra Mohnen, Bjoern Usadel
Pectin is a vital component of the plant cell wall, and provides the molecular glue that maintains cell-cell adhesion, among other functions. As the most complex wall polysaccharide, pectin is composed of several covalently-linked domains, such as homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I). Pectin has widespread uses in the food industry and has emerging biomedical applications, but its synthesis remains poorly understood. For instance, the enzymes that catalyze RG I elongation remain unknown. Recently, a co-expression and sequence-based MUCILAGE-RELATED (MUCI) reverse genetic screen uncovered hemicellulose biosynthetic enzymes in the Arabidopsis thaliana seed coat...
September 18, 2018: Plant Physiology
Marianna Fasoli, Chandra Leigh Richter, Sara Zenoni, Edoardo Bertini, Nicola Vitulo, Silvia Dal Santo, Nick Dokoozlian, Mario Pezzotti, Giovanni Battista Tornielli
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a model for the investigation of physiological and biochemical changes during the formation and ripening of non-climacteric fleshy fruits. However, the order and complexity of the molecular events during fruit development remain poorly understood. To identify the key molecular events controlling berry formation and ripening, we created a highly detailed transcriptomic and metabolomic map of berry development, based on samples collected every week from fruit-set to maturity in two grapevine genotypes for three consecutive years, resulting in 219 samples...
September 17, 2018: Plant Physiology
Mingzhu Fan, Klaus Herburger, Jacob Krüger Jensen, Starla Zemelis-Durfee, Federica Brandizzi, Stephen C Fry, Curtis G Wilkerson
Mixed-linkage glucan (MLG) is a polysaccharide that is highly abundant in grass endosperm cell walls and present at lower amounts in other tissues. Cellulose synthase-like F (CSLF) and cellulose synthase-like H (CSLH) genes synthesize MLG, but it is unknown if other genes participate in the production and restructuring of MLG. Using Brachypodium distachyon transcriptional profiling data, we identified a B. distachyon trihelix family transcription factor (BdTHX1) that is highly co-expressed with the B. distachyon CSLF6 gene (BdCSLF6), which suggests that BdTHX1 is involved in the regulation of MLG biosynthesis...
September 17, 2018: Plant Physiology
Yuan Xue, Yongqing Yang, Zhijia Yang, Xiangfeng Wang, Yan Guo
Drought stress is a limiting environmental factor that affects plant growth and development. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in plant drought responses. Previous studies have indicated that ABA inhibits plasma membrane H+-ATPase (PM H+-ATPase) activity, and the decrease in PM H+-ATPase activity promotes stomatal closure under drought stress, thereby reducing water loss. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we found that in Arabidopsis thaliana ABA induces an N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, namely, VESICLE-ASSOCIATED MEMBRANE PROTEIN 711 (VAMP711) to interact with the Arabidopsis PM H+-ATPases AHA1 and AHA2...
September 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Lloyd A Donaldson, Mathew Cairns, Stefan Hill
The porosity of wood cell walls is of interest for both understanding xylem functionality and from a wood materials perspective. The movement of water in xylem generally occurs through the macroporous networks formed in softwood by bordered pits and in hardwood by the intervessel pits and open conduits created by vessels and perforation plates. In some situations, such as cavitated xylem, water can only move through the micropores that occur in lignified tracheid and fiber cell walls; however, these micropore networks are poorly understood...
September 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Muhammad Aman Mulki, XIaojing Bi, Maria von Korff
In many angiosperm plants, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes have duplicated and functionally diverged to control different reproductive traits or stages. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) carries several FT-like genes, the functions of which are not well understood. We characterized the role of HvFT3 in the vegetative and reproductive development of barley. Overexpression of HvFT3 accelerated the initiation of spikelet primordia and the early reproductive development of spring barley independently of the photoperiod...
September 13, 2018: Plant Physiology
Lijuan Song, Zefan Chen, Robert M Larkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2018: Plant Physiology
Huawen Lin, Paul F Cliften, Susan K Dutcher
Insertional mutagenesis, in which a piece of exogenous DNA is randomly integrated into the genomic DNA of the recipient cell, is a useful method to generate new mutants with phenotypes of interest. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an outstanding model for studying many biological processes. We developed a new computational algorithm, MAPINS (mapping insertions), to efficiently identify insertion sites created by the integration of an APHVIII (aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase VIII) cassette that confers paromomycin resistance...
September 11, 2018: Plant Physiology
Nancy R Forsthoefel, Kendra A Klag, Savannah R McNichol, Claire E Arnold, Corina R Vernon, Whitney W Wood, Daniel M Vernon
Plant Intracellular Ras-group Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins (PIRLs) are related to Ras-interacting animal LRR proteins that participate in developmental cell signaling. Systematic knockout analysis has implicated some members of the Arabidopsis thaliana PIRL family in pollen development. However, for PIRL6, no bona fide knockout alleles have been recovered, suggesting it may have an essential function in both male and female gametophytes. To test this hypothesis, we investigated PIRL6 expression and induced knockdown by RNAi...
September 11, 2018: Plant Physiology
Erik J Slootweg, Laurentiu N Spiridon, Eliza C Martin, Wladimir I Tameling, Philip D Townsend, Rikus Pomp, Jan Roosien, Olga Drawska, Octavina C A Sukarta, Arjen Schots, Jan Willem Borst, Matthieu H A J Joosten, Jaap Bakker, Geert Smant, Martin J Cann, Andrei Petrescu, Aska Goverse
The intracellular immune receptor Rx1 of potato (Solanum tuberosum), which confers effector-triggered immunity to Potato virus X, consists of a central nucleotide-binding domain (NB-ARC) flanked by a C-terminal Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) domain and an N-terminal coiled-coil (CC) domain. Rx1 activity is strictly regulated by interdomain interactions between the NB-ARC and LRR, but the contribution of the CC domain in regulating Rx1 activity or immune signaling is not fully understood. Therefore, we used a structure-informed approach to investigate the role of the CC domain in Rx1 functionality...
September 7, 2018: Plant Physiology
Aigerim Soltabayeva, Sudhakar Srivastava, Assylay Kurmanbayeva, Aizat Bekturova, Robert Fluhr, Moshe Sagi
The nitrogen (N)-rich ureides allantoin and allantoate, which are products of purine catabolism, play a role in N delivery in Leguminosae. Here, we examined their role as a N source in non-legume plants using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants mutated in XANTHINE DEHYDROGENASE1 (AtXDH1), a catalytic bottleneck in purine catabolism. Older leaves of the Atxdh1 mutant exhibited early senescence, lower soluble protein and lower organic-N levels as compared to wild-type (WT) older leaves when grown with 1 mM nitrate but were comparable to WT under 5 mM nitrate...
September 6, 2018: Plant Physiology
Dali Geng, Pengxiang Chen, Xiaoxia Shen, Yi Zhang, Xuewei Li, Lijuan Jiang, Yinpeng Xie, Chundong Niu, Jing Zhang, Xiaohua Huang, Fengwang Ma, Qingmei Guan
Water deficit is one of the main limiting factors in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cultivation. Root architecture plays an important role in the drought tolerance of plants; however, research efforts to improve drought tolerance of apple trees have focused on aboveground targets. Due to the difficulties associated with visualization and data analysis, there is currently a poor understanding of the genetic players and molecular mechanisms involved in the root architecture of apple trees under drought conditions...
September 6, 2018: Plant Physiology
Yajun Tao, Jun Wang, Jun Miao, Jie Chen, Shujun Wu, Jinyan Zhu, Dongping Zhang, Houwen Gu, Huan Cui, Shuangyue Shi, Mingyue Xu, Youli Yao, Zhiyun Gong, Zefeng Yang, Minghong Gu, Yong Zhou, Guohua Liang
Polyamines, including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm), play essential roles in a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Rice (Oryza sativa) contains four putative spermidine/spermine synthase (SPMS)-encoding genes (OsSPMS1, OsSPMS2, OsSPMS3, and OsACAULIS5), but none have been functionally characterized. In this study, we used a reverse genetic strategy to investigate the biological function of OsSPMS1. We generated several homozygous RNA interference (RNAi) and overexpression (OE) lines of OsSPMS1...
September 6, 2018: Plant Physiology
Kehui Lian, Fang Gao, Tongjun Sun, Rowan van Wersch, Kevin Ao, Qing Kong, Yukino Nitta, Di Wu, Patrick J Krysan, Yuelin Zhang
Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MAP KINASE (MPK) proteins can function in multiple MAP kinase cascades and physiological processes. For instance, MPK4 functions in regulating development as well as in plant defense by participating in two independent MAP kinase cascades: the MEKK1-MKK1/MKK2-MPK4 cascade promotes basal resistance against pathogens and is guarded by the NB-LRR protein SUMM2, whereas the ANPs-MKK6-MPK4 cascade plays an essential role in cytokinesis. Here we report a novel role for MKK6 in regulating plant immune responses...
September 5, 2018: Plant Physiology
Hirotomo Takatsuka, Takumi Higaki, Masaaki Umeda
Root growth is controlled by mechanisms underlying cell division and cell elongation, which respond to various internal and external factors. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cells produced in the proximal meristem (PM) elongate and differentiate in the transition zone (TZ) and the elongation/differentiation zone (EDZ). Previous studies have demonstrated that endoreplication is involved in root cell elongation; however, the manner by which cells increase in length by more than two-fold remains unknown. Here we show that epidermal and cortical cells in Arabidopsis roots undergo two modes of rapid cell elongation: the first rapid cell elongation occurs at the border of the PM and the TZ, and the second mode occurs during the transition from the TZ to the EDZ...
September 5, 2018: Plant Physiology
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