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Plant Physiology

Christina Pfaff, Hans F Ehrnsberger, Maria Flores-Tornero, Brian B Soerensen, Thomas Schubert, Gernot Längst, Joachim Griesenbeck, Stefanie Sprunck, Marion Grasser, Klaus D Grasser
The regulated transport of mRNAs from the cell nucleus to the cytosol is a critical step linking transcript synthesis and processing with translation. However, in plants, only few of the factors that act in the mRNA export pathway have been functionally characterised. Flowering plant genomes encode several members of the ALY protein family, which function as mRNA export factors in other organisms. Arabidopsis thaliana ALY1-4 are commonly detected in root and leaf cells, but are differentially expressed in reproductive tissue...
March 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Andreas Carstensen, Andrei Herdean, Sidsel Birkelund Schmidt, Anurag Sharma, Cornelia Spetea, Mathias Pribil, Søren Husted
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient, and P deficiency limits plant productivity. Recent work showed that P deficiency affects electron transport to photosystem I (PSI), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we present a comprehensive biological model describing how P deficiency disrupts the photosynthetic machinery and the electron transport chain through a series of sequential events in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Phosphorus deficiency reduces the orthophosphate (Pi) concentration in the chloroplast stroma to levels that inhibit ATP synthase activity...
March 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Melissa Conte, Josselin Lupette, Khawla Seddiki, Coline Meï, Lina J Dolch, Valerie Gros, Caroline Barette, Fabrice Rébeillé, Juliette Jouhet, Eric Marechal
Microalgae are a promising feedstock for the production of triacylglycerol (TAG) for a variety of potential applications, ranging from food and human health to biofuels and green chemistry. However, obtaining high TAG yields is challenging. A phenotypic assay for accumulation of oil droplets was developed to screen a library of 1,200 drugs, annotated with pharmacology information, to select compounds that trigger TAG accumulation in the diatom Phaeodactylum. Using this screen, we identified 34 molecules acting in a dose-dependent manner...
March 13, 2018: Plant Physiology
Victoria Moriconi, Melanie Binkert, María Cecilia Costigliolo Rojas, Romina Sellaro, Roman Ulm, Jorge Jose Casal
Sunflecks, transient patches of light that penetrate through gaps in the canopy and transiently interrupt shade, are eco-physiologically and agriculturally important sources of energy for carbon gain, but our molecular understanding of how plant organs perceive and respond to sunflecks remains limited. The UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) is a recent addition to the list of plant photo-sensory receptors and, we have made considerable advances in our understanding of the physiology and molecular mechanisms of action of UVR8 and its signalling pathway...
March 12, 2018: Plant Physiology
Heng Yao, Xiaoxuan Wang, Pengcheng Chen, Ling Hai, Kang Jin, Lixia Yao, Chuanzao Mao, Xin Chen
An advanced functional understanding of omics data is important for elucidating the design logic of physiological processes in plants and effectively controlling desired traits in plants. We present the latest version of the predicted Arabidopsis interactome resource (PAIR) and of the gene set linkage analysis (GSLA) tool, which enable the interpretation of an observed transcriptomic change (differentially expressed genes, DEGs) in Arabidopsis with respect to its functional impact for biological processes. PAIR v5...
March 12, 2018: Plant Physiology
Jiaxuan Guo, Shufang Wang, XiaoYang Yu, Rui Dong, Yuzhong Li, Xurong Mei, Yuanyue Shen
Polyamines (PAs) participate in many plant growth and developmental processes, including fruit ripening. However, it is not clear whether PAs play a role in the ripening of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), a model non-climacteric plant. Here, we found that the content of the PA spermine (Spm) increased more sharply after the onset of fruit coloration than did that of the PAs putrescine (Put) or spermidine (Spd). Spm dominance in ripe fruit resulted from abundant transcripts of a strawberry S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase gene (FaSAMDC), which encodes an enzyme that generates a residue needed for PA biosynthesis...
March 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Philippe Reymond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Manoj Kumar, Laxmi Mishra, Paul Carr, Michael Pilling, Peter Gardner, Shawn D Mansfield, Simon R Turner
Cellulose microfibrils are the basic units of cellulose in plants. The structure of these microfibrils is at least partly determined by the structure of the cellulose synthase complex. In higher plants, this complex is composed of 18 to 24 catalytic subunits known as CELLULOSE SYNTHASE A (CESA) proteins. Three different classes of CESA proteins are required for cellulose synthesis and for secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis, which include CESA4, CESA7, and CESA8. To probe the relationship between CESA proteins and microfibril structure, we created mutant cesa proteins that lack catalytic activity but retain sufficient structural integrity to allow assembly of the cellulose synthase complex...
March 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Ricarda Höhner, Joaquim V Marques, Tetsuro Ito, Yoshiaki Amakura, Alan D Budgeon, Karl Weitz, Kim K Hixson, Laurence B Davin, Helmut Kirchhoff, Norman G Lewis
Arogenate dehydratase (ADT) catalyzes the final step of phenylalanine (Phe) biosynthesis. Previous work showed that ADT-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants had significantly reduced lignin contents, with stronger reductions in lines that had deficiencies in more ADT isoforms. Here, by analyzing Arabidopsis ADT mutants using our phenomics facility and UPLC-MS based metabolomics, we describe the effects of modulation of ADT on photosynthetic parameters and secondary metabolism. Our data indicate that a reduced carbon flux into Phe biosynthesis in ADT mutants impairs the consumption of photosynthetically produced ATP leading to an increased ATP/ADP ratio, the over-accumulation of transitory starch, and lower electron transport rates...
March 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Simon R Law, Daria Chrobok, Marta Juvany, Nicolas Delhomme, Pernilla Lindén, Bastiaan Brouwer, Abdul Ahad, Thomas Moritz, Stefan Jansson, Per Gardestrom, Olivier Keech
In plants, an individually darkened leaf (IDL) initiates senescence much more rapidly than a leaf from a whole darkened plant (DP). Combining transcriptomic and metabolomic approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana, we present an overview of the metabolic strategies that are employed in response to different darkening treatments. Under DP conditions, the perception of carbon starvation drove a profound metabolic readjustment in which lipids, branched-chain amino acids, and potentially monosaccharides released from cell wall loosening became important substrates for maintaining minimal ATP production...
March 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Qiang-Nan Feng, Xin Liang, Sha Li, Yan Zhang
Pollen tube growth is an essential step for successful plant reproduction. Vacuolar trafficking and dynamic organization are important for pollen tube growth; however, the key proteins involved in these processes are not well understood. Here, we report that the ADAPTOR PROTEIN-3 (AP-3) complex and its tonoplast cargo PROTEIN S-ACYL TRANSFERASE10 (PAT10) are critical for pollen tube growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). AP-3 is a heterotetrameric protein complex consisting of four subunits, δ, β, µ, and σ...
March 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Shanshan Zhang, Dongfang Wang, Huajian Zhang, Megan I Skaggs, Alan Lloyd, Di Ran, Lingling An, Karen S Schumaker, Gary N Drews, Ramin Yadegari
Early endosperm development presents a unique system to uncover epigenetic regulatory mechanisms because the contributing maternal and paternal genomes possess differential epigenetic modifications. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the initiation of endosperm coenocytic growth upon fertilization and the transition to endosperm cellularization are regulated by the FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT SEED (FIS)-Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), a putative H3K27 methyltransferase. Here, we address the possible role of the FIS-PRC2 complex in regulating the type I MADS-box gene family, which has previously been shown to regulate early endosperm development...
March 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Sushil Kumar, Pratibha Choudhary, Mansi Gupta, Utpal Nath
In plants, endogenous and environmental signals such as light control the timing of the transition to flowering. Two phytochrome B-interacting transcription factors, VASCULAR PLANT ONE-ZINC FINGER1 (VOZ1) and VOZ2 redundantly promote flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the voz1 voz2 mutant the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) was up-regulated and that of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) was down-regulated, which was proposed to be the cause of late flowering in voz1 voz2. However, the detailed mechanism by which the VOZ genes promote flowering is not well understood...
March 5, 2018: Plant Physiology
Willian B Silva, Mateus H Vicente, Jessenia M Robledo, Diego S Reartes, Renata C Ferrari, Ricardo E Bianchetti, Wagner L Araújo, Luciano Freschi, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Agustin Zsögön
The SELF PRUNING (SP) gene is a key regulator of growth habit in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). It is an ortholog of TERMINAL FLOWER 1, a phosphatidyl-ethanolamine binding protein with anti-florigenic activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. A spontaneous loss-of-function mutation (sp) has been bred into several industrial tomato cultivars, as it produces a suite of pleiotropic effects that are favorable for mechanical harvesting, including determinate growth habit, short plant stature and simultaneous fruit ripening...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology
Xiao Han, Yanru Hu, Gensong Zhang, Yanjuan Jiang, Xiaolan Chen, Diqiu Yu
Stomata are ports that facilitate gas and water vapor exchange between plants and their environment. Stomatal development is strictly regulated by endogenous signals and environmental cues. Jasmonate is an important signal that modulates multiple physiological processes in plants, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying its interactions with other developmental signaling pathways remain poorly understood. Here, we show that jasmonate negatively regulates stomatal development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cotyledons...
March 1, 2018: Plant Physiology
Lisa Hartmann, Theresa Wießner, Andreas Wachter
Alternative splicing (AS) is prevalent in higher eukaryotes, and generation of different AS variants is tightly regulated. Widespread AS occurs in response to altered light conditions and plays a critical role in seedling photomorphogenesis, but despite its frequency and effect on plant development, the functional role of AS remains unknown for most splicing variants. Here, we characterized the light-dependent AS variants of the gene encoding the splicing regulator Serine/Arginine-rich protein SR30 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)...
March 1, 2018: Plant Physiology
Soile Jokipii-Lukkari, Nicolas Delhomme, Bastian Schiffthaler, Chanaka Mannapperuma, Jakob Prestele, Ove Nilsson, Nathaniel R Street, Hannele Tuominen
Seasonal cues influence several aspects of the secondary growth of tree stems, including cambial activity, wood chemistry, and transition to latewood formation. We investigated seasonal changes in cambial activity, secondary cell wall formation, and tracheid cell death in woody tissues of Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout one seasonal cycle. RNA sequencing was simultaneously performed in both the xylem and cambium/phloem tissues of the stem. Principal component analysis revealed gradual shifts in the transcriptomes that followed a chronological order throughout the season...
February 27, 2018: Plant Physiology
Catalin Voiniciuc, Markus Pauly, Bjoern Usadel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: Plant Physiology
Suzanne Litthauer, Kai Xun Chan, Matthew A Jones
The circadian system optimizes cellular responses to stress, but the signaling pathways that convey the metabolic consequences of stress into this molecular timekeeping mechanism remain unclear. Redox-regulation of the SAL1 phosphatase during abiotic stress initiates a signaling pathway from chloroplast to nucleus by regulating the accumulation of a metabolite, 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate (PAP). Consequently, PAP accumulates in response to redox stress and inhibits the activity of exoribonucleases (XRNs) in the nucleus and cytosol...
February 27, 2018: Plant Physiology
XuXu Huang, Guo-Qing Zhu, Qian Liu, Lu Chen, Yan-Jie Li, Bing-Kai Hou
Salicylic acid (SA) plays a crucial role in plant innate immunity. The deployment of SA-associated immune responses is primarily affected by SA concentration, which is determined by a balance between SA biosynthesis and catabolism. However, the mechanisms regulating SA homeostasis are poorly understood. In this study, we characterized a unique UDP-glycosyltransferase, UGT76D1, which plays an important role in SA homeostasis and associated immune responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of UGT76D1 was induced by treatment with both the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv...
February 26, 2018: Plant Physiology
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