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Plant Physiology

Jutarou Fukazawa, Masahiko Mori, Satoshi Watanabe, Chika Miyamoto, Takeshi Ito, Yohsuke Takahashi
Gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones that regulate many aspects of plant growth and development, including germination, elongation, flowering, and floral development. Negative feedback regulation contributes to homeostasis of the GA level. DELLAs are negative regulators of GA signaling and are rapidly degraded in the presence of GAs. DELLAs regulate many target genes, including AtGA20ox2, encoding the GA-biosynthetic enzyme GA 20-oxidase. As DELLAs do not have an apparent DNA-binding motif, transcription factors that act in association with DELLA are necessary for regulating the target genes...
September 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
Margot Loussouarn, Anja Krieger-Liszkay, Ljubica Svilar, Antoine Bily, Simona Birtic, Michel Havaux
Carnosic acid, a phenolic diterpene specific of the Lamiaceae family, is highly abundant in rosemary species. Despite numerous industrial and medicinal/pharmaceutical applications of its antioxidative features, this compound in planta and its antioxidant mechanism have received little attention, except a few studies of rosemary plants under natural conditions. In vitro analyses, using HPLC-UV and luminescence imaging, revealed that carnosic acid and its major oxidized derivative, carnosol, protect lipids from oxidation...
September 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
Shuangshuang Wang, Jianan Lu, Xiufen Song, Shi-Chao Ren, Chenjiang You, Jie Xu, Chun-Ming Liu, Hong Ma, Fang Chang
The CLAVATA3/ESR-RELATED (CLE) peptide signals are required for cell-cell communication in several plant growth and developmental processes. However, little is known regarding possible functions of the CLEs in the anther. Here, we show that a T-DNA insertional mutant, and dominant-negative (DN) and overexpression (OX) transgenic plants of the CLE19 gene exhibited significantly reduced anther size and pollen grain number, and abnormal pollen wall formation. Interestingly, the DN-CLE19 pollen grains showed a more extensively covered surface but CLE19-OX pollen exine exhibited clearly missing connections in the network and lacked separation between areas that normally form the lacunae...
September 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
Pramod K Kandoth, Shiming Liu, Elizabeth Prenger, Andrew Ludwig, Naoufal Lakhssassi, Robert Heinz, Zhou Zhou, Amanda Howland, Joshua Gunther, Samantha Eidson, Andi Dhroso, Peter Lafayette, Donna Tucker, Sarah Elizabeth Johnson, James Anderson, Alaa Alaswad, Silvia Cianzio, Wayne Allen Parrott, Dmitry Korkin, Khalid Meksem, Melissa G Mitchum
Rhg4 is a major genetic locus that contributes to soybean cyst nematode (SCN) resistance in the Peking-type resistance of soybean, which also requires the rhg1 gene. By map-based cloning and functional genomic approaches, we previously showed that the Rhg4 gene encodes a predicted cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase (GmSHMT08); however, the novel gain of function of GmSHMT08 in SCN resistance remains to be characterized. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified an allelic series of GmSHMT08 mutants that shed new light on the mechanistic aspects of GmSHMT08-mediated resistance...
September 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
Jin-Ping Zhang, Yang Yu, Yan-Zhao Feng, Yan-Fei Zhou, Fan Zhang, Yu-Wei Yang, Meng-Qi Lei, Yu-Chan Zhang, Yue-Qin Chen
Increasing grain yield is the most important subject of crop breeding. Here, we report the elevated expression of a conserved microRNA, OsmiR408, could positively regulate grain yield in rice by increasing panicle branches and grain number. We further showed that OsmiR408 regulates grain yield by downregulating its downstream target, OsUCL8, which is an uclacyanin (UCL) gene of the phytocyanin family. The knock down or knock out of OsUCL8 also increases grain yield, while the overexpression of OsUCL8 results in an opposite phenotype...
September 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
Momoko Ikeuchi, Akira Iwase, Bart Rymen, Alice Lambolez, Mikiko Kojima, Yumiko Takebayashi, Jefri Heyman, Shunsuke Watanabe, Mitsunori Seo, Lieven De Veylder, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Keiko Sugimoto
Wounding is a primary trigger of organ regeneration, but how wound stress reactivates cell proliferation and promotes cellular reprogramming remains elusive. In this study, we combined transcriptome analysis with quantitative hormonal analysis to investigate how wounding induces callus formation in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Our time-course RNA-seq analysis revealed that wounding induces dynamic transcriptional changes, starting from rapid stress responses followed by the activation of metabolic processes and protein synthesis and subsequent activation of cell cycle regulators...
September 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
Yanjun Zhang, Li Zhao, Jiangzhe Zhao, Yujia Li, Jinbin Wang, Rong Guo, Su-Sheng Gan, Chang-Jun Liu, Kewei Zhang
The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays essential roles in biotic and abiotic responses, plant development, and leaf senescence. 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA or gentisic acid) is one of the most commonly occurring aromatic acids in green plants and is assumed to be generated from SA, but the enzymes involved in its production remain obscure. DMR6 (Downy Mildew Resistant 6, At5g24530) has been proven essential in plant immunity of Arabidopsis, but its biochemical properties are not well understood...
September 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
Anna A Dobritsa, Andrew B Kirkpatrick, Sarah H Reeder, Peng Li, Heather A Owen
Accurate placement of extracellular materials is a critical part of cellular development. To study how cells achieve this accuracy, we use formation of pollen apertures as a model. In Arabidopsis, three regions on the pollen surface lack deposition of pollen wall exine and develop into apertures. In developing pollen, INP1 protein acts as a marker for the pre-aperture domains, assembling there into three punctate lines. To understand the mechanism of aperture formation, we studied the dynamics of INP1 expression and localization and its relationship with the membrane domains at which it assembles...
September 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
Aude Coupel-Ledru, Stephen Tyerman, Diane Masclef, Eric Lebon, Angélique Christophe, Everard J Edwards, Thierry Simonneau
Plants evolved different strategies to cope with water stress. While isohydric species maintain their midday leaf water potential (ΨM) under soil water deficit by closing their stomata, anisohydric species maintain higher stomatal aperture and exhibit substantial reductions in ΨM. It was hypothesized that isohydry is related to a locally higher sensitivity of stomata to the drought-hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Interestingly, recent lines of evidence in Arabidopsis suggested that stomatal responsiveness is also controlled by an ABA action on leaf water supply upstream from stomata...
September 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
Norbert Brugiere, Wenjing Zhang, John Xu, Eric J Scolaro, Cheng Lu, Robel Y Kahsay, Rie Kise, Libby Trecker, Robert W Williams, Salim Hakimi, Xiping Niu, Renee Lafitte, Jeffrey E Habben
Drought stress is one of the main environmental problems encountered by crop growers. Reduction in arable land area and reduced water availability make it paramount to identify and develop strategies to allow crops to be more resilient in water limiting environments. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in the plants' response to drought stress through its control of stomatal aperture and water transpiration; and transgenic modulation of ABA levels therefore represents an attractive avenue to improve the drought tolerance of crops...
September 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
David B Medeiros, Kallyne Barros, Jessica As Barros, Rebeca P Omena-Garcia, Stéphanie Arrivault, Lilian Vincis Pereira Sanglard, Kelly C Detmann, Willian Batista Silva, Danilo M Daloso, Fabio DaMatta, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Alisdair R Fernie, Wagner L Araújo
Malate is a central metabolite involved in a multiplicity of plant metabolic pathways, being associated with mitochondrial metabolism and playing significant roles in stomatal movements. Vacuolar malate transport has been characterized at the molecular level and is performed by at least one carrier protein and two channels in Arabidopsis vacuoles. The absence of the Arabidopsis thaliana tonoplast Dicarboxylate Transporter (tDT) in tdt knockout mutant was previously associated with an impaired accumulation of malate and fumarate in leaves...
September 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
Christina Joy Müller, Emma Larsson, Lukáš Spíchal, Eva Sundberg
The Arabidopsis thaliana gynoecium consists of two congenitally fused carpels made up of two lateral valve domains and two medial domains, which retain meristematic properties and later fuse to produce the female reproductive structures vital for fertilization. Polar auxin transport (PAT) is important for setting up distinct apical auxin signaling domains in the early floral meristem remnants allowing for lateral domain identity and outgrowth. Crosstalk between auxin and cytokinin plays important roles in the development of other meristematic tissues, however hormone interaction studies to date have focused on more accessible later-stage gynoecia and the spatiotemporal interactions pivotal for patterning of early gynoecium primordia remain unknown...
September 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
Steven D Karlen, Rebecca A Smith, Hoon Kim, Dharshana Padmakshan, Allison Bartuce, Justin K Mobley, Heather Ca Free, Bronwen G Smith, Philip J Harris, John Ralph
The cell walls of leaf base tissues of the Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) contain lignins with the most complex compositions described to date. The lignin composition varies by tissue region and is derived from traditional monolignols (ML) along with an unprecedented range of monolignol conjugates: ML-acetate, ML-benzoate, ML-p-hydroxybenzoate, ML-vanillate, ML-p-coumarate, and ML-ferulate. The specific functions of such complex lignin compositions are unknown. However, the distribution of the ML-conjugates varies depending on the tissue region, indicating that they may play specific roles in the cell walls of these tissues and/or in the plant's defense system...
September 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
Andrew Elliott, Sidney L Shaw
Microtubules at the plant cell cortex influence cell shape by patterning the deposition of cell wall materials. The elongated cells of the hypocotyl create a variety of microtubule array patterns with differing degrees of polymer co-alignment and orientation to the cell's growth axis. To gain insight into the mechanisms driving array organization, we investigated the underlying microtubule array architecture in light-grown epidermal cells with explicit reference to array pattern. We discovered that all non-transverse patterns share a common underlying array architecture, having a core unimodal peak of co-aligned microtubules in a split bipolarized arrangement...
September 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
Xiaojie Tian, Xiufeng Li, Wenjia Zhou, Yuekun Ren, Zhenyu Wang, Zhiqi Liu, Jiaqi Tang, Hongning Tong, Jun Fang, Qingyun Bu
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of steroid hormones regulating multiple aspects of plant growth, development, and adaptation. Compared with extensive studies in Arabidopsis, the mechanism of BR signaling in rice is less understood. Here, we identified OsWRKY53, a transcription factor involved in defense responses, as an important regulator of rice BR signaling. Phenotypic analyses showed that OsWRKY53 overexpression led to enlarged leaf angles and increased grain size, in contrast to the erect leaves and smaller seeds in oswrky53 mutant...
September 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
Rakesh K Kumar, Heng-Hsuan Chu, Celina Abundis, Kenneth Vasques, David Chan-Rodriguez, Ju-Chen Chia, Rong Huang, Olena K Vatamaniuk, Elsbeth Lewis Walker
The mechanisms of root iron uptake and the transcriptional networks that control root level regulation of iron uptake have been well studied, but the mechanisms by which shoots signal iron status to the roots remain opaque. Here we characterize a double mutant, ysl1ysl3, which has lost the ability to properly regulate iron-deficiency-influenced gene expression in both roots and shoots. In spite of markedly low tissue levels of iron, the double mutant does not up- and down-regulate iron deficiency induced and repressed genes...
September 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
Tao Qin, Huayan Zhao, Peng Cui, Nour Albesher, Liming Xiong
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) affect gene expression through a wide range of mechanisms and are considered as important regulators in many essential biological processes. A large number of lncRNA transcripts have been predicted or identified in plants in recent years. However, the biological functions for most of them are still unknown. In this study, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana lncRNA, Drought induced RNA (DRIR), as a novel positive regulator of plant response to drought and salt stress. DRIR was expressed at a low level under non-stress conditions but can be significantly activated by drought and salt stress as well as by abscisic acid (ABA) treatment...
September 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
Marina de Lyra Soriano Saleme, Igor Cesarino, Lívia Vargas, Hoon Kim, Ruben Vanholme, Geert Goeminne, Rebecca Van Acker, Fernando Campos de Assis Fonseca, Andreas Pallidis, Wannes Voorend, José Nicomedes, Dharshana Padmakshan, Jan Van Doorsseleare, John Ralph, Wout A Boerjan
Caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) was recently shown to play an essential role in lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana and later in Medicago truncatula. However, the general function of this enzyme was recently questioned by the apparent lack of CSE activity in lignifying tissues of different plant species. Here, we show that downregulation of CSE in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × P. alba) resulted in up to 25% reduced lignin deposition, increased levels of p-hydroxyphenyl units in the lignin polymer, and a relatively higher cellulose content...
September 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
Rebecca Van Acker, Annabelle Déjardin, Sandrien Desmet, Lennart Hoengenaert, Ruben Vanholme, Kris Morreel, Francoise Laurans, Hoon Kim, Nicholas Santoro, Cliff Foster, Geert Goeminne, Frédéric Legee, Catherine Lapierre, Gilles Pilate, John Ralph, Wout A Boerjan
In search for renewable energy sources, genetic engineering is a promising strategy to improve plant cell wall composition for biofuel and bioproducts generation. Lignin is a major factor determining saccharification efficiency and is therefore a prime target. Here, lignin content and composition were modified in poplar (Populus tremula×P. alba) by specifically downregulating CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE1 (CAD1) by a hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing approach. These transgenic lines showed no biomass penalty despite a 10% reduction in Klason lignin content and severe shifts in lignin composition...
September 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
Liliana Elizabeth Garcia-Valencia, Carlos Everardo Bravo-Alberto, Hen-Ming Wu, Rogelio Rodriguez-Sotres, Alice Y Cheung, Felipe Cruz-Garcia
In Solanaceae, the S-specific interaction between the pistil S-RNase and the pollen S-Locus F-box (SLF) protein control self-incompatibility (SI). Although this interaction defines the specificity of the pollen rejection response, the identification of three pistil essential modifier genes unlinked to the S-locus (HT-B, 120K and NaStEP), unveils a higher degree of complexity in the pollen rejection pathway. We showed previously that NaStEP, a stigma protein with homology with Kunitz-type protease inhibitors, is essential to SI in Nicotiana...
September 5, 2017: Plant Physiology
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