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Primates; Journal of Primatology

Susan M Cheyne, Supiansyah, Adul, Claire J Neale, Carolyn Thompson, Cara H Wilcox, Yvette C Ehlers Smith, David A Ehlers Smith
In the original publication of this article, the Table 2 was published incorrectly. The revised Table 2 is given on the following page.
August 9, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Louise R Peckre, Charlotte Defolie, Peter M Kappeler, Claudia Fichtel
Self-anointing, referring to the behaviour of rubbing a material object or foreign substance over different parts of the body, has been observed in several vertebrate species, including primates. Several functions, such as detoxifying a rich food source, social communication and protection against ectoparasites, have been proposed to explain this behaviour. Here, we report observations of six wild red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons) of both sexes and different age classes anointing their perianal-genital areas and tails with chewed millipedes...
July 30, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Austin Leeds, Patricia M Dennis, Kristen E Lukas, Tara S Stoinski, Mark A Willis, Mandi W Schook
The neuroendocrine hormone oxytocin, which is an important physiological driver of social behavior and bonding, is increasingly being measured in conjunction with behavior to better understand primate sociality. To date no data are available on oxytocin concentrations within the genus Gorilla; however, as a result of their close genetic relatedness to humans, and tolerance-based social system, Gorilla represents an important group of study. The purpose of this study was to validate the measurement of urinary and salivary oxytocin in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to help facilitate future study of the interaction between oxytocin and behavior within the subspecies...
July 20, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Susan M Cheyne, Supiansyah, Adul, Claire J Neale, Carolyn Thompson, Cara H Wilcox, Yvette C Ehlers Smith, David A Ehlers Smith
Using direct observations and camera traps at eight sites across Indonesian Borneo we show how red langurs (Presbytis rubicunda) are more terrestrial than previously believed, regularly coming to the ground. This unusual behavior has been found at six of the eight sites surveyed. We find that red langurs come to the ground more frequently in disturbed forests, specifically ones which have been impacted by logging, fire, and hunting, though more data are needed to confirm this as a direct correlation. We also found a trend towards decreased ground use with increased elevation of the habitat...
July 19, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Francisco Salatiel Clemente de Souza, Armando Muniz Calouro
The predation of army ants (Eciton rapax) was recorded during an observational study of the feeding behavior of a group of titi monkeys (Plecturocebus toppini) in an urban fragment of forest in Acre, Brazil. During one observed event, the group's adult female used its tail to retrieve ants, a type of behavior not observed previously in this genus. All incidents of on-forest floor foraging occurred during the dry season, when fruit was least abundant in the forest, while on other occasions, the ants were captured from tree branches and leaves...
July 17, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Nicola F Koyama, Filippo Aureli
Several studies across anthropoid species have demonstrated how primates respond to the increased risk of conflict during space restriction with various behavioral strategies. Three strategies have been proposed relating to tension regulation, conflict avoidance, and inhibition. Prior research supporting these strategies has focused on individual- and dyadic-level analyses, yet group-living animals live within a web of inter-individual connections. Here, for the first time, we used a network approach to investigate how social structure and individuals' connectedness change during space restriction...
July 17, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Edith Calixto-Pérez, Jesús Alarcón-Guerrero, Gabriel Ramos-Fernández, Pedro Américo D Dias, Ariadna Rangel-Negrín, Monica Améndola-Pimenta, Cristina Domingo, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Gilberto Pozo-Montuy, Braulio Pinacho-Guendulain, Tania Urquiza-Haas, Patricia Koleff, Enrique Martínez-Meyer
Ecological niche modeling is used to estimate species distributions based on occurrence records and environmental variables, but it seldom includes explicit biotic or historical factors that are important in determining the distribution of species. Expert knowledge can provide additional valuable information regarding ecological or historical attributes of species, but the influence of integrating this information in the modeling process has been poorly explored. Here, we integrated expert knowledge in different stages of the niche modeling process to improve the representation of the actual geographic distributions of Mexican primates (Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta pigra, and A...
July 9, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Takashi Hayakawa, Akiko Sawada, Akifumi S Tanabe, Shinji Fukuda, Takushi Kishida, Yosuke Kurihara, Kei Matsushima, Jie Liu, Etienne-Francois Akomo-Okoue, Waleska Gravena, Makoto Kashima, Mariko Suzuki, Kohmei Kadowaki, Takafumi Suzumura, Eiji Inoue, Hideki Sugiura, Goro Hanya, Kiyokazu Agata
Fecal DNA-based 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing using next-generation sequencers allows us to understand the dynamic gut microbiome adaptation of animals to their specific habitats. Conventional techniques of fecal microbiome analysis have been developed within the broad contexts defined by human biology; hence, many of these techniques are not immediately applicable to wild nonhuman primates. In order to establish a standard experimental protocol for the analysis of the gut microbiomes of wild animals, we selected the Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island...
June 25, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Michelle A Rodrigues, Emily R Boeving
Despite similar dispersal patterns, models of Pan sociality emphasize sex differences in social bonding between the two species. Such disparities are attributed to hypothesized differences in environmental selective pressures that structure association patterns. However, recent research documents greater within-species variation in social bonds in both species. Here, we examine grooming networks in captive chimpanzees at the North Carolina Zoo, and captive bonobos at the Columbus Zoo. We hypothesized that male-female grooming relationships would be the strongest in both species, but that males and females of both species would not significantly differ between centrality, strength, or clustering...
June 21, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tatyana Pinheiro, Maria A Lopes
The dominance structure of primate social groups varies widely. In addition to the groups' composition, intrinsic attributes such as sex, body size and life experience are important factors that can affect hierarchical dominance relations. All primates are social animals, and the social environment has a direct influence on the physiological conditions of vital systems such as immunological, reproductive and cardiovascular systems. In this study, we analyze the hierarchical structure of Saimiri collinsi in captivity, including the hierarchical structure type, the influence of individual intrinsic characteristics (sex, age, weight and origin-born in captivity or in the wild) based on the prior-attributes model, the relation between agonistic behavior frequency and hierarchical position, and hierarchy steepness, which represents the dominance gradient...
June 14, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Derick Nomuh Forbanka
Fork-marked dwarf lemurs (Phaner spp.) of Madagascar and the needle-clawed galagos (Euoticus spp.) of Central-West Africa are two genera within the primate suborder Strepsirrhini. Despite their distant relationship, these genera share remarkably convergent anatomical, behavioural and ecological characteristics. However, like most nocturnal primates in sub-Saharan Africa they are poorly studied and little is known about the population estimates of both genera. I conducted surveys of wild populations of Phaner pallescens, P...
June 7, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Pengzhen Huang, Endi Zhang, Min Chen
It has been suggested that social relationships are more likely to be prone to variation in the dispersing sex than the philopatric sex. However, we know less about the dynamics of all-male groups in male-dispersing species than we do about other types of primate groups. We studied male sociality in a captive group of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana), which was composed of a one-male unit (OMU, N = 7) and an all-male unit (AMU, N = 7 or 8), in Shanghai Wild Animal Park, China. Using data collected for 6 months, during which there was a demographic change in the AMU and the alpha male was replaced by a newcomer, we found that a dramatic change in social ranks occurred accompanied by elevated aggression following this social upheaval...
June 5, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Juichi Yamagiwa
The journal Primates was founded by Kinji Imanishi (1902-1992) in 1957: It is the oldest and longest-running international primatology journal in the world. In this series of dialogues between Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Editor-in-Chief of Primates and the General Director of the Japan Monkey Centre (JMC) and Juichi Yamagiwa, former Editor-in-Chief of Primates and the Museum Director of the JMC, we look back at the achievements of our spiritual ancestors in primate research and talk about the back story of Imanishi and his fellow primatologists: founding the JMC as a research institute focused on primates and launching this journal...
July 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Lorenzo Rossi, Spartaco Gippoliti, Francesco Maria Angelici
Although empirical data are necessary to describe new species, their discoveries can be guided from the survey of the so-called circumstantial evidence (that indirectly determines the existence or nonexistence of a fact). Yet this type of evidence, generally linked to traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), is often disputed by field biologists due to its uncertain nature and, on account of that, generally untapped by them. To verify this behavior and the utility of circumstantial evidence, we reviewed the existing literature about the species of apes and monkeys described or rediscovered since January 1, 1980 and submitted a poll to the authors...
July 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Felipe Ennes Silva, Whaldener Endo, José de Sousa E Silva Júnior, Marcelo A Dos Santos Junior, Ricardo Sampaio, Fabio Röhe
Among the 13 Mico species recognized by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, six are listed as "Data Deficient". The geographic range of most of the Mico species has been estimated from only a few records. We report new localities and the geographic extension of Mico chrysoleucos. In addition, we confirmed the presence of the species in two distinct protected areas. We modeled the habitat suitability of M. chrysoleucos using the maximum entropy method and including new records obtained by the authors in the state of Amazonas, Brazil...
July 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Naven Hon, Alison M Behie, Jessica M Rothman, Ken G Ryan
This study measured the nutritional composition of foods consumed by the northern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus annamensis) in northeastern Cambodia. One group of N. annamensis was studied, and focal animal sampling was used to observe their feeding behavior. The study was conducted for 4 months (January-April 2015) in the dry season and 69 foods were collected for nutritional analyses. N. annamensis fed on 37 plant species, but only seven species made up more than 80% of feeding time. N. annamensis spent the majority of their time feeding on fruit (60...
July 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Cheng-Feng Wu, Zhi-Jie Liao, Cedric Sueur, John Chih Mun Sha, Jie Zhang, Peng Zhang
In group-living animals, individuals do not interact uniformly with their conspecifics. Among primates, such heterogeneity in partner choice can be discerned from affiliative grooming patterns. While the preference for selecting close kin as grooming partners is ubiquitous across the primate order, the selection of higher-ranking non-kin individuals as grooming partners is less common. We studied a group of provisioned rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta brevicaudus) on Hainan Island, China, to examine rank-related benefits of grooming exchanges and the influence of kin relationships...
July 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tiago Falótico, Paulo Henrique M Coutinho, Carolina Q Bueno, Henrique P Rufo, Eduardo B Ottoni
Capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) are proficient tool users, and the use of stone tools occurs in several populations, mostly to crack open encased foods. Two well-studied Brazilian populations of Sapajus libidinosus inhabit Fazenda Boa Vista and Serra da Capivara National Park and present different behavioral sets regarding tool use. Serra das Confusões National Park (SCoNP) lies between those sites, but little is known about the capuchin monkey population that lives there. To begin unraveling the capuchin behavior in this area, we conducted a brief survey for tool use sites...
July 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Fernanda Pozzan Paim, Kim Valenta, Colin A Chapman, Adriano Pereira Paglia, Helder Lima de Queiroz
Integration between ecology and biogeography provides insights into how niche specialization affects the geographical distribution of species. Given that rivers are not effective barriers to dispersal in three parapatric species of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri vanzolinii, S. cassiquiarensis and S. macrodon) inhabiting floodplain forests of Central Amazonia, we tested whether forest structure and tree diversity may explain species differences in niche specialization and spatial segregation. We sampled 6617 trees of 326 species in three habitats (high várzea, low várzea and chavascal) used by three Saimiri species, and estimated tree species richness in each of them...
July 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Maegan Fitzgerald, Robert Coulson, A Michelle Lawing, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Kathelijne Koops
Tropical forests and the biodiversity within them are rapidly declining in the face of increasing human populations. Resource management and conservation of endangered species requires an understanding of how species perceive and respond to their environments. Species distribution modeling (SDM) is an appropriate tool for identifying conservation areas of concern and importance. In this study, SDM was used to identify areas of suitable chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) habitat within the Greater Nimba Landscape, Guinea, West Africa...
July 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
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