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Plant Physiology

Adam D Feenstra, Liza E Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R Korte, Marna Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee
Germination is a highly complex process by which seeds begin to develop and establish themselves as viable organisms. In this paper, we utilize a combination of GC-MS, LC-fluorescence, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approaches to profile and visualize the metabolic distributions of germinating seeds from two different inbreds of maize seeds, B73 and Mo17. GC and LC analyses demonstrate that the two inbreds are highly differentiated in their metabolite profiles throughout the course of germination, especially with regard to amino acids, sugar alcohols, and small organic acids...
June 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
Thanh Hao Nguyen, Shouguang Huang, Donaldo Meynard, Christian Chaine, Rémy Michel, Rob Roelfsema, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Herve Sentenac, Anne-Aliénor Véry
The roles of potassium channels from the Shaker family in stomatal movements have been investigated by reverse genetics analyses in Arabidopsis, but corresponding information is lacking outside this model species. Rice and other cereals possess stomata that are more complex than those of Arabidopsis. We examined the role of the outward Shaker K+ channel gene OsK5.2. Expression of the OsK5.2 gene (GUS reporter strategy) was observed in the whole stomatal complex (guard cells and subsidiary cells), in the root vasculature and root cortex...
June 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
Carole Dubreuil, Xu Jin, Juan de Dios Barajas-López, Timothy Hewitt Hewitt, Sandra Tanz, Thomas Dobrenel, Wolfgang Schröder, Johannes Hanson, Edouard Pesquet, Andreas Grönlund, Ian D Small, Asa Strand
Chloroplasts develop from undifferentiated proplastids present in meristematic tissue. Chloroplast biogenesis is thus closely connected to leaf development, which restricts our ability to study the process of chloroplast biogenesis per se. As a consequence we know relatively little about the regulatory mechanisms behind the establishment of the photosynthetic reactions and how the activities of the two genomes involved are coordinated during chloroplast development. We developed a single-cell-based experimental system from Arabidopsis with high temporal resolution allowing for investigations of the transition from proplastids to functional chloroplasts...
June 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
Tae Rin Oh, Jong Hum Kim, Seok Keun Cho, Moon Young Ryu, Seong Wook Yang, Woo Taek Kim
AtAIRP2 is a cytosolic RING-type E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that positively regulates an ABA response in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Yeast two-hybrid screening using AtAIRP2 as bait identified ATP1 (AtAIRP2 Target Protein 1) as a substrate of AtAIRP2. ATP1 was found to be identical to SDIRIP1, which was recently reported to be a negative factor in ABA signaling and a target protein of the RING E3 ligase SDIR1. ATP1 was accordingly renamed ATP1/SDIRIP1. A specific interaction between AtAIRP2 and ATP1/SDIRIP1 and ubiquitination of ATP1/SDIRIP1 by AtAIRP2 were demonstrated in vitro and in planta...
June 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
An Shao, Wenying Ma, Xueqiang Zhao, Mengyun Hu, Xue He, Wan Teng, Hui Li, Yiping Tong
Controlling the major auxin biosynthetic pathway to manipulate the auxin content could be a target for genetic engineering of crops with desired traits, but little progress had been made because low or high auxin contents often cause developmental inhibition. Here, we performed a genome-wide analysis of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) to identify the tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis1/tryptophan aminotransferase-related (TAA1/TAR) genes that function in the tryptophan-dependent pathway of auxin biosynthesis...
June 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
Maria G Salas Fernandez, Yin Bao, Lie Tang, Patrick S Schnable
Recent advances in "omics" technologies have not been accompanied by equally efficient, cost-effective and accurate phenotyping methods required to dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. Even though high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed for controlled environments, field-based aerial and ground technologies have only been designed and deployed for short stature crops. Therefore, we developed and tested Phenobot 1.0, an auto-steered and self-propelled field-based high-throughput phenotyping platform for tall dense canopy crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L...
June 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
Fulton E Rockwell, N Michele Holbrook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
Brendan M O'Leary, Chun Pong Lee, Owen K Atkin, Riyan Cheng, Tim B Brown, A Harvey Millar
Plant respiration can theoretically be fuelled by and dependent upon an array of central metabolism components; however, which ones are responsible for the quantitative variation found in respiratory rates is unknown. Here, large scale screens revealed twofold variation in night-time leaf respiration rate (RN) among mature leaves from an Arabidopsis natural accession collection grown under common favourable conditions. RN variation was mostly maintained in the absence of genetic variation, which emphasized the low heritability of RN and its plasticity towards relatively small environmental differences within the sampling regime...
June 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
Chien Yu Huang, Anthony H C Huang
Plant cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs) are covered with a layer of phospholipids and oleosin and were extensively studied before those in mammals and yeast. Oleosin has short amphipathic N- and C-terminal peptides flanking a conserved 72-residue hydrophobic hairpin, which penetrates and stabilizes the LD. Oleosin is synthesized on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and extracts ER-budding LDs to cytosol. To delineate the mechanism of oleosin targeting ER-LD, we have expressed modified-oleosin genes in Physcomitrella patens for transient expression and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY2 cells for stable transformation...
June 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
Se-Young Jun, Alexander M Walker, Hoon Kim, John Ralph, Wilfred Vermerris, Scott E Sattler, ChulHee Kang
Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the final step in monolignol biosynthesis, reducing sinapaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, and p-coumaraldehyde to their corresponding alcohols in an NADPH-dependent manner. Because of its terminal location in monolignol biosynthesis, variation in substrate specificity and activity of CAD can result in significant changes in overall composition and amount of lignin. Our in-depth characterization of two major CAD isoforms, SbCAD2 (Brown midrib6) and SbCAD4, in lignifying tissues of sorghum, a strategic plant for generating renewable chemicals and fuels, indicates their similarity in both structure and activity to Arabidopsis thaliana CAD5 and Populus tremuloides sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD), respectively...
June 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
Mauro A Rinaldi, Wendell A Fleming, Kim L Gonzalez, Jaeseok Park, Meredith J Ventura, Ashish Patel, Bonnie Bartel
A variety of metabolic pathways are sequestered in peroxisomes, conserved organelles that are essential for human and plant survival. Peroxin (PEX) proteins generate and maintain peroxisomes. The PEX1 ATPase facilitates recycling of the peroxisome matrix protein receptor PEX5 and is the most commonly affected peroxin in human peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of the first reported Arabidopsis pex1 missense alleles: pex1-2 and pex1-3. pex1-2 displayed peroxisome-related defects accompanied by reduced PEX1 and PEX6 levels...
June 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
Niteen Kadam, Anandhan Tamilselvan, Lovely Mae F Lawas, Cherryl Quinones, Rajeev Bahuguna, Michael J Thomson, Michael Dingkuhn, Raveendran Muthurajan, Paul Struik, Xinyou Yin, Krishna Jagadish
Elucidating the genetic control of rooting behaviour under water-deficit stress is essential to breed climate-robust rice cultivars. Using a diverse panel of 274 indica genotypes grown under control and water-deficit conditions during vegetative growth, we phenotyped 35 traits, mostly related to root morphology and anatomy, involving ~45,000 root scanning images and nearly ~25,000 cross-sections from the root-shoot junction. Phenotypic plasticity of these traits was quantified as the relative change in trait value under water-deficit compared to control conditions...
June 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
Qi-Jun Ma, Mei-Hong Sun, Jing Lu, Ya-Jing Liu, Da-Gang Hu, Yu-Jin Hao
Sugars play important roles in plant growth and development, crop yield and quality as well as responses to abiotic stresses. ABA is a multi-functional hormone. However, the exact mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation is largely unknown in plants. Here, we tested the expression profile of several sugar transporter and amylase genes in response to ABA treatment. MdSUT2 and MdAREB2 were isolated and genetically transformed into apples to investigate their roles in ABA-induced sugar accumulation...
June 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
Tino Colombi, Norbert Kirchgessner, Achim Walter, Thomas Keller
Increased soil strength due to soil compaction or soil drying is a major limitation to root growth and crop productivity. Energy requirement for root growth increases with soil strength due to increased root penetration stress. This study aimed to quantify how genotypic diversity of root tip geometry and root diameter influences root elongation under different levels of soil strength and to determine the extent to which roots adjust to increased soil strength. Fourteen wheat varieties were grown in soil columns packed to three bulk densities representing low, moderate and high soil strength...
June 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
Jennifer Selinski, Andreas Hartmann, Adrian Kordes, Gabriele Deckers-Hebestreit, James Whelan, Renate Scheibe
Mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) in plants is a non-proton-motive ubiquinol oxidase that is activated by redox mechanisms and 2-oxo acids. A comparative analysis of AOX isoenzymes AOX1A, AOX1C, and AOX1D from Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that cysteine residues, CysI and CysII, are both involved in 2-oxo acid activation, with AOX1A activity being more increased by 2-oxo acids than that of AOX1C and AOX1D. Substitution of cysteine in AOX1A by glutamate mimiked its activation by pyruvate or glyoxylate, but not in AOX1C and AOX1D...
June 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
Tessema Kassaw, Stephen Nowak, Elise Schnabel, Julia A Frugoli
The combinatorial interaction of a receptor kinase and a modified CLE peptide is involved in several developmental processes in plants, including Autoregulation of Nodulation (AON), which allows legumes to limit the number of root nodules formed based on available nitrogen and previous rhizobial colonization. Evidence supports modification of CLE peptides by enzymes of the hydroxyproline O-arabinosyltransferase (HPAT/RDN) family. Here we show by grafting and genetic analysis that in the AON pathway, RDN1, functioning in the root, acts upstream of the receptor kinase SUNN, functioning in the shoot...
June 7, 2017: Plant Physiology
José Carlos Del Río, Jorge Rencoret, Ana Gutiérrez, Hoon Kim, John Ralph
Lignin, the plant cell wall polymer that binds fibers together but makes processing difficult, is traditionally formed from three monomers, the so-called monolignols (p-coumaryl, coniferyl, and sinapyl alcohols). Recently we discovered, in grass lignins, a phenolic monomer that falls outside the canonical lignin biosynthetic pathway, the flavone tricin. As we show here, palm fruit (macaúba, carnauba, and coconut) endocarps contain lignin polymers derived in part from a previously unconsidered class of lignin monomers, the hydroxystilbenes, including the valuable compounds piceatannol and resveratrol...
June 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
Thomas Driver, Drupad K Trivedi, Owen A McIntosh, Andrew P Dean, Royston Goodacre, Jon K Pittman
The metabolism of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) is important for environmental stress responses by eukaryotic microalgae. G3P is an essential precursor for glycerolipid synthesis and the accumulation of triacylglycerol (TAG) in response to nutrient starvation. G3P dehydrogenase (GPDH) mediates G3P synthesis but the roles of specific GPDH isoforms are currently poorly understood. Of the five GPDH enzymes in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, GPD2 and GPD3 were shown to be induced by nutrient starvation and/or salt stress...
June 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
Stephanie Hartings, Susanne Paradies, Bianca Karnuth, Sabrina Eisfeld, Jasmin Mehsing, Christian Wolff, Tatjana Levey, Peter Westhoff, Karin Meierhoff
To understand the biogenesis of the thylakoid membrane in higher plants and to identify auxiliary proteins required to build up this highly complex membrane system, we have characterized the allelic nuclear mutants high chlorophyll fluorescence (hcf) 222-1 and 222-2 and isolated the causal gene by map based cloning. In the ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) induced mutant hcf222-1 the accumulation of the cytochrome b6f (Cytb6f) complex was reduced to 30% compared to the wild type. Other thylakoid membrane complexes accumulated to normal levels...
June 1, 2017: Plant Physiology
Jilian Fan, Linhui Yu, Changcheng Xu
Neutral lipid metabolism is a key aspect of intracellular homeostasis and energy balance and plays a vital role in cell survival under adverse conditions including nutrient deprivation in yeast and mammals, but the role of triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism in plant stress response remains largely unknown. By thoroughly characterizing mutants defective in SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 (SDP1) triacylglycerol lipase or PEROXISOMAL ABC TRANSPORTER 1 (PXA1), here we show that TAG is a key intermediate in the mobilization of fatty acids from membrane lipids for peroxisomal ß-oxidation under prolonged dark treatment...
June 1, 2017: Plant Physiology
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