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Plant Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30409857/epfl-signals-in-the-boundary-region-of-the-sam-restrict-its-size-and-promote-leaf-initiation
#1
Pawel Z Kosentka, Alexander M Overholt, Richard Maradiaga, Omar Mitoubsi, Elena D Shpak
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) enables the formation of new organs throughout the life of a plant. ERECTA family (ERf) receptors restrict SAM size and promote initiation of leaves while simultaneously supporting establishment of correct phyllotaxy. In the epidermis and during organ elongation ERf activity is regulated by a family of Epidermal Patterning Factor-Like (EPFL) secreted cysteine-rich small proteins. Here we show that ERfs play a critical role in communication between the SAM leaf boundary and the central zone...
November 8, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30409856/pumpkin-the-sole-plastid-ump-kinase-associates-with-group-ii-introns-and-alters-their-metabolism
#2
Lisa-Marie Schmid, Lisa Ohler, Torsten Möhlmann, Andreas Brachmann, Jose M Muiño, Dario Leister, Jörg Meurer, Nikolay Manavski
The chloroplast hosts photosynthesis and a variety of metabolic pathways that are essential for plant viability and acclimation processes. In this study, we show that PUMPKIN, the sole plastid UMP kinase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), associates specifically with the introns of the plastid transcripts trnG-UCC, trnV-UAC, petB, petD, and ndhA in vivo, as revealed by RNA immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (RIP-Seq), and can bind RNA efficiently in vitro. Analyses of the target transcripts showed that PUMPKIN affects their metabolism...
November 8, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30404821/angustifolia-regulates-actin-filament-alignment-for-nuclear-positioning-in-leaves
#3
Kosei Iwabuchi, Haruna Ohnishi, Kentaro Tamura, Yoichiro Fukao, Tomoaki Furuya, Koro Hattori, Hirokazu Tsukaya, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura
During dark adaptation, plant nuclei move centripetally toward the mid-plane of the leaf blade; thus the nuclei in both the adaxial and abaxial sides become positioned at the inner periclinal walls of cells. This centripetal nuclear positioning implies that a characteristic cell polarity exists within a leaf, but little is known about the mechanism underlying this process. Here we show that ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN) and ACTIN7 regulate centripetal nuclear positioning in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves. Two mutants defective in the positioning of nuclei in the dark were isolated and designated as unusual nuclear positioning 1 (unp1) and unp2...
November 7, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30404820/initial-bud-outgrowth-occurs-independent-of-auxin-flow-out-of-buds
#4
Tinashe G Chabikwa, Philip B Brewer, Christine A Beveridge
Apical dominance is the process whereby the shoot tip inhibits the growth of axillary buds along the stem. It has been proposed that the shoot tip, which is the predominant source of the plant hormone auxin, prevents bud outgrowth by suppressing auxin canalization and export from axillary buds into the main stem. In this theory, auxin flow out of axillary buds is a prerequisite for bud outgrowth and buds are triggered to grow by an enhanced proportional flow of auxin from the buds. A major challenge of directly testing this model is in being able to create a bud- or stem-specific change in auxin transport...
November 7, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401723/elongator-is-required-for-root-stem-cell-maintenance-by-regulating-short-root-transcription
#5
Linlin Qi, Xiaoyue Zhang, Huawei Zhai, Jian Liu, Fangming Wu, Chuanyou Li, Qian Chen
SHORTROOT (SHR) is essential for stem cell maintenance and radial patterning in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots, but how its expression is regulated is unknown. Here, we report that the Elongator complex, which consists of six subunits (Elongator1-6), regulates the transcription of SHR. Depletion of Elongator drastically reduced SHR expression and led to defective root stem cell maintenance and radial patterning. The importance of the nuclear localization of Elongator for its functioning, together with the insensitivity of the elp1 mutant to the transcription elongation inhibitor 6-azauracil, and the direct interaction of the ELP4 subunit with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII CTD), support the notion that Elongator plays important roles in transcription elongation...
November 6, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401722/long-read-annotation-lorean-automated-eukaryotic-genome-annotation-based-on-long-read-cdna-sequencing
#6
David Cook, Jose Espejo Valle-Inclan, Alice Pajoro, Hanna Rovenich, Bart Thomma, Luigi Faino
Single-molecule full-length cDNA sequencing can aid genome annotation by revealing transcript structure and alternative splice forms, yet current annotation pipelines do not incorporate such information. Here we present Long Read Annotation (LoReAn) software, an automated annotation pipeline utilizing short- and long-read cDNA sequencing, protein evidence, and ab initio prediction to generate accurate genome annotations. Based on annotations of two fungal genomes (Verticillium dahliae and Plicaturopsis crispa) and two plant genomes (Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa), we show that LoReAn outperforms popular annotation pipelines by integrating single-molecule cDNA sequencing data generated from either the Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) or MinION sequencing platforms, correctly predicting gene structure, and capturing genes missed by other annotation pipelines...
November 6, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397024/phytoparasitic-nematode-control-of-plant-hormone-pathways
#7
Godelieve Gheysen, Melissa G Mitchum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397023/ohp1-ohp2-and-hcf244-form-a-transient-functional-complex-with-the-photosystem-ii-reaction-center
#8
Yonghong Li, Bei Liu, Jiao Zhang, Fanna Kong, Lin Zhang, Han Meng, Wenjing Li, Jean-David Rochaix, Dan Li, Lianwei Peng
The reaction center (RC) of photosystem II (PSII), which is composed of D1, D2, PsbI, and cytochrome b559 subunits, forms at an early stage of PSII biogenesis. However, it is largely unclear how these components assemble to form a functional unit. In this work, we show that synthesis of the PSII core proteins D1/D2 and formation of the PSII RC is specifically blocked in the absence of ONE-HELIX PROTEIN1 (OHP1) and OHP2 proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that OHP1 and OHP2 are essential for the formation of the PSII RC...
November 5, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397022/healthy-roots-and-leaves-comparative-genome-structure-of-horseradish-and-watercress
#9
Terezie Mandáková, Martin A Lysak
Horseradish and watercress are economically important cruciferous vegetable species with limited genomic resources. We used comparative chromosome painting to identify the extent of chromosomal collinearity between horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale), and to reconstruct the origin and evolution of the two tetraploid genomes (2n = 4x = 32). Our results show that horseradish and watercress genomes originated from a common ancestral (n = 8) genome, structurally resembling the Ancestral Crucifer Karyotype (n = 8), which, however, contained two unique translocation chromosomes (AK6/8 and AK8/6)...
November 5, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397021/identification-and-microbial-production-of-the-raspberry-phenol-salidroside-that-is-active-against-huntington-s-disease
#10
Kallscheuer Nicolai, Regina Menezes, Alexandre Foito, Marcelo D Henriques da Silva, Adelaide Braga, Wijbrand Dekker, David Méndez Sevillano, Rita Rosado-Ramos, Carolina Jardim, Joana Oliveira, Patricia Ferreira, Isabel Rocha, Ana Rita Silva, Márcio Sousa, James William Allwood, Michael Bott, Nuno Faria, Derek Stewart, Marcel Ottens, Michael Naesby, Claudia Nunes Dos Santos, Jan Marienhagen
Edible berries are considered to be among nature's treasure chests as they contain a large number of (poly)phenols with potentially health-promoting properties. However, as berries contain complex (poly)phenol mixtures, it is challenging to associate any interesting pharmacological activity with a single compound. Thus, identification of pharmacologically interesting phenols requires systematic analyses of berry extracts. Here, raspberry (Rubus idaeus, var. Prestige) extracts were systematically analyzed to identify bioactive compounds against pathological processes of neurodegenerative diseases...
November 5, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389784/semi-automated-feature-extraction-from-rgb-images-for-sorghum-panicle-architecture-gwas
#11
Yan Zhou, Srikant Srinivasan, Seyed Vahid Mirnezami, Aaron Kusmec, Qi Fu, Lakshmi Attigala, Maria G Salas Fernandez, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Patrick S Schnable
Because structural variation in the inflorescence architecture of cereal crops can influence yield, it is of interest to identify the genes responsible for this variation. However, the manual collection of inflorescence phenotypes can be time-consuming for the large populations needed to conduct GWAS (genome-wide association studies) and is difficult for multi-dimensional traits such as volume. A semi-automated phenotyping pipeline (Toolkit for Inflorescence Measurement, TIM) was developed and used to extract uni- and multi-dimensional features from images of 1,064 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) panicles from 272 genotypes comprising a subset of the Sorghum Association Panel (SAP)...
November 2, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389783/heterohexamers-formed-by-ccmk3-and-ccmk4-increase-the-complexity-of-beta-carboxysome-shells
#12
Manuel Sommer, Markus Sutter, Sayan Gupta, Henning Kirst, Aiko Turmo, Sigal Lechno-Yossef, Rodney L Burton, Christine Saechao, Nancy B Sloan, Xiaolin Cheng, Leanne-Jade G Chan, Christopher J Petzold, Miguel Fuentes-Cabrera, Corie Y Ralston, Cheryl A Kerfeld
Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) encapsulate enzymes within a selectively permeable, proteinaceous shell. Carboxysomes are BMCs containing ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase and carbonic anhydrase that enhance carbon dioxide fixation. The carboxysome shell consists of three structurally characterized protein types, each named after the oligomer they form: BMC-H (hexamer), BMC-P (pentamer), and BMC-T (trimer). These three protein types form cyclic homooligomers with pores at the center of symmetry that enable metabolite transport across the shell...
November 2, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389782/roles-of-rbcx-in-carboxysome-biosynthesis-in-the-cyanobacterium-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc7942
#13
Fang Huang, Olga Vasieva, Yaqi Sun, Matthew Faulkner, Gregory F Dykes, Ziyu Zhao, Luning Liu
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is the essential enzyme mediating the fixation of atmospheric CO2 during photosynthesis. In cyanobacteria, Rubisco enzymes are densely packed and encapsulated in a specialized organelle known as the carboxysome. Well-defined Rubisco assembly and carboxysome formation are pivotal for efficient CO2 fixation. Numerous chaperone proteins, including RbcX, are essential for proper protein folding and Rubisco assembly. In this study, we investigated the in vivo function of RbcX in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (Syn7942) using molecular, biochemical, and live-cell fluorescence imaging approaches...
November 2, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389781/the-sumo-conjugation-complex-self-assembles-into-nuclear-bodies-independent-of-siz1-and-cop1
#14
Madalena J Mazur, Mark A C J Kwaaitaal, Manuel Arroyo Mateos, Francesca Maio, Ramachandra K Kini, Marcel Prins, Harrold A van den Burg
Attachment of the small ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO to substrate proteins modulates their turnover, activity or interaction partners. However, how this SUMO conjugation activity concentrates the proteins involved and the into uncharacterized nuclear bodies (NBs) remains poorly understood. Here, we characterized the requirements for SUMO NB formation and for their subsequent co-localisation with the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1, a master regulator of plant growth. COP1 activity results in degradation of transcription factors, which primes the transcriptional response that underlies elongation growth induced by darkness and high ambient temperatures (skoto- and thermomorphogenesis, respectively)...
November 2, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30385647/recursive-paleohexaploidization-shapes-the-durian-genome
#15
Jinpeng Wang, Jiaqing Yuan, Jigao Yu, Fanbo Meng, Pengchuan Sun, Yuxian Li, Nanshan Yang, Zhenyi Wang, Yuxin Pan, Weina Ge, Li Wang, Jing Li, Chao Liu, Zhiyan Xi, Yuhao Zhao, Sainan Luo, Dongcen Ge, Xiaobo Cui, Guangdong Feng, Ziwei Wang, Lei Ji, Jun Qin, Xiu-Qing Li, Xiyin Wang
Durian genome becomes available recently and revealed two paleopolyploidization events, which were inferred to share with cotton. Here, we reanalyzed the durian genome in comparison with other well-characterized genomes. We found that durian and cotton were actually affected by different polyploidization events: hexaploidization in durian lineage ~19-21 million years ago (mya) and decaploidization in cotton ~13-14 mya. Previous problematic interpretation might be caused by elevated evolutionary rates in cotton genes due to the decaploidization, and insufficient consideration of the complexity of plant genomes...
November 1, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30381318/aphid-borne-viral-spread-is-enhanced-by-virus-induced-accumulation-of-plant-reactive-oxygen-species
#16
Huijuan Guo, Liyuan Gu, Fanqi Liu, Fajun Chen, Feng Ge, Yucheng Sun
Most known plant viruses are spread from plant to plant by insect vectors. There is strong evidence that non-persistently transmitted viruses manipulate the release of plant volatiles to attract insect vectors, thereby promoting virus spread. The mechanisms whereby aphid settling and feeding is altered on plants infected with these viruses, however, are unclear. Here we employed loss-of-function mutations in cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and one of its host plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), to elucidate such mechanisms...
October 31, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30381317/loss-of-phosphoethanolamine-n-methyltransferases-abolishes-phosphatidylcholine-synthesis-and-is-lethal
#17
Weihua Chen, Matthew C Taylor, Russell Barrow, Mikael Croyal, Josette Masle
Plants use several pathways to synthesize phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid of eukaryotic cells, which has important structural and signalling roles. One is the phospho-base methylation pathway, which forms the head-group phosphocholine (PCho) through the triple methylation of phosphoethanolamine (PEA) catalysed by phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferases (PEAMTs). Our understanding of that pathway and its physiological importance remains limited. We recently reported that disruption of Arabidopsis thaliana PEAMT1/NMT1 and PEAMT3/NMT3 induces severe PC deficiency leading to dwarfism and impaired development...
October 31, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377236/hcn-regulates-cellular-processes-through-posttranslational-modification-of-proteins-by-s-cyanylation
#18
Irene García, Lucía Arenas-Alfonseca, Inmaculada Moreno, Cecilia Gotor, Luis C Romero
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is coproduced with ethylene in plant cells and primarily enzymatically detoxified by the mitochondrial ß-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS-C1). Permanent or transient depletion of CAS-C1 activity in Arabidopsis results in physiological alterations in the plant that suggest that HCN acts as a gasotransmitter molecule. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of enriched mitochondrial samples isolated from the wild type and cas-c1 mutant revealed significant changes in protein content, identifying 451 proteins that are absent or less abundant in cas-c1 and 353 proteins that are only present or more abundant in the mutant background...
October 30, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377235/plastid-to-nucleus-retrograde-signalling-during-chloroplast-biogenesis-does-not-require-abi4
#19
Sylwia M Kacprzak, Nobuyoshi Mochizuki, Belen Naranjo, Duorong Xu, Dario Leister, Tatjana Kleine, Haruko Okamoto, Matthew J Terry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30366980/going-with-the-flow-multiscale-insights-into-the-composite-nature-of-water-transport-in-roots
#20
Valentin Couvreur, Marc Faget, Guillaume Lobet, Mathieu Javaux, Francois Chaumont, Xavier Draye
As water often limits crop production, a more complete understanding of plant water capture and transport is necessary. Here, we developed MECHA, a mathematical model that computes the flow of water across the root at the scale of walls, membranes, and plasmodesmata of individual cells, and used it to test hypotheses related to root water transport in maize (Zea mays). The model uses detailed root anatomical descriptions and a minimal set of experimental cell properties, including the conductivity of plasma membranes (Lp), cell walls, and plasmodesmata, which yield quantitative and scale consistent estimations of water pathways and root radial hydraulic conductivity (kr)...
October 26, 2018: Plant Physiology
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