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Plant Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432258/lil3-a-light-harvesting-complex-protein-links-terpenoid-and-tetrapyrrole-biosynthesis
#1
Daniel Hey, Maxi Rothbart, Josephine Herbst, Peng Wang, Jakob Müller, Daniel Wittmann, Kirsten Gruhl, Bernhard Grimm
LIL3 of Arabidopsis thaliana belongs to the light-harvesting complex (LHC) family, which also includes the light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding proteins of photosystems 1 and 2, the early-light-inducible proteins, PsbS involved in non-photochemical quenching, the one-helix-proteins and their cyanobacterial homologs designated high-light-inducible proteins. Each member of this family is characterized by one or two LHC transmembrane domains (referred to as the LHC motif) to which potential functions such as chlorophyll binding, protein interaction and integration of interacting partners into the plastid membranes have been attributed...
April 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432257/excess-diffuse-light-absorption-in-upper-mesophyll-limits-co2-drawdown-and-depresses-photosynthesis
#2
Jeffrey Mason Earles, Guillaume Théroux-Rancourt, Matthew E Gilbert, Andrew J McElrone, Craig Brodersen
In agricultural and natural systems, diffuse light can enhance plant primary productivity due to deeper penetration into and greater illumination of the entire canopy. However, for individual sun-grown leaves from three species, photosynthesis is actually less efficient under diffuse compared to direct light. Despite its potential impact on canopy-level productivity, the mechanism for this leaf-level 'diffuse light photosynthetic depression' effect is unknown. Here we investigate if the spatial distribution of light absorption relative to electron transport capacity in sun- and shade-grown H...
April 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432256/global-sensitivity-analysis-of-onguard-models-identifies-key-hubs-for-transport-interaction-in-stomatal-dynamics
#3
Silvere Rm Vialet-Chabrand, Adrian Hills, Yizhou Wang, Howard Griffiths, Virgilio Lew, Tracy Lawson, Mike R Blatt, Simon Rogers
The physical requirement for charge to balance across biological membranes means that transmembrane transport of each ionic species is inter-related, and manipulating solute flux through any one transporter will affect other transporters at the same membrane, often with unforeseen consequences. The OnGuard systems modelling platform has helped to resolve the mechanics of stomatal movements, uncovering previously unexpected behaviors of stomata. To date, however, the manual approach to exploring model parameter space has captured little formal information about the emergent connections between parameters that define the most interesting properties of the system as a whole...
April 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424214/functional-conservation-and-divergence-among-homoeologs-of-taspl20-and-taspl21-two-sbp-box-genes-governing-yield-related-traits-in-hexaploid-wheat
#4
Bin Zhang, Weina Xu, Xia Liu, Xinguo Mao, Ang Li, Jingyi Wang, Xiaoping Chang, Xueyong Zhang, Ruilian Jing
Maintaining high and stable yields has become an increasing challenge in wheat breeding due to climate change. Although Squamosa-promoter binding protein (SBP)-box genes have important roles in plant development, very little is known about the actual biological functions of wheat SBP-box family members. Here, we dissect the functional conservation, divergence and exploitation of homoeologs of two paralogous TaSPL wheat loci during domestication and breeding. TaSPL20 and TaSPL21 were highly expressed in the lemma and palea...
April 19, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416705/defining-the-diverse-cell-populations-contributing-to-lignification-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-stems
#5
Rebecca A Smith, Mathias Schuetz, Steven D Karlen, David A Bird, Naohito Tokunaga, Yashushi Sato, Shawn D Mansfield, John Ralph, A Lacey Samuels
Many land plants evolved tall and sturdy growth habits due to specialized cells with thick lignified cell walls: tracheary elements that function in water transport and fibers that function in structural support. The objective of this study was to define how and when diverse cell populations contribute lignin precursors, monolignols, to secondary cell walls during lignification of the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem. Previous work demonstrated that, when lignin biosynthesis is suppressed in fiber and tracheary element cells with thickened walls, fibers become lignin-depleted while vascular bundles still lignify, suggesting that non-lignifying neighboring xylem cells are contributing to lignification...
April 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416704/diurnal-variation-in-gas-exchange-the-balance-between-carbon-fixation-and-water-loss
#6
Jack Sa Matthews, Silvere Rm Vialet-Chabrand, Tracy Lawson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416703/on-the-evolutionary-origin-of-cam-photosynthesis
#7
Andrea Bräutigam, Marion Eisenhut, Urte Schlüter, Udo Gowik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408542/acyl-coa-lysophosphatidylethanolamine-acyltransferase-activity-affects-growth
#8
Katarzyna Jasieniecka-Gazarkiewicz, Ida Lager, Anders Carlsson, Katharina Gutbrod, Helga Peisker, Peter Dörmann, Sten Stymne, Antoni Banas
Arabidopsis contains two enzymes (encoded by the At1g80950 and At2g456702 genes) preferentially acylating lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) with acyl-CoA, designated lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase 1 (LPEAT1) and lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase 2 (LPEAT2). T-DNA insertion mutants of lpeat2 and double mutants of lpeat1 lpeat2 showed impaired growth, smaller leaves, shorter roots, less seed setting and reduced lipid content per FW in roots and seeds and large increases in LPE and lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC) contents in leaves...
April 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408541/night-break-experiments-shed-light-on-the-photoperiod-1-mediated-flowering
#9
Stephen Pearce, Lindsay M Shaw, Huiqiong Lin, Jennifer D Cotter, Chengxia Li, Jorge Dubcovsky
Plants utilize variation in day length (photoperiod) to anticipate seasonal changes. They respond by modulating their growth and development to maximize seed production, which in cereal crops is directly related to yield. In wheat, the acceleration of flowering under long days (LD) is dependent on the light induction of PHOTOPERIOD1 (PPD1) by phytochromes. Under LD, PPD1 activates FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1), a mobile signaling protein that travels from the leaves to the shoot apical meristem to promote flowering...
April 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408540/small-kernel2-encodes-a-glutaminase-in-vitamin-b6-biosynthesis-essential-for-maize-seed-development
#10
Yan-Zhuo Yang, Shuo Ding, Yong Wang, Cui-Ling Li, Yun Shen, Robert Meeley, Donald R McCarty, Bao-Cai Tan
Vitamin B6, an essential co-factor for a range of biochemical reactions and a potent antioxidant, plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. Vitamin B6 deficiency causes embryo lethality in Arabidopsis, but the specific role of vitamin B6 synthesis in endosperm development has not been fully addressed, especially in monocot crops where endosperm constitutes the major portion of the grain. Through molecular characterization of a small kernel2 (smk2) mutant in maize, we reveal that vitamin B6 has differential effects on embryogenesis and endosperm development in maize...
April 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408539/the-membrane-transport-system-of-the-guard-cell-and-its-integration-for-stomatal-dynamics
#11
Mareike Jezek, Mike R Blatt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404726/regulation-of-strigolactone-biosynthesis-by-gibberellin-signaling
#12
Shinsaku Ito, Daichi Yamagami, Mikihisa Umehara, Atsushi Hanada, Satoko Yoshida, Yasuyuki Sasaki, Shunsuke Yajima, Junko Kyozuka, Miyako Ueguchi-Tanaka, Makoto Matsuoka, Ken Shirasu, Shinjiro Yamaguchi, Tadao Asami
Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones that regulate diverse physiological processes, including shoot branching and root development. They also act as rhizosphere signaling molecules to stimulate the germination of root parasitic weeds and the branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Although various types of cross-talk between SLs and other hormones have been reported in physiological analyses, the cross-talk between gibberellin (GA) and SLs is poorly understood. We screened for chemicals that regulate the level of SLs in rice and identified GA as a novel SL-regulating molecule...
April 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404725/evolution-of-the-stomatal-regulation-of-plant-water-content
#13
Timothy John Brodribb, Scott A M McAdam
Terrestrial productivity today is regulated by stomatal movements, but this has only been the case since "stomatophytes" became dominant on the land 390 million years ago. In this review we examine evidence for the function of early stomata, found on or near the reproductive structures of bryophyte-like fossils, and consider how this function may have changed through time as vascular plants evolved and diversified. We explore the controversial insights that have come from observing natural variation, rather than genetic manipulation, as a primary tool for understanding the function of the stomatal valve system...
April 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400496/pea-border-cell-maturation-and-release-involve-complex-cell-wall-structural-dynamics
#14
Jozef Mravec, Xiaoyuan Guo, Aleksander R Hansen, Julia Schückel, Stjepan Kresimir Kracun, Maria Dalgaard Mikkelsen, Grégory Mouille, Ida Elisabeth Johansen, Peter Ulvskov, David Domozych, William George Tycho Willats
The adhesion of plant cells is vital for support and protection of the plant body and is maintained by a variety of molecular associations between cell wall components. In some specialized cases though, plant cells are programmed to detach and root cap-derived border cells are examples of this. Border cells (in some species known as border-like cells) provide an expendable barrier between roots and the environment. Their maturation and release is an important but poorly characterized cell separation event. To gain a deeper insight into the complex cellular dynamics underlying this process, we undertook a systematic, detailed analysis of pea (Pisum sativum) root tip cell walls...
April 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400495/constitutively-active-arabidopsis-map-kinase-3-triggers-defense-responses-involving-salicylic-acid-and-summ2-resistance-protein
#15
Baptiste Genot, Julien Lang, Souha Berriri, Marie Garmier, Françoise Gilard, Stéphanie Pateyron, Katrien Haustraete, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Heribert Hirt, Jean Colcombet
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important regulators of plant immunity. Most of the knowledge about the function of these pathways is derived from loss-of-function approaches. Using a gain-of-function approach, we investigated the responses controlled by a constitutively active (CA) MPK3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. CA-MPK3 plants are dwarfed and display a massive de-repression of defense genes associated with spontaneous cell death as well as accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phytoalexins and the stress-related hormones ethylene and salicylic acid (SA)...
April 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400494/uv-b-inhibits-leaf-growth-through-changes-in-growth-regulating-factors-and-gibberellin-levels
#16
Julieta Fina, Romina Casadevall, Hamada AbdElgawad, Els Prinsen, Marios Nektarios Markakis, Gerrit T S Beemster, Paula Casati
UV-B radiation affects leaf growth in a wide range of species. In this work, we demonstrate that UV-B levels present in solar radiation inhibits maize leaf growth without causing any other visible stress symptoms, including accumulation of DNA damage. We conducted kinematic analyses of cell division and expansion to understand the impact of UV-B radiation on these cellular processes. Our results demonstrate that the decrease in leaf growth in UV-B irradiated leaves is a consequence of a reduction in cell production, and a shortened growth zone (GZ)...
April 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400493/a-virus-induced-assay-for-functional-dissection-and-analysis-of-monocot-and-dicot-flowering-time-genes
#17
Cheng Qin, Wei Wei Chen, Jiajia Shen, Linming Cheng, Femi Akande, Ke Zhang, Chen Yuan, Chunyang Li, Pengcheng Zhang, Nongnong Shi, Qi Cheng, Yule Liu, Stephen Jackson, Yiguo Hong
Virus-induced flowering (VIF) uses virus vectors to express Flowering Locus T (FT) to induce flowering in plants. This approach has recently attracted wide interest for its practical applications in accelerating breeding in crops and woody fruit-trees. However, the insight into VIF and its potential as a powerful tool for dissecting florigenic proteins remained to be elucidated. Here, we describe the mechanism and further applications of Potato virus X (PVX)-based VIF in the short-day Nicotinana tabacum cultivar Maryland Mammoth...
April 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385731/map-kinase-prmpk9-1-contributes-to-the-self-incompatibility-response
#18
Lijun Chai, Richard L Tudor, Natalie S Poulter, Katie A Wilkins, Deborah J Eaves, F Christopher H Franklin, Vernonica E Franklin-Tong
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) form important signaling modules for a variety of cellular responses in eukaryotic cells. In plants MAPKs play key roles in growth and development as well as immunity/stress responses. Pollen-pistil interactions are critical early events regulating pollination and fertilization and involve many signaling events. Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important mechanism to prevent self-fertilization and inbreeding in higher plants, and is also known to utilize signaling to achieve incompatible pollen rejection...
April 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385730/transcription-factor-interplay-between-leafy-and-apetala1-cauliflower-during-floral-initiation
#19
Kevin Goslin, Beibei Zheng, Antonio Serrano-Mislata, Liina Rae, Patrick T Ryan, Kamila Kwaśniewska, Bennett Thomson, Diarmuid O'Maoileidigh, Francisco Madueno, Frank Wellmer, Emmanuelle Graciet
The transcription factors LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1), together with the AP1 paralog CAULIFLOWER (CAL), control the onset of flower development in a partially redundant manner. This redundancy is thought to be mediated, at least in part, through the regulation of a shared set of target genes. However, whether these genes are independently or cooperatively regulated by LFY and AP1/CAL, is currently unknown. To better understand the regulatory relationship between LFY and AP1/CAL during floral initiation, we monitored the activity of LFY in the absence of AP1/CAL function...
April 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385729/modelling-of-dolichol-mass-spectra-isotopic-envelopes-as-a-tool-to-monitor-isoprenoid-biosynthesis
#20
Adam Jozwiak, Agata Lipko, Magdalena Kania, Witold Danikiewicz, Liliana Surmacz, Agnieszka Witek, Jacek Wojcik, Konrad Zdanowski, Cezary Pączkowski, Tadeusz Chojnacki, Jaroslaw Poznanski, Ewa Swiezewska
The co-operation of the mevalonate (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways, operating in parallel in plants to generate isoprenoid precursors, has been studied extensively. Elucidation of the isoprenoid metabolic pathways is indispensable for rational design of plant and microbial systems for production of industrially valuable terpenoids. Here we describe a new method, based on numerical modeling of mass spectra of metabolically labeled dolichols (Dols), designed to quantitatively follow the co-operation of the MVA and MEP reprogrammed upon osmotic stress (sorbitol treatment)...
April 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
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