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Plant Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811336/catastrophic-unbalanced-genome-rearrangements-cause-somatic-loss-of-berry-color-in-grapevine
#1
Pablo Carbonell-Bejerano, Carolina Royo, Rafael Torres-Pérez, Jérôme Grimplet, Lucie Fernandez, Jose M Franco-Zorrilla, Diego Lijavetzky, Elisa Baroja, Juana Martínez, Enrique García-Escudero, Javier Ibáñez, José M Martínez-Zapater
Grape color somatic variants that can be used to develop new grapevine cultivars occasionally appear associated to deletion events of uncertain origin. To understand the mutational mechanisms generating somatic structural variation in grapevine, we compared the Tempranillo Blanco (TB) white berry somatic variant to its black berry ancestor, Tempranillo Tinto. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) uncovered a catastrophic genome rearrangement in TB that caused the hemizygous deletion of 313 genes, including the loss of the functional copy for the MYB transcription factors required for anthocyanin pigmentation in the berry skin...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811335/the-conserved-and-unique-genetic-architecture-of-kernel-size-and-weight-in-maize-and-rice
#2
Jie Liu, Juan Huang, Huan Guo, Liu Lan, Hongze Wang, Yuancheng Xu, Xiaohong Yang, Wenqiang Li, Hao Tong, Yingjie Xiao, Qingchun Pan, Feng Qiao, Mohammad Sharif Raihan, Haijun Liu, Xuehai Zhang, Ning Yang, Xiaqing Wang, Min Deng, Minliang Jin, Lijun Zhao, Xin Luo, Yang Zhou, Xiang Li, Wei Zhan, Nannan Liu, Hong Wang, Gengshen Chen, Qing Li, Jianbing Yan
Maize is a major staple crop. Maize kernel size and weight are important contributors to its yield. Here, we measured kernel length, kernel width, kernel thickness, hundred kernel weight and kernel test weight in 10 recombinant inbred line populations and dissected their genetic architecture using three statistical models. In total, 729 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified, many of which were identified in all three models, including 22 major QTLs that each can explain more than 10% of phenotypic variation...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811334/argonaute-8-ago8-mediates-the-elicitation-of-primary-defense-against-herbivory
#3
Maitree Pradhan, Priyanka Pandey, Klaus Gase, Murali Shraff, Ravi K Singh, Avinash Sethi, Ian T Baldwin, Shree P Pandey
In Nicotiana attenuata, specific RNA directed RNA polymerase (RdR1) and the Dicer-like proteins (DCL3 and 4) are recruited during herbivore attack to mediate the regulation of defense responses. However, the identity and role(s) of Argonautes (AGOs) involved in herbivory remains unknown. Of the 11 AGOs in the N. attenuata genome, we silenced the expression of 10. Plants silenced in NaAGO8 expression grew normally but were highly susceptible to herbivore attack. Larvae of the Manduca sexta grew faster when consuming irAGO8 plants, but did not differ from WT when consuming plants silenced in AGO1 (a, b and c), AGO2, AGO4 (a and b), AGO7, or AGO10 expression...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811333/arabidopsis-lorelei-a-maternally-expressed-imprinted-gene-promotes-early-seed-development
#4
Yanbing Wang, Tatsuya Tsukamoto, Jennifer Ashley Noble, Xunliang Liu, Rebecca Mosher, Ravishankar Palanivelu
n flowering plants the female gametophyte controls pollen tube reception immediately before fertilization and regulates seed development immediately after fertilization, although controlling mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previously, we showed that LORELEI (LRE), which encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein, is critical for pollen tube reception by the female gametophyte before fertilization and initiation of seed development after fertilization. Here, we show that LRE is expressed in the synergid, egg, and central cells of the female gametophyte and in the zygote and proliferating endosperm of the seed...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807931/identification-of-novel-growth-regulators-in-plant-populations-expressing-random-peptides
#5
Zhilong Bao, Maureen A Clancy, Raquel F Carvalho, Kiona Elliott, Kevin M Folta
The use of chemical genomics approaches allows the identification of small molecules that integrate into biological systems, thereby changing discrete processes that influence growth, development or metabolism. Libraries of chemicals are applied to living systems, and changes in phenotype are observed, potentially leading to the identification of new growth regulators. This work describes an approach that is the nexus of chemical-genomics and synthetic biology. Here each plant in an extensive population synthesizes a unique small peptide arising from a transgene composed of a randomized nucleic acid sequence core, flanked by translational start, stop, and cysteine-encoding (for disulfide cyclization) sequences...
August 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807930/transcriptome-association-identifies-regulators-of-wheat-spike-architecture
#6
Yuange Wang, Haopeng Yu, Caihuan Tian, Muhammad Sajjad, Caixia Gao, Yiping Tong, Xiangfeng Wang, Yuling Jiao
The architecture of wheat inflorescence and its complexity is among the most important agronomic traits that influence yield. For example, wheat spikes vary considerably in the number of spikelets, which are specialized reproductive branches, and the number of florets, which are spikelet branches that produce seeds. The large and repetitive nature of the three homologous and highly similar subgenomes of wheat has impeded attempts at using genetic approaches to uncover beneficial alleles that can be utilized for yield improvement...
August 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801536/structure-annotation-and-quantification-of-wheat-seed-oxidized-lipids-by-high-resolution-lc-ms-ms
#7
David Riewe, Janine Wiebach, Thomas Altmann
Lipid oxidation is a process ubiquitous in life, but the direct and comprehensive analysis of oxidized lipids has been limited by available analytical methods. We applied high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify oxidized lipids (glycerides, fatty acids, phospholipids, lysophospholipids and galactolipids) and implemented a platform-independent high-throughput amenable analysis pipeline for the high confidence annotation and acyl composition analysis of oxidized lipids...
August 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794260/a-conifer-udp-sugar-dependent-glycosyltransferase-contributes-to-acetophenone-metabolism-and-defense-against-insects
#8
Melissa H Mageroy, Sharon Jancsik, Macaire M S Yuen, Michael Fischer, Stephen G Withers, Christian Paetz, Bernd Schneider, John J MacKay, Joerg Bohlmann
Acetophenones are phenolic compounds involved in resistance of white spruce (Picea glauca) against spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferiana), a major forest pest in North America. The acetophenones pungenol and piceol commonly accumulate in spruce foliage in the form of the corresponding glycosides, pungenin and picein. These glycosides appear to be inactive against the insect, but can be cleaved by a spruce β-glucosidase, PgβGlu1, which releases the active aglycons. The reverse glycosylation reaction was hypothesized to involve a family-1 UDP-sugar dependent glycosyltransferase (UGT) to facilitate acetophenone accumulation in the plant...
August 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794259/phloem-loading-through-plasmodesmata-a-biophysical-analysis
#9
Jean Comtet, Robert Turgeon, Abraham Stroock
In many species, sucrose en route out of the leaf migrates from photosynthetically active mesophyll cells into the phloem down its concentration gradient via plasmodesmata, i.e., symplastically. In some of these plants the process is entirely passive, but in others phloem sucrose is actively converted into larger sugars, raffinose and stachyose, and segregated (trapped), thus raising total phloem sugar concentration to a level higher than in the mesophyll. Questions remain regarding the mechanisms and selective advantages conferred by both of these symplastic loading processes...
August 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794258/genetic-architecture-and-molecular-networks-underlying-leaf-thickness-in-desert-adapted-tomato
#10
Viktoriya Coneva, Margaret Frank, Maria A de Luis Balaguer, Mao Li, Rosangela Sozzani, Daniel H Chitwood
Thicker leaves allow plants to grow in water-limited conditions. However, our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of this highly functional leaf shape trait is poor. We used a custom-built confocal profilometer to directly measure leaf thickness in a set of introgression lines (ILs) derived from the desert tomato species Solanum pennellii, and identified quantitative trait loci (QTL). We report evidence of a complex genetic architecture of this trait and roles for both genetic and environmental factors...
August 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778922/sucrose-and-ethylene-signaling-interact-to-modulate-the-circadian-clock
#11
Michael J Haydon, Olga Mielczarek, Alexander Frank, Ángela Román, Alex Ar Webb
Circadian clocks drive rhythmic physiology and metabolism to optimize plant growth and performance under daily environmental fluctuations caused by the rotation of the planet. Photosynthesis is a key metabolic process that must be appropriately timed to the light-dark cycle. The circadian clock contributes to the regulation of photosynthesis and in turn the daily accumulation of sugars from photosynthesis also feeds back to regulate the circadian oscillator. We have previously shown that GIGANTEA (GI) is required to sustain sucrose-dependent circadian rhythms in darkness...
August 4, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775143/osbzip48-a-hy5-transcription-factor-ortholog-exerts-pleiotropic-effects-in-light-regulated-development
#12
Naini Burman, Akanksha Bhatnagar, Jitendra P Khurana
Plants have evolved an intricate network of sensory photoreceptors and signalling components to regulate their development. Among the light signalling components identified till date, HY5, a bZIP transcription factor, has been investigated extensively. However, most of the work on HY5 has been carried out in Arabidopsis, a dicot. In this study, based on homology search and phylogenetic analysis, we could identify three homologs of AtHY5 in monocots; however, AtHYH (HY5 homolog) homologs are absent in monocots analysed...
August 3, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768816/functional-specialization-of-cellulose-synthase-isoforms-in-a-moss-shows-parallels-with-seed-plants
#13
Joanna H Norris, Xingxing Li, Shixin Huang, Allison van de Meene, Mai L Tran, Erin Killeavy, Arielle M Chaves, Bailey Mallon, Danielle Mercure, Hwei-Ting Tan, Rachel A Burton, Monika Susanne Doblin, Seong H Kim, Alison W Roberts
The secondary cell walls of tracheary elements and fibers are rich in cellulose microfibrils that are helically oriented and laterally aggregated. Support cells within the leaf midribs of mosses deposit cellulose-rich secondary cell walls, but their biosynthesis and microfibril organization have not been examined. Although the Cellulose Synthase (CESA) gene families of mosses and seed plants diversified independently, CESA knockout analysis in the moss Physcomitrella patens revealed parallels in CESA functional specialization of Arabidopsis and P...
August 2, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768815/synthesis-and-self-assembly-of-cellulose-microfibrils-from-reconstituted-cellulose-synthase
#14
Sung Hyun Cho, Pallinti Purushotham, Chao Fang, Cassandra Maranas, Sara M Díaz-Moreno, Vincent Bulone, Jochen Zimmer, Manish Kumar, B Tracy Nixon
Cellulose, the major component of plant cell walls, can be converted to bioethanol and is thus highly studied. In plants, cellulose is produced by cellulose synthase, a processive family-2 glycosyltransferase. In plant cell walls, individual β-1,4-glucan chains polymerized by CesA are assembled into microfibrils that are frequently bundled into macrofibrils. An in vitro system in which cellulose is synthesized and assembled into fibrils would facilitate detailed study of this process. Here, we report the heterologous expression and partial purification of His-tagged CesA5 from Physcomitrella patens...
August 2, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768814/construction-and-optimization-of-large-gene-co-expression-network-in-maize-using-rna-seq-data
#15
Ji Huang, Stefania Vendramin Alegre, Lizhen Shi, Karen McGinnis
With the emergence of massively parallel sequencing, genome-wide expression data production has reached an unprecedented level. This abundance of data has greatly facilitated maize research, but may not be amenable to traditional analysis techniques that were optimized for other data types. Using publicly available data, a Gene Co-expression Network (GCN) can be constructed and used for gene function prediction, candidate gene selection and improving understanding of regulatory pathways. Several GCN studies have been done in maize, mostly using microarray datasets...
August 2, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765275/proline-accumulation-is-regulated-by-transcription-factors-associated-with-phosphate-starvation
#16
Dávid Aleksza, Gábor V Horváth, Györgyi Sándor, László Szabados
Proline accumulation in plants is a well-documented physiological response to osmotic stress caused by drought or salinity. In Arabidopsis thaliana the stress and ABA-induced Δ1-PYRROLINE-5-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHETASE 1 (P5CS1) gene was previously shown to control proline biosynthesis in such adverse conditions. To identify regulatory factors which control the transcription of P5CS1, yeast one hybrid (Y1H) screens were performed with a genomic fragment of P5CS1, containing 1.2 kB promoter and 0.8 kB transcribed regions...
August 1, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754840/over-expression-of-the-rieskefes-protein-increases-electron-transport-rates-and-biomass-yield
#17
Andrew John Simkin, Lorna McAusland, Tracy Lawson, Christine A Raines
In this study we have generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing the Rieske FeS protein (PetC), a component of the cytochrome b6f (cyt b6f) complex. Increasing the levels of this protein, resulted in the concomitant increase in the levels of cyt f (PetA) and cyt b6 (PetB), core proteins of the cyt b6f complex. Interestingly, an increase in the levels of proteins in both the PSI and PSII complexes was also seen in the Rieske FeS ox plants. Although the mechanisms leading to these changes remain to be identified, the transgenic plants presented here provide novel tools to explore this...
July 28, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754839/a-dioxygenase-catalyzes-steroid-16%C3%AE-hydroxylation-in-steroidal-glycoalkaloid-biosynthesis
#18
Masaru Nakayasu, Naoyuki Umemoto, Kiyoshi Ohyama, Yoshinori Fujimoto, Hyoung Jae Lee, Bunta Watanabe, Toshiya Muranaka, Kazuki Saito, Yukihiro Sugimoto, Masaharu Mizutani
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are toxic specialized metabolites that are found in Solanaceae. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) contains the SGAs α-solanine and α-chaconine, while tomato (S. lycopersicum) contains α-tomatine, all of which are biosynthesized from cholesterol. However, although two cytochrome P450 monooxygenases that catalyze the 22- and 26-hydroxylation of cholesterol have been identified, the 16-hydroxylase remains unknown. Feeding with deuterium-labeled cholesterol indicated that the 16α- and 16β-hydrogen atoms of cholesterol were eliminated to form α-solanine and α-chaconine in potato, while only the 16α-hydrogen atom was eliminated in α-tomatine biosynthesis, suggesting that a single oxidation at C-16 takes place during tomato SGA biosynthesis while a two-step oxidation occurs in potato...
July 28, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751317/positive-regulator-of-iron-homeostasis-1-ospri1-positively-regulates-iron-homeostasis-in-rice
#19
Hui Min Zhang, Yang Li, Xia Ni Yao, Gang Liang, Diqiu Yu
OsHRZ1 is a potential iron-binding sensor. However, it is unclear how OsHRZ1 transmits signals. In this study, we reveal that OsPRI1 interacts with OsHRZ1. A loss-of-function mutation to OsPRI1 increased the sensitivity of plants to Fe-deficient conditions and downregulated the expression of Fe-deficiency-responsive genes. Yeast one-hybrid and electrophoretic mobility shift assay results suggested that OsPRI1 binds to the OsIRO2 and OsIRO3 promoters. In vitro ubiquitination experiments indicated that OsPRI1 is ubiquitinated by OsHRZ1...
July 27, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751316/determining-the-site-of-action-of-strigolactones-during-nodulation
#20
Erin L McAdam, Cassandra Hugill, Sebastien Fort, Eric Samian, Sylvain Cottaz, Noel W Davies, James B Reid, Eloise Foo
Strigolactones (SLs) influence the ability of legumes to associate with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. In this study we determine the precise stage at which SLs influence nodulation. We show that SLs promote infection thread formation, as a null SL-deficient pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant forms significantly less infection threads than wild type plants and this reduction can be overcome by the application of the synthetic SL GR24. We found no evidence that SLs influence physical events in the plant before or after infection thread formation, since SL-deficient plants displayed a similar ability to induce root hair curling in response to rhizobia or lipochito-oligosaccharides (LCOs) and SL-deficient nodules appear to fix nitrogen at a similar rate to wild type plants...
July 27, 2017: Plant Physiology
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