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Primates; Journal of Primatology

Leonardo de Carvalho Oliveira, Juliana Monteiro de Almeida Rocha, Paula Pedreira Dos Reis, James Dietz
The advantages of living in a group include feeding benefits and/or predation avoidance, while the disadvantages are typically related to competition. One way to avoid competition while maintaining the benefits of living in a group is to form interspecific associations with species with relatively little dietary overlap. Here we report a stable association between a male golden-headed lion tamarin (GHLT), Leontopithecus chrysomelas, and a group of Wied's black-tufted-ear marmosets (WBTMs), Callithrix kuhlii...
October 22, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Taufiq Purna Nugraha, Michael Heistermann, Muhammad Agil, Bambang Purwantara, Iman Supriatna, Gholib Gholib, Carel P van Schaik, Tony Weingrill
Measuring hormone metabolites from feces is the most often used method to assess hormonal status in wildlife. Although immediate freezing of fecal samples collected in the field is the best method to minimize the risk of degradation of hormones over time, this is often not possible in remote field sites. Therefore, alternative storage and preservation methods for fecal samples are required in these conditions. We conducted an experiment to investigate if fecal glucocorticoid (FGCM) and progesterone metabolite (pregnanediol-3-glucuronide; PdG) levels measured from samples that were extracted with a simple, field-friendly methodology correlate with those generated from frozen samples...
October 22, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Kosuke Tsugo, Tomoe Kinoshita, Ko Kadowaki, Go Sugahara, Emiko Saito, Shigehisa Kawakami, Yumi Une
The histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural morphologic characteristics of a tumor in the subcutaneous tissue of the chest of a 19-year-old female Japanese macaque were investigated. Consequently, the mass was diagnosed as a malignant mast cell tumor (MCT). Tumors were present in both mammary gland portions of the anterior thorax. Both tumors showed the same histopathological findings. The tumor tissue was defined by the presence of delicate connective tissue, and the tumor cells grew in a cord-like or cobblestone pattern...
October 19, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Changyong Ma, Jiancun Liao, Pengfei Fan
The Cao Vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) has only one population with about 110 individuals living in a degraded karst forest along the China-Vietnam border. Investigation of food choice in relation to chemical nutrition will offer important insights into its conservation. We studied the food choice of two groups of Cao Vit gibbons using instantaneous scan sampling in Bangliang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China, over 4 years, and analyzed the chemical components (total nitrogen, TN; water-soluble sugar, WSS; crude fat, CF; neutral detergent fiber, NDF; acid detergent fiber, ADF; acid detergent lignin, ADL; condensed tannin, CT; and ash) of 48 food plant parts and 22 non-food plant parts...
October 5, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Yasuyuki Muroyama
Individual spatial positioning plays an important role in mediating the costs and benefits of group living, and thus shapes different aspects of animal social systems including group structure and cohesiveness. I aimed to quantify variation in individual spacing behavior and its correlates in a group of wild patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) living in north Cameroon. I collected data on inter-individual distances during group scans when following subject females. Individuals had longer inter-individual distances during the non-birth season than during the birth season...
September 29, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Fernando G Soley, Iria S Chacón, Mariano Soley-Guardia
We observed two capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) feeding on hermit crabs (Coenobita compressus) on the coast, and the tactics they used to extract this well-protected prey. The observations took place during the dry season at Playa Escondida beach, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. The capuchins descended from trees at the back edge of the beach to capture passing hermit crabs. Both capuchins extracted the hermit crabs from their protective shells by holding the shell with one hand and pulling the crab out with the other...
September 28, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Michio Nakamura, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Koichiro Zamma
Great apes are important seed dispersers with large bodies, able to swallow large seeds and travel long distances. Although there have been several studies investigating seed dispersal quality [sensu Schupp (Vegetatio 107/108:15-29, 1993)] by chimpanzees, there is little information on the volume of seeds they can carry in their bodies. When a relatively fresh corpse of a mature female chimpanzee was found at Mahale, Tanzania, we took advantage of the rare opportunity to investigate the total weight and cubic volume of seeds recovered from the corpse...
September 23, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Lucie Rigaill, Andrew J J MacIntosh, James P Higham, Sandra Winters, Keiko Shimizu, Keiko Mouri, Takafumi Suzumura, Takeshi Furuichi, Cécile Garcia
Studies of the role of secondary sexual ornaments in mate choice tend to focus on colorful traits in males, but females of many animal species express colorful ornamentation too. Among non-human primates, investigations into the role of female secondary sexual traits as indicators of life history characteristics, reproductive success, and health status have mostly focused on sexual swellings, whereas only few studies have been conducted on the role of facial color. Recent studies on rhesus macaques and mandrills suggested that female ornamentation might provide information about female life history characteristics, but not on disease resistance factors and parasite infection, which have been shown to affect male ornamentation in some non-primate species...
September 19, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Penglai Fan, Chanyuan Liu, Hongyi Chen, Xuefeng Liu, Dapeng Zhao, Jinguo Zhang, Dingzhen Liu
The postural origin hypothesis and the task complexity hypothesis propose that hand preference in non-human primates evolved in association with body posture and task complexity, respectively. The results of previous studies testing these two hypotheses, however, vary greatly with the different primate species and methods used. To investigate the effect of body posture and task complexity on hand preference, we recorded bouts of hand usage in nine captive northern white-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys) housed at Beijing Zoo as they reached for food items in a ground-reaching task, a box task, and a tube task...
September 14, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
James R Anderson, Xavier Hubert-Brierre, William C McGrew
We describe behaviors of unhabituated wild chimpanzees in Gabon during repeated encounters with large mirrors installed permanently in their home range. Movement in proximity to the mirrors triggered video cameras that recorded the scene. Data are presented for 51 mirror encounters spanning a 3-year period. After initial wariness, mirror-directed aggressive behaviors were common, especially in adult males, but aggression gradually diminished and eventually almost completely ceased. Focusing on the two mirrors that elicited most reactions, the percentage of chimpanzees showing tension or anxiety also decreased across encounters...
September 14, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Coline M Arnaud, Takafumi Suzumura, Eiji Inoue, Mark J Adams, Alexander Weiss, Miho Inoue-Murayama
Using long-term maternal pedigree data, microsatellite analysis, and behavioral tests, we examined whether personality differences in wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are associated with additive genetic effects, maternal influences, or belonging to a particular social group. Behaviors elicited by novel-object tests were defined by a component related to caution around novel-objects (Ob-PC1) and behaviors elicited by novel food-tests were defined by correlated components related to consummatory responses (Fo-PC1) and caution around novel foods (Fo-PC2)...
September 12, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Renata S Mendonça, Tomoko Kanamori, Noko Kuze, Misato Hayashi, Henry Bernard, Tetsuro Matsuzawa
Orangutans have a long period of immaturity and the longest inter-birth interval (IBI) of all mammals, which can explained by their solitary life style, preventing the mother from rearing two offspring simultaneously (solitary life hypothesis). We collected data on mother-offspring dyads living in a primary lowland forest in Danum Valley, East Borneo in an effort to examine the developmental and behavioral patterns of the subspecies Pongo pygmaeus morio. We analyzed developmental changes in mother-offspring distance, contact, and activity budgets in orangutans ranging from 1 to 7 years of age...
September 6, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Erica M Tennenhouse, Sarah Putman, Nicole P Boisseau, Janine L Brown
Relationships between the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axes and social behaviour in primates are complex. By using hair to quantify steroid hormones, one can obtain retrospective estimates of long-term free hormone levels from a single sample. In this study, hair was used to quantify long-term levels of cortisol, testosterone, and estradiol among members of a colony of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) to explore associations between intra- and intersexual levels of these hormones and social behaviour between the breeding and birthing seasons...
August 20, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Thiago Silvestre, Eveline S Zanetti, José M B Duarte, Fernando G Barriento, Zelinda M B Hirano, Júlio C Souza, Fernando C Passos
The ovarian cycle in howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) has beean investigated through several biological parameters (ranging between 16.3 and 29.5 days); however, no data exist concerning the ovarian activity of the southern brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans). This study aimed to describe the ovarian cycle of A. g. clamitans by profiling fecal progestin concentrations. Over 20 weeks, fecal samples of eight captive adult females of A. g. clamitans were collected. The collections were made at dawn, 5 days a week, and the samples were frozen immediately following collection...
August 19, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Lynne A Isbell, Stephanie F Etting
Predatory snakes are argued to have been largely responsible for the origin of primates via selection favoring expansion of the primate visual system, and even today snakes can be deadly to primates. Neurobiological research is now beginning to reveal the mechanisms underlying the ability of primates (including humans) to detect snakes more rapidly than other stimuli. However, the visual cues allowing rapid detection of snakes, and the cognitive and ecological conditions contributing to faster detection, are unclear...
August 12, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Marco Lucarelli, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Walter Adriani, Elsa Addessi, Silvia Pierandrei, Arianna Manciocco, Francesca Zoratto, Andrea Tamellini, Augusto Vitale, Giovanni Laviola, Jessica Lynch Alfaro, Esterina Pascale
Genetic polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene has been reported in both human and nonhuman primates, and the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism has been related to several neurological and psychiatric disorders. As New World primates have been employed as models in biomedical research in these fields, in the present study we assessed genetic variation in the DAT gene in 25 robust capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) and 39 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)...
August 8, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Fumito Kawakami, Masaki Tomonaga, Juri Suzuki
Spontaneous smiles are facial movements that are characterized by lip corner raises that occur during irregular sleep or drowsiness without known external or internal causes. They are shown by human infants and infant chimpanzees. These smiles are considered to be the developmental origin of smiling and laughter. There are some case studies showing that spontaneous smiles occur in Japanese macaques. The goals of this study were to investigate whether newborn Japanese macaques show a considerable number of spontaneous smiles thus to examine the mechanism of them...
August 2, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Priscila Suscke, Michele Verderane, Robson Santos de Oliveira, Irene Delval, Marcelo Fernández-Bolaños, Patrícia Izar
We describe seven encounters between different harpy eagle individuals (Harpia harpyja) and a group of yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus xanthosternos) in Una Biological Reserve. These interactions lasted 58 min on average. In each of those encounters, the capuchin monkeys used particular behavioral strategies against the harpy eagle that were not employed in reaction to other aerial predators. We did not observe any successful predation events, but after one of those encounters an infant disappeared from the capuchin group...
August 2, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Mariana B Nagy-Reis, Eleonore Z F Setz
Many primates have to cope with a temporal scarcity in food availability that shapes their foraging strategies. Here we investigated the changes in diet, activity, and ranging behavior of a group of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons) according to the availability of the main high-nutritional-density item in their diet and the foraging strategy adopted when this food is scarce. We monitored one habituated group using instantaneous scan sampling over 1 year (533 h of observation, 61 days) in a seasonal tropical forest fragment (245 ha)...
August 2, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
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October 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
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