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Primates; Journal of Primatology

Sonja Wild, William Hoppitt
Network-based diffusion analysis (NBDA) has become a widely used tool to detect and quantify social learning in animal populations. NBDA infers social learning if the spread of a novel behavior follows the social network and hence relies on appropriate information on individuals' network connections. Most studies on animal populations, however, lack a complete record of all associations, which creates uncertainty in the social network. To reduce this uncertainty, researchers often use a certain threshold of sightings for the inclusion of animals (which is often arbitrarily chosen), as observational error decreases with increasing numbers of observations...
October 9, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Shiqiang Zhang, Zhenwei Cui, Yifeng Zhang, Baishi Wang, Meilin Zhu, Jiqi Lu, Zhenlong Wang
Social hierarchy commonly exists in animal societies, affecting both the endocrine functioning and the behavior of animals. In nonhuman primates, the relationship between social rank and cortisol levels varies across species and even within species. Here, we assessed the relationships between social rank and fecal cortisol levels in adult male Taihangshan macaques (rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta tcheliensis) from the provisioned, free-ranging Wulongkou-2 (WLK-2) group inhabiting Wulongkou Scenic Area, Jiyuan, China...
October 8, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Gregory P Fratellone, Jin-Hua Li, Lori K Sheeran, R S Wagner, Xi Wang, Lixing Sun
Social network analysis provides insights into patterns of group movements in primates, but fewer studies to date have focused on the dynamics of how such movements occur. In this study, we proposed and tested two hypotheses about the influence of sex on social connectivity and group movement in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana): (1) adult females are socially more connected than are adult males and (2) social connectivity facilitates the speed of collective decision-making. We collected data from 128 successful collective movements (≥ 2 individuals followed an initiator within 5 min) over a 2-month period in a group of adult Tibetan macaques at Mt...
October 6, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Ivan Puga-Gonzalez, Sebastian Sosa, Cedric Sueur
Group-living animals rely on efficient transmission of information for optimal exploitation of their habitat. How efficient and resilient a network is depend on its structure, which is a consequence of the social interactions of the individuals that comprise the network. In macaques, network structure differs according to dominance style. Networks of intolerant species are more modular, more centralized, and less connected than those of tolerant ones. Given these structural differences, networks of intolerant species are potentially more vulnerable to fragmentation and decreased information transmission when central individuals disappear...
September 21, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Marcelí Joele Rossi, Wagner Ferreira Dos Santos
Fecundity in female primates is influenced by the nutritional condition. If when translocated howler monkeys exhibit the same breeding patterns as non-translocated members of the same genus, it is an indication that the translocated monkeys have become well adapted to their release site and that they are likely in good nutritional condition. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate this pattern by recording copulations (over 5 years) and births (over 7 years) after the translocation of a pair of black-and-gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) and to evaluate their gestation period, seasonality of births, and intervals between births...
September 20, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Teresa Magdalena Lüffe, Emérita R Tirado Herrera, Mirjam Nadjafzadeh, Patricia Berles, Andrew C Smith, Christoph Knogge, Eckhard W Heymann
We report temporal variation and an "outbreak" of frog predation by moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax, in north-eastern Peruvian Amazonia. Frog predation rates were generally very low, but strongly increased in October 2015. Other high rates, identified by outlier analyses, were also observed in September-November of other years. Over all study years, predation rates in this 3-month period were significantly higher than those in the remainder of the year, suggesting a seasonal pattern of frog predation by tamarins...
September 20, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Sandra E Smith-Aguilar, Filippo Aureli, Laura Busia, Colleen Schaffner, Gabriel Ramos-Fernández
Network analysis has increasingly expanded our understanding of social structure in primates and other animal species. However, most studies use networks representing only one interaction type, when social relationships (and the emerging social structure) are the result of many types of interactions and their interplay through time. The recent development of tools facilitating the integrated analysis of multiple interaction types using multiplex networks has opened the possibility of extending the insight provided by social network analysis...
September 15, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Kayla S Hartwell, Hugh Notman, Mary S M Pavelka
Spider monkeys (Ateles sp.) are characterized by high fission-fusion dynamics, meaning their social grouping pattern is fluid and consists of subgroups that vary in size, composition, and spatial cohesion over time. In this study, we quantify the fission-fusion dynamics of a group of spider monkeys at Runaway Creek Nature Reserve in Belize by measuring subgroup size, spatial cohesion, and stability using data spanning 5 years. We then test whether variation in these three subgroup measures differ according to season, subgroup sex composition, and the reproductive status of female subgroup members...
September 12, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Cédric Sueur, Valéria Romano, Sebastian Sosa, Ivan Puga-Gonzalez
Since group-living animals are embedded in a network of social interactions, socioecological factors may not only affect individual behavioral strategies but also the patterning of group-level social interactions, i.e., the network structure. These co-variations between socioecological factors, individual behavior, and group-level structure are important to study since ecological factors may strongly influence animal health outcomes and reproductive success. Besides factors such as social information and/or infectious agents, with far-reaching individual fitness consequences, seem independent of individuals' own social interactions but directly affected by the topology of the social network...
September 11, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Emiko Nishi, Nami Suzuki-Hashido, Takashi Hayakawa, Yamato Tsuji, Bambang Suryobroto, Hiroo Imai
For many primates, sweet taste is palatable and is an indicator that the food contains carbohydrates, such as sugars and starches, as energy sources. However, we have found that Asian colobine monkeys (lutungs and langurs) have low sensitivity to various natural sugars. Sweet tastes are recognized when compounds bind to the sweet taste receptor TAS1R2/TAS1R3 in the oral cavity; accordingly, we conducted a functional assay using a heterologous expression system to evaluate the responses of Javan lutung (Trachypithecus auratus) TAS1R2/TAS1R3 to various natural sugars...
September 6, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Austin Leeds, Patricia M Dennis, Kristen E Lukas, Tara S Stoinski, Mark A Willis, Mandi W Schook
The neuroendocrine hormone oxytocin, which is an important physiological driver of social behavior and bonding, is increasingly being measured in conjunction with behavior to better understand primate sociality. To date no data are available on oxytocin concentrations within the genus Gorilla; however, as a result of their close genetic relatedness to humans, and tolerance-based social system, Gorilla represents an important group of study. The purpose of this study was to validate the measurement of urinary and salivary oxytocin in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to help facilitate future study of the interaction between oxytocin and behavior within the subspecies...
July 20, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tetsuro Matsuzawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Susan M Cheyne, Supiansyah, Adul, Claire J Neale, Carolyn Thompson, Cara H Wilcox, Yvette C Ehlers Smith, David A Ehlers Smith
In the original publication of this article, the Table 2 was published incorrectly. The revised Table 2 is given on the following page.
September 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Louise R Peckre, Charlotte Defolie, Peter M Kappeler, Claudia Fichtel
Self-anointing, referring to the behaviour of rubbing a material object or foreign substance over different parts of the body, has been observed in several vertebrate species, including primates. Several functions, such as detoxifying a rich food source, social communication and protection against ectoparasites, have been proposed to explain this behaviour. Here, we report observations of six wild red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons) of both sexes and different age classes anointing their perianal-genital areas and tails with chewed millipedes...
September 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Susan M Cheyne, Supiansyah, Adul, Claire J Neale, Carolyn Thompson, Cara H Wilcox, Yvette C Ehlers Smith, David A Ehlers Smith
Using direct observations and camera traps at eight sites across Indonesian Borneo we show how red langurs (Presbytis rubicunda) are more terrestrial than previously believed, regularly coming to the ground. This unusual behavior has been found at six of the eight sites surveyed. We find that red langurs come to the ground more frequently in disturbed forests, specifically ones which have been impacted by logging, fire, and hunting, though more data are needed to confirm this as a direct correlation. We also found a trend towards decreased ground use with increased elevation of the habitat...
September 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Francisco Salatiel Clemente de Souza, Armando Muniz Calouro
The predation of army ants (Eciton rapax) was recorded during an observational study of the feeding behavior of a group of titi monkeys (Plecturocebus toppini) in an urban fragment of forest in Acre, Brazil. During one observed event, the group's adult female used its tail to retrieve ants, a type of behavior not observed previously in this genus. All incidents of on-forest floor foraging occurred during the dry season, when fruit was least abundant in the forest, while on other occasions, the ants were captured from tree branches and leaves...
September 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tatyana Pinheiro, Maria A Lopes
The dominance structure of primate social groups varies widely. In addition to the groups' composition, intrinsic attributes such as sex, body size and life experience are important factors that can affect hierarchical dominance relations. All primates are social animals, and the social environment has a direct influence on the physiological conditions of vital systems such as immunological, reproductive and cardiovascular systems. In this study, we analyze the hierarchical structure of Saimiri collinsi in captivity, including the hierarchical structure type, the influence of individual intrinsic characteristics (sex, age, weight and origin-born in captivity or in the wild) based on the prior-attributes model, the relation between agonistic behavior frequency and hierarchical position, and hierarchy steepness, which represents the dominance gradient...
September 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Takashi Hayakawa, Akiko Sawada, Akifumi S Tanabe, Shinji Fukuda, Takushi Kishida, Yosuke Kurihara, Kei Matsushima, Jie Liu, Etienne-Francois Akomo-Okoue, Waleska Gravena, Makoto Kashima, Mariko Suzuki, Kohmei Kadowaki, Takafumi Suzumura, Eiji Inoue, Hideki Sugiura, Goro Hanya, Kiyokazu Agata
Fecal DNA-based 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing using next-generation sequencers allows us to understand the dynamic gut microbiome adaptation of animals to their specific habitats. Conventional techniques of fecal microbiome analysis have been developed within the broad contexts defined by human biology; hence, many of these techniques are not immediately applicable to wild nonhuman primates. In order to establish a standard experimental protocol for the analysis of the gut microbiomes of wild animals, we selected the Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island...
September 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Nicola F Koyama, Filippo Aureli
Several studies across anthropoid species have demonstrated how primates respond to the increased risk of conflict during space restriction with various behavioral strategies. Three strategies have been proposed relating to tension regulation, conflict avoidance, and inhibition. Prior research supporting these strategies has focused on individual- and dyadic-level analyses, yet group-living animals live within a web of inter-individual connections. Here, for the first time, we used a network approach to investigate how social structure and individuals' connectedness change during space restriction...
July 17, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Edith Calixto-Pérez, Jesús Alarcón-Guerrero, Gabriel Ramos-Fernández, Pedro Américo D Dias, Ariadna Rangel-Negrín, Monica Améndola-Pimenta, Cristina Domingo, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Gilberto Pozo-Montuy, Braulio Pinacho-Guendulain, Tania Urquiza-Haas, Patricia Koleff, Enrique Martínez-Meyer
Ecological niche modeling is used to estimate species distributions based on occurrence records and environmental variables, but it seldom includes explicit biotic or historical factors that are important in determining the distribution of species. Expert knowledge can provide additional valuable information regarding ecological or historical attributes of species, but the influence of integrating this information in the modeling process has been poorly explored. Here, we integrated expert knowledge in different stages of the niche modeling process to improve the representation of the actual geographic distributions of Mexican primates (Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta pigra, and A...
July 9, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
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