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Plant Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720608/shining-light-on-the-function-of-nph3-rpt2-like-proteins-in-phototropin-signalling
#1
John Christie, Noriyuki Suetsugu, Stuart Sullivan, Masamitsu Wada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710133/novel-stress-inducible-antisense-rnas-of-protein-coding-loci-are-synthesized-by-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase
#2
Akihiro Matsui, Kei Iida, Maho Tanaka, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Kayoko Mizunashi, Jong-Myong Kim, Satoshi Takahashi, Norio Kobayashi, Shuji Shigenobu, Kazuo Shinozaki, Motoaki Seki
Our previous study identified approximately 6,000 abiotic stress-responsive non-coding transcripts existing on the antisense strand of protein-coding genes, and implied that a type of antisense RNA was synthesized from a sense RNA template by a study of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR). Expression analyses revealed that the expression of novel abiotic stress-induced antisense RNA on 1,136 gene loci was reduced in the rdr1/2/6 mutants. RNase protection indicated that the RD29A antisense RNA and other RDR1/2/6-dependent antisense RNAs are involved in the formation of double-stranded RNA...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710132/autophagy-deficiency-compromises-alternative-pathways-of-respiration-following-energy-deprivation
#3
Jessica As Barros, João Henrique F Cavalcanti, David B Medeiros, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Tamar Avin-Wittenberg, Alisdair R Fernie, Wagner Araujo
Under heterotrophic conditions carbohydrate oxidation inside the mitochondria is the primary energy source for cellular metabolism. However, during energy-limited conditions, alternative substrates are required to support respiration. Amino acid oxidation in plant cells plays a key role in this by generating electrons that can be transferred to the mitochondrial electron transport chain via the electron transfer flavoprotein/ubiquinone oxidoreductase system. Autophagy, a catabolic mechanism for macromolecule and protein recycling, allows the maintenance of amino acid pools and nutrient remobilization...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710131/gene-regulatory-networks-for-the-haploid-to-diploid-transition-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#4
Sunjoo Joo, Yoshiki Nishimura, Evan Cronmiller, Ran Ha Hong, Thamali Kariyawasam, Ming Hsiu Wang, Nai Chun Shao, Saif-El-Din El Akkad, Takamasa Suzuki, Tetsuya Higashiyama, EonSeon Jin, Jae-Hyeok Lee
The sexual cycle of the unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii culminates in the formation of diploid zygotes which differentiate into dormant spores that eventually undergo meiosis. Mating between gametes induces rapid cell wall shedding via the enzyme g-lysin; cell fusion is followed by heterodimerization of sex-specific homeobox transcription factors, GSM1 and GSP1, and initiation of zygote-specific gene expression. To investigate the genetic underpinnings of the zygote developmental pathway, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of both pre- and post-fertilization samples...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710130/dead-or-alive-using-membrane-failure-and-chlorophyll-fluorescence-to-predict-mortality-from-drought
#5
Carmela Rosaria Guadagno, Brent E Ewers, Heather N Speckman, Timothy L Aston, Bridger J Huhn, Stanley B DeVore, Joshua T Ladwig, Rachel N Strawn, Cynthia Weinig
Climate models predict widespread increases in both drought intensity and duration in the next decades. Although water deficiency is one of the greatest environmental pressures to plant survival, limited understanding of how plants respond to extreme drought impedes adequate forecasts of how increasing aridity will impact both forest and crop productivity. Drought induces a suite of physiological responses; however, we lack an accurate mechanistic description of plant response to lethal drought that would improve predictive understanding of the timing of lethal drought with climate change...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710129/manipulation-of-a-senescence-associated-gene-improves-fleshy-fruit-yield
#6
Bruno S Lira, Giovanna Gramegna, Bruna Trench, Frederico Rocha Rodrigues Alves, Éder Marques Silva, Geraldo Felipe Ferreira Silva, Venkatesh Periyakavanam Thirumalaikumar, Alessandra Cavalcanti Duarte Lupi, Diego Demarco, Eduardo Purgatto, Fabio Ts Nogueira, Salma Balazadeh, Luciano Freschi, Magdalena Rossi
Senescence is the process that marks the end of leaves lifespan. As it progresses, the massive macromolecular catabolism dismantles the chloroplasts and, consequently, decreases the photosynthetic capacity of these organs. Thus, senescence manipulation is a strategy to improve plant yield by extending the leaf photosynthetically active window of time. However, it remains to be addressed if this approach can improve fleshy fruit production and nutritional quality. One way to delay senescence initiation is by regulating key transcription factors (TFs) involved in triggering this process, such as the NAC TF ORESARA1 (ORE1)...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710128/bcxyg1-a-secreted-xyloglucanase-from-botrytis-cinerea-induces-cell-death-and-triggers-plant-defense
#7
Wenjun Zhu, Mordechi Ronen, Yonatan Gur, Anna Minz-Dub, Gal Masrati, Nir Ben-Tal, Itai Sharon, Alon Savidor, Elad Eizner, Oliver Valerius, Gerhard Braus, Kyle Bowler, Maor Bar-Peled, Amir Sharon
In search of Botrytis cinerea cell death-inducing proteins, we found a xyloglucanase (BcXYG1), which induced strong necrosis and a resistance response in dicot plants. Expression of the BcXYG1 gene was strongly induced during the first 12 hours post inoculation, and analysis of disease dynamics using PathTrack{copyright, serif} showed that a B. cinerea strain over expressing BcXYG1 produced early local necrosis supporting a role of BcXYG1 as an early cell death-inducing factor. The xyloglucanase activity of BcXYG1 was not necessary for induction of necrosis and plant resistance, as a mutant of BcXYG1 lacking the xyloglucanase enzymatic activity retained both functions...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705827/3-hydroxyisobutyrate-dehydrogenase-is-involved-in-valine-and-isoleucine-degradation-in-a-thaliana
#8
Peter Schertl, Lennart Danne, Hans-Peter Braun
In plants, amino acid catabolism is especially relevant at metabolic stress situations, e.g. limited carbohydrate availability during extended darkness. Under these conditions, amino acids are used as alternative substrates for respiration. Complete oxidation of the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine in the mitochondria efficiently allows formation of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. However, the metabolic pathways for BCAA breakdown are largely unknown so far in plants. A systematic search for Arabidopsis genes encoding proteins resembling enzymes involved in BCAA catabolism in animals, fungi and bacteria as well as proteomic analyses of mitochondrial fractions from Arabidopsis allowed identification of a putative 3-Hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase, AtHDH1 (At4g20930), involved in Valine degradation...
July 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701352/calcium-pumps-and-interacting-bon1-protein-modulate-calcium-signature-stomatal-closure-and-plant-immunity
#9
Dong-Lei Yang, Zhenying Shi, Yongmei Bao, Jiapei Yan, Ziyuan Yang, Huiyun Yu, Yun Li, Mingyue Gou, Shu Wang, Baohong Zou, Dachao Xu, Zhiqi Ma, Jitae Kim, Jian Hua
Calcium signaling is essential for environmental responses including immune responses. Here we provide evidence that the evolutionarily conserved protein BONZAI1 (BON1) functions together with autoinhibited calcium ATPase 10 (ACA10) and ACA8 to regulate calcium signals in Arabidopsis. BON1 is a plasma membrane localized protein that negatively regulates the expression of immune receptor genes and positively regulates stomatal closure. We found that BON1 interacts with the autoinhibitory domains of ACA10 and ACA8, and the aca10 loss of function (LOF) mutants have an autoimmune phenotype similar to that of the bon1 LOF mutants...
July 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701351/characterization-of-trichome-expressed-bahds-in-petunia-reveals-distinct-acylsugar-assembly-mechanisms
#10
Satya Swathi Nadakuduti, Joseph B Uebler, Xiaoxiao Liu, Arthur Daniel Jones, Cornelius S Barry
Acylsugars are synthesized in the glandular trichomes of the Solanaceae family and are implicated in protection against abiotic and biotic stress. Acylsugars are comprised of either sucrose or glucose esterified with varying numbers of acyl chains of differing length. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), acylsugar assembly requires four acylsugar acyltransferases (ASATs), of the BAHD super family. Tomato ASATs catalyze the sequential esterification of acyl-CoA thioesters to the R4, R3, R3', and R2 position of sucrose, yielding a tetra-acylsucrose...
July 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698357/ropgef1-plays-a-critical-role-in-polar-auxin-transport-in-early-development
#11
Yuting Liu, Qingkun Dong, Daniel Kita, Jia-Bao Huang, Guolan Liu, Xiaowei Wu, Xiaoyue Zhu, Alice Y Cheung, Hen-Ming Wu, Li-Zhen Tao
Polar auxin transport, facilitated by the combined activities of auxin influx and efflux carriers to maintain asymmetric auxin distribution, is essential for plant growth and development. Here, we show that Arabidopsis RopGEF1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor and activator of ROPs (Rho GTPases of plants), is critically involved in polar distribution of auxin influx carrier AUX1 and differential accumulation of efflux carriers PIN7 and PIN2, and is important for embryo and early seedling development when RopGEF1 is prevalently expressed...
July 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698356/root-bending-is-antagonistically-affected-by-hypoxia-and-erf-mediated-transcription-via-auxin-signaling
#12
Emese Eysholdt-Derzso, Margret Sauter
When plants encounter soil water logging or flooding, roots are the first organs to be confronted with reduced gas diffusion resulting in limited oxygen supply. Since roots do not generate photosynthetic oxygen they are rapidly faced with oxygen shortage rendering roots particularly prone to damage. While metabolic adaptations to low oxygen conditions, that ensure basic energy supply, have been well characterized, adaptation of root growth and development have received less attention. In this study we show that hypoxic conditions cause the primary root to grow sidewise in a low oxygen environment possibly to escape soil patches with reduced oxygen availability...
July 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698355/tissue-specific-control-of-the-endocycle-by-the-anaphase-promoting-complex-cyclosome-inhibitors-uvi4-and-del1
#13
Jefri Heyman, Stefanie Polyn, Thomas Eekhout, Lieven De Veylder
The endocycle represents a modified mitotic cell cycle that in plants is often coupled to cell enlargement and differentiation. Endocycle onset is controlled by activity of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting cell cycle factors for destruction. CELL CYCLE SWITCH 52 (CCS52) proteins represent rate-limiting activator subunits of the APC/C. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), mutations in either CCS52A1 or CCS52A2 activators result in a delayed endocycle onset, whereas their overexpression triggers increased DNA ploidy levels...
July 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698354/enhanced-secondary-and-hormone-metabolism-in-leaves-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-medicago-truncatula
#14
Lisa Adolfsson, Hugues Nziengui, Ilka N Abreu, Jan Šimura, Azeez Beebo, Andrei Herdean, Jila Aboalizadeh, Jitka Široká, Thomas Moritz, Ondřej Novák, Karin Ljung, Benoît Schoefs, Cornelia Spetea
Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are the most common symbiotic associations between plant's root compartment and fungi. They provide nutritional benefit (mostly inorganic phosphate, Pi) leading to improved growth, and non-nutritional benefits including defense responses to environmental cues throughout the host plant, which in return delivers carbohydrates to the symbiont. However, how transcriptional and metabolic changes occurring in leaves of AM plants differ from those induced by Pi fertilization is poorly understood...
July 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696275/a-lectin-receptor-like-kinase-mediates-pattern-triggered-salicylic-acid-signaling
#15
Xuming Luo, Ning Xu, Junkai Huang, Feng Gao, Huasong Zou, Marie Boudsocq, Gitta Laurel Coaker, Jun Liu
Plant surface-localized pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) perceive conserved microbial features, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), resulting in disease resistance. PAMP perception leads to calcium influx, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by RbohD, accumulation of the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA) and callose deposition. Lectin receptor-like kinases (LecRKs) belong to a specific PRR family and are important players in plant innate immunity...
July 10, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687557/a-pif1-pif3-hy5-bbx23-transcription-factor-cascade-affects-photomorphogenesis
#16
Xinyu Zhang, Fangfang Shang, Junling Huai, Gang Xu, Weijiang Tang, Yanjun Jing, Rongcheng Lin
Light signaling plays an essential role in controlling higher plants' early developmental process termed as photomorphogenesis. Transcriptional regulation is a vital mechanism that is orchestrated by transcription factors and other regulatory proteins working in concert to finely tune gene expression. Although many transcription factors/regulators have been characterized in the light signaling pathway, their inter-regulation remains largely unknown. Here, we show that PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3) and PIF1 transcription factors directly bind to the regulatory regions of ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) and a B-box gene BBX23 and activate their expression in Arabidopsis thaliana...
July 7, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684434/optical-measurement-of-stem-xylem-vulnerability
#17
Timothy John Brodribb, Marc Carriqui, Sylvain Delzon, Christopher Lucani
The vulnerability of plant water transport tissues to a loss of function by cavitation during water stress is a key indicator of the survival capabilities of plant species during drought. Quantifying this important metric has been greatly advanced by non-invasive techniques that allow embolisms to be directly viewed in the vascular system. Here we present a new method for evaluating the spatial and temporal propagation of embolising bubbles in the stem xylem during imposed water stress. We demonstrate how the "optical method", previously used in leaves, can be adapted to measure the xylem vulnerability of stems...
July 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684433/vacuolar-iron-transporter-tavit2-transports-fe-and-mn-and-is-effective-for-biofortification
#18
James M Connorton, Eleanor R Jones, Ildefonso Rodriguez-Ramiro, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Cristobal Uauy, Janneke Balk
Increasing the intrinsic nutritional quality of crops, known as biofortification, is viewed as a sustainable approach to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies. In particular iron deficiency anaemia is a major global health issue, but the iron content of staple crops such as wheat is difficult to change because of genetic complexity and homeostasis mechanisms. To identify target genes for biofortification of wheat (Triticum aestivum), we functionally characterized homologs of the Vacuolar Iron Transporter (VIT)...
July 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679557/identification-and-characterization-of-daurichromenic-acid-synthase-active-in-anti-hiv-biosynthesis
#19
Miu Iijima, Ryosuke Munakata, Hironobu Takahashi, Hiromichi Kenmoku, Ryuichi Nakagawa, Takeshi Kodama, Yoshinori Asakawa, Ikuro Abe, Kazufumi Yazaki, Fumiya Kurosaki, Futoshi Taura
Daurichromenic acid (DCA) synthase catalyzes the oxidative cyclization of grifolic acid to produce DCA, an anti-HIV meroterpenoid isolated from Rhododendron dauricum. We identified a novel cDNA encoding DCA synthase by transcriptome-based screening from young leaves of R. dauricum. The gene coded for a 533-amino acid polypeptide with moderate homologies to FAD oxidases from other plants. The primary structure contained an N-terminal signal peptide, and conserved amino acid residues to form bicovalent linkage to FAD isoalloxazine ring at His112 and Cys175...
July 5, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667049/root-cortical-senescence-improves-growth-under-suboptimal-availability-of-n-p-and-k
#20
Hannah Schneider, Johannes A Postma, Tobias Wojciechowski, Christian Kuppe, Jonathan Lynch
Root cortical senescence (RCS) in Triticeae reduces nutrient uptake, nutrient content, respiration, and radial hydraulic conductance of root tissue. We used the functional-structural model SimRoot to evaluate the functional implications of RCS in barley under suboptimal nitrate, phosphorus, and potassium availability. The utility of RCS was evaluated using sensitivity analyses in contrasting nutrient regimes. At flowering (80 days), RCS increased simulated plant growth by up to 52%, 73%, and 41% in nitrate, phosphorus, and potassium limiting conditions, respectively...
June 30, 2017: Plant Physiology
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