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Primates; Journal of Primatology

Michelle A Rodrigues, Emily R Boeving
Despite similar dispersal patterns, models of Pan sociality emphasize sex differences in social bonding between the two species. Such disparities are attributed to hypothesized differences in environmental selective pressures that structure association patterns. However, recent research documents greater within-species variation in social bonds in both species. Here, we examine grooming networks in captive chimpanzees at the North Carolina Zoo, and captive bonobos at the Columbus Zoo. We hypothesized that male-female grooming relationships would be the strongest in both species, but that males and females of both species would not significantly differ between centrality, strength, or clustering...
June 21, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Derick Nomuh Forbanka
Fork-marked dwarf lemurs (Phaner spp.) of Madagascar and the needle-clawed galagos (Euoticus spp.) of Central-West Africa are two genera within the primate suborder Strepsirrhini. Despite their distant relationship, these genera share remarkably convergent anatomical, behavioural and ecological characteristics. However, like most nocturnal primates in sub-Saharan Africa they are poorly studied and little is known about the population estimates of both genera. I conducted surveys of wild populations of Phaner pallescens, P...
June 7, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Pengzhen Huang, Endi Zhang, Min Chen
It has been suggested that social relationships are more likely to be prone to variation in the dispersing sex than the philopatric sex. However, we know less about the dynamics of all-male groups in male-dispersing species than we do about other types of primate groups. We studied male sociality in a captive group of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana), which was composed of a one-male unit (OMU, N = 7) and an all-male unit (AMU, N = 7 or 8), in Shanghai Wild Animal Park, China. Using data collected for 6 months, during which there was a demographic change in the AMU and the alpha male was replaced by a newcomer, we found that a dramatic change in social ranks occurred accompanied by elevated aggression following this social upheaval...
June 5, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Lorenzo Rossi, Spartaco Gippoliti, Francesco Maria Angelici
Although empirical data are necessary to describe new species, their discoveries can be guided from the survey of the so-called circumstantial evidence (that indirectly determines the existence or nonexistence of a fact). Yet this type of evidence, generally linked to traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), is often disputed by field biologists due to its uncertain nature and, on account of that, generally untapped by them. To verify this behavior and the utility of circumstantial evidence, we reviewed the existing literature about the species of apes and monkeys described or rediscovered since January 1, 1980 and submitted a poll to the authors...
June 4, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Felipe Ennes Silva, Whaldener Endo, José de Sousa E Silva Júnior, Marcelo A Dos Santos Junior, Ricardo Sampaio, Fabio Röhe
Among the 13 Mico species recognized by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, six are listed as "Data Deficient". The geographic range of most of the Mico species has been estimated from only a few records. We report new localities and the geographic extension of Mico chrysoleucos. In addition, we confirmed the presence of the species in two distinct protected areas. We modeled the habitat suitability of M. chrysoleucos using the maximum entropy method and including new records obtained by the authors in the state of Amazonas, Brazil...
May 4, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Naven Hon, Alison M Behie, Jessica M Rothman, Ken G Ryan
This study measured the nutritional composition of foods consumed by the northern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus annamensis) in northeastern Cambodia. One group of N. annamensis was studied, and focal animal sampling was used to observe their feeding behavior. The study was conducted for 4 months (January-April 2015) in the dry season and 69 foods were collected for nutritional analyses. N. annamensis fed on 37 plant species, but only seven species made up more than 80% of feeding time. N. annamensis spent the majority of their time feeding on fruit (60...
April 24, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Cheng-Feng Wu, Zhi-Jie Liao, Cedric Sueur, John Chih Mun Sha, Jie Zhang, Peng Zhang
In group-living animals, individuals do not interact uniformly with their conspecifics. Among primates, such heterogeneity in partner choice can be discerned from affiliative grooming patterns. While the preference for selecting close kin as grooming partners is ubiquitous across the primate order, the selection of higher-ranking non-kin individuals as grooming partners is less common. We studied a group of provisioned rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta brevicaudus) on Hainan Island, China, to examine rank-related benefits of grooming exchanges and the influence of kin relationships...
April 18, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tetsuro Matsuzawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Rafaela S C Takeshita, Fred B Bercovitch, Kodzue Kinoshita, Michael A Huffman
The ability of animals to survive dramatic climates depends on their physiology, morphology and behaviour, but is often influenced by the configuration of their habitat. Along with autonomic responses, thermoregulatory behaviours, including postural adjustments, social aggregation, and use of trees for shelter, help individuals maintain homeostasis across climate variations. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are the world's most northerly species of nonhuman primates and have adapted to extremely cold environments...
May 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Matthew R McLennan
With data accumulating from a growing pool of chimpanzee field studies, new behaviors as well as novel variants on common behaviors continue to be described. Nest construction is a universal behavior in wild great apes. Among chimpanzee populations, reported variation in nest building behavior mostly reflects environmental constraints. Despite the ubiquity of nest making by chimpanzees, only ground nesting has been recognized as a behavioral variant, potentially determined by both environmental and social factors...
May 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Gholib Gholib, Michael Heistermann, Muhammad Agil, Iman Supriatna, Bambang Purwantara, Taufiq Purna Nugraha, Antje Engelhardt
Since the non-invasive field endocrinology techniques were developed, several fecal preservation and extraction methods have been established for a variety of species. However, direct adaptation of methods from previous studies for use in crested macaques should be taken with caution. We conducted an experiment to assess the accuracy and stability of fecal estrogen metabolite (E1C) and glucocorticoid metabolite (GCM) concentrations in response to several preservation parameters: (1) time lag between sample collection and fecal preservation; (2) long-term storage of fecal samples in 80% methanol (MeOH) at ambient temperature; (3) different degrees of feces drying temperature using a conventional oven; and (4) different fecal preservation techniques (i...
May 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Laura M Bolt, Amy L Schreier, Kristofor A Voss, Elizabeth A Sheehan, Nancy L Barrickman, Nathaniel P Pryor, Matthew C Barton
When a forest is fragmented, this increases the amount of forest edge relative to the interior. Edge effects can lead to loss of animal and plant species and decreased plant biomass near forest edges. We examined the influence of an anthropogenic forest edge comprising cattle pasture, coconut plantations, and human settlement on the mantled howler (Alouatta palliata), white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus), Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), and plant populations at La Suerte Biological Research Station (LSBRS), Costa Rica...
May 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Duncan A Wilson, Masaki Tomonaga
Many primate studies have investigated discrimination of individual faces within the same species. However, few studies have looked at discrimination between primate species faces at the categorical level. This study systematically examined the factors important for visual discrimination between primate species faces in chimpanzees, including: colour, orientation, familiarity, and perceptual similarity. Five adult female chimpanzees were tested on their ability to discriminate identical and categorical (non-identical) images of different primate species faces in a series of touchscreen matching-to-sample experiments...
May 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
L Badji, P I Ndiaye, S M Lindshield, C T Ba, J D Pruetz
We studied the nesting behavior of the critically endangered West African chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus). We assumed that the nesting data stemmed from a single, unhabituated community at the Bagnomba hill site in the savanna-woodlands of southeastern Senegal. The aim of this study was to examine chimpanzees' nesting habits in terms of the tree species utilized and sleeping nest heights. We recorded a total of 550 chimpanzee nests at Bagnomba between January 2015 and December 2015. The chimpanzees here made nests in particular tree species more often than others...
May 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Erin A Weigel, Carol M Berman
The play face is a well-established play signal in nonhuman primates that functions to invite play and convey a playful intent. However, recent evidence indicates that some species display repertoires of play signals that may have more specific meanings related to particular aspects of play. Furthermore, previous studies have inconsistently categorized gorilla behaviors as play signals versus actual play. Here we aim to identify behaviors displayed by two immature captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at the Buffalo Zoo that meet three necessary criteria to be considered play signals...
May 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
T Jean M Arseneau-Robar, Megan M Joyce, Samantha M Stead, Julie A Teichroeb
Close proximity and social grooming are important bonding mechanisms in primates. These behaviors show the social structure of a species and many studies have found positive correlations between the degree of kinship and grooming and proximity. We used 1 year of data collected via instantaneous scan sampling on a large "supertroop" of Colobus angolensis ruwenzorii at Lake Nabugabo, Uganda, to examine partner preferences for grooming and nearest neighbors in each age-sex class. Little is known about this species, so we based our hypotheses on congeners...
May 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Aluane S Ferreira, Yvonnick Le Pendu, Romari A Martinez
With the loss and fragmentation of tropical forests, the survival of primates depends on their ability to adapt to human-introduced modifications in their habitat. Marmosets are known for their ecological and behavioral plasticity and have been registered in various agricultural landscapes. Our goal was to describe the ecology of tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix sp.) in a rubber/forest landscape, monitoring their use of habitat and diet. We followed two groups using radio telemetry and visual observations for nine months at the Michelin plantation Ltd...
May 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tiago Falótico, Paulo Henrique M Coutinho, Carolina Q Bueno, Henrique P Rufo, Eduardo B Ottoni
Capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) are proficient tool users, and the use of stone tools occurs in several populations, mostly to crack open encased foods. Two well-studied Brazilian populations of Sapajus libidinosus inhabit Fazenda Boa Vista and Serra da Capivara National Park and present different behavioral sets regarding tool use. Serra das Confusões National Park (SCoNP) lies between those sites, but little is known about the capuchin monkey population that lives there. To begin unraveling the capuchin behavior in this area, we conducted a brief survey for tool use sites...
March 17, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Fernanda Pozzan Paim, Kim Valenta, Colin A Chapman, Adriano Pereira Paglia, Helder Lima de Queiroz
Integration between ecology and biogeography provides insights into how niche specialization affects the geographical distribution of species. Given that rivers are not effective barriers to dispersal in three parapatric species of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri vanzolinii, S. cassiquiarensis and S. macrodon) inhabiting floodplain forests of Central Amazonia, we tested whether forest structure and tree diversity may explain species differences in niche specialization and spatial segregation. We sampled 6617 trees of 326 species in three habitats (high várzea, low várzea and chavascal) used by three Saimiri species, and estimated tree species richness in each of them...
March 10, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Maegan Fitzgerald, Robert Coulson, A Michelle Lawing, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Kathelijne Koops
Tropical forests and the biodiversity within them are rapidly declining in the face of increasing human populations. Resource management and conservation of endangered species requires an understanding of how species perceive and respond to their environments. Species distribution modeling (SDM) is an appropriate tool for identifying conservation areas of concern and importance. In this study, SDM was used to identify areas of suitable chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) habitat within the Greater Nimba Landscape, Guinea, West Africa...
March 9, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
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