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Primates; Journal of Primatology

Shintaro Ishizuka, Yoshi Kawamoto, Kazuya Toda, Takeshi Furuichi
Evaluating the genetic diversity of natural populations of endangered species is important for conservation. Although the genetic analysis of wildlife usually requires collecting DNA non-invasively, the variety of non-invasive DNA sampling methods is limited for each species. We present a method to obtain DNA of an endangered species, the bonobo (Pan paniscus), in which the pith of the terrestrial herbaceous vegetation (THV) that they consumed was newly utilized. We investigated the (1) frequency of encountering remnant saliva on three types of THV pith; (2) concentrations of DNA in the saliva samples by the real-time quantitative PCR; and (3) rates of positive PCR, accurate genotyping, and allelic drop out by analyzing two autosomal microsatellite loci (D7s817 and D9s910)...
December 10, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Julie B Linden, Brenda McCowan, John P Capitanio, Lynne A Isbell
Sexual dimorphism in body size, aggression, and dispersal patterns may affect the degree to which males and females perceive aggression from either sex as stressful. Whereas male macaques typically disperse to new groups at maturity, thus encountering many unfamiliar individuals of both sexes, females are philopatric, usually only encountering unfamiliar males who transfer into their natal groups. In rare circumstances, however, group fusions can expose both males and females to many novel individuals, which often increases aggression...
November 30, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tatsuro Kawazoe, Sebastian Sosa
Male migration is common in mammals and comes with associated benefits and costs. Male-male affiliative relationships are behavioural strategies that migrating males can adopt in order to maximise benefits and minimize costs. While we know that such strategies primarily serve to reduce tension, little is known about how they actually affect male immigration success. We investigated the influence of male-male affiliative relationships on immigration success in a group of wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)...
November 26, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Karen B Strier, Fernanda P Tabacow, Carla B de Possamai, Anderson I G Ferreira, Marcello S Nery, Fabiano R de Melo, Sérgio L Mendes
Understanding the impact of zoonotic diseases on wild primate populations is important for assessing local extinction risks and for evaluating potential mitigating factors. Comparative data on demographic changes in two isolated populations of the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) during a severe yellow fever outbreak in southeastern Brazil provide unique insights into the potential effects of this disease in this Critically Endangered species. From October 2016 to April 2017, the muriqui population at the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural-Feliciano Miguel Abdala (Caratinga) lost 31 of its 324 members, or nearly 10%, whereas the population at the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural-Mata do Sossego (Sossego) declined from 34 to 25 individuals, or 26%...
November 24, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Muhammad Abu Bakar Abdul-Latiff, Hanisah Baharuddin, Pazil Abdul-Patah, Badrul Munir Md-Zain
The disjunct distribution of Presbytis femoralis subspecies across Sumatra (P. f. percura), southern (P. f. femoralis) and northern (P. f. robinsoni) Peninsular Malaysia marks the unique vicariance events in the Sunda Shelf. However, the taxonomic positions and evolutionary history of P. f. femoralis are unresolved after decades of research. To elucidate this evolutionary history, we analyzed 501 base pairs of the mitochondrial HVSI gene from 25 individuals representing Malaysia's banded langur, with the addition of 29 sequences of Asian Presbytis from Genbank...
November 23, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Poliana Gabriele Alves de Souza Lins, Renata Gonçalves Ferreira
Shifting to fallback food (FBF) consumption and crop raiding are behavioral adjustments that support primates' ability to endure in human-altered habitats. Nutritional models predict that the consumption of preferred foods leads to increased competition, while consumption of staple fallback foods results in decreased competition. We analyzed the competitive regime faced by individuals in a group of 133 blond capuchin monkeys (Sapajus flavius), an endangered species that inhabits a 270-ha fragment of Atlantic forest in northeast Brazil...
November 21, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Edward McLester, Kyle Sweeney, Fiona A Stewart, Alex K Piel
Predation is predicted to be an important selection pressure for primates. Evidence for this hypothesis is rare, however, due to the scarcity of direct observations of primate predation. We describe an observation of leopard (Panthera pardus) predation on a red-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti) at the Issa Valley, a savanna-woodland mosaic landscape in western Tanzania. We compare rates of evidence of leopard presence between Issa and other primate study sites in sub-Saharan Africa. An increase in direct observations of leopards at Issa in recent years suggests that leopards may be habituating to researcher presence...
November 17, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Ellen Norlén, Desirée Sjöström, Madeleine Hjelm, Therese Hård, Matthias Laska
Using a two-bottle choice test of short duration, we determined taste preference thresholds for sucrose, fructose, glucose, lactose, and maltose in three Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). Further, we assessed relative preferences for these five saccharides when presented at equimolar concentrations and determined taste preference difference thresholds for sucrose, that is, the smallest concentration difference at which the chimpanzees display a preference for one of the two options. We found that the chimpanzees significantly preferred concentrations as low as 20 mM sucrose, 40 mM fructose, and 80 mM glucose, lactose, and maltose over tap water...
November 15, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Camilo Sánchez-Giraldo, Juan M Daza
The use of GPS telemetry has been a reliable research tool for the study of primate biology in recent years. Although in the past technological restrictions limited its use mainly to large primates, recent improvements in battery size make it possible to use this technology for small species. We used GPS devices for monitoring two adult white-footed tamarins (Saguinus leucopus) from a free-ranging group, and assessed its applicability for recording spatial and ecological data. GPS devices were operational for 66 and 85 days, recording 221 positions (36...
November 9, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Sonja Wild, William Hoppitt
Network-based diffusion analysis (NBDA) has become a widely used tool to detect and quantify social learning in animal populations. NBDA infers social learning if the spread of a novel behavior follows the social network and hence relies on appropriate information on individuals' network connections. Most studies on animal populations, however, lack a complete record of all associations, which creates uncertainty in the social network. To reduce this uncertainty, researchers often use a certain threshold of sightings for the inclusion of animals (which is often arbitrarily chosen), as observational error decreases with increasing numbers of observations...
October 9, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Gregory P Fratellone, Jin-Hua Li, Lori K Sheeran, R S Wagner, Xi Wang, Lixing Sun
Social network analysis provides insights into patterns of group movements in primates, but fewer studies to date have focused on the dynamics of how such movements occur. In this study, we proposed and tested two hypotheses about the influence of sex on social connectivity and group movement in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana): (1) adult females are socially more connected than are adult males and (2) social connectivity facilitates the speed of collective decision-making. We collected data from 128 successful collective movements (≥ 2 individuals followed an initiator within 5 min) over a 2-month period in a group of adult Tibetan macaques at Mt...
October 6, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Ivan Puga-Gonzalez, Sebastian Sosa, Cedric Sueur
Group-living animals rely on efficient transmission of information for optimal exploitation of their habitat. How efficient and resilient a network is depend on its structure, which is a consequence of the social interactions of the individuals that comprise the network. In macaques, network structure differs according to dominance style. Networks of intolerant species are more modular, more centralized, and less connected than those of tolerant ones. Given these structural differences, networks of intolerant species are potentially more vulnerable to fragmentation and decreased information transmission when central individuals disappear...
September 21, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tetsuro Matsuzawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tomoko Sakai, Junichi Hata, Hiroki Ohta, Yuta Shintaku, Naoto Kimura, Yuki Ogawa, Kazumi Sogabe, Susumu Mori, Hirotaka James Okano, Yuzuru Hamada, Shinsuke Shibata, Hideyuki Okano, Kenichi Oishi
Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational analysis technology have enabled comparisons among various primate brains in a three-dimensional electronic format. Results from comparative studies provide information about common features across primates and species-specific features of neuroanatomy. Investigation of various species of non-human primates is important for understanding such features, but the majority of comparative MRI studies have been based on experimental primates, such as common marmoset, macaques, and chimpanzee...
November 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tetsuro Matsuzawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Shiqiang Zhang, Zhenwei Cui, Yifeng Zhang, Baishi Wang, Meilin Zhu, Jiqi Lu, Zhenlong Wang
Social hierarchy commonly exists in animal societies, affecting both the endocrine functioning and the behavior of animals. In nonhuman primates, the relationship between social rank and cortisol levels varies across species and even within species. Here, we assessed the relationships between social rank and fecal cortisol levels in adult male Taihangshan macaques (rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta tcheliensis) from the provisioned, free-ranging Wulongkou-2 (WLK-2) group inhabiting Wulongkou Scenic Area, Jiyuan, China...
November 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Marcelí Joele Rossi, Wagner Ferreira Dos Santos
Fecundity in female primates is influenced by the nutritional condition. If when translocated howler monkeys exhibit the same breeding patterns as non-translocated members of the same genus, it is an indication that the translocated monkeys have become well adapted to their release site and that they are likely in good nutritional condition. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate this pattern by recording copulations (over 5 years) and births (over 7 years) after the translocation of a pair of black-and-gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) and to evaluate their gestation period, seasonality of births, and intervals between births...
November 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Teresa Magdalena Lüffe, Emérita R Tirado Herrera, Mirjam Nadjafzadeh, Patricia Berles, Andrew C Smith, Christoph Knogge, Eckhard W Heymann
We report temporal variation and an "outbreak" of frog predation by moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax, in north-eastern Peruvian Amazonia. Frog predation rates were generally very low, but strongly increased in October 2015. Other high rates, identified by outlier analyses, were also observed in September-November of other years. Over all study years, predation rates in this 3-month period were significantly higher than those in the remainder of the year, suggesting a seasonal pattern of frog predation by tamarins...
November 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Emiko Nishi, Nami Suzuki-Hashido, Takashi Hayakawa, Yamato Tsuji, Bambang Suryobroto, Hiroo Imai
For many primates, sweet taste is palatable and is an indicator that the food contains carbohydrates, such as sugars and starches, as energy sources. However, we have found that Asian colobine monkeys (lutungs and langurs) have low sensitivity to various natural sugars. Sweet tastes are recognized when compounds bind to the sweet taste receptor TAS1R2/TAS1R3 in the oral cavity; accordingly, we conducted a functional assay using a heterologous expression system to evaluate the responses of Javan lutung (Trachypithecus auratus) TAS1R2/TAS1R3 to various natural sugars...
November 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Austin Leeds, Patricia M Dennis, Kristen E Lukas, Tara S Stoinski, Mark A Willis, Mandi W Schook
The neuroendocrine hormone oxytocin, which is an important physiological driver of social behavior and bonding, is increasingly being measured in conjunction with behavior to better understand primate sociality. To date no data are available on oxytocin concentrations within the genus Gorilla; however, as a result of their close genetic relatedness to humans, and tolerance-based social system, Gorilla represents an important group of study. The purpose of this study was to validate the measurement of urinary and salivary oxytocin in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to help facilitate future study of the interaction between oxytocin and behavior within the subspecies...
November 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
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