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Primates; Journal of Primatology

Carlo Cinque, Arianna De Marco, Jerome Mairesse, Chiara Giuli, Andrea Sanna, Lorenzo De Marco, Anna Rita Zuena, Paola Casolini, Assia Catalani, Bernard Thierry, Roberto Cozzolino
The level of glucocorticoids, especially if obtained from noninvasive sampling, can be used as an index of animal well-being, allowing evaluation of the animal's response to environmental modifications. Despite evidence that these hormones play a relevant role in energy metabolism regulation in perceived or real stress events, little is known regarding the factors that could modify the capability of animals to cope with relocation events. The aim of this research was to assess fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations before, during and after acute stress (transfer and relocation event) in two well-established social groups of Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana)...
November 30, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Kurnia Ilham, Rizaldi, Jabang Nurdin, Yamato Tsuji
We studied long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) populations in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia, focusing on the effect of human provisioning on their demography and dietary composition. We conducted a field survey at three sites in the city: Gunung Meru, Gunung Padang, and Gunung Panggilun. Mean troop size (range 28-68) and infant ratio (range 0.38-1.00) were greater in Gunung Meru, where the macaques have been highly provisioned, than at the other two study sites (troop size 10-15; infant ratio 0.00-0...
November 29, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Manakorn Sukmak, Worawidh Wajjwalku, Julia Ostner, Oliver Schülke
Several simian adenoviruses (AdVs) have been detected and isolated in various species of non-human primates with the goals of monitoring the health of wildlife and investigating their potential for zoonotic disease transmission. Here, we provide evidence of AdV infection in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis assamensis) at Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand, based on polymerase chain reaction of non-invasively collected fecal samples. Eight out of 110 fecal samples (7.3%), or five out of 87 monkeys (5...
November 17, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Kimberley J Hockings
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Marina B Blanco, Andon'ny A Andriantsalohimisantatra, Tahiry V Rivoharison, Jean-Basile Andriambeloson
The small-bodied mouse lemurs of Madagascar (Microcebus) are capable of heterothermy (i.e., torpor or hibernation). The expression of these energy-saving strategies has been physiologically demonstrated in three species: M. berthae, the pygmy mouse lemur (daily torpor), M. murinus, the gray mouse lemur (daily torpor and hibernation), and M. griseorufus, the reddish-gray mouse lemur (daily, prolonged torpor and hibernation). Additional evidence, based on radiotracking and seasonal body mass changes, indicated that mouse lemur capabilities for heterothermy extended to M...
November 15, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Rose T Miller, Jean-Luc Raharison, Mitchell T Irwin
The destruction and degradation of forest habitats are major threats to the sustainability of lemur populations in Madagascar. Madagascan landscapes often contain forest fragments that represent refuges for native fauna, while also being used for firewood and timber by local human populations. As undisturbed forest becomes increasingly scarce, understanding resource competition between humans and wildlife in disturbed habitats will be increasingly important. We tested the hypothesis that Malagasy and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) compete for the limited number of dead trees in rainforest fragments at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar...
November 15, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tomoko Kanamori, Noko Kuze, Henry Bernard, Titol Peter Malim, Shiro Kohshima
We investigated the population density of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) and fruit availability for 10 years (2005-2014), in primary lowland dipterocarp forests in the Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia. During the research period, two mast fruitings and three other peak fruiting events of different scales occurred in the study area. The orangutan population density, estimated every 2 months by the marked nest count method, changed between 0.3 and 4.4 ind/km(2) and the mean population density was 1...
November 15, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Néstor Allgas, Sam Shanee, Noga Shanee, Josie Chambers, Julio C Tello-Alvarado, Keefe Keeley, Karina Pinasco
The San Martin titi monkey (Plecturocebus oenanthe) is endemic to a small area of northern Peru and is considered Critically Endangered on the IUCN due to massive habitat loss. Between 1994 and 2005 small scale reforestation efforts in the 23.5 ha area of Pucunucho have led to the recuperation of habitat from an area of pasture and crop lands. The first record of P. oenanthe re-establishment in the area is from 2010, although re-establishment probably began earlier. We carried out short population surveys using triangulation to monitor densities of P...
October 31, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Nahoko Tokuyama, Deborah Lynn Moore, Kirsty Emma Graham, Albert Lokasola, Takeshi Furuichi
Maternal cannibalism, whereby a mother consumes her own offspring, occurs in various animal taxa and is commonly explained by nutritional stress or environmental pressures. It is rare in nonhuman primates and is considered an aberrant behavior only observed under high-stress conditions. It was therefore surprising when, in the first reported case of cannibalism in wild bonobos, a mother consumed part of the dead infant at LuiKotale. Here we report two more cases of maternal cannibalism by wild bonobos at two different study sites, Wamba and Kokolopori...
October 25, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Leonardo de Carvalho Oliveira, Juliana Monteiro de Almeida Rocha, Paula Pedreira Dos Reis, James Dietz
The advantages of living in a group include feeding benefits and/or predation avoidance, while the disadvantages are typically related to competition. One way to avoid competition while maintaining the benefits of living in a group is to form interspecific associations with species with relatively little dietary overlap. Here we report a stable association between a male golden-headed lion tamarin (GHLT), Leontopithecus chrysomelas, and a group of Wied's black-tufted-ear marmosets (WBTMs), Callithrix kuhlii...
October 22, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Taufiq Purna Nugraha, Michael Heistermann, Muhammad Agil, Bambang Purwantara, Iman Supriatna, Gholib Gholib, Carel P van Schaik, Tony Weingrill
Measuring hormone metabolites from feces is the most often used method to assess hormonal status in wildlife. Although immediate freezing of fecal samples collected in the field is the best method to minimize the risk of degradation of hormones over time, this is often not possible in remote field sites. Therefore, alternative storage and preservation methods for fecal samples are required in these conditions. We conducted an experiment to investigate if fecal glucocorticoid (FGCM) and progesterone metabolite (pregnanediol-3-glucuronide; PdG) levels measured from samples that were extracted with a simple, field-friendly methodology correlate with those generated from frozen samples...
October 22, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Kosuke Tsugo, Tomoe Kinoshita, Ko Kadowaki, Go Sugahara, Emiko Saito, Shigehisa Kawakami, Yumi Une
The histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural morphologic characteristics of a tumor in the subcutaneous tissue of the chest of a 19-year-old female Japanese macaque were investigated. Consequently, the mass was diagnosed as a malignant mast cell tumor (MCT). Tumors were present in both mammary gland portions of the anterior thorax. Both tumors showed the same histopathological findings. The tumor tissue was defined by the presence of delicate connective tissue, and the tumor cells grew in a cord-like or cobblestone pattern...
October 19, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Changyong Ma, Jiancun Liao, Pengfei Fan
The Cao Vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) has only one population with about 110 individuals living in a degraded karst forest along the China-Vietnam border. Investigation of food choice in relation to chemical nutrition will offer important insights into its conservation. We studied the food choice of two groups of Cao Vit gibbons using instantaneous scan sampling in Bangliang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China, over 4 years, and analyzed the chemical components (total nitrogen, TN; water-soluble sugar, WSS; crude fat, CF; neutral detergent fiber, NDF; acid detergent fiber, ADF; acid detergent lignin, ADL; condensed tannin, CT; and ash) of 48 food plant parts and 22 non-food plant parts...
October 5, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Yasuyuki Muroyama
Individual spatial positioning plays an important role in mediating the costs and benefits of group living, and thus shapes different aspects of animal social systems including group structure and cohesiveness. I aimed to quantify variation in individual spacing behavior and its correlates in a group of wild patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) living in north Cameroon. I collected data on inter-individual distances during group scans when following subject females. Individuals had longer inter-individual distances during the non-birth season than during the birth season...
September 29, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Fernando G Soley, Iria S Chacón, Mariano Soley-Guardia
We observed two capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) feeding on hermit crabs (Coenobita compressus) on the coast, and the tactics they used to extract this well-protected prey. The observations took place during the dry season at Playa Escondida beach, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. The capuchins descended from trees at the back edge of the beach to capture passing hermit crabs. Both capuchins extracted the hermit crabs from their protective shells by holding the shell with one hand and pulling the crab out with the other...
September 28, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Michio Nakamura, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Koichiro Zamma
Great apes are important seed dispersers with large bodies, able to swallow large seeds and travel long distances. Although there have been several studies investigating seed dispersal quality [sensu Schupp (Vegetatio 107/108:15-29, 1993)] by chimpanzees, there is little information on the volume of seeds they can carry in their bodies. When a relatively fresh corpse of a mature female chimpanzee was found at Mahale, Tanzania, we took advantage of the rare opportunity to investigate the total weight and cubic volume of seeds recovered from the corpse...
September 23, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Lucie Rigaill, Andrew J J MacIntosh, James P Higham, Sandra Winters, Keiko Shimizu, Keiko Mouri, Takafumi Suzumura, Takeshi Furuichi, Cécile Garcia
Studies of the role of secondary sexual ornaments in mate choice tend to focus on colorful traits in males, but females of many animal species express colorful ornamentation too. Among non-human primates, investigations into the role of female secondary sexual traits as indicators of life history characteristics, reproductive success, and health status have mostly focused on sexual swellings, whereas only few studies have been conducted on the role of facial color. Recent studies on rhesus macaques and mandrills suggested that female ornamentation might provide information about female life history characteristics, but not on disease resistance factors and parasite infection, which have been shown to affect male ornamentation in some non-primate species...
September 19, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Penglai Fan, Chanyuan Liu, Hongyi Chen, Xuefeng Liu, Dapeng Zhao, Jinguo Zhang, Dingzhen Liu
The postural origin hypothesis and the task complexity hypothesis propose that hand preference in non-human primates evolved in association with body posture and task complexity, respectively. The results of previous studies testing these two hypotheses, however, vary greatly with the different primate species and methods used. To investigate the effect of body posture and task complexity on hand preference, we recorded bouts of hand usage in nine captive northern white-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys) housed at Beijing Zoo as they reached for food items in a ground-reaching task, a box task, and a tube task...
September 14, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
James R Anderson, Xavier Hubert-Brierre, William C McGrew
We describe behaviors of unhabituated wild chimpanzees in Gabon during repeated encounters with large mirrors installed permanently in their home range. Movement in proximity to the mirrors triggered video cameras that recorded the scene. Data are presented for 51 mirror encounters spanning a 3-year period. After initial wariness, mirror-directed aggressive behaviors were common, especially in adult males, but aggression gradually diminished and eventually almost completely ceased. Focusing on the two mirrors that elicited most reactions, the percentage of chimpanzees showing tension or anxiety also decreased across encounters...
September 14, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Coline M Arnaud, Takafumi Suzumura, Eiji Inoue, Mark J Adams, Alexander Weiss, Miho Inoue-Murayama
Using long-term maternal pedigree data, microsatellite analysis, and behavioral tests, we examined whether personality differences in wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are associated with additive genetic effects, maternal influences, or belonging to a particular social group. Behaviors elicited by novel-object tests were defined by a component related to caution around novel-objects (Ob-PC1) and behaviors elicited by novel food-tests were defined by correlated components related to consummatory responses (Fo-PC1) and caution around novel foods (Fo-PC2)...
September 12, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
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