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Plant Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550207/atx3-atx4-and-atx5-encode-putative-h3k4-methyltransferases-and-are-critical-for-plant-development
#1
Liqun Chen, Jinhong Luo, Zhenhai Cui, Ming Xue, Li Wang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Wojtek P Pawlowski, Yan He
Methylation of lysine residues in the tail of the H3 histone is a key regulator of chromatin state and gene expression, conferred by a large family of enzymes containing an evolutionarily-conserved SET domain. One of the main types of SET domain proteins are those controlling H3K4 di- and trimethylation. The genome of Arabidopsis encodes 12 such proteins, including five ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX (ATX) proteins and seven ATX-Related (ATXR) proteins. Here we examined three until-now-unexplored ATX proteins, ATX3, ATX4, and ATX5...
May 26, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550206/the-pseudoenzyme-pdx1-2-sustains-vitamin-b6-biosynthesis-as-a-function-of-heat-stress
#2
Elisa Dell'Aglio, Svetlana Boycheva, Teresa B Fitzpatrick
Plants sense temperature changes and respond by altering growth and metabolic activity to acclimate to the altered environmental conditions. The B vitamins give rise to vital coenzymes that are indispensable for growth and development but their inherent reactive nature renders them prone to destruction especially under stress conditions. Therefore, plant survival strategies would be expected to include mechanisms to sustain B vitamin supply under demanding circumstances. Here, using the example of vitamin B6, we investigate the regulation of biosynthesis across eudicot and monocot species under heat stress...
May 26, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546437/characterization-of-thermostable-cam-rubisco-activase-reveals-a-rubisco-interacting-surface-loop
#3
Devendra Shivhare, Oliver Mueller-Cajar
In order to maintain metabolic flux through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle in higher plants, dead-end inhibited complexes of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) must constantly be engaged and remodeled by the molecular chaperone Rubisco activase (Rca). In C3 plants the thermolability of Rca is responsible for the deactivation of Rubisco and reduction of photosynthesis at moderately elevated temperatures. We reasoned that CAM plants must possess thermostable Rca to support CBB flux during the day when stomata are closed...
May 25, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546436/quantifying-wheat-sensitivities-to-environmental-constraints-to-dissect-g-x-e-in-the-field
#4
Boris Parent, Julien Bonneau, Lance Maphosa, Alex Kovalchuk, Peter Langridge, Delphine Fleury
Yield is subject to strong Genotype by Environment interactions (G x E) in the field, especially under abiotic constraints such as soil water deficit (Drought, D) and high temperature (Heat, H). Since environmental conditions show strong fluctuations during the whole crop cycle, geneticists usually do not consider the environmental measures as quantitative variables, but rather as factors in multi-environment analyses. Based on 11 experiments in a field platform with contrasted temperature and soil water deficit, we determined the periods of sensitivity to drought and heat constraints in wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
May 25, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546435/a-simple-pipeline-for-mapping-point-mutations
#5
Guy Wachsman, Jennifer L Modliszewski, Manuel Valdes, Philip N Benfey
A forward genetic screen is one of the best methods for revealing the function of genes. In plants, this technique is highly efficient as it is relatively easy to grow and screen hundreds or thousands of individuals. The cost-efficiency and ease of data production afforded by next-generation sequencing has created new opportunities for rapid mapping of induced mutations. Current mapping tools are often not user-friendly, complicated, or require extensive preparation steps. To simplify the process of mapping new mutations, we developed a pipeline that takes next generation sequencing fastq files as input, calls on several well-established and freely available genome-analysis tools, and outputs the most likely causal DNA changes...
May 25, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536103/repression-of-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-in-seeds-recruits-the-s-methylmethionine-cycle
#6
Hagai Cohen, Yael Hacham, Irina Panizel, Ilana Rogachev, Asaph Aharoni, Rachel Amir
S-methylmethionine (SMM) was previously suggested to participate in the metabolism of methionine in seeds. To further reveal its roles, we had previously produced transgenic Arabidopsis RNAi seeds with lower transcript expression of CYSTATHIONINE γ-SYNTHASE (AtCGS), methionine's main regulatory enzyme. Unexpectedly, these seeds accumulated significantly higher levels of methionine compared to control seeds through an as yet unknown mechanism. Here, transcript and metabolic analyses coupled with isotope-labeled [13C]SMM and [13C]methionine feeding experiments enabled us to reveal that SMM that were synthesized in rosette leaves of RNAi plants significantly contributed to the accumulation of methionine in their seeds at late stages of development...
May 23, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536102/spa-proteins-affect-the-subcellular-localization-of-cop1-in-the-cop1-spa-ubiquitin-ligase-complex-during-photomorphogenesis
#7
Martin Balcerowicz, Konstantin Kerner, Christian Schenkel, Ute Hoecker
The Arabidopsis COP1/SPA ubiquitin ligase is a central repressor which suppresses light signaling in darkness by targeting positive regulators of the light response, mainly transcription factors, for degradation. Light inactivates COP1/SPA, in part by excluding COP1 from the nucleus. SPA proteins are essential cofactors of COP1, but their exact role in the COP1/SPA complex is thus far unknown. To unravel a potential role of SPA proteins in COP1 nucleocytoplasmic partitioning, we monitored the subcellular localization of COP1 in a spa1234 quadruple mutant (spaQn)...
May 23, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533358/role-of-type-2-nad-p-h-dehydrogenase-ndbc-in-regulation-of-carbon-allocation-in-synechocystis-6803
#8
Tuomas Huokko, Dorota Muth-Pawlak, Natalia Battchikova, Yagut Allahverdiyeva, Eva-Mari Aro
NAD(P)H dehydrogenases comprise type 1 (NDH-1) and type 2 (NDH-2s) enzymes. Even though the NDH-1 complex is a well characterized protein complex in the thylakoid membrane of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis) the exact roles of different NDH2s remain poorly understood. To elucidate this question we studied the function of NdbC, one of the three NDH-2s in Synechocystis, by constructing a deletion mutant (ΔndbC) for corresponding protein and submitting the mutant to physiological and biochemical characterisation as well as to comprehensive proteomics analysis...
May 22, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533213/a-novel-n-methyltransferase-in-arabidopsis-appears-to-feed-a-conserved-pathway-for-nicotinate-detoxification-among-land-plants-and-is-associated-with-lignin-biosynthesis
#9
Wei Li, Fengxia Zhang, Ranran Wu, Lijia Jia, Guosheng Li, Yalong Guo, Cuimin Liu, Guodong Wang
The Preiss-Handler pathway, which salvages nicotinate (NA) for NAD synthesis, is an indispensable biochemical pathway in land plants. Various NA conjugations (mainly methylation and glycosylation) have been detected, and have long been proposed for NA detoxification in plants. Previously, we demonstrated that NA O-glucosylation functions as a mobilizable storage form for NAD biosynthesis in the Brassicaceae. However, little is known about the functions of other NA conjugations in plants. In this study, we firstly found that N-methylnicotinate is a ubiquitous NA conjugation in land plants...
May 22, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533212/primitive-auxin-response-without-tir1-and-aux-iaa-in-the-charophyte-alga-klebsormidium-nitens
#10
Kinuka Ohtaka, Koichi Hori, Yuri Kanno, Mitsunori Seo, Hiroyuki Ohta
The phytohormone auxin regulates many aspects of growth and development in land plants, but the origin and evolution of auxin signaling and response mechanisms remain largely unknown. Indeed, it remains to be investigated whether auxin-related pathways diverged before the emergence of land plants. To address this knowledge deficit, we analyzed auxin responses in the charophyte alga Klebsormidium nitens NIES-2285, whose ancestor diverged from a green algal ancestor during the evolution of land plants. This strain is the same as K...
May 22, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526703/mir156-regulated-taspls-interact-with-tad53-to-regulate-tatb1-and-taba1-expression-in-bread-wheat
#11
Jie Liu, Xiliu Cheng, Pan Liu, Jiaqiang Sun
Genetic and environmental factors affect bread wheat plant architecture, which determines grain yield. In this study, we demonstrate that miR156 controls bread wheat plant architecture. We show that overexpression of tae-miR156 in bread wheat cultivar Kenong199 leads to increased tiller number and severe defects in spikelet formation, probably due to the tae-miR156-mediated repression of a group of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes. Furthermore, we found that the expression of two genes TaBA1 and TaTB1, whose orthologous genes in diverse plant species play conserved roles in regulating plant architecture, is markedly reduced in the tae-miR156-OE bread wheat plants...
May 19, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522458/a-key-role-for-apoplastic-h2o2-in-norway-spruce-phenolic-metabolism
#12
Teresa Laitinen, Kris Morreel, Nicolas Delhomme, Adrien Gauthier, Bastian Schiffthaler, Kaloian Nickolov, Günter Brader, Kean-Jin Lim, Teemu H Teeri, Nathaniel R Street, Wout A Boerjan, Anna Karkonen
Apoplastic events such as monolignol oxidation and lignin polymerization are difficult to study in intact trees. To investigate the role of apoplastic H2O2 in gymnosperm phenolic metabolism, an extracellular lignin-forming cell culture of Norway spruce (Picea abies) was used as a research model. Scavenging of apoplastic H2O2 by KI repressed lignin formation, in line with peroxidases activating monolignols for lignin polymerization. Time course analyses coupled to candidate substrate product pair network propagation revealed differential accumulation of low-molecular-weight phenolics, including (glycosylated) oligolignols, (glycosylated) flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, in lignin-forming and H2O2-scavenging cultures, and supported that monolignols are oxidatively coupled not only in the cell wall, but also in the cytoplasm where they are coupled to other monolignols and proanthocyanidins...
May 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522457/structure-of-eif4e-in-transcriptional-complex-with-an-eif4g-peptide-supports-a-universal-bipartite-binding-mode-for-protein-translation
#13
Manuel Miras, Veronica Truniger, Cristina Silva, Nuria Verdaguer, Miguel A Aranda, Jordi Querol
The association-dissociation of the cap-binding protein eIF4E with eIF4G is a key control step in eukaryotic translation. The paradigm on the eIF4E-eIF4G interaction states that eIF4G binds to the dorsal surface of eIF4E through a single canonical alpha-helical motif, while metazoan 4E-BPs (m4E-BPs) advantageously compete against eIF4G thanks to a bi-modal binding onto the canonical but additionally to a non-canonical motif in the lateral eIF4E surface thus inhibiting translation. Very recently, it has been shown that metazoan eIF4Gs share this extended binding interface with m4E-BPs, with significant implications on the understanding of translation regulation and the design of therapeutic molecules...
May 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522456/stress-response-gene-expression-reflects-morpho-physiological-responses-to-water-deficit
#14
Wojciech Rymaszewski, Denis Vile, Alexis Bédiée, Myriam Dauzat, Nathalie Luchaire, Dominika Kamrowska, Christine Granier, Jacek Hennig
Acclimation to water deficit (WD) enables plants to maintain growth under unfavorable environmental conditions, although the mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, the natural variation of long-term acclimation to moderate (MWD) and severe (SWD) soil water deficits was investigated in 18 Arabidopsis accessions using PHENOPSIS, an automated phenotyping platform. Soil water content was adjusted at an early stage of plant development and maintained at a constant level until reproductive age was achieved...
May 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522455/psa3-a-protein-on-the-stromal-face-of-the-thylakoid-membrane-promotes-photosystem-i-accumulation-in-cooperation-with-the-assembly-factor-pyg7
#15
Jie Shen, Rosalind Williams-Carrier, Alice Barkan
Photosystem I (PSI) is a large protein-pigment complex located in the thylakoid membrane in cyanobacteria, plants, and algae. Although the structure and components of PSI are well characterized, mechanisms that orchestrate its assembly are poorly understood. In this study, we discovered a novel nucleus-encoded protein, Photosystem I Assembly 3 (PSA3), that is required for PSI accumulation. PSA3 is conserved among green photosynthetic eukaryotes but is lacking in cyanobacteria. Mutations in the psa3 gene cause the specific loss of PSI in Arabidopsis and maize...
May 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515146/transcriptome-of-wheat-inflorescence-development-from-spikelet-initiation-to-floral-patterning
#16
Nan Feng, Gaoyuan Song, Jiantao Guan, Kai Chen, Meiling Jia, Dehua Huang, Jiajie Wu, Lichao Zhang, Xiuying Kong, Shuaifeng Geng, Jun Liu, Aili Li, Long Mao
Early reproductive development in cereals is crucial for final grain number per spike, and hence the yield potential of the crop. To date, however, no systematic analyses of gene expression profiles during this important process have been conducted for common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Here, we studied the transcriptome profiles at four stages of early wheat reproductive development, from spikelet initiation to floral organ differentiation. K-means clustering and stage-specific transcript identification detected dynamically expressed homoeologs of important transcription regulators in spikelet and floral meristems that may be involved in spikelet initiation, floret meristem specification, and floral organ patterning, as inferred from their homologs in model plants...
May 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515145/target-rna-secondary-structure-is-a-major-determinant-of-mir159-efficacy
#17
Zihui Zheng, Marlene Reichel, Ira Deveson, Gigi Wong, Junyan Li, Anthony A Millar
In plants, microRNA (miRNA)-target complementarity has long been considered the predominant factor determining the silencing outcome of the miRNA-target interaction, although the efficacy of such interactions have rarely been appraised in plants. Here, we perform in planta silencing efficacy assays on seven Arabidopsis MYB genes, all of which contain conserved miR159-binding sites of analogous complementarity. These genes were found to be differentially silenced by miR159; MYB81, MYB97, MYB101, MYB104 and DUO1 were all poorly silenced, whereas MYB33 and MYB65 were strongly silenced...
May 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512179/cooperative-regulatory-functions-of-mir858-and-myb83-during-cyst-nematode-parasitism
#18
Sarbottam Piya, Christina Kihm, J Hollis Rice, Thomas J Baum, Tarek Hewezi
microRNAs (miRNAs) recently have been established as key regulators of transcriptome reprogramming that defines cell function and identity. Nevertheless, the molecular functions of the greatest number of miRNA genes remain to be determined. Here, we report cooperative regulatory functions of miR858 and its MYB83 transcription factor target gene in transcriptome reprogramming during Heterodera cyst nematode parasitism of Arabidopsis. Gene expression analyses and promoter-GUS fusion assays documented a role of miR858 in post-transcriptional regulation of MYB83 in the Heterodera schachtii-induced feeding sites, the syncytia...
May 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507175/a-mutation-in-the-bhlh-domain-of-the-spch-transcription-factor-uncovers-a-br-dependent-mechanism-for-stomatal-development
#19
Alberto de Marcos, Anaxi Houbaert, Magdalena Triviño, Dolores Delgado, Mar Martín-Trillo, Eugenia Russinova, Carmen Fenoll, Montaña Mena
The asymmetric cell divisions necessary for stomatal lineage initiation and progression in Arabidopsis thaliana require the function of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH). Mutants lacking SPCH do not produce stomata or lineages. Here, we isolated a new spch 5 allele carrying a point mutation in the bHLH domain that displayed normal growth, but had an extremely low number of sometimes clustered stomata in the leaves, whereas the hypocotyls were stomataless. In vivo tracking of leaf epidermal cell divisions, combined with marker lines and genetic analysis, showed that the spch 5 leaf phenotype is dosage dependent and results from the decreased ability to initiate and amplify lineages, defects in asymmetric cell fate allocation, and misorientation of asymmetric division planes...
May 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500270/heavy-metals-induce-iron-deficiency-responses-at-different-hierarchic-and-regulatory-levels
#20
Alexandra Leskova, Ricardo Fabiano Hettwer Giehl, Anja Hartmann, Agáta Fargasová, Nicolaus von Wirén
In plants, the excess of several heavy metals mimics Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis indicating a disturbance in Fe homeostasis. To examine at which level heavy metals interfere with Fe-deficiency responses, we carried out an in-depth characterization of Fe-related physiological, regulatory and morphological responses in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to heavy metals. Enhanced Zn uptake closely mimicked Fe deficiency by leading to low chlorophyll but high ferric-chelate reductase activity and coumarin release...
May 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
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