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Primates; Journal of Primatology

Gholib Gholib, Michael Heistermann, Muhammad Agil, Iman Supriatna, Bambang Purwantara, Taufiq Purna Nugraha, Antje Engelhardt
Since the non-invasive field endocrinology techniques were developed, several fecal preservation and extraction methods have been established for a variety of species. However, direct adaptation of methods from previous studies for use in crested macaques should be taken with caution. We conducted an experiment to assess the accuracy and stability of fecal estrogen metabolite (E1C) and glucocorticoid metabolite (GCM) concentrations in response to several preservation parameters: (1) time lag between sample collection and fecal preservation; (2) long-term storage of fecal samples in 80% methanol (MeOH) at ambient temperature; (3) different degrees of feces drying temperature using a conventional oven; and (4) different fecal preservation techniques (i...
February 10, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Austin Leeds, Patricia M Dennis, Kristen E Lukas, Tara S Stoinski, Mark A Willis, Mandi W Schook
The neuroendocrine hormone oxytocin, which is an important physiological driver of social behavior and bonding, is increasingly being measured in conjunction with behavior to better understand primate sociality. However, no data are available on oxytocin concentrations within the genus Gorilla, even though the members of this genus are of great interest to researchers due to their close genetic relatedness to humans and their tolerance-based social system. The purpose of this study was to validate the measurement of urinary and salivary oxytocin in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to facilitate future study of the interaction between oxytocin and behavior in this subspecies...
February 8, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Laura M Bolt, Amy L Schreier, Kristofor A Voss, Elizabeth A Sheehan, Nancy L Barrickman, Nathaniel P Pryor, Matthew C Barton
When a forest is fragmented, this increases the amount of forest edge relative to the interior. Edge effects can lead to loss of animal and plant species and decreased plant biomass near forest edges. We examined the influence of an anthropogenic forest edge comprising cattle pasture, coconut plantations, and human settlement on the mantled howler (Alouatta palliata), white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus), Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), and plant populations at La Suerte Biological Research Station (LSBRS), Costa Rica...
February 6, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tomoyuki Tajima, Titol P Malim, Eiji Inoue
The reproductive success of male primates is not always associated with dominance status. For example, even though male orangutans exhibit intra-sexual dimorphism and clear dominance relationships exist among males, previous studies have reported that both morphs are able to sire offspring. The present study aimed to compare the reproductive success of two male morphs, and to determine whether unflanged males sired offspring in a free-ranging population of Bornean orangutans, using 12 microsatellite loci to determine the paternity of eight infants...
January 31, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Misato Hayashi, Fumito Kawakami, Rosimah Roslan, Nurhafizie M Hapiszudin, Sabapathy Dharmalingam
The Bukit Merah Orang Utan Island (OUI) Foundation has been conducting behavioral and veterinary research on orangutans as an attempt at ex situ conservation. Since 2010, the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University has been collaborating with OUI to promote environmental enrichment and infant rearing by biological mothers in addition to the continuous efforts of refining the veterinary management of the endangered species. In 2011, three Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) were released on an island, called BJ Island, adjacent to OUI...
January 30, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Duncan A Wilson, Masaki Tomonaga
Many primate studies have investigated discrimination of individual faces within the same species. However, few studies have looked at discrimination between primate species faces at the categorical level. This study systematically examined the factors important for visual discrimination between primate species faces in chimpanzees, including: colour, orientation, familiarity, and perceptual similarity. Five adult female chimpanzees were tested on their ability to discriminate identical and categorical (non-identical) images of different primate species faces in a series of touchscreen matching-to-sample experiments...
January 23, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Daniel P Schofield, William C McGrew, Akiko Takahashi, Satoshi Hirata
Cumulative culture, generally known as the increasing complexity or efficiency of cultural behaviors additively transmitted over successive generations, has been emphasized as a hallmark of human evolution. Recently, reviews of candidates for cumulative culture in nonhuman species have claimed that only humans have cumulative culture. Here, we aim to scrutinize this claim, using current criteria for cumulative culture to re-evaluate overlooked qualitative but longitudinal data from a nonhuman primate, the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata)...
December 27, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
L Badji, P I Ndiaye, S M Lindshield, C T Ba, J D Pruetz
We studied the nesting behavior of the critically endangered West African chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus). We assumed that the nesting data stemmed from a single, unhabituated community at the Bagnomba hill site in the savanna-woodlands of southeastern Senegal. The aim of this study was to examine chimpanzees' nesting habits in terms of the tree species utilized and sleeping nest heights. We recorded a total of 550 chimpanzee nests at Bagnomba between January 2015 and December 2015. The chimpanzees here made nests in particular tree species more often than others...
December 27, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Erin A Weigel, Carol M Berman
The play face is a well-established play signal in nonhuman primates that functions to invite play and convey a playful intent. However, recent evidence indicates that some species display repertoires of play signals that may have more specific meanings related to particular aspects of play. Furthermore, previous studies have inconsistently categorized gorilla behaviors as play signals versus actual play. Here we aim to identify behaviors displayed by two immature captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at the Buffalo Zoo that meet three necessary criteria to be considered play signals...
December 26, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
T Jean M Arseneau-Robar, Megan M Joyce, Samantha M Stead, Julie A Teichroeb
Close proximity and social grooming are important bonding mechanisms in primates. These behaviors show the social structure of a species and many studies have found positive correlations between the degree of kinship and grooming and proximity. We used 1 year of data collected via instantaneous scan sampling on a large "supertroop" of Colobus angolensis ruwenzorii at Lake Nabugabo, Uganda, to examine partner preferences for grooming and nearest neighbors in each age-sex class. Little is known about this species, so we based our hypotheses on congeners...
December 21, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Aluane S Ferreira, Yvonnick Le Pendu, Romari A Martinez
With the loss and fragmentation of tropical forests, the survival of primates depends on their ability to adapt to human-introduced modifications in their habitat. Marmosets are known for their ecological and behavioral plasticity and have been registered in various agricultural landscapes. Our goal was to describe the ecology of tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix sp.) in a rubber/forest landscape, monitoring their use of habitat and diet. We followed two groups using radio telemetry and visual observations for nine months at the Michelin plantation Ltd...
December 20, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Benoît Quintard, Marine Giorgiadis, Xavier Feirrera, Brice Lefaux, Christophe Schohn, Karin Lemberger
The blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur flavifrons) is classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as critically endangered. A 23-year-old male housed at Mulhouse Zoo presented with lethargy, polyphagia, alopecia, and chronic weight loss. Clinical examination suggested an endocrine pathology such as hyperthyroidism. Secondary examinations included cervical ultrasound, thyroid biopsy, and scintigraphy. The latter revealed elevated thyroid activity. Blood analysis was performed to measure the level of anti-receptor thyroid-stimulating hormone antibodies, which allowed us to test the autoimmune hypothesis...
December 20, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Yumi Yamanashi, Migaku Teramoto, Naruki Morimura, Etsuko Nogami, Satoshi Hirata
Understanding how social relationships affect long-term stress is important because stress has a profound impact on the welfare of animals and social relationships often exert a strong influence on their stress responses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social behaviors and long-term stress levels as assessed by hair cortisol (HC) concentration. The subjects were 11 chimpanzees living in an all-male group (divided into two sub-groups) in Kumamoto Sanctuary, Kyoto University, Japan...
December 15, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Kelil Abu, Addisu Mekonnen, Afework Bekele, Peter J Fashing
Understanding the basic natural history of threatened primate taxa is crucial to developing and implementing successful conservation strategies for them. Data on feeding ecology and activity patterns are particularly important for identifying the strategies through which primates invest time and foraging effort towards survival and reproduction at a given locale. Here, we report the results of the first study of the diet and activity budget of Arsi geladas, a population of < 1000 individuals endemic to a heavily disturbed region of the southern Ethiopian Highlands and believed to represent a new taxon of geladas...
December 11, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tetsuro Matsuzawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Florian Trébouet, Ulrich H Reichard, Nantasak Pinkaew, Suchinda Malaivijitnond
Extractive foraging in nonhuman primates may involve different levels of technical complexity in terms of the number of actions that must be performed and the manual dexterity involved. We describe the extractive foraging of caterpillars in wild northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. The study group, observed from May to December 2016 (n = 146 days), comprised 60-70 habituated individuals, including 3-4 adult males, 20-23 adult females, and 36-47 immatures. Four adult males and five adult females, observed from September to November 2016 for a total of 24 days, were selected for focal animal sampling...
November 13, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tetsuro Matsuzawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Arijit Pal, Honnavalli N Kumara, Partha Sarathi Mishra, Avadhoot D Velankar, Mewa Singh
Macaques possess a repertoire of extractive foraging techniques that range from complex manipulation to tool-aided behaviors, to access food items that increase their foraging efficiency substantially. However, the complexity and composition of such techniques vary considerably between species and even between populations. In the present study, we report seven such complex manipulative behaviors that include six extractive foraging behaviors, and teeth flossing, in a population of Nicobar long-tailed macaques...
October 31, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
M Thabang Madisha, Desire L Dalton, Raymond Jansen, Antoinette Kotze
The endemic Samango monkey subspecies (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) inhabits small discontinuous Afromontane forest patches in the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal midlands and southern Mpumalanga Provinces in South Africa. The subspecies is affected by restricted migration between forest patches which may impact on gene flow resulting in inbreeding and possible localized extinction. Current consensus, based on habitat quality, is that C. a. labiatus can be considered as endangered as the small forest patches they inhabit may not be large enough to sustain them...
October 27, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Qingyong Ni, Zongli Liang, Meng Xie, Huailiang Xu, Yongfang Yao, Mingwang Zhang, Yan Li, Ying Li, Xuelong Jiang
Due to the synergistic effects of hunting and habitat loss, populations of the western black-crested gibbon are currently restricted to isolated forest fragments. The home range use of this species in fragmented forests is presumptively related to spatial, food and vegetation attributes, as in other primates. We examined the distributions of different food resources, the structure of the vegetation (tree density, DBH, and height), and the microhabitat use of one gibbon group in an isolated and disturbed forest at Bajiaohe in southern Yunnan, China...
October 9, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
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